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J. Rand 
Rand's Patent for Improvements in Preserving Paint and other Fluids 
1841, 6 September (British patent enrolled) 
Patent illustration 
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Published in The Repertory of Patent Inventions and other Discoveries and Improvements in Arts, Manufactures, and Agriculture, New Series, Vol.XVI, July - December, 1841 (London: J.S. Hobson, 1841), as a part of Plate XVII entitled "Rand's Patent for Improvements in Preserving Paint and other Fluids."
Specification of the Patent granted to John Rand, of Howland Street, in the County of Middlesex, Gentleman, for Improvements in Preserving Paints and other Fluids. Sealed March 6, 1841.
To all to whom these presents shall come, &c. &c. Now know ye, that in compliance with the said proviso, I, the said John Rand, do hereby declare the nature of my said invention to consist, first, in inclosing the said paints and other fluids in thin drawn tubes or cases of the metal tin, or of such other metal as shall be of such tenacity and pliability and little elasticity that the said tubes or cases made thereof may be closed at both ends, air-tight, by merely folding over the said metal, and nipping the seam so made, as hereinafter described : and also that their contents may be easily squeezed out by collapsing the said tubes or cases with external pressure, thereby causing the sides of the tubes to come and remain together behind their contents in such a manner as to exclude the atmospheric air from the end from which the contents are expressed ; by which means portions of their contents may be withdrawn from time to time, as occasion may require, at the same time preserving the remainder from the injurious effects of the atmosphere.
Secondly, in the application, in certain cases, of an end nozzle or spout and an air-tight cap, to the above described tubes or cases, for the purpose of emitting portions of their contents conveniently, and preserving the remainder by screwing on the said cap, which is provided with a cork for that purpose, as hereinafter explained.
Thirdly, in the manner hereinbefore alluded to of closing the said tubes or cases at the ends, so as to render them air-tight without the use of solder or cement, by bringing their opposite sides together parallel, then folding them over once or more times, as occasion may require, after the manner of what is usually called a hem in needlework, and pressing or nipping them with an instrument., as illustrated by the annexed drawing.
Fourthly, in filling the said tubes through a spout or funnel, of such form and dimensions as to nearly fill the capacity of the pressure-tube or case, thereby beginning to fill it at the bottom, or the part the farthest from where the filling-tube is inserted, and thus securing that the air be entirely excluded, the material being pressed through the filling-spout or funnel and deposited in the preserving-tube or case, while the spout or funnel is gradually drawn out, thereby leaving the preserving-tube or case full, when it is withdrawn, and so preserving the inclosed material from the injurious effects of bubbles of air, which might otherwise be inclosed with it.
Fifthly, in the application (for preserving paints and other fluids) of the metal tin generally for vessels, tubes, or cases of any shape, the seams of which are closed in manner aforesaid or not, and out of which the paint or fluid inclosed may be expressed as required, by causing the said preserving vessel, tube, or case, to collapse and remain collapsed at any point, in order to preserve, by excluding the air from what remains therein, until the whole is taken out, such metal tin being far preferable to any other for this purpose, on account of its great ductility and little elasticity, its tenacity, its small comparative specific gravity, its cleanliness, its durability, its cheapness, and its power of resisting the action of painting materials generally, better than any other metal and equally cheap. And in further compliance with the said proviso, 1, the said John Rand, do hereby describe the manner in which my said invention is to be performed by the following statement thereof, reference being had to the drawing annexed, and to the figures and letters marked thereon (that is to say) :
Description of the Drawings.
Fig. 1, is a perspective view of one of my said drawn tubes or cases, supposed to be made of the metal tin, commonly called block-tin.
Fig. 2, is a perspective view of the same tube, after one end has been folded over like a hem, and nipped with a pair of nippers made for the purpose, and shewn at fig. 3, until the seam or joint so made is air-tight.
Fig, 4, is a perspective view of the same tube, after it has been filled with (say for example) white lead ground in oil, and the other end folded over and nipped as before, in which state it is fit for exportation, or to be preserved or kept for any length of time in the artist's colour-box.
Fig. 5, is a perspective view of one of my said drawn tin tubes or cases fitted with one of my said nozzles or spouts and cap.
Fig. 6, is a longitudinal section of the same, A, being a screw on to which the cap, B, screws, and c, a piece of cork, to keep the air from entering.
Fig. 7 is a perspective view of one of my said drawn tubes half empty, shewing the sides behind the paint, which has been squeezed out, in a collapsed state, thereby preventing the ingress of air when the squeezing ceases, and before the cap can be screwed on again.
Fig. 8, is a sectional view of one of my said drawn tubes or cases, and the spout or funnel, which I call the filler, in the act of filling the said tube or case. In practice the force with which the paint enters the tube drives the tube off the end of the filler, so that when .the tube is filled the position of the tube and filler are as shewn at fig. 9, and it will be seen that the tube must not be quite filled, but an allowance must be made for the hem or seam, which is to be folded over after it comes off the filler.
Now whereas I claim as my invention, first, preserving paints and other fluids by inclosing them in drawn tubes or cases of tin or other metal having the properties aforesaid, and capable of being collapsed in manner and for the purposes aforesaid.
Second, closing the said tubes or cases without the aid of cement or solder, by folding and nipping, as hereinbefore described.
Third, adding, in certain cases, a nozzle or spout and screw, or other air-tight cap, to the said tubes or cases, or to any vessels, tubes, or cases, for the purposes aforesaid, and having the collapsing and other properties aforesaid.
Fourth, filling such tubes or cases, or any vessels, tubes, or cases, in manner hereinbefore described, by means of spouts or funnels, which I call fillers, reaching to the bottom of the said vessel, tube, or case, for the purpose of excluding the air during the process of filling, as aforesaid.
And fifth, and lastly, the application of the metal tin, commonly called block-tin, generally for the manufacture of collapsable drawn tubes or cases, or of collapsable vessels of any form or any how made, for the purpose of preserving in them paints and other fluids in manner aforesaid. And such my invention being, to the best of my knowledge and belief entirely new and never before used within that part of Her said Majesty's United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland called England, her dominion of Wales, and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed; I do hereby declare this to be my specification of the same ; and that I do verily believe this my said specification doth comply in all respects fully and without reserve or disguise with the proviso in the said hereinbefore in part recited letters patent contained, wherefore I hereby claim to maintain exclusive right and privilege to my said invention. In witness whereof, &c.
Enrolled September 6, 1841. 

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