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HomeContentsThemes > Experimental and manipulated photography

Curatorial and planning notes 
  
Manipulated photography includes any steps during the taking of the photograph through to the creation of the final image that alter the "truth" of the visible world. This might include the selection of capture methods (i.e. infrared) that alter the reality of the visual image prior to capture, through the handworking of negatives so common with Pictorial photography, hand-colouring or the post-processing of digital images in Lightroom, Photoshop or other software. It can include scratching negatives, writing on prints, collage, photomontage or the intentional, or unintentional, burning of prints.
 
This topic will include experimental photographic forms including:
  • Using living forms to create photographs. This technique uses specially created negatives and the sun or a suitable light and heat source to allow grass to grow at differential rates and thereby create pictures. (For example: Heather Ackroyd and Dan Harvey)
     
  • Printing photographs onto plants. (For example: Binh Danh)
 
  
Contents

Introduction
987.01   Manipulated photography
Composite and combination prints
987.02   Composite and combination prints: Defined
987.03   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph
Distortions
987.04   Louis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste
987.05   Introduction to distortions
987.06   Examples of distortions
Composite portraits
987.07   Composite and combination prints: Portraits
Cliché verre
987.08   Cliché verre
Painting on photographs
987.09   Introduction to painting on photographs
987.10   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists
987.11   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong
Photojournalism and painting on photographs
987.12   Press photographs with paint or instructions
Photograms
987.13   Photograms
Solarization
987.14   Introduction to solarization
987.15   Examples of solarization
987.16   Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations
Mordançage
987.17   Mordançage examples
Sculptural forms
987.18   Working with paper and card
Exaggeration photo postcards
987.19   Exaggeration postcards
987.20   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards
Polaroids
987.21   Ellen Carey: Pulls
Photographers
987.22   Man Ray: Solarized nudes
987.23   Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics
987.24   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955)
987.25   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography
987.26   Edmund Kesting: Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (1958)
987.27   Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
987.01   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Manipulated photography 
  
Manipulated photography is a large topic which the "Faking It: Manipulated Photography before Photoshop" exhibition curated by Mia Fineman at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (11 October 2012 - 27 January 2013) addressed with an accompanying well researched exibition catalogue. The exhibition is refreshing as it clearly demonstrated that photographers who claimed to be "straight photographers" such as Paul Strand, Ansel Adams and many others manipulated their negatives and photographs to obtain their desired goals.
 
Some of the techniques applied in the pre-digital era were:
  • Composite photographs where two or more negatives were used to construct a single photograph. 
      
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  • Composite portraits where two or more negatives to create a portrait designed to show the characteristics of a class of people. 
      
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  • Exaggeration postcards combined multiple images to create surreal images of American rural life. William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas became the most popular of these photographers although there were others including Henry M. Beach 
      
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  • Painted photographs where paints were blown onto the photograph or applied with a brush. 
      
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  • Backgrounds that provide an illusion of the location and/or activities of the sitter. 
      
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  • Foregrounds scenes placed in front of the sitter where the head is visible above the scene or through a hole or window. 
      
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  • Multiple exposures that were taken, deliberately or by accident, inside the camera or during the development process. 
      
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  • Appropriation where original photographs have been used by a later photographer for a different purpose. This can be with or without the consent of the original photographer and can be done as a twisting of genres or a commentary on the nature of art and photography.  
      
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  • Solarization is the deliberate or accidental intrusion of light into the darkroom during the development process. 
      
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  • Alteration of the final print this may occur when the photographer deliberately defaces or cuts the print to alter the visual message. 
      
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  • Distorting mirrors and lenses have been used by photographers including André Kertész, Bill Brandt and Weegee to flex their photographic visions. 
      
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Composite and combination prints 
  
987.02   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Composite and combination prints: Defined 
  
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Creating a Composite photograph (also called a combination print) means having one or more negatives that are then used to create a single print and the method for doing this was well known in the nineteenth century.[1] To accomplish a seamless whole requires careful planning and scrupulous attention to detail during the printing to get smooth transitions between the different parts of the image. Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884) used this technique for his seascapes so that both the sea and sky could be correctly exposed. Perhaps the most famous example of a composite photograph is the Two Ways of Life (1857) by the Swedish born photographer Oscar Rejlander who combined thirty negatives of figures and groups to create a single 16" x 31" image.
 
Photographers who made combination prints:
George N. Barnard[2]
Gustave Le Gray[3]
Oscar Rejlander[4]
Henry Peach Robinson[5]
The 1869 instructional classic by Henry Peach Robinson Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing includes a contemporary method for creating combination prints. 
  
987.03   Experimental and manipulated photography >  C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
  
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This rare carte de visite series shows photographer C.W. Applegreen preparing a composite photograph along with the fruit of his labour. 
  
Distortions 
  
987.04   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Louis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Louis Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920) known for his development of early colour process also expermented with a device for elongating and shortening the sitter creating effects similar to a fairground mirror. He named the device the "Transformiste" and it was illustrated in Walter E. Woodbury's> book Photographic Amusements (1905).[6] 
  
987.05   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Introduction to distortions 
  
The use of distorting mirrors and lenses creates elongated, squashed, stretched and crushed forms and this characterisic of fairground mirrors has been used by photographers to create unwordly forms and it is particularly suited to the taking of nudes.
Berenice Abbott is best known for her photographs of New York but she was also interested in scientific photography and patented the 'Distortion Easel'[7][8] that was a device for controlling angles and levels of distortion that could be used for photography. Her patent, filed in 1948, described the easel as follows:
The present invention is of particular application in the production of distorted photographic prints wherein an artistic result is specially had by the selective exaggeration and diminution of certain features of the subject. For example, the easel of the present invention may be conveniently employed to produce caricatured portraits, surrealist scenes, and other novel pictures the artistic merit of which resides in the essential unnaturalness of the reproduction of the subject.[9]

 
André Kertész in 1933 produced a remarkable series of photographs called 'Distortions' (published in 1976[10]) in which mirrors were used to distort nudes into bizarre abstractions.  
  
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Weegee is remembered for his night shots of New York city crime scenes but he also shot distortions[11] including a series in Paris with a twisted out of shape Eiffel Tower.  
  
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987.06   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Examples of distortions 
  
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At various times photographers have experimented with placing some form of distorting device between the camera lens and the subject of the photograph. André Kertész[12] using a distorting mirror of the type found in a fairground whilst Weegee[13] used a plastic lens. 
  
   Abstraction distortions 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Composite portraits 
  
987.07   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Composite and combination prints: Portraits 
  
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The use of composite photographs has been employed in portraiture to combine groups of multiple individuals into a single image intended to capture the characteristics of the group as a whole.
 
Francis Galton (1822-1922), a Victorian polymath and founder of eugenics, used composites and described them in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty (1883) as follows:
The accompanying woodcut is as fair a representation of one of the composites as is practicable in ordinary printing. It was photographically transferred to the wood, and the engraver has used his best endeavour to translate the shades into line engraving. This composite is made out of only three components, and its threefold origin is to be traced In the ears, and in the buttons to the vest. To the best of my judgment, the original photograph is a very exact average of its components; not one feature in it appears identical with that of any one of them, but it contains a resemblance to all, and is not more like to one of them than to another. However, the judgment of the wood engraver is different. His rendering of the composite has made it exactly like one of its components, which it must be borne in mind he had never seen. It is just as though an artist drawing a child had produced a portrait closely resembling its deceased father, having overlooked an equally strong likeness to its deceased mother, which was apparent to its relatives. This is to me a most striking proof that the composite is a true combination. [14]
Five years later a communication from Francis Galton was published in The Photographic News:
"I receive from time to time beautiful composite photographs made in America, and have not unfrequently received letters asking about possible or actual improvements in the process. In reply, I should like to be permitted the use of your columns to make a few remarks on the subject.
 
"A composite portrait is not the means of its components, but an aggregate of it, which is reduced in intensity of tint to that of one of the components. If it were a mean, its outlines would be sharp, but being an aggregate; they are not, only those shades or lines that are common to all the components are as intense, or as well defined, as they would be in an ordinary portrait, while ghosts and shades of other lines are distributed variously about. These ghosts are often too conspicuous. Those that affect the [natures?] are especially due either to differences in the relative breadth and width of the component faces, or to a want of symmetry in some of them which causes the straight line that passes as nearly as maybe along the eyebrows to be inclined to that which passes between the lips in the composites I have thus far made, I have merely attended to keeping the vertical distance between the eyes and the parting of the lips at exactly the same length in all cases, and to making the best fit of the remainder that each case severally admitted. It strikes me now that it would be well worth while to vary the whole procedure by attempting to approximate to a mean result, and in the following way. First, find by measuring the portraits about to be combined, the proportion that the distance between the pupils bears on the average of all of them to the vertical distance between the pupils of the eyes and the parting of the lips; then optically transform every component portrait into that same average proportion. Secondly, straighten every face that asymmetrical in the way above described, into a symmetrical one. Lastly, make the composite from the transformed portraits.
 
"I suspect that a pinhole camera would be found perfectly suitable for effecting these transformations, if the component portraits were not too small. A portrait of sufficient size could, by a single operation, be reduced by its means to any desired scale, both in breadth and in width, independently of each other, namely, by the ingenious device I saw lately in your columns, but cannot specify where, of replacing the pinhole by a vertical slit in one movable diaphragm, and an horizontal slit in another. The asymmetry could at the same time be remedied by so inclining the portrait to the optical axis of the camera as to foreshorten the side that was too long. Foreshortening is accompanied by no blur or image in a pinhole camera.
 
"The sliding adjustments of the camera would have to be graduated, and each portrait measured carefully by laying a glass scale upon it, and using a low power lens. After this had been done, a table calculated once for all for the camera would tell at what graduations of distance and of inclination the portrait should be set, in order to obtain the desired result.
 
"The transformations I propose are small in amount. They are always made, and we unconsciously witness them, whenever the person at whom we are looking holds his face a little inclined from full-face view. But, small as they are, I think they are worth making. I have not now got my photographic things in working order, and am busied in other ways, so I speak for the most part theoretically; but not wholly so, as I have made some optical experiments which corroborate, so far as they go, the feasibility and advantage of what has just been said."[15]
In Walter E. Woodbury's 1905 book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera he includes a plate by Prof. Bowditch showing Twelve Boston Physicians and their Composite Portrait. The Composite in the Centre[16] illustrating a practical use of the process and at the same time the possibility for gentle amusement. Lewis Hine, well known for the child labour photographs he took for the NCLC (National Child Labor Committee)[17], also made composites of cotton mill children.[18]
 
Periodically this technique is "rediscovered" and examples can be seen in the work of Nancy Burson, Philippe Halsman and Ken Kitano. With digital processing it has become easier and now many thousands of portraits can be combined to create a single composite
  
Cliché verre 
  
987.08   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Cliché verre 
  
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Cliché-verre[19] [Fr.] literally translated means "glass picture' and is a technique that combines art and photography and was used mainly by French artists including Jean Baptiste Corot, Jean François Millet, and Charles François Daubigny. It was normally done by using a smoking candle to coat a glass plate with soot. The desired picture was then drawn with a sharp instrument directly into the blackened surface and the resulting plate was used as a photographic negative and contact printed. Although mainly used in the 1860s the cliché verre technique has also be used by György Kepes[20] and Abelardo Morell.[21] 
  
Painting on photographs 
  
987.09   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Introduction to painting on photographs 
  
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From the earliest days of photography with daguerreotypes and salt prints artists have used them either as the basis for works of art or have painted directly on them using a vast range of techniques and specialized equipment including air brushes and retouching, colouring and painting kits[22] 
  
987.10   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
  
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From as early as the eighth century woodblock-printed works were seen in Japan. Although initially the technique was used for texts and religious works by the sixteenth century moveable type was being used. Gaining popularity with artists the technique expanded and individual prints became available. With the popularity for prints there became a need for artists who could paint them or had the skills to use multiple woodblocks for different colours. As photography became available within Japan, predominantly with foreign photographers such as Felice Beato[23] and Baron Raimund von Stillfried, most of the prints through the second half of the nineteenth century had the brownish tones of the albumen print. Their skills with woodblock prints were perfect for painting photographs and some of the finest photographs of this type came from Japan
  
987.11   Experimental and manipulated photography >  John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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John Thomson in his travel volume Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented (1873-1874) gives an account of a Chinese artist who was highly skilled in painting on photographs and creating artwork of an enlarged size based on a photograph:
A Hong-Kong Artist
 
Lumqua was a Chinese pupil of Chinnery, a noted foreign artist, who died at Macao in 1852. Lumqua produced a number of excellent works in oil, which are still copied by the painters in Hong-Kong and Canton. Had he lived in any other country he would have been the founder of a school of painting. In China his followers have failed to grasp the spirit of his art. They drudge with imitative servile toil, copying Lumqua's or Chinnery's pieces, or anything, no matter what, just because it has been finished and paid for within a given time, and at so much a square foot. There are a number of painters established in Hong-Kong, but they all do the same class of work, and have about the same tariff of prices, regulated according to the dimensions of the canvas. The occupation of these limners consists mainly of making enlarged copies of photographs. Each house employs a touter, who scours the shipping in the harbour with samples of the work, and finds many ready customers among the foreign sailors. These bargain to have Mary or Susan painted on as large a scale and at as small a price as possible, the work to be delivered framed and ready for sea probably within twenty-four hours. The painters divide their labour on the following plan. The apprentice confines himself to bodies and hands, while the master executes the physiognomy, and thus the work is got through with wonderful speed. Attractive colours are freely used; so that Jack's fair ideal appears at times in a sky-blue dress, over which a massive gold chain and other articles of jewellery are liberally hung. These pictures would be fair works of art were the drawing good, and the brilliant colours properly arranged; but all the distortions of the badly taken photographs are faithfully reproduced on an enlarged scale. The best works these painters do are pictures of native and foreign ships, which are wonderfully drawn. To enlarge a picture they draw squares over their canvas corresponding to the smaller squares into which they divide the picture to be copied. The miniature painters in Hong-Kong and Canton do some work on ivory that is as fine as the best ivory painting to be found among the natives of India, and fit to bear comparison with the old miniature painting of our own country, which photography has, now-a-days, in great measure superseded.[24]
 
  
Photojournalism and painting on photographs 
  
987.12   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Press photographs with paint or instructions 
  
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In the pre-digital newsroom when physical prints landed infront of picture editors they were marked up with instructions and the areas not required painted out with white paint prior to going to press. The approach varied with simple outlining and airbrushing of areas not required. [25] 
  
Photograms 
  
987.13   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Photograms 
  
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Photograms are cameraless photographs made by placing objects on a sensitized surface, usually paper but not always, and then exposing it to light. These are the simplest of photographic images not requiring a lens and Henry Fox Talbot used this technique for his photogenic drawings[26], Anna Atkins[27] for her Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) and her Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854).
 
Anna K. Weaver made intricate designs of leaves and ferns to construct mottoes such as "God bless our Home", "Home, Sweet Home", "I know that my Redeemer liveth", "The Lord is my Shepherd", and "The Lord will provide" - seemingly he did as she used the funds raised by selling her photograms to support her work for the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society in Bogota.[28]
 
The use of photograms has gone through periods of dormancy and creativity. In the 1920s and 30s Christian Schad (1894-1982), Man Ray[29] and László Moholy-Nagy[30] all made photograms that experimented with light, shade and at times abstraction to stretch the boundaries of what was photography.
 
Within contemporary photography. where all forms are explored the photogram has emerged again, Australian photographer Harry Hankin has imaginatively explored the natural world with long night exposures for his series Contact (2003-4) and Rain. Adam Fuss[31] and Floris M. Neusüss[32] have also made photograms
  
Solarization 
  
987.14   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Introduction to solarization 
  
The accidental rediscovery of solarization by Man Ray and his model and lover Lee Miller was a process that the Dadaists and Surrealists loved. They appreciated the fact that a new process could be found by the chance encounter of a foot with a mouse in the darkroom meaning light was urgently required and that the flash of light could convert the commonplace print into a new form of mysterious reality.
 
Solarization, the term Man Ray proposed, has nothing to do with the sun rather it is the 'Sabattier effect' (named after the French scientist Armand Sabattier who discovered it in 1862) that creates an image that is part negative and part positive and is created by exposing the print to light part way through the darkroom development process. The level of solarization is dependent upon the stage of development, the level of light the partially developed print is exposed to, and the amount of time it is exposed. 
  
987.15   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Examples of solarization 
  
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Man Ray, Josef Ehm, Lloyd Ullberg and Tom Baril. Ilse Bing, Maurice Tabard, and proponents of the very active Czech avant-garde movement of the 1920's including Jaroslav Rössler (1902-1990) experimented with solarization
  
   Abstraction solarization 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
987.16   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Edmund Teske (1911-1996) was born too late to be involved in the flowering of the avant-garde but through his interests in music and Vedanta, the study of the Hindu Vedas, he developed a philosophical framework that blended into his photography. The constructs of time and space and their malleability could be expressed through alterations in photographic processes. The use of composite prints, where multiple negatives are combined to create a single image, was the photographic equivalent of merging space and time. To this he added what has been referred to as 'duotone solarization' - where the final image has both black and white and brown and white solarized effects. His expertise in this process created images that subvert nature to create unnatural and yet beautiful photographs out of the mundane to empower them with emotional and almost sacred meanings. 
  
Mordançage 
  
987.17   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Mordançage examples 
  
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Mordançage, practiced by only a few artists, is a process whereby the artist strips away the darkest parts of the emulsion of a silver gelatin print. The stripping away of the emulsion is the most important stage of the process - the image transformation, creating a relief, or a raised area on the print. Water is used to float the delicate silver emulsion on the image so as to rearrange it and dry it back down on to the print. The end result is a one of a kind and unique photographic image. It is in the laying back down of the photograph’s emulsion where Elizabeth Opalenik has made her trademark. She reconfigures the emulsion as a drapery, much in harmony with her own style of photographing dancers, nudes and elegant still life.
"What takes time to create, time respects….some of these images with the draping may take hours to complete and then only after a few weeks of failure to get one that I love. Often I am working with a hypodermic needle to punch little release holes in the big bubbles of water where the silver has lifted in the shadows. Today’s emulsion is so fragile, most of it floats down the drain, and I am unable to save it. Failures are high. Often I arrange the emulsion by using drops of water to put it in place to dry it back down on the paper."
[Courtesy of Verve Gallery of Photography] 
  
Sculptural forms 
  
987.18   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Working with paper and card 
  
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A subset of abstraction is the use of paper and card to create three-dimensional sculptural forms which are then lit and photographed. In 1920 Man Ray photographed a twisted paper form that has a simplicity but also implied movement within the frame that belies the title Lampshade.[33] Around the same time Man Ray was experimenting with photograms and placing materials directly on the printing paper in the dark room to create shapes.[34]  
  
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In the 1920s Manuel Álvarez Bravo created a series "Paper games" which used shades and shapes to highlight geometrical forms of pyramids and spirals.  
  
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Walter Bischof experimented with positive and negative forms of paper sculptures in 1938.  
  
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Frederick Sommer used large sheets of a thick brown wrapping paper and cut them in highly intricate patterns. By hanging these vertically and rolling some of the elements and lifting other parts from the surface intriguing shapes emerge.[35]  
  
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Paper cut constructions like these are abstract and as such any meaning is subjective and open to interpretation. 
  
Exaggeration photo postcards 
  
987.19   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Exaggeration postcards 
  
In the USA between 1905 and 1915 there was a popular craze for exaggeration, "tall-tale" or "freak" postcards[36] that used photomontage to highlight the wonders of the American West. William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas became the most popular of these photographers because of his wit and the wide variety of the subjects he chose to include. In his fictional world farmers sit astride corn cobs the size of buses, drive cars laden with vast onions and potatoes to market and chase rabbits the size of sedans.
 
Other photographers including H.M. Brown (Gilmer Valley, Washinton), Wolfe Photo (Burlington, Washington), O. T. Frasch (Seattle, Washington)[37], Henry M. Beach[38] (upstate New York), F.D. Conrad (Garden City, Kansas), Edward H. Mitchell, Alfred Stanley Johnson, Jr. and others made exaggeration photo postcards during their most popular era in the USA which was 1905-1920. 
  
987.20   Experimental and manipulated photography >  William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas (USA) was the creator of a number of exaggeration photo postcards[39] between 1908 and 1911 that showed the most extreme aspects of mid-western life. By the use of photomontage he juxtaposed agricultural products, objects and people to amuse the consumer. These cards are also called "tall-tale" or "freak" postcards.[40] 
  
Polaroids 
  
987.21   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Ellen Carey: Pulls 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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A 2007 press release from the JHB Gallery provides a context for the worl of Ellen Carey:
Carey creates images that are one-of-a-kind using the Polaroid one-step, peel away process that develops in a mere 60 seconds. It produces a positive along with its negative, Carey shows both, making pictures that are simultaneously photographic and abstract. These artworks she calls "Pulls", her term since 1996 upon its discovery, echoes the physical activity of making these pictures,
 
The "Pulls" are boldly displayed as color positive prints. Carey’s signature conical looping shapes, reminiscent of moiré patterns, wood grain or photographic Newton rings are seen with their opposites, the negatives or "shadows". Both prints contain rich surfaces. The negatives dry and their patina results from this change. As photographic objects they serve as symbols of their former selves, a "memento mori". Carey signals Talbot’s paper negative (1834) at the dawn of photography and the negative/positive axis that is photography’s foundation. Equal status is given to both prints (the Polaroid negative is usually discarded) and the artist acknowledges this history, underscoring its importance by tacking the "Pulls" to the wall with pushpins. Her installations are visually rich, a visceral experience of synoptic clarity and "in situ" presentation direct from the artist’s hand and the Polaroid studio.[41]
 
  
Photographers 
  
987.22   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Man Ray: Solarized nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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During the winter of 1929-1930 one of those accidental discoveries happened in Man Ray's studio in Paris. Man Ray's assistant was the beautiful American model Lee Miller who would go on to become master photojournalist in her own right. In an interview with Mario Amaya published in 1975 she said:
Something crawled across my foot in the darkroom and I let out a yell and turned on the light. I never did find out what it was, a mouse or what. Then I quickly realized that the film was totally exposed: there in the development tanks, ready to be taken out, were a dozen practically fully-developed negatives of a nude against a black background. Man Ray grabbed them, put them in the hypo and looked at them later. He didn't even bother to bawl me out, since I was so sunk. When he looked at them, the unexposed parts of the negative, which had been the black background, had been exposed by this sharp light that had been turned on and they had developed, and came right up to the edge of the white, nude body. But the background and the image couldn't heal together, so there was a line left which he called a `solarization.'[42]
This "mouse incident" has come to be accepted truth although in a far earlier piece in the magazine Lilliput in 1941 she said it was due to a faulty lighting connection that had exposed the film part way through the development process.[43]
 
Whatever the truth the significance was in Man Ray's realization that this was not a disaster but an additional creative process. The alteration of the real, partly achieved through black and white photographs of colour subjects, could be pushed far further using solarization. Here the unusual toning appeared to reveal disjoined psychological states and this accidental discovery was embraced by Surrealists including Maurice Tabard.[44] 
  
987.23   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
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Within the photographic works of Lotte Jacobi[45] from 1946 there are a number of abstract black and white cameraless images that she termed "photogenics"[46]. The images were created in the darkroom with the aid of a defused flashlight painting with light directly on the photographic paper. 
  
987.24   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Berlin-born Heinz Hajek-Halke (1898-1983) was a German press photographer, photo-editor, teacher and master of abstract techniques and montage. In the late 1940's he was a member of the Fotoform group, and later taught photography and graphic design at the Berliner Hochschule für Bildende Künste (Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin). His book Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955)[47] showed his pioneering experimental work and is receiving renewed attention.[48] 
  
987.25   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Berlin-born Heinz Hajek-Halke (1898-1983) was a German press photographer, photo-editor, teacher and master of abstract techniques and montage. In the late 1940's he was a member of the Fotoform group, and later taught photography and graphic design at the Berliner Hochschule für Bildende Künste (Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin). His book Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955)[49] showed his pioneering experimental work and is receiving renewed attention.[50] 
  
987.26   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Edmund Kesting: Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (1958) 
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Edmund Kesting Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (Halle: Fotokino, 1958). First edition. 4to. 47 pages of text with some in-text b/w drawings followed by 100 pages of b/w reproductions of photographs. Gray cloth with Kesting's signature stamped in blue on cover, blue lettering on spine in original pictorial dust jacket. Dj designed by artist. Color frontispiece of the Dresdner Frauenkirche after a painting by Kesting. In the early 1920's German photographer, painter & graphic designer Edmund Kesting (1892-1970) was closely involved with the artistic avant-garde. After 1925 he became well-known for his experimental photography, especially his masterful work in photomontage of which many examples are shown in this publication. Includes contributions by Hans Havemann, Edmund Kesting and Prof. Dr. Will Grohmann. 
  
987.27   Experimental and manipulated photography >  Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage 
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Accounts of composite printing in the nineteenth and early twentieth century include:
    1869 - H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter)
     
    1870 - 1870, "Combination printing", The Popular Science Review (London), vol. IX, p. 326
     
    1879 - Described in a speech by John Bole O'Reilly - James Jeffrey Roche & Mary Murphy O'Reilly, 1891, Life of John Boyle O'Reilly ... Together with His Complete Poems and Speeches, (Cassell), pp. 195-196
     
    1883 - Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344
     
    1888 - April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237
     
    1905 - Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1
    There are no doubt numerous other sources and some of the most notable examples by Alexander Gardner and Camille Silvy were made before these texts were published. 
      
  2. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  3. Λ Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884, (Paris, BnF / Gallimard) [Exhibition, Paris, Bibliothčque nationale de France, 19 March - 16 June 2002]; Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820–1884, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); Lisa Barro & Nora W. Kennedy, 2005, ‘Gustave Le Gray's Salted Paper Prints‘, in Pre-Prints of the 14th Triennial Meeting Amsterdam, ICOM Committee for Conservation, pp. 533–540; Eugenia Parry Janis, 1987, The Photography of Gustave Le Gray, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press) 
      
  4. Λ Peter C. Bunnell, 1979, The Photography of O. G. Rejlander: Two Selections, (New York: Arno); Edgar Yoxall Jones, 1973, Father of Art Photography: O. G. Rejlander, 1813-1875, (London: David and Charles); Stephanie Spencer, 1984, ‘O. G. Rejlander's Photographs of Street Urchins‘, Oxford Art Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 17-24; Stephanie Spencer, 1985, O. G. Rejlander: Photography as Art, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press) 
      
  5. Λ H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter) [British editions: 1869, 1879, 1881, 1893.; American: 1881, 1892; French: 1885; German:1886. Reprinted with an introduction by Robert A. Sobieszek (Pawley: Helios, 1971) 
      
  6. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association) 
      
  7. Λ In 1947 Berenice Abbott opened her "House of Photography" which sold her inventions including the "Distortion Easel".
    www.nypl.org/sites/default/files/archivalcollections/pdf/abbottb.pdf 
      
  8. Λ In the The Audrey and Sydney Irmas Collection (AC1992.197.114) at LACMA (Los Angeles County Museum of Art) there is a 1937 self-portrait of Arthur Siegel taken with Berenice Abbott’s Distortion Easel. See - Robert Sobieszek and Deborah Irmas, 1994, the camera i: Photographic Self-Portraits from the Audrey and Sydney Irmas Collection, (Los Angeles: The Los Angeles County Museum of Art and Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers) 
      
  9. Λ As Berenice Abbott claimed in her Patent Application (US2565446 A - Filed: 10 March 1948, Published: 21 August 1951) 
      
  10. Λ André Kertész, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chęne) 
      
  11. Λ Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House); Weegee, 1964, Weegee's Creative Photography, (Ward, Lock & Co.) 
      
  12. Λ André Kertész, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chęne) 
      
  13. Λ Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House); Weegee, 1964, Weegee's Creative Photography, (Ward, Lock & Co.) 
      
  14. Λ Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344 
      
  15. Λ April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237 
      
  16. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1 
      
  17. Λ For the context of Lewis Hine's work with the NCLC there are multiple studies including - Judith Mara Gutman, 1967, Lewis W. Hine and the American Social Conscience, (New York: Walker); Walter Rosenblum et al., 1977, America and Lewis Hine: Photographs, 1904–1940, (New York: Aperture); Daile Kaplan (ed.), 1992, Photo Story: Selected Letters and Photographs of Lewis Hine, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Alison Nordström & Elizabeth McCausland, 2012, Lewis Hine, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) 
      
  18. Λ For examples by Lewis Hine - "Composite photograph of child laborers made from cotton mill children" see the Library of Congress examples of his 1913 NCLC - National Child Labor Committee composites:
     
    Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02737 (color digital file from b&w original print) LC-USZ62-107782 (b&w film copy negative)
    Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02738 (color digital file from b&w original print) 
      
  19. Λ Elizabeth Glassman & Marilyn F. Symmes, 1980, Cliché-verre: Hand-Drawn, Light-Printed: A Survey of the Medium from 1839 to the Present, (Detroit: The Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  20. Λ G. Kepes, et al., 1995, Language of Vision: Fundamentals of Bauhaus Design, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications) [Reprint]; Gyorgy Kepes, 1984, Light Graphics, (New York: International Center of Photography) isbn-10: 0933642059 isbn-13: 978-0933642058 [Exhibition catalogue]; Gyorgy Kepes, & Marjorie Supovitz (ed.), 1978, Gyorgy Kepes: The MIT Years 1945-1977, (The MIT Press) 
      
  21. Λ Abelardo Morell: Cliché-verres - www.abelardomorell.net/posts/cliche-verres/ 
      
  22. Λ An indication of the commercial potential of tinting and painting early photographs is provided by the taking out of patents to ensure protection over the processes involved. Early examples include:
    "To Richard Beard, of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses and representations of nature, and of other objects, being a communication. [Sealed 10th March, 1842.]", The London Journal and Repository of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, Conjoined Series, no. CXXXII, Recent Patents, 1843, pp. 358-360.
     
    "22. For an Improvement in Coloring Daguerreotype Plates, by fixing the Colors thereon; Frederick Langenheim, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 30." American Patents, Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, and American Repository, February, 1847, p. 105. Patent was issued in January, 1846.
     
      
  23. Λ Felice Beato is one of the most interesting peripatetic photographers of the nineteenth century - Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); John Clark, John Fraser & Colin Osman, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) 
      
  24. Λ John Thomson, 1873-1874, Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented, 4 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston Low, and Searle, 1873 [vols. 1 and 2] and 1874 [vols. 3 and 4]) 
      
  25. Λ Stanley Burns, 2008, Newsart: The Manipulated Photographs from the Burns Archive, (powerHouse Books / Burns Press) 
      
  26. Λ Henry Fox Talbot, 1839, Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing or the Process by Which Natural Objects May be Made to Delineate Themselves Without the Aid of the Artist’s Pencil, (London: London: R. and J. E. Taylor); Henry Fox Talbot, 1839, 9 February, ‘Photogenic Drawing. Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing, or the Process by which Natural Objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the Artist's Pencil‘, The Athenaeum, no. 589, pp. 114-117 
      
  27. Λ For Anna Atkins her books of cyanotypes include - Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication]; Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication). For a scholarly analysis - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  28. Λ A contemporary account of the photogenic drawings of Anna K. Weaver is included in "Fern Leaf Mottoes", October 1875, Woman's Work for Woman, vol. V, no. 8, pp. 270-271. 
      
  29. Λ Man Ray, 1963, Exhibition Rayographs 1921-1928, (Stuttgart: L.G.A.) ; Man Ray, 1934, Man Ray: Photographs 1920-1934, Paris, (Hartford: James Thall Soby) 
      
  30. Λ László Moholy-Nagy, 1925, Malerei, Photographie, Film, Bauhausbook 8, (Munich: Albert Langen Verlag), [Painting, Photography, Film]; Renate & Floris M. Neusüss (eds.), 2009, Moholy-Nagy: The Photograms: Catalogue Raisonné, (Hatje Cantz) 
      
  31. Λ Eugenia Parry, 1997, Adam Fuss, (Santa Fe: Arena Editions) 
      
  32. Λ T.O. Immisch (ed.), 2001, Floris Neususs Körperbilder: Fotogramme der sechziger Jahre, (Stiftung Moritzburg) 
      
  33. Λ Man Ray, "Lampshade", 1920, Real photo postcard, 5 1/4 x 3 1/2 ins (13.3 x 8.9 cm), Swann Galleries - New York, Fine Photographs, 26 February 2013, Lot 34 
      
  34. Λ Man Ray, 1963, Exhibition Rayographs 1921-1928, (Stuttgart: L.G.A.); A portfolio of 12 of his rayograms was published in Les champs délicieux (The delicious fields) in 1922. 
      
  35. Λ Frederick Sommer, 1962, Frederick Sommer 1939-1962 Photographs, (New York: Aperture); Frederick Sommer, 1980, Frederick Sommer at Seventy-Five, (Long Beach: The Art Museum and Galleries, California State University); Frederick Sommer, 2005, The Art of Frederick Sommer: Photography, Drawing, Collage, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) 
      
  36. Λ Clément Chéroux & Ute Eskildsen, 2008, The Stamp of Fantasy: The Visual Inventiveness of Photographic Postcards, (Steidl); Alain Weill, 2011, Tall-Tale Postcards: Early Twentieth Century American Photomontages of the Unexpected, (Gourcuff Gradenigo); Hal Morgan. 1981, Big Time: American Tall-Tale Postcards, (New York: St. Martin's Press); Cynthia Elyce Rubin and Morgan Williams, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915 (New York: Abbeville Press); Roger L. Welsch. 1976, Tall-Tale Postcards: A Pictorial History, (New York: A.S. Barnes and Company) 
      
  37. Λ E. Morgan Williams Collection of exaggerated postcards
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013)
    www.fruitfromwashington.com/Varieties/art/williams_cards.htm 
      
  38. Λ Robert Bogdan, 2003, Adirondack Vernacular: The Photography of Henry M. Beach, (Syracuse University Press) 
      
  39. Λ Clément Chéroux & Ute Eskildsen, 2008, The Stamp of Fantasy: The Visual Inventiveness of Photographic Postcards, (Steidl); Alain Weill, 2011, Tall-Tale Postcards: Early Twentieth Century American Photomontages of the Unexpected, (Gourcuff Gradenigo); Hal Morgan. 1981, Big Time: American Tall-Tale Postcards, (New York: St. Martin's Press); Cynthia Elyce Rubin and Morgan Williams, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915 (New York: Abbeville Press); Roger L. Welsch. 1976, Tall-Tale Postcards: A Pictorial History, (New York: A.S. Barnes and Company) 
      
  40. Λ "Tall Tale Postcards: Storytelloing through the mail - A virtual exhibit", Michigan State University Museum
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013)
    museum.msu.edu/museum/tes/talltale/ 
      
  41. Λ Press release, 2007, "Ellen Carey: Polaroid Pulls & Shadows", JHB Gallery, New York. 
      
  42. Λ Lee Miller quoted in M. Amaya, (May/June 1975, Art in America,vol. 63, p. 54. 
      
  43. Λ Lee Miller, 1941, Lilliput, vol. 9, pp. 315-324 
      
  44. Λ Later when Maurice Tabard described the process he thanked Man Ray - Maurice Tabard, 15 November 1933), Arts et Metiers Graphiques, No. 38, pp. 30-33. 
      
  45. Λ Kelly Wise, 1978, Lotte Jacobi, (Danbury: Addison House); James A. Fasanelli, 1979, Lotte Jacobi: Photographs by Lotte Jacobi, (Matrix Pubns); Peter A. Moriarty, 2002, Lotte Jacobi: Photographs, (David R Godine / Pocket Paragon) 
      
  46. Λ Lotte Jacobi, 1978, Portraits & Photogenics, (University of Maryland, Baltimore County Library) 
      
  47. Λ Heinz Hajek-Halke, 1955, Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (Bonn: Athenäum Verlag) 
      
  48. Λ Books on the experimental photographs of Heinz Hajek-Halke - Heinz Hajek-Halke, 2005, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Form aus Licht und Schatten, Vol. I, (Göttingen); Michael Ruetz; Isabel Siben & Astrid Köppe (eds.), 2008, Phantasie und Traum. Das lichtgraphische Spätwerk von Heinz Hajek-Halke, (Munich) 
      
  49. Λ Heinz Hajek-Halke, 1955, Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (Bonn: Athenäum Verlag) 
      
  50. Λ Books on the experimental photographs of Heinz Hajek-Halke - Heinz Hajek-Halke, 2005, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Form aus Licht und Schatten, Vol. I, (Göttingen); Michael Ruetz; Isabel Siben & Astrid Köppe (eds.), 2008, Phantasie und Traum. Das lichtgraphische Spätwerk von Heinz Hajek-Halke, (Munich) 
      

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General reading 
  
Caws, Mary Ann (ed.), 2011, Surrealism, (Phaidon) isbn-13: 978-0714856735 [Δ
  
Fineman, Mia, 2012, Faking it: Manipulated photography before Photoshop, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art) isbn-10: 0300185014 isbn-13: 978-0300185010 [Distributed by Yale University Press] [Δ
  
Hirsch, Robert, 2014, Transformational Imagemaking: Handmade Photography since 1960, (Focal Press) isbn-10: 0415810264 isbn-13: 978-0415810265 [Δ
  
Rexer, Lyle, 2009, The Edge of Vision: The Rise of Abstraction in Photography, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597111007 isbn-13: 978-1597111003 [Δ
  
Whiting, Arthur, n.d.‘Handwork on Negatives‘, The Photo-Miniature: A Magazine of Photographic Information, vol. X, no. 116, pp. 353-387 [Δ
  
Woodbury, Walter E., 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Bill Brandt 
  
Brandt, Bill, 1961, Perspective of Nudes, (London: The Bodley Head) [Δ
  
Jaromír Funke 
  
Dufek, Antonín, 1997, Jaromír Funke. Prukopník fotografické avantgardy, (Brno) isbn-10: 8070270616 [Δ
  
Dufek, Antonín, 2004, Jaromír Funke, (Torst) [Δ
  
Moucha, Josef, 2004, Summer, ‘A flash of avant-garde, or Jaromír Funke‘, Imago, no. 18 [Δ
  
Pastor, Suzanne E. & Dufek, Antonín, 1995, Jaromír Funke - fotografie 1919-1943 - veci sklenené a obycejné,, (Prague: Pražský dum fotografie) [Δ
  
Heinz Hajek-Halke 
  
Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 1955, Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik, (Bonn: Athenäum Verlag) [Δ
  
Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 1978, Heinz Hajek-Halke Fotografie Foto-Grafik Licht-Grafik, (Galerie Werner Kunze) [Δ
  
Pasquer, Priska & Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 2008, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Artist, Anarchist, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865211348 isbn-13: 978-3865211347 [Δ
  
John Heartfield 
  
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1929, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, (Berlin: Neuer Deutscher Verlag) [Δ
  
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1929, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, (Berlin: Universum-Bücherei für Alle) [Δ
  
Zervigon, Andres Mario, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226981770 isbn-13: 978-0226981772 [Δ
  
André Kertész 
  
Kertész, André, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chęne) [Δ
  
Edmund Kesting 
  
Kesting, Edmund, 1958, Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv, (Halle: Fotokino) [Δ
  
Chris McCaw 
  
McCaw, Chris, 2012, Sunburn, (Candela Books) isbn-10: 0984573925 isbn-13: 978-0984573929 [Δ
  
László Moholy-Nagy 
  
Heyne, Renate & Neusüss, Floris M. (eds.), 2009, Moholy-Nagy: The Photograms: Catalogue Raisonné, (Hatje Cantz) isbn-13: 978-3775723411 [Δ
  
Heyne,Renate; Moholy-Nagy, László; Molderings, Herbert & Neusüss, Floris M., 1997, László Moholy-Nagy. Fotogramas 1922-1943, (Barcelona: Fundació Antoni Tŕpies) [In Spanish] [Δ
  
Moholy-Nagy, László, 2011, Laboratory of Vision: Photographs by Moholy-Nagy, (Kokushokankokai) [Δ
  
Floris M. Neusüss 
  
Immisch, T.O. (ed.), 2001, Floris Neususs Körperbilder: Fotogramme der sechziger Jahre, (Stiftung Moritzburg) isbn-10: 3861050927 isbn-13: 978-3861050926 [Δ
  
Elizabeth Opalenik 
  
Opalenik, Elizabeth, 2007, Poetic Grace: Photographs 1979-2007, (OPA Editions) isbn-10: 1424341884 isbn-13: 978-1424341887 [Δ
  
Roger M. Parry 
  
Fargue, Leon-Paul, 1930, Banalités, (Librairie Gallimand) [Photographs by Roger Parry] [Δ
  
Jean-Pierre Sudre 
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre, n.d.Argentine [50 copies] [Δ
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre, n.d.Diamantine [30 copies] [Δ
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre, 1983, Jean-Pierre Sudre, (Arles, Musée Réattu) [Δ
  
Sudre, Jean-Pierre & Gautrand, Jean-Claude, 2003, Jean-Pierre Sudre, ouvrage collectif, (Éditions Actes Sud) isbn-13: 978-2742743940 [Δ
  
Maurice Tabard 
  
Baqué, Dominique, 1991, Maurice Tabard, (Belfond) isbn-10: 2714427448 isbn-13: 978-2714427441 [Δ
  
Rosalind, Pierre; Gassmann,Caroline & Elissagaray, Krauss, 1987, Maurice Tabard, (Paris: Contrejour) isbn-10: 2859490663 isbn-13: 978-2859490669 [Δ
  
Weegee 
  
Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House) [Δ
  
Weegee, 1964, Weegee's Creative Photography, (Ward, Lock & Co.) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Peter Beard  (1938-) • Hans Bellmer  (1902-1975) • Bill Brandt  (1904-1983) • Vladimir Brylyakov  (1958-) • Ellen Carey  (1952-) • Roger Catherineau  (1925-1962) • Carl Chiarenza  (1935-) • Julien Coulommier  (1922-) • Xavier Damon  (1969-) • Thomas Demand  (1964-) • Joan Fontcuberta  (1955-) • Benno Friedman  (1945-) • Jack Fulton  (1939-) • Adam Fuss  (1961-) • Paolo Gioli  (1942-) • Judith Golden  (1934-) • Ernst Haas  (1921-1986) • Heinz Hajek-Halke  (1898-1983) • John Heartfield  (1891-1968) • Florence Henri  (check) • Dennis Hopper  (1936-2010) • Lotte Jacobi  (1896-1990) • André Kertész  (1894-1985) • Astrid Klein • Man Ray  (1890-1976) • Chris McCaw  (1971-) • Jerry McMillan • László Moholy-Nagy  (check) • Jean Moral  (1906-1999) • Floris M. Neusüss  (1937-) • Pavel Odvody  (1953-) • Roger M. Parry  (1905-1977) • Arnulf Rainer  (1929-) • Alexander Rodchenko  (1891-1956) • Franz Roh  (1890-1965) • Jaroslav Rössler  (1902-1990) • Lucas Samaras  (1936-) • Werner Schnelle  (1942-) • Victor Schrager  (1950-) • Aaron Siskind  (1903-1991) • Frederick Sommer  (1905-1999) • Paul Strand  (1890-1976) • Maurice Tabard  (1897-1984) • Arthur Tress  (1940-) • Deborah Turbeville  (1937-2013) • Pete Turner  (1934-) • Raoul Ubac  (1910-1985) • Brett Weston  (1911-1993) • Minor White  (1908-1976) • Joel-Peter Witkin  (1939-) • Willy Zielke  (1902-1989)
HomeThemes > Experimental and manipulated photography 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Abstract 
Abstraction of light 
Abstraction of scale 
Abstraction of the real 
Alternative process movement 
Appropriation 
Cliché-verre 
Collage 
Composite and combination prints 
Composite portraits 
Distortions 
Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors 
Fakes, forgeries, tricks and deceptions 
Mordançage 
Painting on photographs 
Photograms 
Photomontage 
Solarization 
Surrealism 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Experimental and manipulated photography

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAbstract: Distortions 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 14, 2008)
ThumbnailEllen Carey: Polaroid Pulls & Shadows 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 19, 2007)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Experimental and manipulated photography

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Light abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Lucidagrams 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Photograms 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBill Brandt: Distortions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBrett Weston: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDavid Douglas Duncan: Prismatics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdmund Kesting: Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (1958) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Becoming centered in the Universe and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Changer and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Finding Self and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: JoJo as Maillot and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Margot 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Mordançages with fennel 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElizabeth Opalenik: Windswept and variants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail Ellen Carey: Pulls 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFlorence Henri: Compositions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederick Sommer: Cut paper 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGyörgy Kepes: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGyörgy Kepes: Wheel Spokes and Flame Form 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHarry Callahan: Abstracts 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinz Hajek-Halke: Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJaroslav Rössler: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: Insectes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: M+V 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: Paysages matériographiques 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Pierre Sudre: Soleil 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMan Ray: Solarized nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: Collages and collaborative works 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: The End of the Game 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRay K. Metzker: Combinations and multiple exposures 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoger Parry: Banalités (1930) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWeegee: Distortions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWerner Schnelle: Light Works 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilly Zielke: Glass abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailDiego Velázquez - Unidentified photographer - Thomas F. Barrow 
ThumbnailHarry Callahan - Lisa M. Robinson 
 
  
   Thematic Connections 
  
ThumbnailLight abstractions 
ThumbnailLooking up and down 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstraction of the real 
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstractions of scale 
ThumbnailAbstract: Light 
ThumbnailExperimental: Distortions 
ThumbnailExperimental: Double or multiple exposures 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Curves 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Diagonals from the lower left to the upper right 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Diagonals from the upper left to the lower right 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Grids 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Spirals 
ThumbnailExperimental: Solarizations 
ThumbnailExperimental: Viewpoint: Above 
ThumbnailExperimental: Viewpoint: Below 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailWorking with paper and card 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 25 March 2014, 23:12
 
  
 
  
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