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Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
Die Kunst in der Photographie
925.01 Pictorialism > Die Kunst in der Photographie (1897)
Herausgegeben von Franz Goerke
Between 1897-1908, 66 individual art folios containing a total of 356 individual large format hand-pulled photogravures and 318 autotypes were published in the German photographic art publication "Die Kunst in der Photographie" (The Art in Photography). Franz Goerke (1856-1931), the editor and publisher of this publication, was an important exponent of German art photography. Speaking of Goerke, none other than Dr. Hermann Wilhelm Vogel, who taught the young Alfred Stieglitz photographic chemistry in Germany in his formative years, said of this new publication in a photographic review of the first year of publication (1897) that Die Kunst in der Photographie is a "...totally new and original undertaking. Many waffle about art in photography, but what nonsense. Here [speaking of Goerke] we are dealing with the work of a sensitive expert."
(Rolf H. Krauss History of Photography, Volume 10, Number 4, page 267, October-December 1986)
"This publication may well be the most important and valuable documentation of art photography in the German language but, because of its rarity, has remained virtually unknown." (265)
The Krauss article is critical in our understanding of the importance of this publication. Krauss gives us some more background on Goerke: that "sensitive expert" (as stated by Vogel) was the publisher Franz Goerke. He was born on 14 November 1856 in Königsberg. He received his original training in banking, but was apparently inclined to devote himself to more general studies. He photographed as a hobby, and in October 1889 he founded, together with 52 other members, the "Free Photographic Association" in Berlin, in which he accepted the office of Recorder. The article then states that Goerke was also president of this photographic association from 1912-1919. (267) In the same year that he first published Die Kunst in der Photographie, Goerke in 1897 became the director of "Urania" in Berlin. Founded in 1888, this institution for continuing popular education in the sciences was originally named after the Greek muse of astronomy and astrology, and since 1968 as the German Cultural Association, Berlin, a Community Institution for the Cultivation of Science, Research, Art, and Cultural Film, as well as Public Readings by Poets". (268)
Beginning after 1893, Krauss has researched that Goerke‘s involvement with the Free Photographic Association was of a populist nature: Using his own photographs converted into lantern slides, Goerke was one of the first to put on and promote "Projector Evenings" for club members. (268) Krauss also enlightens us that "Learning through Observation" was the goal for "Urania" members-and it was embraced by Goerke and made him a follower of Jugendstil (art nouveau): "His faith in the beneficial fruits of the science, his love of the art and his conviction that art is capable of developing a person‘s artistic sensibility, together with his missionary zeal and determination to pass his insights on to others, made Goerke an exponent of the Jugendstil." This happened in a historic moment in which it was feasible for non-professionals, dilettantes, amateurs and hobbyists to generate a new sense of the times." (268)
As an active member and officer of the Free Photographic Association, Goerke had directed "the aesthetic parts" (267) of numerous photographic exhibitions associated with his club, including the important 1896 International Exhibition of Amateur Photography (in the Reichstag) and also "those in the Royal Academy of Arts, Berlin, 1902 and 1905." (268)
And so in Goerke we have a very visible cheerleader who had the connections neccesary to give the new artistic photographic movement some room to finally stand on its‘ own. In the introduction to the first issue he wrote:
"The development of amateur photography has reached a critical point. Out of the wide circle of amateurs has emerged a small community which sees more in photography than a playful hobby. A new era in amateur photography has thereby begun, the era of artistic and highly personal photography… The publisher has in this work set himself the task of presenting an overview of this kind of photography, its problems and achievements, through the medium of reproduction prints." (translated from the original German)
Two years after this important publication ended, in 1910, (Krauss makes the observation: "after which the publisher, (Knapp) one may surmise, put an end to this costly prestige project.") "Goerke was totally justified in saying: "This work, to the success of which the finest art photographers at home and abroad have contributed, is likely to be of permanent value in the history and development of art photography." (270)
The number of issues varied through the years. From 1897-1903, six issues were published each year, or every other month. Beginning in 1904 it was published on a quarterly basis until 1907. The final year featured 8 individual issues. It was also not a bound publication but issued in thin cardstock folio folders: letterpress was issued with beautiful large plate photogravures and starting in 1901, autotypes (actually, similar to halftones) were also included as photographic supplements. (these are tipped on various colored paper stock) In total, 674 "art supplements" made up the full run of this publication.
In Frank Heidtmann‘s Die deutsche Photoliteratur 1839-1978: Theorie, Technik, Bildleistungen : e. systemat. Bibliogr. d. selbständigen deutschsprachigen Photoliteratur / German Photographic Literature, 1839-1978: Theory, Technology, Visual: A Classified Bibliography of German-Language Photographic Publications (München; New York; London; Paris: Saur, 1980) this publication is included in entry #00370 where it says:
"It was the first photographic journal in the world that concerned itself only with the photographic image and its aesthetics, which ignored all other themes, and treated art photography as an international movement."
A fascinating comparison with the Stieglitz publication Camera Work is also included in the Krauss overview of Die Kunst in der Photographie. Coming out six years before the first issue of Camera Work published in 1903, the importance of this largely unknown publication is the effect that it had on the photographic pictorialism movement and the promotion of artistic photography worldwide. Strikingly, the work of 23 individual photographers appear in each publication. (there are a total of 79 individual photographers and artists represented in Camera Work) Perhaps more fascinating however and certainly the need for more scholarly research is warranted on this front is the fact that 278 individual photographers from around the world made contributions to this groundbreaking body of work. It is difficult to deny this publication had an immense influence that has been largely ignored in the English-language histories of photography.
This first year bound folio contains 36 photogravures and 52 pages of text with additional photographic illustrations. We have included a representative page with a printed halftone photographic illustration for purposes of giving people a feel for the "look" of this publication. Themes of the first six issues are as follows for 1897:
1. Der Camera-Club in Wien
2. Die Berliner Vereine
3. Der Photo-Club in Paris
4. Die Association Belge de Photographie
5/6: The Linked Ring
The following articles are also contained in this first bound yearly folio volume:
p. 1 Forward by Franz Goerke
p. 3 Alfred Buschbeck: Zur Geschichte der künstlerischen Bestrebungen im Wiener Camera-Club.
p. 9 Walter Körber: Die optischen Täuschungen im Dienste der bildenden Kuntst.
p. 21 Franz Goerke: Der Photo-Club in Paris
p. 29 Marcel Vanderkindere: (Brüssel): Die "Association belge de Photographie"
p. 37 Alfred Horsley Hinton: Die englische Schule der künstlerischen Photographie.
p. 49. Richard Stettiner: Gedanken eines Theortikers über Bildnissphotographie.
Through a series of galleries, Photoseed is pleased to share some of the masterpieces and obscure yet deserving work of early photographic art published as large plate photogravures in Die Kunst in der Photographie from around the world. Although we do not own the entire run of this important work, we nonetheless intend to present a good portion of it. Later, we will also present a separate gallery of select autotypes (halftone) plates that appeared in the publication from 1901-1908.
David Spencer (November 2006)
925.02 Pictorialism > Die Kunst in der Photographie (1898)
Herausgegeben von Franz Goerke
The second year 1898 of this publication featured 36 photogravures issued as six art folios. The themes of the individual issues were as follows:
Zweiter Jahrgang: 1898
There was additional letterpress issued with forty-eight pages with the addition of thirty halftone photographs (some full page) included. The text articles are as follows:
- Die Photographie in Amerika
- Die Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Amateur-Photographie in Hamburg
- Das Trifolium des Wiener Camera-Clubs
- Russland und Polen
- Der Salon des Photo-Club Paris, 1898
- Die englische Landschafts-Photographie
In the article: Die Kunst in der Photographie, the German Camera Work: Part 2: Texts in Abstract-from the publication: History of Photography: Volume II, Number 1, January-March 1987; the author Rolf H. Krauss presents a series of abstracts and summaries of the text articles issued with the run of this publication. The following is his summary from the article authored by Franz Goerke & Richard Stettiner: discussing "Photography in America" which runs from page 5-8.
- 1. author: Richard Stettiner: Title of article: Einleitung. (Introduction)
- 5. F.G. u. R. St.: (Franz Goerke and Richard Stettiner) Die Photographie in Amerika.
- 9. Alfred Lichtward: Die Amaterurphotographie in Hamburg.
- 17. Alfred Buschbeck: Das Trifolium des Wiener Camera-Clubs.
- 25. F.G. (Franz Goerke): Einleitende Worte.
- 26. M Allihn: Das subjektive Bild.
- 33. Maurice Bucquet: Kunst und Photographie.
- 41. A. Horsley Hinton: Englische Landschafts-Photographie.
"It is difficult for us in Europe to get a clear picture of what is going on in America in the field of art photography. For that reason one should judge with leniency what we are here saying about the characteristic features of the American photographs that have been compiled for this book by Alfred Stieglitz. In this country R. Eickemeyer has been known the longest. He is a representative of the old school, as opposed to the new one to which Stieglitz belongs. C. J. Berg (New York), Miss Farnsworth (Albany), E. Lee Ferguson (Washington), Miss Zaida Ben Yusuf (New York) and F. Holland Day (Boston) could be considered as one group. Their taste in photography is "of a feminine kind, almost leaning towards a certain mellowness and occasionally bordering on sweetness." F. Holland Day, however, is an exception, even though he also places the naked or semi-naked human body in the centre. "The sharpness and greatness of his perception is sometimes reminiscent of the Pre-Raphaelites". Alfred Stieglitz belongs unconditionally to the modern movement. Today he is probably at the top of everything that has to do with photography in America, and he is an artist in portraiture as well as in landscape photography. Even if someone‘s initial reaction when looking at his pictures might be: "like Liebermann‘, he is certainly more than just a skilled copyist. However, future developments are not likely to begin with Stieglitz. There is still no one who will achieve what is lacking today: an American school of photography." (page 4)
It is evident from this translation that Alfred Stieglitz provided the five American photographs used for the letterpress and the six photographs reproduced as photogravures for the 1898 art folios. Since the article was jointly authored, it is unclear but revealing that it concludes with the fact that they did not believe that Stieglitz would be at the forefront of the American school-the opposite of course which we know to be true today. And for the record, "Stieglitz told critic Sadakichi Hartmann that when he made his photograph (Net Mender) the painter (Max) "Liebermann‘s representation of Dutch fishing folk had never entered my mind." (notes: from afterword: My Favorite Picture: reprinted in: "Stieglitz on Photography: his selected essays and notes" compiled and annotated by Richard Whelan: bibliography of Stieglitz‘s writings compiled, with a preface, by Sarah Greenough: Aperture: 2000)
The following galleries present 35 of the 36 photogravures that make up the 2nd year (1898) of this publication. This year also boasts an impressive 24 of these photogravures produced as Chine-collé photogravures. Here, the copper-plate photographic ink impression is made on a thin fine sheet of India or China paper that has been embossed and or glued to another sheet of plate paper. This is perhaps the finest method of bringing out detail in the copper plates themselves. This portfolio of photogravure plates also contains a human skull still-life by Austrian photographer Hans Watzek that appears to be printed in several colors and may be an example of the Vogel-Kurtz three-color printing system that was used by the important Berlin atelier Meisenbach, Riffarth & Co.
David Spencer (January 2007)
925.03 Pictorialism > Die Kunst in der Photographie (1899)
Herausgegeben von Franz Goerke
The third year 1899 of this publication featured 36 photogravures issued as six art folios. Unlike the previous first two years of this publication, in which individual art folios were devoted to photographers from a particular country or region, Die Kunst in der Photographie for the entire year of 1899 was dedicated to the work, which was international in scope, exhibited at that year‘s important artistic photographic exhibition put on in the showrooms of the Royal Academy of Arts in Berlin. Writing in the first paragraph, Richard Stettiner gives his opinion that this was the first academic exhibition of artistic photography held in this location and that it was not "coincidental". He states that the directors of the exhibition were concerned with the idea that the citizens of Berlin would be able to see examples of artistic photography and that the goal of this ambition was met.
Dritter Jahrgang: 1899
The following is the first paragraph beginning on page 1 in German:
Wen diese Zeilen im Druck erscheinen, hat die Ausstellung für künstlerische Photographie, Berlin 1899, der dieser Band der,, Kunst in der Photographie,, gewidmet sein soll, ihre Thore geöffnet. Die erste,, akademische,, Ausstellung möchte ich sie nennen, denn der Ort, an dem sie stattfindet, die Ausstellungsräume der königlichen Kunstakademie, ist nicht ein zufälliger. Es war der Ehrgeiz der Leiter der Ausstellung, gerade hier dem Berliner Publikum die Werke der neuen photographischen Kunst vor Augen zu führen, und dass dieser Ehrgeiz zum Ziele gelangt ist, darin liegt eine gewisse Anerkennung Seitens der massgebenden Kreise, das Zugeständniss zum mindesten, dass es sich um ein interessantes Experiment handle. Um so anerkennungswerther ist dieses Zugeständniss, als wir nicht erwarten durften, dass in den betreffenden Berliner Kreisen eine genaue Kenntniss der grossartigen Leistungen photographischer Kunst, wie sie in den anderen deutschen und ausserdeutschen Städten auf den ausstellungen zu sehen waren, bekannt waren,, und so einige wenige vorgeführte Proben und das begeisterte Eintreten einiger weniger vertrauenswürdiger, der sogenannten grossen Kunst nicht fernstehender Persönlichkeiten als Grundlage für den günstigen Bescheid dienen musste. Die Künstler, denke ich, werden die Gastfreundschaft, die sie den Künstlerphotographen gewährt haben, nicht zu bereuen haben. Für die Ausstellung aber bedeutet ihr diesmaliges Heim einen grossen moralischen Vorerfolg, in ähnlicher Weise, wie in Hamburg s. Z. die Gewährung der Kunsthalle als Ausstellungslokal oder, in allerdings noch weit höherem Maasse, in verflossenem Jahr in München, die Veranstaltung einer Elite-Ausstellung durch die Secession.
In the article: Die Kunst in der Photographie, the German Camera Work: Part 2: Texts in Abstract (History of Photography: Volume II, Number 1, January-March 1987) the author Rolf H. Krauss presents a series of abstracts and summaries of the text articles issued with the run of this publication. The following is his summary from the article authored by Richard Stettiner which begins this work for 1899:
"The introductory text (pp. 1-8) deals with the exhibition of art photography in Berlin in 1899, which was opened at the time when the first installment of the year 1899 was distributed. That event is compared in particular with exhibitions in Hamburg and in Munich (the latter had been organized by the ‘Secession‘ a year earlier). Since 1894 the Hamburg exhibitions had been under the influence of Lichtwark (Alfred) and Juhl (Ernst), who regarded artistic photography as an amateur preoccupation, and as an outstanding aspect of dilettantism. "These exhibitions have as their main purpose the presentation of excellent works to Hamburg devotees of amateur photography, works which they may compare with their own achievements." The Munich exhibition of 1898 contrasted with the Hamburg exhibitions by presenting a new type of photographic salon. The decision by the board of the "secession", i.e., by artists such as Dill, Habermann, Stuck, Zügel and others, to organize annual exhibitions of art photography marked a new epoch for that genre. This had nothing to do with pedagogical objectives; the idea was to encourage artists to work with photography. Only the very best work was shown by invitation. The efforts in Berlin were again of a different nature. There two amateur societies with a total membership of over 600 photographers decided that anybody should be free to submit work. A panel of judges then made the selection. We are grateful to Berlin for thus enabling photographic artists from anywhere in Germany to display their works and talents." (Krauss: Page #10: Texts in Abstract)
Stettiner‘s text for the year 1899 continues until page 44, he subdivides the work into several chapter headings dealing with the artistic achievements and photographic work of the English School (beginning on page 9); the French school (Frankreich) begins on page 15; the "Association Belge de Photographie" (comprising 7 photographic societies or sections) in Belgium (Belgien) begins on page 23; and beginning on page 30 and concluding on page 44, (the chapter heading is for Vienna & Hamburg) (Wien Und Hamburg), Stettiner concerns himself with "a comprehensive survey of the contemporary state of art photography around the world." (page 10 in Texts in Abstract)
This exhibition showcases the 36 large plate photogravures that make up the year 1899 for this publication owned by Photoseed. Important early works by Annan, Baron De Meyer, Stieglitz, The Hoffmeister brothers, Misonne and a very early Pierre Dubreuil (before he embraced modernism) are just some of the gems for the year 1899.
David Spencer (February 2007)
925.04 Pictorialism > Die Kunst in der Photographie (1900)
Herausgegeben von Franz Goerke
The fourth year 1900 of this publication featured 36 photogravures issued as six art folios. The photogravures reflect the following themes:
Vierter Jahrgang: 1900
Berlin: Verlag Von Martin Oldenbourg
- Art Folio #1: Reproduces work from the VII International Exhibition of Art Photography held in Hamburg, Germany in 1899.
- Art Folio #2: Reproduces work from members of the Society for the promotion of Photography in Leipzig.
- Art Folio #3: Reproduces work of French Artistic photography: specifically, René Le Bègue, Paul Bergon, Robert Demachy, Constant Puyo.
- Art Folio #4: Reproduces the artistic photographic work of Mrs. Aura Hertwig of Charlottenburg (today, the western district of Berlin in Germany).
- Art Folio #5: Reproduces the artistic photographic work of James Craig Annan of Glasgow, Scotland.
- Art Folio #6: Reproduces artistic photographic from several different countries including France, Germany and England.
In the article: Die Kunst in der Photographie, the German Camera Work: Part 2: Texts in Abstract (History of Photography: Volume II, Number 1, January-March 1987) the author, Rolf H. Krauss, presents a series of abstracts and summaries of the text articles issued with the run of this publication. The following are very brief summaries from the text articles appearing in 1900.
The writer and critic Alfred Lichtwark in an article titled "Wohin?" (Where?) (From p.1) states: "In the past five years the development of photography as an art form has surpassed all expectations. "Now we are at the top...It seems to me that our next task is not to press forward, but rather an intense cultivation of this newly conquered art form." In particular, the author pleads for a thorough study of portrait photography. In a few paragraphs he draws up a remarkable brief history of portrait photography, and complains about the enormous sums of money which are spent every year on portraits made by professional photographers. He believes that in a healthy national economy this money should much rather be used for art. Retouched pictures, he says, have spoilt the public‘s taste. The translation concludes with an intriquing idea: "The great task faced by amateur societies remains the reform of photographic portraiture." (From: p.6: Texts in Abstract)
Beginning on p.9, Hans Merian in an article titled: "Das malerische Sehen in der Photographie" (roughly: Seeing pictorially in Photography) states: "A photograph is not, of course, a painting, but is, at its best, a good and useful substitute. Only a painting is regarded as a work of art. He then quotes the French writer and journalist Émile Zola who said a work of art is a piece of nature, "viewed by the artist‘s temperament". The translated abstract by Krauss concludes with an amusing observation by Merian: stating that photography is inherently a mechanical process, he says: "Therefore it is not surprising that men of great intellect, authorities in art and science, often display such unintellectual expressions before the lens of the professional photographer". (From: p.8: Texts in Abstract)
Beginning on p.17 and concluding on p.26, the writer Hildegard Lehnert contributes two articles, one titled "Das Motiv und seine Behandlung in der künstlerischen Photographie" (The Motif and its‘ treatment in artistic photography) and the other on the photographer Aura Hertwig of Charlottenburg- " Künstlerische Photographien von Frau A. Hertiwig, Charlottenburg" - beginning on page 21. Lehnert defines motif in relation to the fine arts: "that aspect of a natural view which, as a result of certain prominent qualities, draws the greatest visual appeal." Lehnert discusses motif in relation to the picture making process and touches on the subjects of nudes: "Nudes are motifs which call for a delicate, calm surrounding, in order to fascinate the eye." (From: p.5-6: Texts in Abstract)
Lehnert next discusses the work of Aura Hertwig, which is appropriate because Art Folio #4 for the year 1900 includes six examples of her work reproduced as large plate photogravures. "During this spring Mrs. Hertwig‘s works were presented to the public for the first time, with the Berlin "Free Photographic Society" arranging the display. These photographs were the result of quiet and private work over two years. We must welcome the fact that another woman has joined the 12 to 15 ladies who have been working as photographers here and abroad. Naturally, she prefers the out-of-focus trend. Despite her unmistakable, characteristic style, some of her pictures are reminiscent of the photographs by Robert Demachy." (From: p.6: Texts in Abstract)
The work of James Craig Annan is next discussed by the Hamburg writer Richard Stettiner beginning on p.29 and running to p.36. Fortunately, a full translation into English from the German appears in the book: J. Craig Annan: Selected texts and bibliography Edited by William Buchanan (Clio Press, 1994). An excerpt: "Only around 1891 did I seriously start to produce original works in the field of photography. When the Linked Ring was founded and its prospectus of the first salon was published, I liked the plan very much and decided to participate. The members of the Ring, who were all total strangers to me, immediately judged my work favourably and accepted it gladly. They felt that our aspirations were the same and we quickly became good friends." A short biography is included on Annan - his involvment with the famous family firm of T. & R. Annan & Sons Co. of Glasgow, his connection with David Octavius Hill and aesthetic concerns of Annan are discussed and this observation by Stettiner: "Craig Annan is an artist. Those who wish to speculate in front of his work whether a photographer can be an artist are incapable of the immediate response which should only be followed by critical analysis." Six, large plate Chine-collé photogravures by Annan are included comprising Art Folio #5 for the year 1900. We learn from Stettiner‘s text about them: "However we can be proud of the fact that the plates in this article were etched by Annan himself. He is a master of this technique and knows to handle it in the same way as others deal with the bichromate print, thus giving the prints made from his plates the artistic importance of originals." (From: J. Craig Annan: Selected texts and bibliography Edited by William Buchanan (Clio Press, 1994: p.101-105))
Munich writer and photographer Fritz Matthies-Masuren concludes the letterpress to the 1900 volume of Die Kunst in der Photographie with an essay titled: "Zur Entwicklung der Kunstphotographie" (To the development of Art Photography) on pages 41-44. Another excerpt: "We do not strive to turn photography into an art, but to take the development of pictorial photography to the highest conceivable level." "Along those lines, exhibitions are the most important means of influencing the public. One should, however, discriminate; only the most valuable work belongs in public exhibitions." Under the heading of "delineating space", Matthies-Masuren then points to the difficulty of always finding satisfying subjects in nature, and warns against subsequent adjustment of the pictures by means of scissors." (From: p.8: Texts in Abstract)
This online exhibition showcases the 36 large plate photogravures that make up the year 1900. In this year, photographic portraiture takes center stage in a higher proporation than previous years of this publication. The tone for this is set in the very first art folio, with the essay by Alfred Lichtwark outlining the history of the photographic portrait and making a case for its‘ improvement. The highlights are perhaps the Annan photographs, the originals of which are richly printed original examples of his work in photogravure. The mostly unknown, mysterious work of Aura Hertwig is presented in this gallery - possibly for the very first time in depth on the Internet. There is also an important example of Puyo‘s work: "Chant Sacré" (Sacred Song), a wonderful portrait study by Robert Demachy: "Mignon", and a rare view by Theodor and Oskar Hofmeister: "Night Walk" (Nachtgang) also known as "The Old Woman".
David Spencer (April 2007)
925.05 Pictorialism > Die Kunst in der Photographie (1901)
Herausgegeben von Franz Goerke
The fifth year 1901 of this publication featured 36 photogravures issued as six art folios. The photogravures reflected the following themes:
Fünfter Jahrgang: 1901
Halle A. S. Verlag Von Wilhelm Knapp
Art Folios #1-4: Reproduces artistic photographic work from Germany, Austria, France, England, Belgium, Holland, Italy, Russia and Switzerland.
Art Folio #5: Reproduces artistic photographic work by Rudolph Eickemeyer Jr. of New York.
Art Folio #6: Reproduces artistic photographic work of the Photographic Society of Philadelphia.
In the article: Die Kunst in der Photographie, the German Camera Work: Part 2: Texts in Abstract-from the publication: History of Photography: Volume II, Number 1, January-March 1987; the author Rolf H. Krauss presents a series of abstracts and summaries of the text articles issued with the run of this publication. The following is a brief summary by Krauss from the text article by Alfred Lichtwark titled "Zur Einführung" appearing over pages #1-4 in the introductory letterpress for the year 1901.
Summary: "Zur Einführung": "...However, the development of amateur photography has progressed rapidly in Germany. There is a fine core of hobby photographers (many ladies among them), and a competent periodical literature. Many individuals, as well as the formal collections of copper engravings at Dresden and Hamburg, have begun to buy photographs. Professional photographers are also beginning to rid themselves of their worst habits, though they can do this only in the largest cities, without endangering their livelihood. "The reform of portrait photography is of the greatest importance for the development of good taste, for photography gets into every house, and rules in the master‘s study as well as the lady‘s boudoir, and even the maid‘s room." Just because photography is so widespread, it can, as the upholder of art and good taste, have a deeper effect on the culture of a nation than any other artistic activity. Yet, it is not the lower classes that are embraced by it, but the upper layers of society. For that reason, this upper class has a special responsibility." (From: Page #8: Texts in Abstract)
The following galleries showcase the 36 large plate photogravures that make up the year 1901. Three of the plates have gone missing from the author‘s archive - I have located one of these (Eickemeyer - "Break, Break, Break, on thy cold gray Stones, O Sea") and included it in this exhibition as a modern reproduction halftone.
Portraiture again makes up a significant amount of the stunning chine-collé photogravure plates: especially fine examples being a study of a Sioux Indian (of the Native-American known as Plenty Wounds) by the American photographer Gertrude Kasebier; a delicate portrait study by the Austrian photographer Carl Siess: "Symmetria"; and a touching well known portrait of the grandmother of American photographer Rudolph Eickemeyer Jr. known as "The Vesper Bell" (earlier reproduced in Camera Notes).
For the first time, beginning in 1901, a selection of elaborately mounted autotype (halftone) plates were also included with this publication. Twenty-two autotypes were included by photographers including among others: Wilhelm Von Gloeden, Guglielmo Plüschow, Gustave Marissiaux, Alfred Stieglitz, and Rudolph Eickemeyer Jr. We intend to mount an exhibition of select examples of these autotypes in a future exhibition.
David Spencer (July 2007)
- Λ For Camera Work - Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen)