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Scientific
19th Century Expeditions
 
  

The following table has been reproduced from Roger Balm’s essay, "Expeditionary Art: An Appraisal" (Geographical Review, October 2000) and is included here to provide a starting point for the analysis of the objectives of pictorial recording for expeditionary artists in the nineteenth century.
 
Expeditionary Fields of Inquiry Objectives, Artists’ Subjects and Pictorial Information
 
Physical environmentCultural environment
Expeditionary objectives
Mapping and navigation
 
Resource inventory and exploitation
 
Territorial acquisition
 
Surveillance
 
Military deployment
 
Documentation, collection and classification of specimens
Contact and communication
 
Territorial acquisition
 
Surveillance
 
Military deployment
 
Survey of the cultural landscape
 
Documentation, collection and classification of specimens
Artists' studies
Inland and coastal topography and landmarks
 
Marine conditions
 
Climatic conditions
 
Water sources and waterways
 
Geological outcroppings
 
Vegetation
 
Fossil remains of flora, fauna and invertebrates
People
 
Buildings
 
Patterns of resource use
 
Artefacts, including archaeological remains and antiquities
Pictorial information
Record of physical environmental features
 
Reference point of assessing change in the physical landscape
 
Taxonomic record
 
Expedition modus operandi and record of reaction to conditions
Record of cultural environmental features
 
Record of sequent occupancy
 
Record of skills and practices
 
Pictorial reconstruction
 
Reference point of assessing change in the cultural landscape
 
Expedition modus operandi
 
  

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