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HomeContentsThemes > Experimental and manipulated photography

Curatorial and planning notes 
  
Manipulated photography includes any steps during the taking of the photograph through to the creation of the final image that alter the "truth" of the visible world. This might include the selection of capture methods (i.e. infrared) that alter the reality of the visual image prior to capture, through the handworking of negatives so common with Pictorial photography, hand-colouring or the post-processing of digital images in Lightroom, Photoshop or other software. It can include scratching negatives, writing on prints, collage, photomontage or the intentional, or unintentional, burning of prints.
 
This topic will include experimental photographic forms including:
  • Using living forms to create photographs. This technique uses specially created negatives and the sun or a suitable light and heat source to allow grass to grow at differential rates and thereby create pictures. (For example: Heather Ackroyd and Dan Harvey)
     
  • Printing photographs onto plants. (For example: Binh Danh)
 
  
Contents

Introduction
987.01   Manipulated photography
Trick photography
987.02   Bust or statuette portraits
987.03   Multiple portraits of the same sitter (The Multigraph)
987.04   Decapitated heads
987.05   Spirit photography
987.06   Reduction
987.07   Person in a bottle
987.08   Caricature portraits
987.09   Photograms of seaweed
987.10   Stamps
987.11   Electrical photographs
987.12   Vignettes
987.13   The simulation of night
Composite and combination prints
987.14   Composite and combination prints: Defined
987.15   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph
Distortions
987.16   Louis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste
987.17   Introduction to distortions
987.18   Examples of distortions
Composite portraits
987.19   Composite and combination prints: Portraits
Cliché verre
987.20   Cliché verre
Painting on photographs
987.21   Introduction to painting on photographs
987.22   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists
987.23   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong
Photojournalism and painting on photographs
987.24   Press photographs with paint or instructions
Photograms
987.25   Photograms
Solarization
987.26   Introduction to solarization
987.27   Examples of solarization
987.28   Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations
Mordançage
987.29   Mordançage examples
Sculptural forms
987.30   Working with paper and card
Exaggeration photo postcards
987.31   Exaggeration postcards
987.32   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards
Polaroids
987.33   Ellen Carey: Pulls
Photographers
987.34   Man Ray: Solarized nudes
987.35   Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics
987.36   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955)
987.37   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography
987.38   Edmund Kesting: Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (1958)
987.39   Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage
Integrity
987.40   Image integrity in documentary photography and photojournalism
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
987.01   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Manipulated photography 
  
Manipulated photography is a large topic which the "Faking It: Manipulated Photography before Photoshop" exhibition curated by Mia Fineman at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (11 October 2012 - 27 January 2013) addressed with an accompanying well researched exibition catalogue. The exhibition is refreshing as it clearly demonstrated that photographers who claimed to be "straight photographers" such as Paul Strand, Ansel Adams and many others manipulated their negatives and photographs to obtain their desired goals.
 
Some of the techniques applied in the pre-digital era were:
  • Composite photographs where two or more negatives were used to construct a single photograph was well known and widely practised in the nineteenth century.[1]  
      
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  • Composite portraits where two or more negatives to create a portrait designed to show the characteristics of a class of people.  
      
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  • Exaggeration postcards combined multiple images to create surreal images of American rural life. William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas became the most popular of these photographers although there were others including Henry M. Beach.[2]  
      
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  • Painted photographs where paints were blown onto the photograph or applied with a brush.  
      
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  • Backgrounds that provide an illusion of the location and/or activities of the sitter.  
      
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  • Foregrounds scenes placed in front of the sitter where the head is visible above the scene or through a hole or window.  
      
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  • Multiple exposures that were taken, deliberately or by accident, inside the camera or during the development process.  
      
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  • Appropriation where original photographs have been used by a later photographer for a different purpose. This can be with or without the consent of the original photographer and can be done as a twisting of genres or a commentary on the nature of art and photography.  
      
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  • Solarization is the deliberate or accidental intrusion of light into the darkroom during the development process.  
      
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  • Alteration of the final print this may occur when the photographer or another person deliberately defaces or cuts the print to alter the visual message.[3]  
      
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  • Distorting mirrors and lenses have been used by photographers including André Kertész,[4] Bill Brandt[5] and Weegee[6] to flex their photographic visions.[7]  
      
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  • Modification and enhancement of the print through the use of indian ink and gouache  
      
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Some of the techniques date from the earliest years of photography and most have their foundations in the nineteenth century so it would be simplistic to say that photographs have always portrayed visual truth. Rising awareness of manipulation and the questioning of authenticity has increased in parallel with the publics familiarity with image manipulation software and access to innumerable examples over the Internet. Within genres purporting to portray the world with accuracy, such as documentary photography and photojournalism, there are issues of integrity and constant vigilance to ensure that the message is not altered through manipluated images. 
  
Trick photography 
  
987.02   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Bust or statuette portraits 
  
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The process of making bust or statuette portraits is described in Walter E. Woodbury's book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera (1905) :
These were at one time quite popular, and if properly managed can be rendered very effective. There are several methods of making this kind of picture. If the photographer possesses a pedestal large enough, all that is necessary is to place this on a stand and the person to be photographed arranged behind.
 
The breast is uncovered and some white soft material artistically arranged in folds over the shoulders and in such a way as to appear connected with the pedestal. A black background is placed behind and the exposure made. To give a more realistic effect the hair, face, and all other parts showing should be liberally powdered over with a white powder or rice flour. The negative produced will have a clear glass background, but the body of the figure will still be visible. This is removed by cutting away the film round the pedestal and to the arms on each side, leaving only those parts remaining that are required to produce the statuette. In printing we get a white statuette portrait on a dark background.
 
If the photographer does not possess a pedestal the next best means to produce these pictures is to get a large sheet of cardboard and cut it out to the shape shown in the figure beneath, and with white paint make the picture of a pedestal shading with a little gray to give rotundity. The figure is stationed behind it, and a black background used.
 
A third method involves still less trouble. This is to purchase a ready made pedestal negative. These are film negatives of a pedestal that can be adjusted to the negative of the subject desired to be reproduced as a statue. After the negative is taken and varnished the film is scraped off round the figure, cutting off the body as shown in the first illustration, after which the pedestal negative is adjusted, fastened, and then printed. The negative is reversible and can be used for different subjects.[8]
 
  
987.03   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Multiple portraits of the same sitter (The Multigraph) 
  
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The first examples within Walter E. Woodbury's book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera (1905) are on the use of mirrors to create novelty effects.
 
  
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A process of multiphotography which was at one time quite popular consisted in posing the sitter with his back to the camera [...]. In front of him are arranged two mirrors, set at the desired angle to each other, their inner edges touching. In the illustrations here given the mirrors are inclosed at an angle of 75 deg., and five reflected images are produced. When an exposure is made and the negative developed, we not only have the back view of the sitter but the full reflected images in profile, and three-quarter positions as well.[9]
Woodbury noted that "In France it is used for photographing criminals, and thus obtaining a number of different portraits with one exposure." and indeed examples do survive of mirrors being used for mugshots.  
  
Mirrors used for taking mugshots 
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This technique goes by numerous names, the five-mirror portrait, the hinged mirror portrait, the multi-photograph, the "Spectretype Photo", and the "Spectregraph Photo" but perhaps the most appropriate is the "multigraph" which is the name used by collectors and experts.[10] The usage of mirrors to create novelty portraits was well known in popular magazines by the 1890s[11] and a short article in The Popular Science News entitled "A Multiple Portrait" in 1893 gave an incorrect angle for the positioning of the two mirrors[12] but is one of the earliest accounts.
 
  
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A curious application of the laws of reflection to photography has been made by a photographer of Atlantic City, N. J., Mr. Shaw, who produces a photograph at a single exposure which gives five different images of the same person in difierent positions. This is accomplished by placing the sitter between two mirrors placed at an angle of forty-five degrees to each other. The double reflection between these mirrors produces four images of the person placed in front of them, the principle being the same as that of the ordinary kaleidoscope. The original face is made in profile and the reflections give the full face, opposite profile, and two rear views. The result is curious and interesting, and, it has been suggested, would be useful in identifying criminals, and an improvement upon the single photographs which now make up that classic collection known as the "Rogues’ Gallery."[13]
An 1894, article in the Grand Forks Daily Herald citing the Pittsburgh Dispatch said:
A photograph that flatters will soon be a thing of the past,” said a photographer the other day. “It will be impossible to make our faces appear to the most advantage by a clever pose, for the latest innovation in photography, the multiphotograph, which is destined to become the photographic portrait of the future, will reveal all our defects and crudities. The great study which young women give their faces, to find out in which position – side, three-quarter or full face – they look the best, will all be put to naught, for the multiphotograph will take them in all these positions and others as well.
 
The process makes it possible to obtain a perfect likeness of a person, as one is able to see the face and head in all possible positions and can thus get all the characteristics. This new effect is obtained by mirrors being placed at certain angles, When a person stands in front of the glasses, his likeness is reflected from 6 to 12 times, according to the arrangement of the mirrors, each image being in a different position, so that the same effect is obtained that would be secured if you were to walk around a person, viewing him from all sides and points.
 
The operator photographs the subject and the reflections in the mirrors. The result is the multiphotograph. I think it is destined to become the photograph of the future, as it is the only thing that will give you a likeness of a person as seen from all sides. Art in this case must succumb to nature, and the instruction that is too frequently given the photographer, ‘Make me as pretty as you can,’ will have to be done away with.[14]
Although this technique was primarily used between 1890 and 1920 there are photographers who used it later including Danish court photographer Rigmor Mydtskov.[15][16] 
  
987.04   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Decapitated heads 
  
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Photographs with decapitated heads and headless corpses seemingly offered endless amusement during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Books on trick photography showed how the effects could be achieved by having table cloths placed on planks so just the head was shown above providing the illusion of a solid table.[17] 
  
987.05   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Spirit photography 
  
Spirit photography[18] in the nineteenth century fell into multiple camps. There were those who believed in photographs as tangible proof of the role of the supernatural in everyday life. There were those who played on this gullibility by creating fakes that purported to show the appearance of paranormal manifestations. In another camp were photographers who used the techniques of ppirit photography to create novelty photographs. The last of these was designed to puzzle and amuse the viewer rather than to swindle, mislead or give hope of communication with the recently departed.  
  
Spirit photography with standing spectres 
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Spirit photography with floating heads 
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Frauds such as William Mumler in America were denounced by showmen such as P.T. Barnum but little could be done to remove the belief of irrational conviction.[19] Photographs of paranormal manifestations were published in books such as Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye by Miss Georgiana Houghton[20] and seances were popular entertainment.  
  
Miss Georgiana Houghton: Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye (1882) 
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Sir Arthur Conan Doyle believed in spiritualism and that fairies could be photographed - he had none of the scepticism that his most famous detective Sherlock Holmes would have had.[21]
 
Similar techniques had been used to include angels, ghosts and dream sequences on stereocards.[22]  
  
Ghostly visitations, visions of angels and dreams 
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Contemporary photographers such as Clarisse d'Arcimoles[23] have recreated scenes from original tintypes purporting to show spirit photography.  
  
Orginal tintype and a recreation by Clarisse d'Arcimoles (2012) 
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987.06   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Reduction 
  
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Walter E. Woodbury's book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera (1905) includes an illustration of a man looking down at a smaller version of himself standing on a table.[24] In a world heavily influenced by the writings of Lewis Carroll changes of scale were a novelty that Alice would have understood. 
  
987.07   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Person in a bottle 
  
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Examples survive of photographs showing people trapped within glass bottles[25] and the process was explained in contemporary books on trick photography:
Get a glass-blower to make an ordinary shaped wine-bottle of very thin arid clear glass, and clean it well. Next take the white of two eggs and add to it 29 grains of ammonia chloride dissolved in I drachm of spirits of wine, and one-half ounce of water. Beat this mixture into a thick froth and then allow it to stand and settle. Filter through a tuft of cotton-wool, and pour into the specially made bottle. By twisting the bottle round, an even layer of the solution will deposit itself on the sides. Pour off the remaining solution, allow the film in the bottle to dry, and again repeat the operation.
 
The next operation is to sensitize the film with a solution of nitrate of silver, 40 grains to 1 ounce of water. Pour this in and turn the bottle round for a few minutes, then pour off superfluous solution and again dry. Hold the neck of the bottle for a few seconds over another bottle containing ammonia, so as to allow the fumes to enter it. Printing is the next operation ; this is accomplished by tying a film negative round the bottle, and covering up all the other parts from the light. Print very deeply, keeping the bottle turning round all the time. Toning, fixing, and washing can be done in the ordinary way by filling the bottle up with the different solutions. The effect is very curious, and can be improved by coating the inside of the bottle with white enamel.[26]
 
  
987.08   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Caricature portraits 
  
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The use of caricature foregrounds was shown in the U.S. patent illustration for C.M Coolidge's Processes for taking photographic pictures that was issued in 1874 where a man wearing a top hat is holding panel under his neck to conceal his body - the panel showed a person fishing and an interested cat creating the witty illusion when photographed that it was a single person.[27] How to create caricature portraits as a popular pastime was also discussed and illustrated in Walter E. Woodbury's book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera (1905) where the sitter appears to be flying astride a duck.[28] 
  
987.09   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Photograms of seaweed 
  
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Using photograms to document algae as an aid to botanists and biologists was carried out by Anna Atkins[29] and was the basis for the first photographically illustrated book - Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions (1843-1854). In the section "Photographing Sea-Weeds" of Walter E. Woodbury's book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera (1905) he includes this novelty but gives no details on how the result is to be achieved.
Of all the glorious creations of nature few are more beautiful than the delicate sea mosses to be found by the sea shore. Many delight in preserving them in a dry state, mounted on cards, but unfortunately they are usually so fragile that after a little while they fall to pieces. The photographer, however, is able to reproduce these beautiful formations and preserve them in a more permanent form by means of his camera. It is true that he cannot reproduce their delicate colorings, but the photographs can, if so desired, be lightly printed on platinum paper and colored as well as possible by hand.[30]
 
  
987.10   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Stamps 
  
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On 11 October 1884 an application for a US Patent was filed for a "Photograph Stamp Sheet"[31] and in the same year the Photographic News reported that:
The photographic carte-de-visite has always been an album portrait rather than a visiting card in the ordinary sense; but why, indeed, should not an actual photographic card for every-day use become common? It would merely be necessary to attach a postage stamp portrait to the back or front of the usual visiting card.
 
Although very popular just now in the United States, the stamp portraits are not often seen here; in America they are sent out in sheets, ready perforated and gummed.[32]
The question as to how early stamp portraits were created is unclear but in Mark Haworth-Booth's book on Camille Silvy: Photographer of Modern Life there is a ""Proof sheet of postage stamp portrait of Alexandre Monnier" dated to around 1866.[33][34]
 
"Stamp portraits" were briefly described in Walter E. Woodbury's book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera (1905):
A special camera is sold for making these little pictures. It contains a number of lenses all of the same focus. In front is an easel where the portrait is attached surrounded by a suitable border. The images given are about the size of postage stamps and when the negative is printed from an albumen or aristo paper, toned and fixed, they can be perforated and gummed at the back. They are very useful for sticking to letters, envelopes, and for business purposes. [35]
The business card of "Pratical photographer" A.P. Webb with a stamp portrait in the Jack and Beverly Wilgus collection is a classic example of this format.[36]  
  
A business card with a stamp portrait 
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987.11   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Electrical photographs 
  
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987.12   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Vignettes 
  
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Vignettes with a pre-digital camera could be applied in front of the lens or behind it. They could also be carried out in the darkroom. With digital photography vihnetting can also be done infront of the lens or with digital processing in the camera or as a digital processing step. Each of these removes information from the edges of the frame to concentrate the eye on the subject. No matter which approach is used they are all manipulations of the image and the technique was used on daguerreotypes by the 1850s and there may well be earlier examples.  
  
Daguerreotype portraits with vignettes 
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In early printed illustrations based on photographs the removal of distracting information was commonplace and may have affected, or led to, the aesthetic need for vignetting.[37]  
  
Illustrations based on photographs 
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Each techniques used for creating and displaying photographs used the vignette.  
  
Vignettes on carte de visite 
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Vignettes on cabinet cards 
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Vignettes on tintypes 
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987.13   Experimental and manipulated photography >  The simulation of night 
  
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In nineteenth century Italy Carlo Naya, Carlo Ponti and Paolo Salviati all took daytime photographs of Venice and manipulated them to create moody night time scenes. 
  
Composite and combination prints 
  
987.14   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Composite and combination prints: Defined 
  
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Creating a Composite photograph (also called a combination print) means having one or more negatives that are then used to create a single print and the method for doing this was well known in the nineteenth century.[38] To accomplish a seamless whole requires careful planning and scrupulous attention to detail during the printing to get smooth transitions between the different parts of the image. Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884) used this technique for his seascapes so that both the sea and sky could be correctly exposed. Perhaps the most famous example of a composite photograph is the Two Ways of Life (1857) by the Swedish born photographer Oscar Rejlander who combined thirty negatives of figures and groups to create a single 16" x 31" image.
 
Photographers who made combination prints:
George N. Barnard[39]
Gustave Le Gray[40]
Oscar Rejlander[41]
Henry Peach Robinson[42]
The 1869 instructional classic by Henry Peach Robinson Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing includes a contemporary method for creating combination prints. 
  
987.15   Experimental and manipulated photography >  C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
  
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This rare carte de visite series shows photographer C.W. Applegreen preparing a composite photograph along with the fruit of his labour. 
  
Distortions 
  
987.16   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Louis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Louis Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) known for his development of early colour process also expermented with a device for elongating and shortening the sitter creating effects similar to a fairground mirror. He named the device the "Transformiste" and it was illustrated in Walter E. Woodbury's book Photographic Amusements (1905).[43] 
  
987.17   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Introduction to distortions 
  
The use of distorting mirrors and lenses creates elongated, squashed, stretched and crushed forms and this characterisic of fairground mirrors has been used by photographers to create unwordly forms and it is particularly suited to the taking of nudes.
Berenice Abbott is best known for her photographs of New York but she was also interested in scientific photography and patented the 'Distortion Easel'[44][45] that was a device for controlling angles and levels of distortion that could be used for photography. Her patent, filed in 1948, described the easel as follows:
The present invention is of particular application in the production of distorted photographic prints wherein an artistic result is specially had by the selective exaggeration and diminution of certain features of the subject. For example, the easel of the present invention may be conveniently employed to produce caricatured portraits, surrealist scenes, and other novel pictures the artistic merit of which resides in the essential unnaturalness of the reproduction of the subject.[46]

 
André Kertész in 1933 produced a remarkable series of photographs called 'Distortions' (published in 1976[47]) in which mirrors were used to distort nudes into bizarre abstractions.  
  
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Weegee is remembered for his night shots of New York city crime scenes but he also shot distortions[48] including a series in Paris with a twisted out of shape Eiffel Tower.  
  
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987.18   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Examples of distortions 
  
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At various times photographers have experimented with placing some form of distorting device between the camera lens and the subject of the photograph. André Kertész[49] using a distorting mirror of the type found in a fairground whilst Weegee[50] used a plastic lens. 
  
   Abstraction distortions 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Composite portraits 
  
987.19   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Composite and combination prints: Portraits 
  
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The use of composite photographs has been employed in portraiture to combine groups of multiple individuals into a single image intended to capture the characteristics of the group as a whole.
 
Francis Galton (1822-1922), a Victorian polymath and founder of eugenics, used composites and described them in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty (1883) as follows:
The accompanying woodcut is as fair a representation of one of the composites as is practicable in ordinary printing. It was photographically transferred to the wood, and the engraver has used his best endeavour to translate the shades into line engraving. This composite is made out of only three components, and its threefold origin is to be traced In the ears, and in the buttons to the vest. To the best of my judgment, the original photograph is a very exact average of its components; not one feature in it appears identical with that of any one of them, but it contains a resemblance to all, and is not more like to one of them than to another. However, the judgment of the wood engraver is different. His rendering of the composite has made it exactly like one of its components, which it must be borne in mind he had never seen. It is just as though an artist drawing a child had produced a portrait closely resembling its deceased father, having overlooked an equally strong likeness to its deceased mother, which was apparent to its relatives. This is to me a most striking proof that the composite is a true combination. [51]
Five years later a communication from Francis Galton was published in The Photographic News:
"I receive from time to time beautiful composite photographs made in America, and have not unfrequently received letters asking about possible or actual improvements in the process. In reply, I should like to be permitted the use of your columns to make a few remarks on the subject.
 
"A composite portrait is not the means of its components, but an aggregate of it, which is reduced in intensity of tint to that of one of the components. If it were a mean, its outlines would be sharp, but being an aggregate; they are not, only those shades or lines that are common to all the components are as intense, or as well defined, as they would be in an ordinary portrait, while ghosts and shades of other lines are distributed variously about. These ghosts are often too conspicuous. Those that affect the [natures?] are especially due either to differences in the relative breadth and width of the component faces, or to a want of symmetry in some of them which causes the straight line that passes as nearly as maybe along the eyebrows to be inclined to that which passes between the lips in the composites I have thus far made, I have merely attended to keeping the vertical distance between the eyes and the parting of the lips at exactly the same length in all cases, and to making the best fit of the remainder that each case severally admitted. It strikes me now that it would be well worth while to vary the whole procedure by attempting to approximate to a mean result, and in the following way. First, find by measuring the portraits about to be combined, the proportion that the distance between the pupils bears on the average of all of them to the vertical distance between the pupils of the eyes and the parting of the lips; then optically transform every component portrait into that same average proportion. Secondly, straighten every face that asymmetrical in the way above described, into a symmetrical one. Lastly, make the composite from the transformed portraits.
 
"I suspect that a pinhole camera would be found perfectly suitable for effecting these transformations, if the component portraits were not too small. A portrait of sufficient size could, by a single operation, be reduced by its means to any desired scale, both in breadth and in width, independently of each other, namely, by the ingenious device I saw lately in your columns, but cannot specify where, of replacing the pinhole by a vertical slit in one movable diaphragm, and an horizontal slit in another. The asymmetry could at the same time be remedied by so inclining the portrait to the optical axis of the camera as to foreshorten the side that was too long. Foreshortening is accompanied by no blur or image in a pinhole camera.
 
"The sliding adjustments of the camera would have to be graduated, and each portrait measured carefully by laying a glass scale upon it, and using a low power lens. After this had been done, a table calculated once for all for the camera would tell at what graduations of distance and of inclination the portrait should be set, in order to obtain the desired result.
 
"The transformations I propose are small in amount. They are always made, and we unconsciously witness them, whenever the person at whom we are looking holds his face a little inclined from full-face view. But, small as they are, I think they are worth making. I have not now got my photographic things in working order, and am busied in other ways, so I speak for the most part theoretically; but not wholly so, as I have made some optical experiments which corroborate, so far as they go, the feasibility and advantage of what has just been said."[52]
 
  
Francis Galton: Composite portraits (1883) 
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In Walter E. Woodbury's 1905 book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera he includes a plate by Prof. Bowditch showing Twelve Boston Physicians and their Composite Portrait. The Composite in the Centre[53] illustrating a practical use of the process and at the same time the possibility for gentle amusement. Lewis Hine, well known for the child labour photographs he took for the NCLC (National Child Labor Committee)[54], also made composites of cotton mill children.[55]  
  
Prof. Bowditch: Twelve Boston Physicians and their Composite Portrait (1905) 
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Lewis Hine: Composite portraits of children working in cotton mills (ca. 1913) 
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The technique wsas also used by Arthur Batut who is better known as a pioneer of aerial photography using kites.[56] Periodically composite portrait techniques are "rediscovered" and examples can be seen in the work of Nancy Burson, Philippe Halsman and Ken Kitano. With digital processing it has become easier and now many thousands of portraits can be combined to create a single composite
  
Cliché verre 
  
987.20   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Cliché verre 
  
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Cliché-verre[57] [Fr.] literally translated means "glass picture' and is a technique that combines art and photography and was used mainly by French artists including Jean Baptiste Corot, Jean François Millet, and Charles François Daubigny. It was normally done by using a smoking candle to coat a glass plate with soot. The desired picture was then drawn with a sharp instrument directly into the blackened surface and the resulting plate was used as a photographic negative and contact printed. Although mainly used in the 1860s the cliché verre technique has also be used by György Kepes[58] and Abelardo Morell.[59] 
  
Painting on photographs 
  
987.21   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Introduction to painting on photographs 
  
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From the earliest days of photography with daguerreotypes and salt prints artists have used them either as the basis for works of art or have painted directly on them using a vast range of techniques and specialized equipment including air brushes and retouching, colouring and painting kits[60] 
  
987.22   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
  
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From as early as the eighth century woodblock-printed works were seen in Japan. Although initially the technique was used for texts and religious works by the sixteenth century moveable type was being used. Gaining popularity with artists the technique expanded and individual prints became available. With the popularity for prints there became a need for artists who could paint them or had the skills to use multiple woodblocks for different colours. As photography became available within Japan, predominantly with foreign photographers such as Felice Beato[61] and Baron Raimund von Stillfried, most of the prints through the second half of the nineteenth century had the brownish tones of the albumen print. Their skills with woodblock prints were perfect for painting photographs and some of the finest photographs of this type came from Japan
  
987.23   Experimental and manipulated photography >  John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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John Thomson in his travel volume Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented (1873-1874) gives an account of a Chinese artist who was highly skilled in painting on photographs and creating artwork of an enlarged size based on a photograph:
A Hong-Kong Artist
 
Lumqua was a Chinese pupil of Chinnery, a noted foreign artist, who died at Macao in 1852. Lumqua produced a number of excellent works in oil, which are still copied by the painters in Hong-Kong and Canton. Had he lived in any other country he would have been the founder of a school of painting. In China his followers have failed to grasp the spirit of his art. They drudge with imitative servile toil, copying Lumqua's or Chinnery's pieces, or anything, no matter what, just because it has been finished and paid for within a given time, and at so much a square foot. There are a number of painters established in Hong-Kong, but they all do the same class of work, and have about the same tariff of prices, regulated according to the dimensions of the canvas. The occupation of these limners consists mainly of making enlarged copies of photographs. Each house employs a touter, who scours the shipping in the harbour with samples of the work, and finds many ready customers among the foreign sailors. These bargain to have Mary or Susan painted on as large a scale and at as small a price as possible, the work to be delivered framed and ready for sea probably within twenty-four hours. The painters divide their labour on the following plan. The apprentice confines himself to bodies and hands, while the master executes the physiognomy, and thus the work is got through with wonderful speed. Attractive colours are freely used; so that Jack's fair ideal appears at times in a sky-blue dress, over which a massive gold chain and other articles of jewellery are liberally hung. These pictures would be fair works of art were the drawing good, and the brilliant colours properly arranged; but all the distortions of the badly taken photographs are faithfully reproduced on an enlarged scale. The best works these painters do are pictures of native and foreign ships, which are wonderfully drawn. To enlarge a picture they draw squares over their canvas corresponding to the smaller squares into which they divide the picture to be copied. The miniature painters in Hong-Kong and Canton do some work on ivory that is as fine as the best ivory painting to be found among the natives of India, and fit to bear comparison with the old miniature painting of our own country, which photography has, now-a-days, in great measure superseded.[62]
 
  
Photojournalism and painting on photographs 
  
987.24   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Press photographs with paint or instructions 
  
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In the pre-digital newsroom when physical prints landed infront of picture editors they were marked up with instructions and the areas not required painted out with white paint prior to going to press. The approach varied with simple outlining and airbrushing of areas not required. [63] 
  
Photograms 
  
987.25   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Photograms 
  
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Photograms are cameraless photographs made by placing objects on a sensitized surface, usually paper but not always, and then exposing it to light. These are the simplest of photographic images not requiring a lens and Henry Fox Talbot used this technique for his photogenic drawings[64], Anna Atkins[65] for her Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) and her Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854).  
  
Anna Atkins 
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Anna K. Weaver made intricate designs of leaves and ferns to construct mottoes such as "God bless our Home", "Home, Sweet Home", "I know that my Redeemer liveth", "The Lord is my Shepherd", and "The Lord will provide" - seemingly he did as she used the funds raised by selling her photograms to support her work for the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society in Bogota.[66]  
  
Anna K. Weaver 
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The use of photograms has gone through periods of dormancy and creativity. In the 1920s and 30s Christian Schad (1894-1982), Man Ray[67] and László Moholy-Nagy[68] all made photograms that experimented with light, shade and at times abstraction to stretch the boundaries of what was photography.  
  
Christian Schad 
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Man Ray 
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László Moholy-Nagy 
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Within contemporary photography. where all forms are explored the photogram has emerged again, Australian photographer Harry Hankin has imaginatively explored the natural world with long night exposures for his series Contact (2003-4) and Rain. Adam Fuss[69] and Floris M. Neusüss[70] have also made photograms.  
  
Harry Nankin 
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Adam Fuss 
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Floris M. Neusüss 
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Solarization 
  
987.26   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Introduction to solarization 
  
The accidental rediscovery of solarization by Man Ray and his model and lover Lee Miller was a process that the Dadaists and Surrealists loved. They appreciated the fact that a new process could be found by the chance encounter of a foot with a mouse in the darkroom meaning light was urgently required and that the flash of light could convert the commonplace print into a new form of mysterious reality.
 
Solarization, the term Man Ray proposed, has nothing to do with the sun rather it is the 'Sabattier effect' (named after the French scientist Armand Sabattier who discovered it in 1862) that creates an image that is part negative and part positive and is created by exposing the print to light part way through the darkroom development process. The level of solarization is dependent upon the stage of development, the level of light the partially developed print is exposed to, and the amount of time it is exposed. 
  
987.27   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Examples of solarization 
  
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Man Ray, Josef Ehm, Lloyd Ullberg and Tom Baril. Ilse Bing, Maurice Tabard, and proponents of the very active Czech avant-garde movement of the 1920's including Jaroslav Rössler (1902-1990) experimented with solarization
  
   Abstraction solarization 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
987.28   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Edmund Teske (1911-1996) was born too late to be involved in the flowering of the avant-garde but through his interests in music and Vedanta, the study of the Hindu Vedas, he developed a philosophical framework that blended into his photography. The constructs of time and space and their malleability could be expressed through alterations in photographic processes. The use of composite prints, where multiple negatives are combined to create a single image, was the photographic equivalent of merging space and time. To this he added what has been referred to as 'duotone solarization' - where the final image has both black and white and brown and white solarized effects. His expertise in this process created images that subvert nature to create unnatural and yet beautiful photographs out of the mundane to empower them with emotional and almost sacred meanings. 
  
Mordançage 
  
987.29   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Mordançage examples 
  
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Mordançage, practiced by only a few artists, is a process whereby the artist strips away the darkest parts of the emulsion of a silver gelatin print. The stripping away of the emulsion is the most important stage of the process - the image transformation, creating a relief, or a raised area on the print. Water is used to float the delicate silver emulsion on the image so as to rearrange it and dry it back down on to the print. The end result is a one of a kind and unique photographic image. It is in the laying back down of the photograph’s emulsion where Elizabeth Opalenik has made her trademark. She reconfigures the emulsion as a drapery, much in harmony with her own style of photographing dancers, nudes and elegant still life.
"What takes time to create, time respects….some of these images with the draping may take hours to complete and then only after a few weeks of failure to get one that I love. Often I am working with a hypodermic needle to punch little release holes in the big bubbles of water where the silver has lifted in the shadows. Today’s emulsion is so fragile, most of it floats down the drain, and I am unable to save it. Failures are high. Often I arrange the emulsion by using drops of water to put it in place to dry it back down on the paper."
[Courtesy of Verve Gallery of Photography] 
  
Sculptural forms 
  
987.30   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Working with paper and card 
  
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A subset of abstraction is the use of paper and card to create three-dimensional sculptural forms which are then lit and photographed. In 1920 Man Ray photographed a twisted paper form that has a simplicity but also implied movement within the frame that belies the title Lampshade.[71] Around the same time Man Ray was experimenting with photograms and placing materials directly on the printing paper in the dark room to create shapes.[72]  
  
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In the 1920s Manuel Álvarez Bravo created a series "Paper games" which used shades and shapes to highlight geometrical forms of pyramids and spirals.  
  
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Walter Bischof experimented with positive and negative forms of paper sculptures in 1938.  
  
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Frederick Sommer used large sheets of a thick brown wrapping paper and cut them in highly intricate patterns. By hanging these vertically and rolling some of the elements and lifting other parts from the surface intriguing shapes emerge.[73]  
  
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Paper cut constructions like these are abstract and as such any meaning is subjective and open to interpretation. 
  
Exaggeration photo postcards 
  
987.31   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Exaggeration postcards 
  
In the USA between 1905 and 1915 there was a popular craze for exaggeration, "tall-tale" or "freak" postcards[74] that used photomontage to highlight the wonders of the American West. William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas became the most popular of these photographers because of his wit and the wide variety of the subjects he chose to include. In his fictional world farmers sit astride corn cobs the size of buses, drive cars laden with vast onions and potatoes to market and chase rabbits the size of sedans.
 
Other photographers including H.M. Brown (Gilmer Valley, Washinton), Wolfe Photo (Burlington, Washington), O. T. Frasch (Seattle, Washington)[75], Henry M. Beach[76] (upstate New York), F.D. Conrad (Garden City, Kansas), Edward H. Mitchell, Alfred Stanley Johnson, Jr. and others made exaggeration photo postcards during their most popular era in the USA which was 1905-1920. 
  
987.32   Experimental and manipulated photography >  William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas (USA) was the creator of a number of exaggeration photo postcards[77] between 1908 and 1911 that showed the most extreme aspects of mid-western life. By the use of photomontage he juxtaposed agricultural products, objects and people to amuse the consumer. These cards are also called "tall-tale" or "freak" postcards.[78] 
  
Polaroids 
  
987.33   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Ellen Carey: Pulls 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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A 2007 press release from the JHB Gallery provides a context for the worl of Ellen Carey:
Carey creates images that are one-of-a-kind using the Polaroid one-step, peel away process that develops in a mere 60 seconds. It produces a positive along with its negative, Carey shows both, making pictures that are simultaneously photographic and abstract. These artworks she calls "Pulls", her term since 1996 upon its discovery, echoes the physical activity of making these pictures,
 
The "Pulls" are boldly displayed as color positive prints. Carey’s signature conical looping shapes, reminiscent of moiré patterns, wood grain or photographic Newton rings are seen with their opposites, the negatives or "shadows". Both prints contain rich surfaces. The negatives dry and their patina results from this change. As photographic objects they serve as symbols of their former selves, a "memento mori". Carey signals Talbot’s paper negative (1834) at the dawn of photography and the negative/positive axis that is photography’s foundation. Equal status is given to both prints (the Polaroid negative is usually discarded) and the artist acknowledges this history, underscoring its importance by tacking the "Pulls" to the wall with pushpins. Her installations are visually rich, a visceral experience of synoptic clarity and "in situ" presentation direct from the artist’s hand and the Polaroid studio.[79]
 
  
Photographers 
  
987.34   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Man Ray: Solarized nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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During the winter of 1929-1930 one of those accidental discoveries happened in Man Ray's studio in Paris. Man Ray's assistant was the beautiful American model Lee Miller who would go on to become master photojournalist in her own right. In an interview with Mario Amaya published in 1975 she said:
Something crawled across my foot in the darkroom and I let out a yell and turned on the light. I never did find out what it was, a mouse or what. Then I quickly realized that the film was totally exposed: there in the development tanks, ready to be taken out, were a dozen practically fully-developed negatives of a nude against a black background. Man Ray grabbed them, put them in the hypo and looked at them later. He didn't even bother to bawl me out, since I was so sunk. When he looked at them, the unexposed parts of the negative, which had been the black background, had been exposed by this sharp light that had been turned on and they had developed, and came right up to the edge of the white, nude body. But the background and the image couldn't heal together, so there was a line left which he called a `solarization.'[80]
This "mouse incident" has come to be accepted truth although in a far earlier piece in the magazine Lilliput in 1941 she said it was due to a faulty lighting connection that had exposed the film part way through the development process.[81]
 
Whatever the truth the significance was in Man Ray's realization that this was not a disaster but an additional creative process. The alteration of the real, partly achieved through black and white photographs of colour subjects, could be pushed far further using solarization. Here the unusual toning appeared to reveal disjoined psychological states and this accidental discovery was embraced by Surrealists including Maurice Tabard.[82] 
  
987.35   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Within the photographic works of Lotte Jacobi[83] from 1946 there are a number of abstract black and white cameraless images that she termed "photogenics"[84]. The images were created in the darkroom with the aid of a defused flashlight painting with light directly on the photographic paper. 
  
987.36   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Berlin-born Heinz Hajek-Halke (1898-1983) was a German press photographer, photo-editor, teacher and master of abstract techniques and montage. In the late 1940's he was a member of the Fotoform group, and later taught photography and graphic design at the Berliner Hochschule für Bildende Künste (Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin). His book Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955)[85] showed his pioneering experimental work and is receiving renewed attention.[86] 
  
987.37   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Berlin-born Heinz Hajek-Halke (1898-1983) was a German press photographer, photo-editor, teacher and master of abstract techniques and montage. In the late 1940's he was a member of the Fotoform group, and later taught photography and graphic design at the Berliner Hochschule für Bildende Künste (Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin). His book Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955)[87] showed his pioneering experimental work and is receiving renewed attention.[88] 
  
987.38   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Edmund Kesting: Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (1958) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In the early 1920's German photographer, painter & graphic designer Edmund Kesting (1892-1970)[89] was closely involved with the artistic avant-garde. After 1925 he became well-known for his experimental photography, especially his work in photomontage. His artwork was considered degenerate by the Nazis. 
  
987.39   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Integrity 
  
987.40   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Image integrity in documentary photography and photojournalism 
  
The questioning of the integrity of still images has been an increasing significant research topic with a need to examine global perspective on how different practitioners - photographers, editors, picture desks and curators view the subject. In June 2014 David Campbell announced a research project for World Press Photo to examine the issues within documentary photography and photojournalism .[90] Using a qualitative research methodology the project was designed to interview relevant people around the world to better answer the following research questions:
  1. What forms of manipulation are relevant to the integrity of the image? In addition to post-processing of negatives, RAW files or unprocessed JPEGs, it could also includes the framing, cropping, selection, captioning and contextualisation of images, among other issues. Should these dimensions also be considered and, if so, how?
     
  2. Is manipulation generally a growing problem? If so, how and why?
     
  3. Is post-processing itself a problem, or is post-processing a problem only when certain levels of changes are made? If so, how are the legitimate levels known or identified?
     
  4. What ethical guidelines and protocols relevant to the integrity of the image are followed by media organisations in different countries?
     
  5. What ethical guidelines relevant to the integrity of the image are promoted by professional media associations in different countries?
     
  6. Are there national, regional and cultural differences in the ethical guidelines, accepted standards, and current practices relevant to the integrity of the image? Are there any points of consensus on manipulation regardless of geographical or cultural differences?
     
  7. Are there different norms with regard to manipulation in different image genres? Are the norms for news and documentary the same as those for nature, sports, and portraits (staged and observed), or are their differences?
     
  8. What are the most effective means for the detection of manipulation?
     
  9. What sanctions exist with the media industry after manipulation is detected?
     
  10. What rules exist within major international photo contests relating to the integrity of the image?
The research was necessitated by entries to the World Press Photo Awards that had been manipulated and were therefore ineligible for the competition but the awareness of the rising numbers of such images has implications for genres where photographic integrity is vital. If the viewer expects truth and it is not provided trust in the media delivering the images is brought into question. 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Accounts of composite printing in the nineteenth and early twentieth century include:
    1869 - H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter)
     
    1870 - 1870, "Combination printing", The Popular Science Review (London), vol. IX, p. 326
     
    1879 - Described in a speech by John Bole O'Reilly - James Jeffrey Roche & Mary Murphy O'Reilly, 1891, Life of John Boyle O'Reilly ... Together with His Complete Poems and Speeches, (Cassell), pp. 195-196
     
    1883 - Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344
     
    1888 - April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237
     
    1905 - Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1
    There are no doubt numerous other sources and some of the most notable examples by Alexander Gardner and Camille Silvy were made before these texts were published. 
      
  2. Λ For American exaggeration and tall-tale postcards - Roger L. Welsch, 1976, Tall-Tale Postcards: A Pictorial History, (New York: A.S. Barnes and Company); Hal Morgan, 1981, Big Time: American Tall-Tale Postcards, (New York: St. Martin's Press); Cynthia Elyce Rubin & Morgan Williams, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915, (Abbeville Press); Alain Weill, 2011, Tall-Tale Postcards: Early Twentieth Century American Photomontages of the Unexpected, (Gourcuff Gradenigo) 
      
  3. Λ Thomas F. Barrow deliberately cut some of his prints - Kathleen McCarthy Gauss, 1986, Inventories and Transformations: The Photographs of Thomas Barrow, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press).
     
    Another case is the work of Chris McCaw who has let the sun burn through some of his work - Chris McCaw, 2012, Sunburn, (Candela Books) 
      
  4. Λ André Kertész, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chêne) 
      
  5. Λ Bill Brandt, 1961, Perspective of Nudes, (London: The Bodley Head) 
      
  6. Λ Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House) 
      
  7. Λ Distortions would be used by numerous photographers including: Berenice Abbott (1898-1991), Bill Brandt (1904-1983), Robert Doisneau (1912-1994), Louis Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920), André Kertész (1894-1985), Man Ray (1890-1976), Weegee (1899-1968) and Edward Weston (1886-1958) 
      
  8. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), figs. 12 and 13, pp. 17-18.
    (Accessed: 3 May 2014)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7121607M/Photographic_amusements 
      
  9. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 2, pp. 7-14.
    (Accessed: 3 May 2014)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7121607M/Photographic_amusements 
      
  10. Λ Thanks to Heinz-Werner Lawo for providing the various names. (pers. email to Alan Griffiths, 6 May 2014) 
      
  11. Λ For a history of the multigraph - Dr Irwin Reichstein, May/June 2007, "A Multigraph from Montreal", Photographic Canadiana, vol. 33, no. 1
    (Online version, accessed 6 May 2014)
    www.phsc.ca/reichstein/multigraph_article.pdf 
      
  12. Λ The article gives the mirror angle as 45 degrees but it should be 72 degrees to get five portraits of the sitter in a single exposure. 
      
  13. Λ October 1893, "A Multiple Portait", The Popular Science News, vol. XXVII, no. 10, p. 148 [Available on Google Books] 
      
  14. Λ 16 June 1894, Grand Forks Daily Herald, Issue 194, p. 4 (Pittsburg Dispatch)
     
    With thanks to Heinz-Werner Lawo for bringing this to my attention (pers. email, Alan Griffiths, 6 May 2014) 
      
  15. Λ Rigmor Mydtskov
    (Accessed: 5 May 2014)
    www.mydtskov.dk/ny/galleries/FotoRigmorMydtskov/index.htm 
      
  16. Λ Fivefold portraits - Photo-multigraphs - multiple photos
    Blog of Heinz-Werner Lawo
    (Accessed: 5 May 2014)
    uneinsamkeiten.blogspot.de 
      
  17. Λ Books showing how the illusion of decapitated heads could created included - Albert A. Hopkins, 1897, Magic: Stage Illusions and Scientific Diversions Including Trick Photography, (London: Low); Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association) 
      
  18. Λ The most detailed overview of Spirit Photography - Clément Chéroux et al., 2005, The Perfect Medium: Photography and the Occult, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) 
      
  19. Λ The trial of William H. Mumler was an infamous case and showed him for the fraud he was - Louis Kaplan, 2008, The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer, (University of Minnesota Press). For a contemporary account of the trial - 1869, ‘Spiritual Photography‘, The Living Age, vol. 102, pp. 314-315 [Originally published in The Saturday Review]
     
    P.T. Barnum also discussed William H Mumler in - 1866, The Humbugs of the World: An Account of Humbugs, Delusions, Impositions, Quackeries, Deceits and Deceivers generally, in All Ages, (New York: Carleton) 
      
  20. Λ Miss [Georgiana] Houghton, 1888, Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye: Interblended with personal narratives, (London: W.E. Allen) 
      
  21. Λ Arthur Conan Doyle, 1920, December, ‘Fairies Photographed‘, Strand Magazine, vol. 60, pp. 463-468; Arthur Conan Doyle, 1923, The Case for Spirit Photography. With Corroborative Evidence By Experienced Researches and Photographers, (New York: George H. Doran Company) 
      
  22. Λ Early research on stereoviews was largely carried out in North America by collectors such as William Culp Darrah and T.K. Treadwell - William Culp Darrah, 1964, Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and Their Collection, (Gettysburg, PA: Times and News Publishing Co.); William Culp Darrah, 1977, The World of Stereographs, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah); T.K. Treadwell & William C. Darrah, 1994, Stereographers of the World. Vol. 1: Foreign; vol. 2: United States, (National Stereoscopic Association); John S. Waldsmith, 2002, Stereo Views: An Illustrated History and Price Guide, (Iola, WI: Gazelle) 
      
  23. Λ Clarisse d'Arcimoles - "Forgotten Nostalgia" series
    (Accessed: 25 May 2014)
    www.clarisse-darcimoles.com 
      
  24. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), figs. 42.
    (Accessed: 5 May 2014)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7121607M/Photographic_amusements 
      
  25. Λ There is an excellent cabinet card example in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) - John C. Higgins (American, active 1880s–90s), "[Man in Bottle]", 1888 (ca), Albumen silver print, from glass negative, cabinet card, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Susan and Thomas Dunn Gift, 2011, Accession Number: 2011.199 
      
  26. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), figs. 43, pp. 44-45.
    (Accessed: 3 May 2014)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7121607M/Photographic_amusements 
      
  27. Λ US patent No. 149,724, C.M. Coolidge, Processes of Taking Photographic Pictures, 1874, 14 April (patent issued) 
      
  28. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 46 
      
  29. Λ For Anna Atkins her books of cyanotypes include - Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication]; Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication). For a scholarly analysis - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  30. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), figs. 54, pp. 62-63.
    (Accessed: 3 May 2014)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7121607M/Photographic_amusements 
      
  31. Λ Henry Kuhn of St. Louis assignor to Henry A. Hyatt of Kirkwood Missouri - Letters Patent dated July 12, 1887, Application filed: October 11 1884. US Patent: 44023 - "Photograph Stamp Portrait Sheet".
    www.vintage-reprints.com/catalog/1887-kuhn-photograph-stamp-portrait-sheet-patent-44023-44023.html  
      
  32. Λ August 29, 1884, The Photographic News (London), vol. XXVIII, no. 1356, p. 552 
      
  33. Λ Mark Haworth-Booth, 2010, Camille Silvy: Photographer of Modern Life, (National Portrait Gallery), p. 108-109 includes a "Proof sheet of postage stamp portrait of Alexandre Monnier" (ca. 1866) that used this technique. 
      
  34. Λ American photographer W.E. Marshall of Mich. had the date printed on the backs of some of his carte de visites and on an 1883 carte a "stamp portrait" was affixed. (Thanks to Jerilyn Marshall for this information, 4 May 2014) 
      
  35. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), figs. 55 and 56, pp. 63.
    (Accessed: 3 May 2014)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7121607M/Photographic_amusements 
      
  36. Λ With thanks to Jack and Beverly Wilgus for their permission to include this example (Facebook, 5 May 2014). 
      
  37. Λ Has anybody research the connections between printed illustration stylistic choices and the introduction of vignetting in photography? I's be most interesting in hearing your thoughts on this - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  38. Λ Accounts of composite printing in the nineteenth and early twentieth century include:
    1869 - H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter)
     
    1870 - 1870, "Combination printing", The Popular Science Review (London), vol. IX, p. 326
     
    1879 - Described in a speech by John Bole O'Reilly - James Jeffrey Roche & Mary Murphy O'Reilly, 1891, Life of John Boyle O'Reilly ... Together with His Complete Poems and Speeches, (Cassell), pp. 195-196
     
    1883 - Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344
     
    1888 - April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237
     
    1905 - Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1
    There are no doubt numerous other sources and some of the most notable examples by Alexander Gardner and Camille Silvy were made before these texts were published. 
      
  39. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  40. Λ Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884, (Paris, BnF / Gallimard) [Exhibition, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 19 March - 16 June 2002]; Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820–1884, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); Lisa Barro & Nora W. Kennedy, 2005, ‘Gustave Le Gray's Salted Paper Prints‘, in Pre-Prints of the 14th Triennial Meeting Amsterdam, ICOM Committee for Conservation, pp. 533–540; Eugenia Parry Janis, 1987, The Photography of Gustave Le Gray, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press) 
      
  41. Λ Peter C. Bunnell, 1979, The Photography of O. G. Rejlander: Two Selections, (New York: Arno); Edgar Yoxall Jones, 1973, Father of Art Photography: O. G. Rejlander, 1813-1875, (London: David and Charles); Stephanie Spencer, 1984, ‘O. G. Rejlander's Photographs of Street Urchins‘, Oxford Art Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 17-24; Stephanie Spencer, 1985, O. G. Rejlander: Photography as Art, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press) 
      
  42. Λ H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter) [British editions: 1869, 1879, 1881, 1893.; American: 1881, 1892; French: 1885; German:1886. Reprinted with an introduction by Robert A. Sobieszek (Pawley: Helios, 1971) 
      
  43. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association) 
      
  44. Λ In 1947 Berenice Abbott opened her "House of Photography" which sold her inventions including the "Distortion Easel".
    www.nypl.org/sites/default/files/archivalcollections/pdf/abbottb.pdf 
      
  45. Λ In the The Audrey and Sydney Irmas Collection (AC1992.197.114) at LACMA (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) there is a 1937 self-portrait of Arthur Siegel taken with Berenice Abbott’s Distortion Easel. See - Robert Sobieszek and Deborah Irmas, 1994, the camera i: Photographic Self-Portraits from the Audrey and Sydney Irmas Collection, (Los Angeles: The Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers) 
      
  46. Λ As Berenice Abbott claimed in her Patent Application (US2565446 A - Filed: 10 March 1948, Published: 21 August 1951) 
      
  47. Λ André Kertész, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chêne) 
      
  48. Λ Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House); Weegee, 1964, Weegee's Creative Photography, (Ward, Lock & Co.) 
      
  49. Λ André Kertész, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chêne) 
      
  50. Λ Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House); Weegee, 1964, Weegee's Creative Photography, (Ward, Lock & Co.) 
      
  51. Λ Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344 
      
  52. Λ April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237 
      
  53. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1 
      
  54. Λ For the context of Lewis Hine's work with the NCLC there are multiple studies including - Judith Mara Gutman, 1967, Lewis W. Hine and the American Social Conscience, (New York: Walker); Walter Rosenblum et al., 1977, America and Lewis Hine: Photographs, 1904–1940, (New York: Aperture); Daile Kaplan (ed.), 1992, Photo Story: Selected Letters and Photographs of Lewis Hine, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Alison Nordström & Elizabeth McCausland, 2012, Lewis Hine, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) 
      
  55. Λ For examples by Lewis Hine - "Composite photograph of child laborers made from cotton mill children" see the Library of Congress examples of his 1913 NCLC - National Child Labor Committee composites:
     
    Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02737 (color digital file from b&w original print) LC-USZ62-107782 (b&w film copy negative)
    Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02738 (color digital file from b&w original print) 
      
  56. Λ Serge Negre, December 1991, "Arthur Batut – Photographie 1846–1918", Photoresearcher, vol. 3, p. 20. 
      
  57. Λ Elizabeth Glassman & Marilyn F. Symmes, 1980, Cliché-verre: Hand-Drawn, Light-Printed: A Survey of the Medium from 1839 to the Present, (Detroit: The Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  58. Λ G. Kepes, et al., 1995, Language of Vision: Fundamentals of Bauhaus Design, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications) [Reprint]; Gyorgy Kepes, 1984, Light Graphics, (New York: International Center of Photography) isbn-10: 0933642059 isbn-13: 978-0933642058 [Exhibition catalogue]; Gyorgy Kepes, & Marjorie Supovitz (ed.), 1978, Gyorgy Kepes: The MIT Years 1945-1977, (The MIT Press) 
      
  59. Λ Abelardo Morell: Cliché-verres - www.abelardomorell.net/posts/cliche-verres/ 
      
  60. Λ An indication of the commercial potential of tinting and painting early photographs is provided by the taking out of patents to ensure protection over the processes involved. Early examples include:
    "To Richard Beard, of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses and representations of nature, and of other objects, being a communication. [Sealed 10th March, 1842.]", The London Journal and Repository of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, Conjoined Series, no. CXXXII, Recent Patents, 1843, pp. 358-360.
     
    "22. For an Improvement in Coloring Daguerreotype Plates, by fixing the Colors thereon; Frederick Langenheim, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 30." American Patents, Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, and American Repository, February, 1847, p. 105. Patent was issued in January, 1846.
     
      
  61. Λ Felice Beato is one of the most interesting peripatetic photographers of the nineteenth century - Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); John Clark, John Fraser & Colin Osman, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) 
      
  62. Λ John Thomson, 1873-1874, Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented, 4 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston Low, and Searle, 1873 [vols. 1 and 2] and 1874 [vols. 3 and 4]) 
      
  63. Λ Stanley Burns, 2008, Newsart: The Manipulated Photographs from the Burns Archive, (powerHouse Books / Burns Press) 
      
  64. Λ Henry Fox Talbot, 1839, Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing or the Process by Which Natural Objects May be Made to Delineate Themselves Without the Aid of the Artist’s Pencil, (London: London: R. and J. E. Taylor); Henry Fox Talbot, 1839, 9 February, ‘Photogenic Drawing. Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing, or the Process by which Natural Objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the Artist's Pencil‘, The Athenaeum, no. 589, pp. 114-117 
      
  65. Λ For Anna Atkins her books of cyanotypes include - Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication]; Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication). For a scholarly analysis - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  66. Λ A contemporary account of the photogenic drawings of Anna K. Weaver is included in "Fern Leaf Mottoes", October 1875, Woman's Work for Woman, vol. V, no. 8, pp. 270-271. 
      
  67. Λ Man Ray, 1963, Exhibition Rayographs 1921-1928, (Stuttgart: L.G.A.) ; Man Ray, 1934, Man Ray: Photographs 1920-1934, Paris, (Hartford: James Thall Soby) 
      
  68. Λ László Moholy-Nagy, 1925, Malerei, Photographie, Film, Bauhausbook 8, (Munich: Albert Langen Verlag), [Painting, Photography, Film]; Renate & Floris M. Neusüss (eds.), 2009, Moholy-Nagy: The Photograms: Catalogue Raisonné, (Hatje Cantz) 
      
  69. Λ Eugenia Parry, 1997, Adam Fuss, (Santa Fe: Arena Editions) 
      
  70. Λ T.O. Immisch (ed.), 2001, Floris Neususs Körperbilder: Fotogramme der sechziger Jahre, (Stiftung Moritzburg) 
      
  71. Λ Man Ray, "Lampshade", 1920, Real photo postcard, 5 1/4 x 3 1/2 ins (13.3 x 8.9 cm), Swann Galleries - New York, Fine Photographs, 26 February 2013, Lot 34 
      
  72. Λ Man Ray, 1963, Exhibition Rayographs 1921-1928, (Stuttgart: L.G.A.); A portfolio of 12 of his rayograms was published in Les champs délicieux (The delicious fields) in 1922. 
      
  73. Λ Frederick Sommer, 1962, Frederick Sommer 1939-1962 Photographs, (New York: Aperture); Frederick Sommer, 1980, Frederick Sommer at Seventy-Five, (Long Beach: The Art Museum and Galleries, California State University); Frederick Sommer, 2005, The Art of Frederick Sommer: Photography, Drawing, Collage, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) 
      
  74. Λ Clément Chéroux & Ute Eskildsen, 2008, The Stamp of Fantasy: The Visual Inventiveness of Photographic Postcards, (Steidl); Alain Weill, 2011, Tall-Tale Postcards: Early Twentieth Century American Photomontages of the Unexpected, (Gourcuff Gradenigo); Hal Morgan. 1981, Big Time: American Tall-Tale Postcards, (New York: St. Martin's Press); Cynthia Elyce Rubin and Morgan Williams, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915 (New York: Abbeville Press); Roger L. Welsch. 1976, Tall-Tale Postcards: A Pictorial History, (New York: A.S. Barnes and Company) 
      
  75. Λ E. Morgan Williams Collection of exaggerated postcards
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013)
    www.fruitfromwashington.com/Varieties/art/williams_cards.htm 
      
  76. Λ Robert Bogdan, 2003, Adirondack Vernacular: The Photography of Henry M. Beach, (Syracuse University Press) 
      
  77. Λ Clément Chéroux & Ute Eskildsen, 2008, The Stamp of Fantasy: The Visual Inventiveness of Photographic Postcards, (Steidl); Alain Weill, 2011, Tall-Tale Postcards: Early Twentieth Century American Photomontages of the Unexpected, (Gourcuff Gradenigo); Hal Morgan. 1981, Big Time: American Tall-Tale Postcards, (New York: St. Martin's Press); Cynthia Elyce Rubin and Morgan Williams, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915 (New York: Abbeville Press); Roger L. Welsch. 1976, Tall-Tale Postcards: A Pictorial History, (New York: A.S. Barnes and Company) 
      
  78. Λ "Tall Tale Postcards: Storytelloing through the mail - A virtual exhibit", Michigan State University Museum
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013)
    museum.msu.edu/museum/tes/talltale/ 
      
  79. Λ Press release, 2007, "Ellen Carey: Polaroid Pulls & Shadows", JHB Gallery, New York. 
      
  80. Λ Lee Miller quoted in M. Amaya, (May/June 1975, Art in America,vol. 63, p. 54. 
      
  81. Λ Lee Miller, 1941, Lilliput, vol. 9, pp. 315-324 
      
  82. Λ Later when Maurice Tabard described the process he thanked Man Ray - Maurice Tabard, 15 November 1933), Arts et Metiers Graphiques, No. 38, pp. 30-33. 
      
  83. Λ Kelly Wise, 1978, Lotte Jacobi, (Danbury: Addison House); James A. Fasanelli, 1979, Lotte Jacobi: Photographs by Lotte Jacobi, (Matrix Pubns); Peter A. Moriarty, 2002, Lotte Jacobi: Photographs, (David R Godine / Pocket Paragon) 
      
  84. Λ Lotte Jacobi, 1978, Portraits & Photogenics, (University of Maryland, Baltimore County Library) 
      
  85. Λ Heinz Hajek-Halke, 1955, Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (Bonn: Athenäum Verlag) 
      
  86. Λ Books on the experimental photographs of Heinz Hajek-Halke - Heinz Hajek-Halke, 2005, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Form aus Licht und Schatten, Vol. I, (Göttingen); Michael Ruetz; Isabel Siben & Astrid Köppe (eds.), 2008, Phantasie und Traum. Das lichtgraphische Spätwerk von Heinz Hajek-Halke, (Munich) 
      
  87. Λ Heinz Hajek-Halke, 1955, Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (Bonn: Athenäum Verlag) 
      
  88. Λ Books on the experimental photographs of Heinz Hajek-Halke - Heinz Hajek-Halke, 2005, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Form aus Licht und Schatten, Vol. I, (Göttingen); Michael Ruetz; Isabel Siben & Astrid Köppe (eds.), 2008, Phantasie und Traum. Das lichtgraphische Spätwerk von Heinz Hajek-Halke, (Munich) 
      
  89. Λ Edmund Kesting, 1958, Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (Halle: Fotokino). Includes contributions by Hans Havemann, Edmund Kesting and Prof. Dr. Will Grohmann. 
      
  90. Λ David Campbell, 6 June 2014, "The integrity of the image: Global practices and standards concerning the manipulation of photographs"
    (Accessed: 14 June 2014)
    www.david-campbell.org/2014/06/06/the-integrity-of-the-image-global-practices-standards-concerning-manipulation-of-photographs/ 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Caws, Mary Ann (ed.), 2011, Surrealism, (Phaidon) isbn-13: 978-0714856735 [Δ
  
Fineman, Mia, 2012, Faking it: Manipulated photography before Photoshop, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art) isbn-10: 0300185014 isbn-13: 978-0300185010 [Distributed by Yale University Press] [Δ
  
Hirsch, Robert, 2014, Transformational Imagemaking: Handmade Photography since 1960, (Focal Press) isbn-10: 0415810264 isbn-13: 978-0415810265 [Δ
  
Hopkins, Albert A., 1897, Magic: Stage Illusions and Scientific Diversions Including Trick Photography, (London: Low) [Δ
  
Houghton, Miss [Georgiana], 1882, Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye: Interblended with personal narratives, (London: E.W. Allen) [Δ
  
Reichstein, Irwin, 2007, May/June, ‘A Multigraph from Montreal‘, Photographic Canadiana, vol. 33, no. 1 [Δ
  
Rexer, Lyle, 2009, The Edge of Vision: The Rise of Abstraction in Photography, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597111007 isbn-13: 978-1597111003 [Δ
  
Whiting, Arthur, n.d.‘Handwork on Negatives‘, The Photo-Miniature: A Magazine of Photographic Information, vol. X, no. 116, pp. 353-387 [Δ
  
Woodbury, Walter E., 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Thomas F. Barrow 
  
McCarthy Gauss, Kathleen, 1986, Inventories and Transformations: The Photographs of Thomas Barrow, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
Bill Brandt 
  
Brandt, Bill, 1961, Perspective of Nudes, (London: The Bodley Head) [Δ
  
Jaromír Funke 
  
Dufek, Antonín, 1997, Jaromír Funke. Prukopník fotografické avantgardy, (Brno) isbn-10: 8070270616 [Δ
  
Dufek, Antonín, 2004, Jaromír Funke, (Torst) [Δ
  
Moucha, Josef, 2004, Summer, ‘A flash of avant-garde, or Jaromír Funke‘, Imago, no. 18 [Δ
  
Pastor, Suzanne E. & Dufek, Antonín, 1995, Jaromír Funke - fotografie 1919-1943 - veci sklenené a obycejné,, (Prague: Pražský dum fotografie) [Δ
  
Heinz Hajek-Halke 
  
Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 1955, Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik, (Bonn: Athenäum Verlag) [Δ
  
Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 1978, Heinz Hajek-Halke Fotografie Foto-Grafik Licht-Grafik, (Galerie Werner Kunze) [Δ
  
Pasquer, Priska & Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 2008, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Artist, Anarchist, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865211348 isbn-13: 978-3865211347 [Δ
  
John Heartfield 
  
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1929, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, (Berlin: Neuer Deutscher Verlag) [Δ
  
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1929, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, (Berlin: Universum-Bücherei für Alle) [Δ
  
Zervigon, Andres Mario, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226981770 isbn-13: 978-0226981772 [Δ
  
André Kertész 
  
Kertész, André, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chêne) [Δ
  
Edmund Kesting 
  
Kesting, Edmund, 1958, Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv, (Halle: Fotokino) [Δ
  
Chris McCaw 
  
McCaw, Chris, 2012, Sunburn, (Candela Books) isbn-10: 0984573925 isbn-13: 978-0984573929 [Δ
  
László Moholy-Nagy 
  
Heyne, Renate & Neusüss, Floris M. (eds.), 2009, Moholy-Nagy: The Photograms: Catalogue Raisonné, (Hatje Cantz) isbn-13: 978-3775723411 [Δ
  
Heyne,Renate; Moholy-Nagy, László; Molderings, Herbert & Neusüss, Floris M., 1997, László Moholy-Nagy. Fotogramas 1922-1943, (Barcelona: Fundació Antoni Tàpies) [In Spanish] [Δ
  
Moholy-Nagy, László, 2011, Laboratory of Vision: Photographs by Moholy-Nagy, (Kokushokankokai) [Δ
  
Floris M. Neusüss 
  
Immisch, T.O. (ed.), 2001, Floris Neususs Körperbilder: Fotogramme der sechziger Jahre, (Stiftung Moritzburg) isbn-10: 3861050927 isbn-13: 978-3861050926 [Δ
  
Elizabeth Opalenik 
  
Opalenik, Elizabeth, 2007, Poetic Grace: Photographs 1979-2007, (OPA Editions) isbn-10: 1424341884 isbn-13: 978-1424341887 [Δ
  
Roger M. Parry 
  
Fargue, Leon-Paul, 1930, Banalités, (Librairie Gallimand) [Photographs by Roger Parry] [Δ
  
Jean-Pierre Sudre 
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre, n.d.Argentine [50 copies] [Δ
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre, n.d.Diamantine [30 copies] [Δ
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre, 1983, Jean-Pierre Sudre, (Arles, Musée Réattu) [Δ
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre & Gautrand, Jean-Claude, 2003, Jean-Pierre Sudre, ouvrage collectif, (Éditions Actes Sud) isbn-13: 978-2742743940 [Δ
  
Maurice Tabard 
  
Baqué, Dominique, 1991, Maurice Tabard, (Belfond) isbn-10: 2714427448 isbn-13: 978-2714427441 [Δ
  
Rosalind, Pierre; Gassmann,Caroline & Elissagaray, Krauss, 1987, Maurice Tabard, (Paris: Contrejour) isbn-10: 2859490663 isbn-13: 978-2859490669 [Δ
  
Weegee 
  
Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House) [Δ
  
Weegee, 1964, Weegee's Creative Photography, (Ward, Lock & Co.) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Thomas F. Barrow  (1938-) • Peter Beard  (1938-) • Hans Bellmer  (1902-1975) • Bill Brandt  (1904-1983) • Vladimir Brylyakov  (1958-) • Ellen Carey  (1952-) • Roger Catherineau  (1925-1962) • Carl Chiarenza  (1935-) • Julien Coulommier  (1922-) • Xavier Damon  (1969-) • Thomas Demand  (1964-) • Joan Fontcuberta  (1955-) • Benno Friedman  (1945-) • Jack Fulton  (1939-) • Adam Fuss  (1961-) • Paolo Gioli  (1942-) • Judith Golden  (1934-) • Ernst Haas  (1921-1986) • Heinz Hajek-Halke  (1898-1983) • John Heartfield  (1891-1968) • Florence Henri  (check) • Dennis Hopper  (1936-2010) • Lotte Jacobi  (1896-1990) • André Kertész  (1894-1985) • Astrid Klein • Man Ray  (1890-1976) • Chris McCaw  (1971-) • Jerry McMillan • László Moholy-Nagy  (check) • Jean Moral  (1906-1999) • Floris M. Neusüss  (1937-) • Pavel Odvody  (1953-) • Roger M. Parry  (1905-1977) • Arnulf Rainer  (1929-) • Alexander Rodchenko  (1891-1956) • Franz Roh  (1890-1965) • Jaroslav Rössler  (1902-1990) • Lucas Samaras  (1936-) • Werner Schnelle  (1942-) • Victor Schrager  (1950-) • Aaron Siskind  (1903-1991) • Frederick Sommer  (1905-1999) • Paul Strand  (1890-1976) • Maurice Tabard  (1897-1984) • Arthur Tress  (1940-) • Deborah Turbeville  (1937-2013) • Pete Turner  (1934-) • Raoul Ubac  (1910-1985) • Brett Weston  (1911-1993) • Minor White  (1908-1976) • Joel-Peter Witkin  (1939-) • Willy Zielke  (1902-1989)
HomeThemes > Experimental and manipulated photography 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Abstract 
Abstraction of light 
Abstraction of scale 
Abstraction of the real 
Alternative process movement 
Appropriation 
Cliché-verre 
Collage 
Composite and combination prints 
Composite portraits 
Distortions 
Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors 
Fakes, forgeries, tricks and deceptions 
Mordançage 
Painting on photographs 
Photograms 
Photomontage 
Solarization 
Surrealism 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Experimental and manipulated photography

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAbstract: Distortions 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 14, 2008)
ThumbnailEllen Carey: Polaroid Pulls & Shadows 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 19, 2007)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Experimental and manipulated photography

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA.P. Webb: Business card with stamp portrait 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Light abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Lucidagrams 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Photograms 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBill Brandt: Distortions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBrett Weston: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCalvert Richard Jones: Capuchin Friars, Valetta, Malta (1846) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDavid Douglas Duncan: Prismatics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdmund Kesting: Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (1958) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Becoming centered in the Universe and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Changer and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Finding Self and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: JoJo as Maillot and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Margot 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Mordançages with fennel 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Windswept and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail Ellen Carey: Pulls 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFlorence Henri: Compositions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Galton: Composite photographs 
ThumbnailFrederick Sommer: Cut paper 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGyörgy Kepes: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGyörgy Kepes: Wheel Spokes and Flame Form 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHarry Callahan: Abstracts 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinz Hajek-Halke: Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHerbert G. Ponting: Distortograph: William Hale "Big Bill" Thompson, Mayor of Chicago (1927) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJaroslav Rössler: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: Insectes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: M+V 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: Paysages matériographiques 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: Soleil 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMan Ray: Solarized nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: Collages and collaborative works 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: The End of the Game 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRay K. Metzker: Combinations and multiple exposures 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoger Parry: Banalités (1930) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: Union Army Officer (1861) 
ThumbnailW.E. Marshall: Portrait of a boy with a stamp portrait on reverse 
ThumbnailWeegee: Distortions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWerner Schnelle: Light Works 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilly Zielke: Glass abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailDiego Velázquez - Unidentified photographer - Thomas F. Barrow 
ThumbnailHarry Callahan - Lisa M. Robinson 
 
  
   Thematic Connections 
  
ThumbnailLight abstractions 
ThumbnailLooking up and down 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstraction of the real 
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstractions of scale 
ThumbnailAbstract: Light 
ThumbnailExperimental: Distortions 
ThumbnailExperimental: Double or multiple exposures 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Curves 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Diagonals from the lower left to the upper right 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Diagonals from the upper left to the lower right 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Grids 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Spirals 
ThumbnailExperimental: Solarizations 
ThumbnailExperimental: Viewpoint: Above 
ThumbnailExperimental: Viewpoint: Below 
ThumbnailMultiple portraits taken using mirrors 
ThumbnailPhotomontage: An illustrated history 
ThumbnailPortrait: Bust portraits 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailDecapitated heads 
ThumbnailMiss Houghton: Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye (1882) 
ThumbnailStamp portraits 
ThumbnailWorking with paper and card 
 
  
Refreshed: 28 September 2014, 05:58
 
  
 
  
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