|907.01 ||Early livestock photography|
|Cattle, bulls, cows and oxen|
|907.02 ||Cattle, bulls, cows and oxen|
|907.03 ||Adolphe Braun: Cows and oxen|
|907.05 ||Advert for J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882)|
|907.06 ||Book review of J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882)|
|907.07 ||Dogs||This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. |
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
907.01 Nature > Early livestock photography
From the 1850s there are a number of accounts of livestock breeders having daguerreotypes of their animals made and the plates being used as the basis from engraving published in agricultural journals. If you needed your Durham or Ayrshire bulls or Silesian or French Merino Ewes photographed there were photographers who could assist.
In March 1853 The Pennsylvania Farm Journal included engravings made from daguerreotypes of a bull and a cow:
The portraits of bull and cow on opposite page, engraved from daguerreotype likenesses, are specimens of what may be attained by scientific and judicious crosses of choice native stock, with selected thorough bred Durham bulls. They are grade animals, the bull being 15-16, and the cow 7/8 Durham, and are fully equal in some points to thorough breds. They were bred and are now owned by A. Bolmar, of West Chester, proprietor of the celebrated boarding school Institution, which bears his name, and whose herd of cows and heifers, 41 in number, all of his own raising, and more or less mixed with Durham blood, have been pronounced by good judges superior as a whole to any dairy of the same number in this section of country.
In August the same year The Journal of Agriculture (Boston) an engraving of Silesian ewes was included also based on a daguerreotype:
Mr. Editor, I send you the cut representing a group of Silesian Merino Ewes, representing them precisely as they were when taken by a daguereotype standing in a yard. Their position does not fully develop all their good points; still enough is exhibited to show the character of the sheep.
A note from the editor the the same number of the journal commented that F.E. Fox of Boston was the daguerreoptypist to call upon if you needed your flocks photographed:
We have heretofore favorably noticed the flocks of Mr. Campbell, and commended him as a fair dealer to all who contemplate a purchase of sheep. At our suggestion he caused a daguerreotype drawing to be made of his sheep, from which the engraving at the head of this article and one of French Merinos in a former No., was executed by F. E. Fox of No. 6 School street, Boston. In our estimation they are the best and most sheepish looking pictures that have appeared in any periodical in America; and so thinking we leave our friend, who desire faithful and life-like likenesses of their stock to profit by this hint.
In November 1853 notices on photographing livestock continued to be published:
The Ayrshire Bull belonging to the N. H. Asylum is the best of that breed that we ever saw. To show farmers what a perfect animal is, and thus to form their taste and judgment, it is well to have cuts of such animals engraved. From a Daguerreotype of a beast, a very fine engraving can be made in Boston for ten to twenty dollars, according to the size and degree of finish; and copies may be multiplied, by stereotyping, at 50 to 75 cents each. We will with pleasure superintend the engraving of any portrait that may be forwarded to us at Boston.
Cattle, bulls, cows and oxen
907.02 Nature > Cattle, bulls, cows and oxen
907.03 Nature > Adolphe Braun: Cows and oxen
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
907.04 Nature > Horses
A thousand horse and none to ride! -
With flowing tail, and flying mane,
Wide nostrils never stretched by pain,
Mouths bloodless to the bit or rein,
And feet that iron never shod,
And flanks unscarred by spur or rod,
A thousand horse, the wild, the free,
Like waves that follow o‘er the sea,
Came thickly thundering on,…
Lord Byron, XVII, Mazeppa, 1819
907.05 Nature > Advert for J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882)
Advert in Trubner's American and Oriental Literary Record Nos.171-172, New Series, Vol.III, Nos.1-2, February 1882, p.52.
Royal 4to. cloth, pp. viii. and 127. Price £3 3s.
[It is interesting to note in retrospect that Eadweard Muybridge is not mentioned in this advertisement.]
THE HORSE IN MOTION,
AS SHOWN BY INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY.
With A Study On Animal Mechanics, Founded On The Revelations Of The Camera, In Which is Demonstrated The True Theory Of Quadrupedal Locomotion.
By J. D. B. STILLMAN, A.M., M.D.
Executed and Published under the auspices of LELAND STANFORD.
With over One Hundred Heliotype and other Plates.
English Copyright Edition.
This work is the outcome of a series of experiments with the camera undertaken by the direction and at the opaa of Leland Stanford, the War Governor of California, and now President of the Central Pacific Railroad. The experiments were commenced some years since with a single camera, to get an instantaneous view of a famous trotter in rapid motion; they were afterwards continued with an increasing number until twenty-four cameras were employed giving as many views of the horse in a single stride at intervals of one foot. These experiments were extended to other quadrupeds, such as oxen, deer, dogs, etc.
The numerous photographs of horses in all their paces and all possible positions were placed in the hands of a gentleman selected for the work, to make them intelligible. Every facility was furnished him that unlimited wealth could command; valuable horses were sacrificed for anatomical purposes when required, and the aid of the best artistic talent was secured to delineate the new and important facts brought to light.
The whole is now presented in this volume, illustrated by nine chromo plates and more than one hundred heliotypes and photo-lithographs, and more than one thousand figures. The author has been enabled to demonstrate the theory of quadrupedal locomotion, which is as simple as it is beautiful, and which makes the most extraordinary movement as harmonious as a musical note. This work cannot fail to revolutionize the conventional ideas of animal locomotion as fast as the facts become known. It is the most important contribution to animal mechanics and art that has appeared for many years, if ever.
LONDON: TRUBNER & CO., 57 And 59, LUDGATE HILL.
907.06 Nature > Book review of J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882)
Book review in the 1883 Veterinary Journal and Annals of Comparative Pathology for The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography, With A Study On Animal Mechanics. By J. D. B. Stillman, A.M., M.D., Executed and Published under the auspices of Leland Stanford. (London: Trubner and Co. 1882)
There could not be a better companion work to the "Exterieur du Cheval" than the handsome quarto volume, published by Trubner, of Ludgate Hill. In the Notes and News columns of this Journal not long ago, there appeared a notice of an interesting lecture given by Mr. Muybridge at the Royal Institution, on "Animals in Motion," in which the representations of movement were shown by photography. The work just issued is in reality the substance of the lecture in extenso, and a most interesting and important addition it is to such works as that of Goubaux and Barrier, as well as those on animal mechanics, animal painting, and animal locomotion. The book is a veritable monument of skill, patience, and ingenuity in the photographer's art, as it chiefly consists of a large series of photographs of the horse, taken while moving at different paces from the walk to a sharp gallop, cantering and jumping. There are also photographs of other animals taken during progression, these, as well as those of the horse, being represented in every phase of one act of a certain movement. These representations are the production of instantaneous photography; twenty-four cameras having been employed, and placed in line at intervals of a foot from each other, and so cleverly managed that, no matter how rapid the pace, each was capable of producing a clear and exact photograph by exposure of the exceedingly sensitive plate for the one five-thousandth part of a second.
The result is rather startling and bewildering, as it pretty well upsets everything that has been taught and exhibited with regard to the way in which a horse moves its limbs during progression, and particularly as to the function of the fore and hind limbs. These undeniably correct pictures also prove that artists generally in fact always represent horses in utterly impossible attitudes. The manner in which certain movements are executed is made perfectly clear by these admirably arranged and printed pictures. The act of walking, for instance, about which the most diverse opinions have been entertained by horsemen and veterinary physiologists, is lucidly demonstrated in a manner which admits of no doubt.
In addition to the very extensive series of plates, there are many explanatory woodcuts, while Dr. Stillman gives an excellent description of the locomotory muscles, and valuable remarks on movement having reference to the discoveries developed by means of the camera.
This wonderful book for it is full of wonders, so far as the revelations it contains are concerned deserves a more extended notice than we can afford to give it; but we trust that veterinarians and horsemen, as well as artists and physiologists, will patronise it. It may be mentioned as an evidence of the labour its production necessitated, that it required an outlay of 50,000 dols. (£10,000), a sum which was generously contributed by Governor Stanford, who owns the Palo Alto Stud Farm, where Mr. Muybridge toiled so long and so successfully in experimenting and photographing.
907.07 Nature > Dogs
"A man once told me that his dog was half pit bull and half poodle. He claimed that it wasn‘t much good as a guard dog, but it was a vicious gossip."
Professor Stanley Coren (University of British Columbia)
[Full source requested.]
Synonym - Dog:
bitch, bowwow, cur, doggy, fido, flea bag, hound, man‘s best friend, mongrel, mutt, pooch, pup, puppy, stray, tail-wagger, tyke
The ways in which our canine companions have been shown in photography has changed over the years from the dog as a hunting aid and family friend of the mid-nineteenth century through the humorous images by Jacques-Henri Lartigue, Elliott Erwitt and William Wegman. The darker side of pets was not examined until the last twenty years and Keith Carter, Giacomo Brunelli and Tony Mendoza all show a more edgy side rather than the overly simplistic loyal and sentimental. For those who want to understand how dogs see humans read the short story "To Build a Fire" by Jack London (1908) - Full text.
To add to this series I‘m interested in:
If you have examples that might be appropriate so we can improve this online exhibition please let me know.
- Historically significant dogs
- Nineteenth century champions and shows
- Dogs involved in heroic acts
- Working dogs of all types
- Unusual dog portraits of all periods
- Dogs in bizarre attire
- Dog funerals and remembrances
- Λ March 1853, "Improved Stock", The Pennsylvania Farm Journal, vol. 2, no. 12, p. 379
(Accessed: Google Books, 15 April 2012)
- Λ George Campbell, August 1853, "A letter to the Editor", The Journal of Agriculture (Boston), vol. 3, no. 2, p. 44. [A letter to the Editor from George Campbell (West Westminster, Vt., July 5th, 1852)]
- Λ August 1853, "Note from the editor", The Journal of Agriculture (Boston), vol. 3, no. 2, p. 45
- Λ November 1853, The Journal of Agriculture (Boston), vol. 3, no. 4, p. 145.
- Λ Lord Byron, 1819, Mazeppa, A poem, (London: John Murray). There is a Wikipedia entry on this poem - Wikipedia - Mazeppa
- Λ In retrospect it is interesting to note that Eadweard Muybridge is not credited as an author and he later sued unsuccessfully.
Archives - Stanford University, Walter R. Miles Research concerning Eadweard Muybridge, Series 1, Correspondence, Box 1, Folder 2 and 3, Depositions (ca. 1882-83) re. Stanford v. Muybridge lawsuit 1882 - 1929, Historical letters, ca. 1882-1883, between Leland Stanford and John Stillman re. Stanford v. Muybridge lawsuit.
For Stanford and Muybridge - Edward Ball, 2013, The Inventor and the Tycoon: A Gilded Age Murder and the Birth of Moving Pictures, (Doubleday); Eadweard Muybridge, 1972, Eadweard Muybridge: The Stanford Years, 1872–1882, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Museum of Art) [Introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley]
- Λ Book review for The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography, With A Study On Animal Mechanics. By J. D. B. Stillman, A.M., M.D., Executed and Published under the auspices of Leland Stanford. (London: Trubner and Co. 1882) IN Veterinary Journal and Annals of Comparative Pathology, vol. XVI, 1883, pp. 49-50.
- Λ Jacques-Henri Lartigue, 1966, Boyhood Photos of J. H. Lartigue: The Family Album of a Gilded Age, (Lausanne, Switzerland: Ami Guichard); Martine D’Astier, Quentin Bajac & Alain Saya, 2003, Lartigue: Album of a Century, (New York: Harry N. Abrams)
Readings on, or by, individual photographers
Erwitt, Elliott, 1992, Elliott Erwitt: To the Dogs, (D.A.P./Scalo) isbn-10: 1881616010 isbn-13: 978-1881616016 [Δ]
Erwitt, Elliott, 2002, Dog Dogs, (Barnes & Noble) isbn-10: 0760723036 isbn-13: 978-0760723036 [Δ]
Erwitt, Elliott, 2012, Elliott Erwitt's Dogs, (teNeues) isbn-10: 3832796681 isbn-13: 978-3832796686 [English, German, French, Italian, Spanish] [Δ]
1882, February, ‘Advert for J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882)‘, Trubner's American and Oriental Literary Record, vol. 3 (New Series), no. 1-2, p. 52 [Δ]
1883, ‘Book review of J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882)‘, Veterinary Journal and Annals of Comparative Pathology, vol. 16, pp. 49-50 [Δ]
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - email@example.com
Louis Auguste Bisson (1814-1876) • Adolphe Braun (1812-1877) • Giacomo Brunelli (1977-) • Chusseau-Flaviens • Leon Crémière • John Divola (1949-) • Elliott Erwitt (1928-) • Constant Alexandre Famin (1827-1888) • Giraudon's Artist • Tony Mendoza (1941-) • Adrien Tournachon (1825-1903) • Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud (1866-1951) • William Wegman (1943-)
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