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901.01 Photojournalism > Paul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul (8 September 1886)
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
On Sunday 8 September 1886 Le Journal illustré (Paris) printed an eight article "L'art de vivre cent ans. Trois entrtiens avec monsieur Chevreul photographiés a la veille de ca cent et unième année" which included 13 halftone illustrations based on photographs by Nadar. The subject of this early photo-essay was an interview with the chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul:
Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786-1889), French chemist. Chevreul's scientific work covered a wide range, but he is best known for the classical researches he carried out on animal fats, published in 1823 (Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animale). These enabled him to elucidate the true nature of soap; he was also able to discover the composition of stearin, a white substance found in the solid parts of most animal and vegetable fats, and olein, the liquid part of any fat, and to isolate stearic and oleic acids, the names of which he invented. This work led to important improvements in the processes of candle-manufacture.
He was professor at the Muséum national d'histoire naturell in Paris from 1830, and director at the same place 1864-79.
He also worked as director of the dyehouse works at the Gobelin manufacture 1824-1864. His studies on the contrast and harmony of colours was to influence the neoimpressionists. (See Wikipedia and Nationalencyclopedin).
Chevreul opened the interview with a cheerful remark: "I was an enemy of photography until my ninety-seventh year, but three years ago i capitulated".
Paul Nadar (1856-1939), son of photographer Felix Nadar, manager of his father's studio in 1874. The two of them collaborated with the interview.
901.02 Photojournalism > German illustrated magazines during the First World War
By the time the First World War (1914-1918) started illustrated magazines were well established in Germany.
Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung had been founded in 1890 and Münchner Illustrierte Zeitung was also popular. These magazines used the juxtapositions of photographs and typography to good effect.
901.03 Photojournalism > AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung
A German monthly illustrated magazine Sowjet Russland im Bild (Soviet Russia in Pictures) which was produced from 1921 until November 1924 was it was renamed Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung / AIZ (Worker's Illustrated Paper).
As circulation grew rapidly AIZ became bi-weekly and later weekly appealing to the communist and socialist groups within German society. With major artists such as and authors including George Bernard Shaw and Maximim Gorky adding popular appeal through their contributions. The magazine included poetry, articles, current events as well as photographs and montages.
In 1930 the inventive John Heartfield starting creating scathing satirical photomontages on politics and the corruption of the state. His images were sophisticated propaganda and timely warnings of what was to come as freedom within society would be increasingly difficult. These were the final years of the Weimar Republic and when Adolf Hitler became German Chancellor in 1933 the situation in Germany was impossible for any sort of satire or political criticism and so the magazine moved to Prague in Czechoslovakia where it continued under a different name until 1938.
901.04 Photojournalism > USSR in Construction
USSR in Construction (SSSR na Stroike) was published from 1930 to 1941 and again in 1949 represents the highest standards of innovative usage of typography, graphics and photographic layout.
The rapid growth of socialist construction in the Soviet Union is evoking great interest in foreign countries. The State Publishing House of the RSFSR has therefore conceived the idea to publish a special illustrated magazine The USSR in Construction, reflecting the colossal construction now taking place in the Soviet Union.
The fame of the magazine is largely based upon the page layouts and photomontages of the Constructivist artists El Lissitzky, Alexander Rodchenko and Varavara Stepanova. The design was innovative as the same printing plates were used for the photographs and this was over-printed with the text in Russia, English, French or German. The avant-garde style of the magazine with its foreign distribution was a highlight of Soviet propaganda and the way Stalin wanted to portray the Soviet Union to foreign politicians, banks, corporations, the press and those with influence.
The State Publishing House has chosen the photo as a method to illustrate socialist construction, for the photo speaks much more convincingly in many cases than even the most brilliantly written article. The USSR in Construction will be published monthly in special English, German, French and Russian editions.
The editorial board of The USSR in Construction hopes that this magazine will meet merited attention on the part of those interested in the progress of socialist construction in the USSR.
"From the Editors," USSR in Construction, 1930, no. l .
901.05 Photojournalism > Photo-essays in LIFE magazine
In the first issue of LIFE magazine (Vol.1 No.1, 23 November 1936) there was a photo-essay by Margaret Bourke-White on Franklin Roosevelt has a Wild West dealing with the community of Fort Peck in Montana (USA) and a work-relief project building an earthen dam.
Within a single photo-essay all the photographs were taken by a single photographer and told a multi-level story - they could use interior, exterior, day, night and aerial shots - the key was to bring together a coherent view of a subject that the reader could relate to. The first issue of LIFE sold out the entire 466,000 run and within a year the magazine had a circulation of over a million.
LIFE magazine excelled in this and produced many of the greatest photo-essays ever produced including:
- Λ Dimanche 8 septembre 1886, "L'art de vivre cent ans. Trois entrtiens avec monsieur Chevreul photographiés a la veille de ca cent et unième année", Le Journal illustré (Paris)
Folio (390x285). 8 pages numbered 281-288, 13 pictures in half-tone blocks by Nadar.
- Λ Text courtesy of Stockholms Auktionsverk (Photographica, 4 April 2011, Lot: 4315)
- Λ Hans Sonntag, 2009, "Die Proletarierin zwischen Fabrikarbeit, 'zweiter Schicht' und 'Sex-Appeal'. Ausgewählte Aspekte zur Frauenfrage in der Arbeiter-Illustrierten Zeitung" 1926/27 bis 1933", Jahrbuch für Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. III
- Λ According to a survey AIZ conducted in 1929:
"42 percent of its readers were skilled workers, 33 percent unskilled workers, 10 percent white-collar workers, 5 percent youths, 3.5 percent housewives, 3 percent self-employed, 2 percent independent, and 1 percent civil servants."
Quoted from M. Lavin & H. Höch, 1993, Cut with the kitchen knife: The Weimar photomontages of Hannah Höch, (New Haven: Yale University Press), p. 55
- Λ George Bernard Shaw was best known for his plays but he was also a photographer and a writer on photography - Bill Jay & Margaret Moore (eds.), 1989, Bernard Shaw on Photography, (Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books)
- Λ John Heartfield, 1977, Photomontages of the Nazi Period, (New York: Universe Press); Peter Pachnicke & Klaus Honnef (eds.), 1992, John Heartfield, (New York: Harry N. Abrams); Andres Mario Zervigon, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University Of Chicago Press)
- Λ USSR in Construction - University of Saskatchewan
(Accessed: 20 August 2013)
- Λ David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press);
Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate)
- Λ Victor Margolin, 1998, The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy-Nagy, 1917-1946, (University Of Chicago Press); El Lissitzky & B.M.Tal (ed.), 1935, Industriia Sotsializma [Socialist Industry], (Moscow: IZOGIZ)
- Λ Erika Wolf, 1999, "When Photographs Speak, To Whom Do They Talk? The Origins and Audience of SSSR na stroike (USSR in Construction)", Left History, vol. 6 no. 2, pp. 53-82
Dewitz, Bodo von, 2008, Kiosk: A History of Photojournalism, (Steidl) isbn-10: 388243791X isbn-13: 978-3882437911 [Bilingual edition] [Δ]
Edey, Maitland, 1978, Great Photographic Essays from LIFE, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) isbn-10: 0821207423 isbn-13: 978-0821207420 [Δ]
Golden, Reuel, 2011, Photojournalism: 150 Years of Outstanding Press Photography, (Carlton Books) isbn-10: 1847326366 isbn-13: 978-1847326362 [Δ]
Hallett, Michael, 1998, The Real Story of "Picture Post", (ARTicle Press) isbn-10: 1873352174 isbn-13: 978-1873352175 [Δ]
Hallett, Michael, 2005, Stefan Lorant: Godfather of Photojournalism, (Scarecrow Press) isbn-10: 0810856824 isbn-13: 978-0810856820 [Δ]
Hopkinson, Tom, 1970, Picture Post, 1938-50, (Allen Lane) isbn-10: 0713901640 isbn-13: 978-0713901641 [Δ]
Kee, Robert, 1990, The Picture Post Album: A 50th Anniversary Collection, (Barrie & Jenkins) isbn-10: 071262063X isbn-13: 978-0712620635 [Δ]
Rayfield, Stanley, 1957, LIFE photographers: Their Careers and Favorite Pictures, (Doubleday) [Δ]
Shorter, Clement K., 1899, ‘Illustrated Journalism: Its Past and Its Future‘, Contemporary Review, vol. 75, pp. 480-494 [Δ]
Readings on, or by, individual photographers
Callahan, Sean (ed.), 1975, The Photographs of Margaret Bourke-White, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) [Δ]
Goldberg, Vicki, 1986, Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography, (New York: Harper and Row) [Δ]
Chlllingworth, John, 2013, John Chillingworth: Picture Post Photographer, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) isbn-10: 1907893431 isbn-13: 978-1907893438 [Δ]
Eisenstaedt, Alfred, 1985, Eisenstaedt on Eisenstaedt: A Self-Portrait, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Introduction by Peter Adam] [Δ]
Hardy, Bert, 1975, Bert Hardy, (London: Gordon Fraser Gallery / Arts Council of Great Britain) isbn-10: 0900406488 isbn-13: 978-0900406485 [Introduction by Tom Hopkinson] [Δ]
Wilkinson, Colin, 2013, Bert Hardy's Britain, (The Bluecoat Press) isbn-10: 1908457163 isbn-13: 978-1908457165 [Δ]
Elliott, David (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ]
Khan-Magomedov, S.O., 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press) [Δ]
Lavrentiev, Alexander, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press) [Δ]
Noever, P. (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel) [Δ]
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - firstname.lastname@example.org
Stefan Lorant (1901-1997)
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