Luminous-Lint - for collectors and connoisseurs of fine photography
HOME  BACKFREE NEWSLETTER

Getting around

 

HomeWhat's NewContentsVisual IndexesOnline ExhibitionsPhotographersGalleries and DealersThemes
AbstractEroticaFashionLandscapeNaturePhotojournalismPhotomontagePictorialismPortraitScientificStill lifeStreetWar
CalendarsTimelinesTechniquesLibraryImages and WordsSupport 
 

Social media

Share |

 

HomeContentsThemes > Portrait

Contents

Introduction
9.01   Introduction to the portrait
9.02   Early examples of portraiture
9.03   Early stylistic choices with portraiture
Having a portrait taken
9.04   "Portrait factory" on Broadway, New York
9.05   Visit to Plumbe's Gallery, New York (1846)
9.06   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles
9.07   Interesting group posed for a Daguerreotype by a friend of the family / Interesting and valuable result (1855)
9.08   Letter from W.L. Marcy, Secretary of War, to Major General Z. Taylor, Commanding Army of Occupation, Monterey, Mexico (5 October 1846)
Guidelines for sitters
9.09   Guidelines for sitters - Jesse Gostick (1860)
9.10   Guidelines for sitters - J.G. Vail
9.11   Guidelines for sitters - American Journal of Photography (1890)
Daguerreotype portraits
9.12   W. & F. Langenheim: Daguerreotype portraits
9.13   Robert Cornelius: Daguerreotype portraits
9.14   Jeremiah Gurney: Daguerreotype portraits
9.15   Samuel Broadbent: Daguerreotype portraits
9.16   Southworth and Hawes: Daguerreotype portraits
9.17   Rufus P. Anson: Daguerreotype portraits
9.18   J.E. Mayall: Daguerreotype portraits
9.19   Antoine Claudet: Daguerreotype portraits
9.20   William Edward Kilburn: Daguerreotype portraits
9.21   Richard Beard: Daguerreotype portraits
9.22   Louis-Adolphe Humbert de Molard: Daguerreotype portraits
9.23   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves
9.24   Lorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies
Ambrotype portraits
9.25   Ambrotypes: Portrait
9.26   Japanese ambrotypes
Salt print portraits
9.27   Salt prints: Portraits
9.28   Hill & Adamson: Portraits
Studio portraits
9.29   Nadar: Portraits
9.30   Studio portraits in Algeria
9.31   Studio portraits in Egypt
9.32   Studio portraits in Turkey
The "Artistic" portrait
9.33   The "artistic" portrait
9.34   Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits
9.35   Lady Clementina Hawarden: Photographic studies
The "helping hand" and the "hidden mother"
9.36   The "helping hand" and the "hidden mother"
Front and back views
9.37   Front and back view portraits
Carte de visite portraits
9.38   André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: Uncut carte de visite sheets
9.39   Carte de visites: Celebrities
9.40   Giuseppe Garibaldi
Cabinet card portraits
9.41   Cabinet cards: Celebrities
Tintype portraits
9.42   Tintype portraits
9.43   Tin Type Album: Little gem tintypes
Galleries of the famous
9.44   Thompson Cooper, Lock & Whitfield: Men of Mark (1876-1883)
9.45   Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique
9.46   Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique
9.47   Herbert Rose Barraud: Portraits
Pictorialism
9.48   Pictorialism and the innocence of children
9.49   Pictorialism and the portrait
9.50   Clarence H. White: Portraits
Modernism and the portrait
9.51   The move from Pictorialism to Modernism in portraiture
9.52   August Sander (1876-1964)
9.53   Helmar Lerski: Portraits
Vernacular portraits
9.54   Photobooth portraits
9.55   Mike Disfarmer: Heber Springs portraits
9.56   Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography
Bust portraits
9.57   Bust portraits
Humanistic portraiture
9.58   The Family of Man Exhibition (1955)
9.59   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974)
9.60   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers?
Diversity in portraiture
9.61   Photographers who photograph representations of people
Post-modernism
9.62   Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers
9.63   The contemporary portrait
9.64   Keeping abreast of changes in portraiture
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
9.01   Portrait >  Introduction to the portrait 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
From its earliest invention one of the primary purposes of photography has been the preservation of the human form as a physical object and this portable memory aid continues to be the primary function of photography. From the early daguerreotypes, through ambrotypes, tintypes and carte de visite[1] at each stage the portrait has been the paramount theme. Frequently these were turned out by hacks of limited talent but they can still have considerable charm and a great many are still in existence.
 
Daguerreotypes
The majority of Daguerreotype portraits are from the waist up and we rarely see close-ups of the face or the full body. It is not to say that they were not done but they are not as common and one can find a full-length portraits of a young sailor, a hunter and a gloriously tinted young girl taken by William Edward Kilburn[2] and a Boston Beauty in Black Taffeta Dress and Lace Shaw immortalized by Southworth & Hawes in around 1850.  
  
Daguerreotype: Full length portraits of adults 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Portraits of the Daguerreian era tend to exclude the feet - it might be that they are hidden beneath a voluminous dress or that they were seen as rather risqué for polite society. With children feet do appear and this is often because they are seated on a lap or sitting alone on a chair.  
  
Daguerreotype: Full length portraits of children 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
In the majority of portraits the subject is immortalized head and shoulders or three-quarter length facing the camera.  
  
Daguerreotype: Head and shoulders and three-quarter length portraits 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Daguerreotype: Three-quarter length portraits 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Daguerreotype profiles do exist and these mimic the poses of earlier silhouette and physionotrace artworks. Some examples of daguerreotype copies of silhouettes have survived including a Silhouette en noir d'un abbé that came up at an auction sale in 2011[3].  
  
Daguerreotype: Profiles 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There is a formality in most Daguerreotype that leaves little room for a smile, spontaneity or mood but there are exceptions and once again it is the Boston partnership of Southworth & Hawes or the French photographer Louis-Adolphe Humbert de Molard that captures it best.  
  
Daguerreotype: Informality 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There are contemporary accounts of visits to Daguerreotype studios [4] and over time guidelines on the colours to wear, how to pose, suitable studio backgrounds and the props that could be included emerged. The portrait had become formalised and it was largely an imitation of the posing styles used in painting.
Salt paper pints
How we understand the connection between a process and the kinds of portraiture it was used for can be influenced by a small number of key practitioners who had a vision far beyond that of the ordinary, with daguerreotypes we could use Southworth & Hawes with the albumen print the atmospheric works of Julia Margaret Cameron. With the salt print it is Hill and Adamson and their work at Newhaven, near Edinburgh in Scotland.[5] The fishermen and women of Newhaven are not formal in their poses - they do not have the rigidity that can be imposed by headrests and a sense of occasion. Here it is the photographer seeking a person of interest to photograph rather than a sitter requiring a portrait.  
  
Hill & Adamson: Portraits 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Hill and Adamson documented life in a fishing community in the 1840s. One can argue that there are daguerreotypes of scenes from the California gold rush but do they have the same mood? The clarity of the daguerreotype in group portraits such as the Portrait of 23 miners at sluice has the appearance of the photographer saying "Hold Still" and works by Hill and Adamson rarely have that. They are portraits of the everyday - genre photography.
Albumen print portraits, carte de visite and cabinet cards
The albumen print which was the basis for most, but not all, carte de visites and cabinet cards from the 1850s onwards was the dominant form of photography worldwide until being overtaken by the gelatin silver print. When most people think about nineteenth century it is the brownish tones of the albumen print that comes to mind.  
  
Albumen print: Portraits 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
It is the portraits of Alfred Lord Tennyson by Julia Margaret Cameron, William Holman Hunt by David Wilkie Wynfield, Isambard Kingdom Brunel by Robert Howlett that provide the visual icons of the Victorian Age in Great Britain. The one of Brunel with the chains of the Great Eastern behind him is used on bookcovers as symbolic of the industrial might of Empire.  
  
Albumen print: Iconic figures 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
As card photograph sizes became standardized with the carte de visite and the later cabinet card so albums increased in popularity. Albums were a family history, a bringing together of the extended family and an incorporation of the celebrities of the age. Specially printed cards in albums encouraged the craze for collecting cartes through reciprocity and guilt - "if you want one of my cards or take a look through my album you've better leave one of your cards."  
  
Carte de visite: Filler cards and invitations to reciprocate 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The range of carte de visite can be bewildering in their exuberance and variety. There are portraits of British royalty, occupationals, ethnic and traditional costumes, post-mortems - nobody was excluded. As costs declined variety increased. There was a democracy of portraits where different races came together in albums with greater ease than they did in reality - here social classes had few barriers.  
  
Carte de visite: Range of portraits 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Woodburytypes and the formality of celebrity
The Woodburytype printing process was developed by Walter Bentley Woodbury and patented in Great Britain in 1864[6]. It was low grain and suitable for the creation of book illustrations in large quantities which was difficult with the technologies of the time. The distinctive reddish-brown tone of the prints and was publicised by Woodbury including an insert in the The Photographic News of 26 January 1866. Well suited to the mass production of non-fading portraits of celebrities it was used for Men of Mark (1876-1883) with text by journalist Thompson Cooper (1837-1904) and photographers Samuel Robert Lock (1822-1881) and George Carpe Whitfield (born 1833) [7] .  
  
Woodburytpe: Men of Mark 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Men of Mark includes an eclectic group of celebrities of Victorian society and taken out of their historical context it is difficult to understand why a purchaser would want a photograph of Sir John Walker Huddleston, Baron of the Exchequer[8] or The Hon. Sir Edward Ebenezer Kay, Judge of the High Court of Justice[9]. The Victorian age in Great Britain was an age of industry, self-improvement through reference books, workers institutes and Burke's Peerage - knowledge of the influential was a part of this. In these studio portraits the great men of the day are revealed.
 
There were other similar series produced outside Great Britain of similar portraits including Galerie Contemporaine (1876-1884) in France. Galerie Contemporaine also used the Woodburytype photomechanical process that had been used for Men of Mark . Galerie Contemporaine was issued in parts by the firm of Goupil. The whole series contained 241 portraits of leading figures from art, literature, music, science, and politics. Notable Parisian photographers such as Nadar supplied portraits of George Sand, Louis Figuier and the popular artist Gustave Doré.[10]  
  
Woodburytype: Galerie Contemporaine 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The rise of the vernacular portrait
Prior to the 1890s was the world of the professional and the committed amateur - it had become easier over the years with dry plates and smaller cameras but it was still out of reach as an activity for most. When George Eastman released the early Kodak cameras the cultural change was dramatic as an increasingly wide group of the middle class and those who were willing to save could afford the Kodak No, 1 and the Kodak No. 2. The freedom of carrying a camera to record holidays, trips, family events and friends was a sensation with a similar impact to the Instragram in contemporary society. The means of sharing images was handing around snapshots or albums rather than digitally but the preservation of personal memories in a tangible form was important. Professional photographers such as Francis Benjamin Johnston used a Kodak camera to record everyday moments.  
  
Snapshot cameras in use 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The technologies varied as did the formats but the intention was the same to capture transient moments and give them longevity. Artists such as Pierre Bonnard photographed Ker-Xavier Roussel and Edouard Vuillard in Venice.  
  
Artists with cameras 
Thumbnail  
  
The 1890s was the time when photobooths were being developed and the US patent for the one by Mathew Joseph Steffens shows an "Automatic Photographic Apparatus"[11] . There is a wonderful photograph of Anatol Josepho sitting inside the photobooth he invented[12]. Just has the Kodak No, 1 had bought about a revolution in personal photography with the photobooth no photographer was necessary and you didn't need to own a camera. The democracy of photography was expanding and with real photo postcards everyday moments could be mailed around the world.  
  
Photobooths 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There had been weathy innovators and amateur photographers since the beginnings of photography and there are museums based on their collections such as the Fox Talbot Museum (Laycock, England), Fondazione Primoli (Rome, Italy), Musée Départmental Albert Kahn (Boulogne-Billancourt, Ile de France, France) and the house and studio of Carlos Relvas (Golegã, Portugal). Jacques-Henri Lartigue (1894-1986) was a gifted amateur who was born at around the time George Eastman was marketing his first Kodak cameras and Lartigue's childhood was preoccupied with documenting the antics of his wealthy and adventurous family.[13] The barriers to camera ownership were broken by the start of the twentieth century in the more prosperous parts of the world and people had control over their own images and to how they would be seen - smiles became more common in photographs. This wa an immense change in how the family saw and documented itself, how it shared images with others using real photo postcards and how it created family histories within albums. An Unknown Street Photographer in Paris (1896) could record a trip with details that few professional photographers would be interested in.  
  
An Unknown Street Photographer in Paris (1896) 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There had been photographers such Charles Piazzi-Smyth in Russia, Paul Martin at the English seaside towns of Yarmouth, Ilfracombe and the island of Jersey during the 1890s and Arnold Genthe in Chinatown in San Francisco who recorded life on the street but they were not common. As instantaneous photography became available so attitudes to what could be photographed changed - the street had become photographable. Formal portraits would continue but as a percentage they would decline over the years as increasingly people could document their own lives employing professional photographers for the most formal and significant of moments,
Pictorialism and the portrait
As snapshot photography increased there was a rebellion against it and to a certain extent Pictorialism is a part of that. Although we can reflect on the printed works such the exhibition catalogues of the Photo-Club de Paris, the publications Wiener Photographische Blätter from Austria and Die Kunst in der Photographie from Germany and the American publications Camera Notes, Camera Work edited by Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession we need to examine the Pictorialist portrait as a whole to get a feeling for them. The way in which we see and understand portraits is embedded within our own historical viewpoints and thus fluctuates over time. Pictorialism can have a nostalgia for a rural agarian past and candy box sentimentality from a period prior to the First World War (1914-1918). The main figures who are now seen as the key players in Pictorialism was relatively small and it is easy to overstate the impact they had in the wider world of photography - afterall there are thousands of contemporary camera clubs and photographic societies but few would claim that they have any impact on "Fine Art Photography" as it is considered by curators.
 
Within pictorialist portraits there are some intriguing charactistics - the women the full age spectrum but the men tend to be wizzened and wise. Perhaps the mostly male photographers saw themselves as sages of the art of photography.  
  
Pictorialism: Portraits of women 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Pictorialism: Portraits of men 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Some Pictorialist photographers have became a part of the canon - that mysterious list of who is important that is becoming increasingly frowned on by curators and photo-historians who are becoming more inclusive. Names like Alfred Stieglitz, Baron Adolph de Meyer, Robert Demachy, Emile Joachim Constant Puyo and J. Craig Annan are well known but there are a great many more known to specialists.
Surrealism and portraiture
In the Christmas cards of Angus McBean portraits and self-portraits become surreal and at times bizarre seasonal messages.  
  
Angus McBean: Portraits 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Within Surrealism some of the personalities involved or associated with it were larger than life and their own films, writngs, and artworks have influenced the ways they were portrayed, or wanted to be portrayed, in photographic portraits. The portrait was a part of an overall marketing package for the individual and nobody did it as well as Salvador Dali - he may not have taken the portraits but it is his personality that comes through.[14]  
  
Portraits of Salvador Dali 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
For each period of photography and each technology used we can see highly distinctive characteristics in portraiture. 
  
9.02   Portrait >  Early examples of portraiture 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.03   Portrait >  Early stylistic choices with portraiture 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
In the early photographs elaborate backgrounds, props, scenery and costumes were frequently used to link the resulting portrait to the artistic tradition of a painting.
 
In 1866 the smaller carte de visite was enhanced with the introduction in England of the cabinet card this had a standard size of a 6 1/2 x 4 1/2 inch mount affixed with a 5 1/2 x 4 inch picture fgrequently with the name of the studio and the photographer beneath or on the reverse of the card. 
  
 19thc Studio Interiors 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
19thc Studio Backgrounds 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
19thc Studio Props 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Having a portrait taken 
  
9.04   Portrait >  "Portrait factory" on Broadway, New York 
  
Thumbnail  
  
In an 1866 article by J. Werge on "Rambles among the Studios of New York" published in The Photographic News he recalled the production pipeline of the daguerreotype studios of New York in the 1840s and 50s:
In the Daguerreotype days there was a "portrait factory" on Broadway, where likenesses were turned out as fast as coining, for the small charge of twenty-five cents a head. The arrangements for such rapid work were very complete. I had a dollar's worth of these "factory" portraits. At the desk I paid my money, and received four tickets, which entitled me to as many sittings when my turn came. I was shown into a waiting room crowded with people. The customers were seated on forms placed round the room, sidling their way to the entrance of the operating room, and answering the cry of "the next" in much the same manner that people do at our public baths. I being "the next," at last went into the operating room, where I found the operator stationed at the camera which he never left all day long, except occasionally to adjust a stupid sitter. He told the next to "Sit down" and "Look thar," focussed, and, putting his hand into a hole in the wall which communicated with the "coating room," he found a dark slide ready filled with a sensitized plate, and putting it into the camera, "exposed," and saying "that will dew," took the dark slide out of the camera, and shoved it through another hole in the wall communicating with the mercury or developing room. This was repeated as many times as I wanted sittings, which he knew by the number of tickets I had given to a boy in the room, whose duty it was to look out for "the next," and collect the tickets. The operator had nothing to do with the preparation of the plates, developing, fixing, or finishing of the picture. He was responsible only for the "pose" and "time," the "developer" checking and correcting the latter occasionally by crying out "Short" or "Long" as the case might be. Having had my number of "sittings," I was requested to leave the operating room by another door which opened into a passage that led me to the "delivery desk " where, in a few minutes, I got all my four portraits fitted up in "matt, glass, and preserver," the pictures having been passed from the developing room to the "gilding," room thence to the "fitting room" and the "delivery desk," where I received them. Thus they were all finished and carried away without the camera operator ever having seen them. Three of the four portraits were as fine Daguerreotypes as could be produced anywhere. Ambrotypes, or "Daguerreotypes on glass," as some called them, were afterwards produced in much the same manufacturing manner.[15]
 
  
9.05   Portrait >  Visit to Plumbe's Gallery, New York (1846) 
  
On the front page of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle for 2 July 1846 Walt Whitman, the editor of the paper, published an article on a visit to the "Picture Gallery" of John Plumbe in New York City:
Visit to Plumbe's Gallery
 
Among the "lions" of the great American metropolis, New York City, is the Picture Gallery at the upper corner of Murray street and Broadway, commonly known as Plumbe's Daguerreotype establishment. Puffs, etc., out of the question, this is certainly a great establishment! You will see more life there—more variety, more human nature, more artistic beauty, (for what created thing can surpass that masterpiece of physical perfection, the human face?) than in any spot we know of. The crowds continually coming and going—the fashionable belle, the many distinguished men, the idler, the children—these alone are enough to occupy a curious train of attention. But they are not the first thing. To us, the pictures address themselves before all else.
 
What a spectacle! In whatever direction you turn your peering gaze, you see naught but human faces! There they stretch, from floor to ceiling—hundreds of them. Ah! what tales might those pictures tell if their mute lips had the power of speech! How romance then, would be infinitely outdone by fact. Here is one now—a handsome female, apparently in a bridal dress. She was then, perhaps, just married. Her husband has brought her to get her likeness; and a fine one he must have had, if this is a correct duplicate of it. Is he yet the same tender husband? Another, near by, is the miniature of an aged matron, on whose head many winters have deposited their snowy semblance. But what a calm serene bearing! How graceful she looks in her old age!
 
Even as you go in by the door, you see the withered features of a man who has occupied the proudest place on earth: you see the bald head of John Quincy Adams, and those eyes of dimmed but still quenchless fire. There too, is the youngest of the Presidents, Mr. Polk. From the same case looks out the massive face of Senator Benton. Who is one of his nearest neighbors? No one less than the Storm-King of the piano, De Meyer. Likewise Chancellor Kent and Alexander H. Everett.
 
Persico's statuary of the drooping Indian girl, and the male figure up-bearing a globe, is in an adjoining frame, true as the marble itself. Thence, too, beams down the Napoleon-looking oval face of Ole Bull, with his great dreamy eyes. Among the others in the same connection, (and an odd connection, enough!) are Mrs. Polk, her niece Miss Walker, Marble the comedian, Mayor Mickle, George Vandenhoff, Mrs. Tyler, and Mr. Buen, a most venerable white-haired ancient, (we understand, just dead!) On another part of the wall, you may see Mrs. J. C. Calhoun, the venerable Mesdames Hamilton and Madison, and Miss Alice Tyler. There, also, are Mike Walsh—Robert Owen, with his shrewd Scotch face, but benevolent look—Horace Greeley—the "pirate" Babe—Grant Thorborn—Audubon, the ornithologist, a fiery-eyed old man and Mr. Plumbe himself. Besides these, of course, are hundreds of others. Indeed, it is little else on all sides of you, than a great legion of human faces—human eyes gazing silently but fixedly upon you, and creating the impression of an immense Phantom concourse—speechless and motionless, but yet realities. You are indeed in a new world—a peopled world, though mute as the grave. We don't know how it is with others, but we could spend days in that collection, and find enough enjoyment in the thousand human histories, involved in those daguerreotypes.
 
There is always, to us, a strange fascination, in portraits. We love to dwell long upon them—to infer many things, from the text they preach—to pursue the current of thoughts running riot about them. It is singular what a peculiar influence is possessed by the eye of a well-painted miniature or portrait.—It has a sort of magnetism. We have miniatures in our possession, which we have often held, and gazed upon the eyes in them for the half-hour! An electric chain seems to vibrate, as it were, between our brain and him or her preserved there so well by the limner's cunning. Time, space, both are annihilated, and we identify the semblance with the reality.—And even more than that. For the strange fascination of looking at the eyes of a portrait, sometimes goes beyond what comes from the real orbs themselves.
 
Plumbe's beautiful and multifarious pictures all strike you, (whatever their various peculiarities) with their naturalness, and the life-look of the eye—that soul of the face! In all his vast collection, many of them thrown hap-hazard, we notice not one that has a dead eye. Of course this is a surpassing merit. Nor is it unworthy of notice, that the building is fitted up by him in many ranges of rooms, each with a daguerrian operator; and not merely as one single room, with one operator, like other places have. The greatest emulation is excited; and persons or parties having portraits taken, retain exclusive possession of one room, during the time.[16]
 
  
9.06   Portrait >  Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Occupational daguerreotypes of women are far less common than those of men and this may be a reflection of gender-based attitudes to work in the nineteenth century.[17] An interesting exception to this are the illustrations based on daguerreotypes by Richard Beard published in Henry Mayhew's book London Labour and the London Poor (1861).[18]  
  
Richard Beard: Illustrations for "London Labour and London Poor" (1861) 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There are portraits of women in entertainment such as Jenny Lind but other occupationals are rare indeed.  
  
Women in entertainment and the arts 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The rarity of women's roles on daguerreotypes may reflect that they would be largely purchased by the upper classes where most women would not be working other than in the home.[19] This is obviously simplistic as many women needed to work. Joseph T. Zealy was a daguerreotypist and photographer in South Carolina who took a number of daguerreotypes of slaves for Dr. Robert Wilson Gibbes who was having them taken for Louis Agassiz.[20][21] The portraits here of Drana and Delia were a part of the "documentation of species" and human types, as is shown by the frontal and profile poses, rather than an investigation of female roles in society.  
  
Women as slaves 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
With portraits where an African-American women is shown with white children there is the assumption that she is a nanny. We have no way visually of telling if she was a slave or a free woman. If the women with children is white she is assumed to be the mother or possibly a family member - we would rarely guess at nanny or governess even though she may well have been. Our preconceptions of roles affect the way images are captioned and this re-enforces our preconceptions.  
  
Possibly nannies 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
   Daguerreotypes Occupational 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.07   Portrait >  Interesting group posed for a Daguerreotype by a friend of the family / Interesting and valuable result (1855) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
This two-panel cartoon from Punch's Almanack for 1855 uses humour to highlight the quality of daguerreotype portraiture.[22] 
  
9.08   Portrait >  Letter from W.L. Marcy, Secretary of War, to Major General Z. Taylor, Commanding Army of Occupation, Monterey, Mexico (5 October 1846) 
  
Thumbnail  
  
In this contemporary letter from W.L. Marcy, the US Secretary of War, to Major General Zachary Taylor it mentions a daguerreotype as being suitable for preparing a medal as a tribute for his service in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848):
Major General Z. Taylor.
 
War Department, October 5, 1846.
 
Sir: By a joint resolution of Congress, approved July 16th, the President is authorized and requested to have a medal of gold procured, with appropriate devices and inscriptions thereon presented to you in the name of the republic, as a tribute due to your good conduct, valor, and generosity to the vanquished. Preparations are being made to carry this resolution into effect, and the only difficulty that seems to present itself is the want of a faithful bust likeness of yourself, in order to enable the artist to prepare the die. It is possible that you may have a faithful miniature likeness of yourself, which could be made use of for this purpose: if so, and you will direct it to be sent to this department, it shall be taken good care of and safely returned to you. If you have no such likeness, it is suggested that one may be taken by a competent artist and forwarded to the department the expense of which will be defrayed by the government. It is believed that a daguerreotype likeness would answer every purpose. and insure a faithful resemblance.
 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. L. MARCY,
Secretary of War.
 
Major General Z. Taylor, Commanding Army of Occupation, Monterey, Mexico.[23]
 
  
Guidelines for sitters 
  
9.09   Portrait >  Guidelines for sitters - Jesse Gostick (1860) 
  
Jesse Gostick in 1860 provided guidelines for those taking portraits:
Every sitter for a portrait, every building, every landscape, every animal, and every other subject has one view prettier than any other view. Find out the point of sight and there fix your camera for still life; and for a portrait adjust the position by your sitter's chair, and inclining his person to the natural position wanted. Educated people give but little trouble, as they are accustomed to good positions, but sometimes there are except ions, for nervous people assume the forced position; and sometimes the operator gives so many cautions that the sitter is frightened out of naturalness. Take the portrait without cautions, and if the sitter is wrong correct the pose quietly; for the mind of every sitter is. as sensitive as your sensitive plate, and a natural likeness is only to be got when the mind is naturally composed.
 
Do not try to make a mechanic look like a gentleman, or a domestic servant to appear as an authoress with book and pen. You might as well pose an agricultural labourer to look like Byron. A mechanic may be as good a gentleman in his line of life as the best aristocrat is in his grade of society, but how ridiculous to caricature a sitter! Besides, all sitters want likenesses of themselves and not to be immortalised in an appearance which they never had but once in their lives.[24]
 
  
9.10   Portrait >  Guidelines for sitters - J.G. Vail 
  
Thumbnail  
  
On the back of a carte de visite for J.G. Vail (6 Seneca St., Geneva, N.Y.) he provides guidelines for sitters.
Patrons will please remember that dark drapery, such as black, brown, green and the darker shades of red, make the the clearest looking pictures. Blue, pink, purple, and the light shades of red take light.
 
Clear sunny days are best for taking Babies and small children.
 
  
9.11   Portrait >  Guidelines for sitters - American Journal of Photography (1890) 
  
In an 1890 issue of the American Journal of Photography the following guidelines were providing on how to pose:
Posing For A Photograph.—Don't wear a silk frock. Nothing comes out so badly as the gloss of satin or glimpses of silk. Instead choose wool or velvet. If you are young, wear a white gown. Remember that gray takes white, and yellow or tan becomes black, so that with your white gown you must have white gloves. Lace always comes out very well, and furs are artistic. Do not fix your hair in any elaborate way, and remember you are posing as a lady and not as an actress. If you have any freckles the artist will, if he is a good one, spot them out, and if your hair is really light, put a little powder on it with powder-muff, and it will take its natural color.
 
Unless you are one of the people who can smile naturally to order, do not attempt to look pleasant, for the result is too often that seen in the picture of somebody just sitting down in the dentist's chair. For a full-length picture, throw your body, from the waist up, a little bit forward. Remember that a bonnet in fashion to-day will be out of style a year from now, and that, unless your pictures are only for the time, it is better to have them taken without a chapeau, says the Albany Journal. If you want to see a picture that could nowhere be mistaken but for that of a lady, look at those of the Duchess of Fife—not pretty, but refined looking. She inherited much of her mother's good sense, so that she has a photograph taken in a simple woolen gown, standing beside her husband, not in a dramatic fashion, but just as a lady might and does stand.[25]
 
  
Daguerreotype portraits 
  
9.12   Portrait >  W. & F. Langenheim: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.13   Portrait >  Robert Cornelius: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.14   Portrait >  Jeremiah Gurney: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.15   Portrait >  Samuel Broadbent: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.16   Portrait >  Southworth and Hawes: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.17   Portrait >  Rufus P. Anson: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.18   Portrait >  J.E. Mayall: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.19   Portrait >  Antoine Claudet: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.20   Portrait >  William Edward Kilburn: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.21   Portrait >  Richard Beard: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.22   Portrait >  Louis-Adolphe Humbert de Molard: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.23   Portrait >  J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Joseph T. Zealy was a daguerreotypist and photographer in South Carolina who took a number of daguerreotypes of slaves for Dr. Robert Wilson Gibbes who was having them taken for Louis Agassiz.[26][27] 
  
9.24   Portrait >  Lorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Ambrotype portraits 
  
9.25   Portrait >  Ambrotypes: Portrait 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.26   Portrait >  Japanese ambrotypes 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
These rare Ambrotypes rank as unique photographic treasures on a number of counts. It is important to note that the images you see before you were not intended for a Western audience. Rather, they are unique, one-of-a-kind images created by Japanese photographers exclusively for Japanese clients. Only in the last few years have they come to attention in the West.
 
Until now, the best-known images from Japan’s Meiji Period (1868-1912) were taken by Western photographers - Beato, Stillfried, Farsari, et al. They are paper prints (not unique glass, albumen works, as we see here), made by appreciative Western photographers for export to a Western public craving Japan’s exotic, cultural charm. Often the Japanese posed in them as paid sitters, garbed in outmoded forms of dress (a coat of multi-layered, medieval Samurai armour, for instance) or arranged in improbably artistic setups (a bare-chested lady at her toilette). They are exotic specimens of a time that had, or was soon to pass.
 
Once Westerners taught the Japanese the art of photography, the next wave of images that followed - by the Japanese - were also intended for Western eyes. Not so, here, however. Culled from villages and remote family collections, these photographs (small-scale images, encased in wood) were very private, personal, intended to be passed down as precious heirlooms. The "reformed Samurai" warrior, for instance, pictured here, may have sat for such a photo in order to give his family a record of his life, lest he die in battle. The woman whose traditional whiteface makeup is framed so perfectly by her black (Western) umbrella, would have seemed smartly Westernized to her contemporaries - despite her traditional "geta" wooden platform shoes. Such visual and cultural incongruities of East and West (now marvellous to our eyes) abounded for the Japanese as they found themselves, in the late 1800s, on the brink of huge political and cultural upheaval.
 
Note a few other formal points of interest: the way the Japanese photographers tend to craft their portraits in full-length pose - from head to feet; the slightly lowered, more respectful position of the camera angle (vs. to the more confrontational approach to portraiture of the West). Then, there is the Ambrotype medium itself, which creates one-of-a-kind images on glass, without a negative. Though the West had already begun to favour the Albumen paper-print process, Japanese photographers set about perfecting the soon-to-be retrograde Ambrotype process, teasing from it a greater tonal range. And finally, note the kiri-wood presentation cases, in which these photographs are housed: they are feather-light, perfectly hand-crafted to fit, just so, in your palm. Thanks to the wood’s natural drying properties, these ambrotypes have withstood the test of time (and humidity, quite prevalent in Japan) and have been preserved in amazing condition. The original owners of the photos have handled these cases, turned them over and over again - proof of their durability. On occasion, they personalized them with inscriptions. They are fascinating objects, in and of themselves. [28] 
  
   Portrait Japanese Ambrotypes 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Salt print portraits 
  
9.27   Portrait >  Salt prints: Portraits 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.28   Portrait >  Hill & Adamson: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Salt print portraits on paper made using calotype paper negatives are visually so different from daguerreotypes. The silvered metal plate of the daguerreotype has the advantage of incredible detail in the hands of master photographers like , J.E. Mayall or William Edward Kilburn there could be a sensitivity in the posing. With some photographers the painting of the daguerreotype transferred them into the realm of the miniature. The salt print does not have this accuracy and if we discount the advantages it has over the metal plate of the daguerreotype[29] there is a less tangible advantage. The daguerreotype even in the hands of the best operator has formality that takes the sitter into the unreal world of the paused moment. With the salt print the softness of the detail creates a mood almost a dreamlike state of reflection which is closer to capturing the personality and characteristics of the sitter. As David Octavius Hill of the Hill & Adamson partnership in Edinburgh wrote in a letter in 1849:
The rough surface & unequal texture throughout the paper is the main cause of the calotype failing in details, before the process of Daguerreotypy - & this is the very life of it. They look like the imperfect work of man - and not the diminished perfect work of God.[30]
 
  
   1 Hill Adamson 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Studio portraits 
  
9.29   Portrait >  Nadar: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.30   Portrait >  Studio portraits in Algeria 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.31   Portrait >  Studio portraits in Egypt 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.32   Portrait >  Studio portraits in Turkey 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
The "Artistic" portrait 
  
9.33   Portrait >  The "artistic" portrait 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There was a strong desire amongst the more thoughtful early photographers to demonstrate photography was an art the equal of painting rather than just a technical skill anybody could master. To promote the 'art' argument it was necessary to convince critics and the owners of art galleries and museums the work had not only novelty but real lasting artistic quality.
 
The question of how exactly a photographic portrait could be included in the 'fine art' tradition in the 19th century Western European mindset was to link it to the biblical, classical or literary subjects common in salon paintings. These themes, which are now frequently seen as trite, were the staples of intellectuals in the late nineteenth century. The book by Juliet Hacking (Princes of Victorian Bohemia, 2000) deals with David Wilkie Wynfield (1837-87)[31][32] who photographed Millais, Lord Leighton, Holman Hunt, Manet, and Burne-Jones and influenced the style of Julia Margaret Cameron.[33] 
  
9.34   Portrait >  Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Julia Margaret Cameron[34] was born in 1815 at Calcutta in India to James Pattle, an official with the East India Company, and Adeline de l'Etang, a French aristocrat. She took up photography after she was given a camera in the early 1860's and mastered it quickly. She took soft focused portraits of the famous English Victorians that were in her social circle and these included the astronomer Sir John Frederick William Herschel[35], the author Thomas Carlyle, Alfred Lord Tennyson[36] and Charles Darwin.
 
Julia Margaret Cameron, in a short photographic exuberance, produced an astounding body of work often based on characters from literary narratives including Shakespearean, Arthurian, mythological figures such as Venus and Cupid, Lord Tennyson's poems, Biblical characters (angels and the Madonna) as her subjects and dressed her models accordingly. In addition to these "art" subjects she photographed the leading men of Victorian society - Lord Tennyson, Thomas Carlyle, Sir John Frederick William Herschel and William Holman Hunt. As Julia Margaret Cameron wrote:
When I have had such men before my camera my whole soul has endeavoured to do its duty towards them in recording faithfully the greatness of the inner as well as the features of the outer man. The photograph thus taken has been almost the embodiment of a prayer.[37]  
  
Julia Margaret Cameron: Alfred Lord Tennyson 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Julia Margaret Cameron: Thomas Carlyle 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Julia Margaret Cameron: Sir John Frederick William Herschel 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Julia Margaret Cameron: Charles Darwin 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Julia Margaret Cameron: Sir Henry Taylor 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Cameron was embedded within the upper echelons of Victorian society as an encounter with William Allingham on 10 June 1867 reveals:
Monday, June 10.—Fine, warm. To Brockenhurst by invitation to the Bowden Smiths, croquet, roses, hot sun. Field-path to station, red campions and kingcups. Down train comes in with Mrs. Cameron, queenly in a carriage by herself surrounded by photographs. We go to Lymington together, she talking all the time. “I want to do a large photograph of Tennyson, and he objects! Says I make bags under his eyes—and Carlyle refuses to give me a sitting, he says it’s a kind of Inferno! The greatest men of the age (with strong emphasis), Sir John Herschel, Henry Taylor, Watts, say I have immortalised them—and these other men object!! What is one to do—Hm?”
This is a kind of interrogative interjection she often uses, but seldom waits for a reply. I saw her off in the Steamer, talking to the last. Dine 7.30—Sit on doorstep and hear corncrake in the moonlight. Haymaking now.[38]
Julia Margaret Cameron's work was not universally approved of in her lifetime even though there was reverence for her subjects. [39] 
  
   Julia Margaret  Cameron 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.35   Portrait >  Lady Clementina Hawarden: Photographic studies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Lady Hawarden was born Clementina Elphinstone Fleeming on 1 June 1822 and went on to become a significant amateur Scottish photographer.[40] After marrying Cornwallis Maude, 4th Viscount Hawarden, in 1845 she lived in London until 1857 when she moved with her husand to Dundrum, Co. Tipperary, Ireland. With her large family of children she doumented both them, her friends and acquaintances in a series of tableaus resembling those of Julia Margaret Cameron.[41] 
  
The "helping hand" and the "hidden mother" 
  
9.36   Portrait >  The "helping hand" and the "hidden mother" 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The restless or sleeping child in a photographic studio required support and on occasion that was provided by the accompanying adult. In most cases the adult can be seen as a part of the portrait but there are a great many nineteenth century images where the adult is concealed beneath a shawl or curtain. This means that only visible person in the portrait is the child but to contemporary eyes there is a creepy look to a badly concealed adult cradling a child. The feeling of unease is made worse when a seemingly disembodied adult hand and part of an arm rises from concealment to clutch at the child. Collectively these portraits are called "hidden mother" portraits though with many of them it is impossible to known who is under the cloth. [42]
 
At times it is said that this was necessary for the long exposures in nineteenth century photography but this was not always the case and may be more about pacifying a child and restraining it from falling from the chair. There were also special posing chairs for children[43] and additional parts suitable for children that could be added to adult posing chairs but not all studios would have had those.
 
A humorous cartoon published in Harper's Bazaar in 1888 catches the slightly ridiculous nature of this practice with a concealed figure holding a baby with the husband's shoes showing beneath the child on a card photograph:  
  
Harper's Bazaar: A Combination Picture (5 May 1888) 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
A Combination Picture
 
"Don't you think it would be better for my husband to hold her in his lap? She seems afraid to sit alone in a strange place."
 
The suggestion is found a good one, and the artist pronounces the sitting a success.
 
Startling result in the finished work.[44]
 
  
Front and back views 
  
9.37   Portrait >  Front and back view portraits 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
On occassion both a front and back view of the same person would be taken and then affixed on the front and back of a single carte de visite to act as a novelty item or be on two separate carte de visites. In anthropological photography this approach was used as a scientic method to document body shape, clothing and adornment.  
  
Anthropological use of front and back photographs 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
By affixing a photograph of a clothed person on one side of a carte de visite and a naked view of the same person on the other side there was a shock value that was designed to titillate the viewer.  
  
Pornographic use of front and back 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Carte de visite portraits 
  
9.38   Portrait >  André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: Uncut carte de visite sheets 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The cameras employed for taking carte de visite often had multiple lenses and by selectively uncovering the lens multiple copies of the same pose or different poses on the same plate could be taken allowing the sitter to select the ones required for printing. After the photograph was taken the wet collodion plate was developed and printed onto a paper sheet using the albumen print process and for André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri[45] examples of these uncut sheets survive. These sheets were used in sample books and on sample boards to allow purchasers to select poses, buy additional prints of their own portrait or those of subjects of interest. 
  
  Andre Adolphe-Eugene  Disderi 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Carte de visite Uncut Sheets 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.39   Portrait >  Carte de visites: Celebrities 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The standardized size of the carte de visite and its robust card-based format allowed for the first photograph albums that encouraged, indeed forced, a display on the pre-cut pages. All previous paper-based forms could be pasted into scrapbooks but carte de visite encouraged the creation of visual family histories and the collection of celebrities. Just as with earlier daguerreotypes of celebrities a similar range of personalities is shown.
 
Abraham Lincoln was collected and so was actor John Wilkes Booth who would assassinate him in Ford's Theatre in 1865. British Prime Ministers William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli have the rigid poses that remind one of busts and full length sculptures. In an age of the printed word authors and poets were popular and Alfred Tennyson, Henry Wordsworth Longfellow, Charles Dickens, Washington Irving and Hans Christian Anderson are all found on carte de visites. The nineteenth century was the age of colonial empires and explorers such as Henry Morton Stanley led expeditions into Africa that would result in King Leopold's brutal control of the Congo.
 
Carte de visite portraits of celebrities were collected like the cigarette cards, bubble-gum cards and sports cards that would follow. Vast numbers of carte de visite of celebrities were produced and a contemporary account from March 1862 hints at the scale of the craze:
The commercial value of the human face was never tested to such an extent as it is at the present moment in these handy photographs. No man, or woman either, knows but that some accident may elevate them to the position of the hero of the hour and send up the value of their countenances to a degree they never dreamed of.... a new source of income has been opened to first-rate photographers, besides the profit arising from taking portraits. A wholesale trade has sprung up with amazing rapidity, and to obtain a good sitter, and his permission to sell his carte de visite, is in itself an annuity to a man…. The public is little aware of the enormous sale of the cartes de visite of celebrated persons. An order will be given by a wholesale house for 10,000 of one individual—thus 400 pounds will be put into the lucky photographer’s pocket who happens to possess the negative… the Royal Family. Her Majesty’s portrait, which Mr. Mayall alone has taken, sell by the 100,000. …the Prince consort…no less than 70,000 ordered from the house of Marion & Co., of Regent street. This house is by far the greatest dealer in cartes de visite in the country.[46]
By owning a carte de visite of Kit Carson or Admiral Dot one's association with celebrity was brought closer in much the same way that friending a celebrity on Facebook does today. It is a symbol of a real or imagined relationship. 
  
   Carte de visite Celebrities 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.40   Portrait >  Giuseppe Garibaldi 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Giuseppe Garibaldi[47] was the hero of the Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871) which was in need of a popular hero and he was perfect for the part. In the following account from 1866 we get a sense of the cult of personality that surrounded him on his travels to secure the Unification of Italy. Photography played a part in the the promotion of his personality and resolve.[48]
Photography And Garibaldi. Mr. G. A. Sala, in a recent letter in the Telegraph, has a graphic word-photograph on Garibaldi, in commenting on the sun-pictures of the Italian hero. He says: "Photography has not done him justice. The sun, like calumny and the calumniator's favourite weapon, the frying-pan, blackens all with whom his rays, through the medium of the camera, come in contact. In the cartes de visite Garibaldi looks sombre, meagre, and worn. I was surprised to see a hearty, jovial man, with a great blonde beard. But for the eyeglass he used, and the stick he carried, there were no traces visible of the waves of time which have dashed against him, or of the cruel bullet which struck him at Aspromonte. He gave me his hand, and a hearty, sailor-like grip into the bargain; and if it be snobbish to have wished to kiss that horny paw, I am glad to have been, for once in my life at all events, a snob most egregious. A thousand times must it have been remarked in print that the aspect of Garibaldi is as that of a Lion. But no other simile will serve. ' Sorriso di madre, riguardo di leone,' the Italians say of him. His port and mien are, of a truth, thoroughly leonine ; but the ' sorriso di madre,' the ' mother's smile,' comes ever him when he converses familiarly, when he calls to some member of his staff, or, best of all, when he sees the boy volunteers, the hope and promise of Italy, passing before him. And there surely was never a countenance so thoroughly translucent, and from whose eyes there beamed so strongly the light of tho soul within the soul of a just and upright man, quietly striving to do his duty."[49]
 
  
Cabinet card portraits 
  
9.41   Portrait >  Cabinet cards: Celebrities 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The cabinet card, which is essentially a larger carte de visite, was introduced in 1863 was a 4 x 5 1/2 inch photograph affixed to a 4 1/2 x 6 1/2 inch card stock. It prolonged the collecting of card-based photographs until snapshot photography came in during the 1890s and in some countries cabinet cards continued until after the First World War (1914-1918). As with earlier forms of photography, particularly carte de visites, celebrities of the day were widely collected.
 
Once again authors and poets were well represented with Oscar Wilde, Tolstoy, Mark Twain and Victor Hugo. Cards of those who had carried out heroic deeds such as William Frederick Cody, perhaps better known as Buffalo Bill, Roald Amundsen for his trek to the South Pole, Baden Powell well known throughout the British Empire for holding Mafeking during the Second Boer War and around the world for founding the Boy Scouts movement were purchased. Popular entertainers such as tightrope walker Charles Blondin, actresses Sarah Bernhardt and Lilly Langtry toured widely and were celebrities of the age. 
  
   Cabinet cards Celebrities 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Tintype portraits 
  
9.42   Portrait >  Tintype portraits 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Tintypes being on thin metal sheets were difficult to write on and this means that the names of the sitters are less likely to be recorded than on salt prints, albumen prints, carte de visites or cabinet cards or other paper or card mounted photographs. Daguerreotypes, also on metal plates, had the same inherent disadvantage but as they were frequently cased and belonged to those with a higher station in life the connection with the family through the descendents is more likely to remain.
 
Although tintypes have a limited tonal range and can appear dark they can have a considerable charm. 
  
9.43   Portrait >  Tin Type Album: Little gem tintypes 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Gems[50][51] are small tintypes around 3/4 x 1 inch in size. 
  
Galleries of the famous 
  
9.44   Portrait >  Thompson Cooper, Lock & Whitfield: Men of Mark (1876-1883) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Thompson Cooper (1837-1904), Men of Mark, a Gallery of Contemporary Portraits of Men Distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in Science, Literature and Art, the Army, Navy, Law, Medicine, etc. [Woodburytyped] from Life by Lock and Whitfield (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1876-1883).
 
This important work was a collaboration between the photographers Samuel Robert Lock (1822-1881) and George Carpe Whitfield (born 1833) and the journalist Thompson Cooper (1837-1904) who prepared the brief biographies for the individuals featured. Lock and Whitfield prepared 36 oval woodburytypes for publication each year and when Lock died in 1881 Whitfield continued the project alone. The total number plates is 254, including the two frontispiece illustrations in volumes 1 and 4. Some photographic plates were acquired from other photographers, e.g. the portrait of Victor Hugo is by Etienne Carjat (1828-1906), the one of Jules Verne by Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon (1818-1881), both of Paris, the one of Tennyson by London photographer John Jabez Edwin Paisley Mayall (1813-1901).
 
The “series” was distributed as seven bound volumes, in an unknown but probably low edition. A short biographical sketch of usually one page is followed by a page carrying a mounted woodburytypes portrait. There are about 36 portraits per volume, each of them in an excellent printing quality. Though the sitters – exclusively male – are the same, e.g. in different copies of vol. 1 some slight variations of posing and cropping can be observed in a few of the portraits published. This could be due to the relatively low print run which the woodburytypes technique allowed. The later volumes seem to be progressively rarer as they have probably seen a lower print run than the introductory volumes. The images are mounted to the pages succeeding the letterpress printed biographies. - The selection of personalities described and depicted would be another matter for future research. They are either British upper class and/or nobility, or have risen to some prominence as members of the military, lawyers, clergymen, artists or writers. Their names were selected when they were alive, though some did not live to see themselves published. If Cooper knew about a death he included this information in his biographical sketch. Were the more prominent invited to the Lock & Whitfield’s studio to be portrayed for free while less prominent but more vain persons where asked to contribute to the substantial costs of this major production?
 
Usually a text page or two by Cooper containing biographical data is followed by a woodburytype portrait mounted to the next page. Some introductory texts, e.g. on especially well-known personalities like Gladstone (vol. 6, 1882) are longer. The image size is c. 11.4 x 91 cm with a printed ornamental surround, the name of the model, the photographer’s name or names, and the identification as “Woodbury Process”. In some volumes the page with the mounted portrait preceeds the page of printed biographical information; this might be due to a bookbinder’s whim.
 
From the preface by George C. Whitfield (vol. 1, 1876):
“The photographs, taken from life, expressly for this publication, are produced in an absolutely permanent form by means of the Woodbury Process. – Whilst modifying on the one hand the crudeness which more or less is inseparable from the camera image, and correcting the untruthful rendering of colour which occasionally occurs, I have endeavoured on the other to retain the character and individuality of each subject […].”
The subjects are as follows [in brackets: additional names, life dates completed from later sources]:
First series (1876)
 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales [Albert Edward, 1901-1910 King Edward VII; 1841-1910], frontispiece
 
The Earl of Dufferin, Governor-General of Canada [Frederick Hamilton-Temple Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava; 1826-1902], pl. 1
 
Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy, M.A., Late Chief Justice of Ceylon [1812-1878], pl. 2
 
Sir Richard Baggallay, Judge of the Supreme Court of Appeal [1816-1888], pl. 3
 
Captain Richard [Francis] Burton [African explorer, diplomat, etc.; 1821-1890], pl. 4
 
The Right Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, M.P. [1806-1898], pl. 5
 
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, [Bart.] Chief Secretary for Ireland [1st Earl St Aldwyn; The Viscount St Aldwyn; 1837-1916], pl. 6
 
Lord Lytton, Viceroy of India [Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton; 1831-1891], pl. 7
 
Sir John Walker Huddleston, Baron of the Exchequer [1817-?], pl. 8
 
Samuel Plimsoll, M.P., “The Sailor’s Friend” [1824-1898], pl. 9
 
Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., Major-General [1833-1913], pl. 10
 
The Right Rev. John Jackson, D.D., Lord Bishop of London [1811-1886], pl. 11
 
Lord James [4th Baron] Talbot de Malahide, President of the Royal Archaeological Institute [1805-1883], pl. 12
 
His Eminence Cardinal Henry Edward Manning, Archbishop of Westminster [1808-1892], pl. 13
 
James Anthony Froude, M.A., LL.D, Historian [1818-1894], pl. 14
 
Henry Fawcett, M.P., Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge [1833-1884], pl. 15
 
The Right Hon. Lord Chelmsford [Sir Frederic Thesiger, 1st Baron Chelmsford; 1794-1879], pl. 16
 
The Right Rev. Charles J. [John] Ellicott, D.D., Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol [1819-1905], pl. 17
 
The Right Hon. Henry Bouverie William Brand, Speaker of the House of Commons [1st Viscount Hampden; 1814-1892], pl. 18
 
John Everett Millais, Royal Academician [1829-1896], pl. 19
 
The Rev. F. W. [Frederick William] Farrar, D.D., F.R.S., Canon of Westminster [1831-1903], pl. 20
 
Lord George [Francis] Hamilton, Under-Secretary of State for India [M.P.; 1845-1927], pl. 21
 
The Right Hon. Lord Selbourne, Ex-Lord High Chancellor of England [Roundell Palmer, 1st Earl of Selbourne; 1812-1895], pl. 22
 
The Right Hon. Bartle Edward Frere, Bart., G.C.B. [1815-1884], pl. 23
 
The Hon. Sir Charles Hall, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1814-1883], pl. 24
 
The Right Rev. Edward Harold Browne, D.D., Lord Bishop of Winchester [1811-1891], pl. 25
 
Charles Jean Marie Loyson, “Père Hyacinthe” [1827-1912], pl. 26
 
Sir James Macnaghten [McGarel] Hogg, K.C.B., Chairman of the Metropolitan Board of Works [1823-1890], pl. 27
 
The Right Hon. The [7th] Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. [Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley; 1801-1885], pl. 28
 
The Right Hon. Lord Redesdale, Charman of Committees of the House of Lords [John Thomas Freeman Mitford; 1805-1886], pl. 29
 
The Ven. George Anthony Denison, Archdeacon of Taunton [1805-1896], pl. 30
 
The Right Hon. John Bright, M.P. for Birmingham [1811-1889], pl. 31
 
The Right Rev. Monsignor [Thomas John] Capel, D.D., Rector of the Catholic University College [1836-1911], pl. 32
 
The Right Hon. William Francis Cowper-Temple, M.P. for South Hampshire [1811-1888], pl. 33
 
His Grace The Duke of Abercorn, K.G., Lord Lieutnant of Ireland [James Hamilton, 1811-1885], pl. 34
 
The Most Reverend Archibald Campbell Tait, D.D., Archbishop of Canterbury [1811-1882], pl. 35
 
W. H. [William Howard] Russell, Esq., LL.D. [1820-1907], pl. 36
 
Second series (1877)
 
Frederick Leighton, Esq., Royal Academician [1st Baron Leighton; 1830-1896], pl. 1
 
Richard Durnford, D.D., Bishop of Chichester [1802-1895], pl. 2
 
John Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution [1820-1893], pl. 3
 
The Right Hon. Sir Robert J. [Joseph] Phillimore, D.C.L., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1st Baronet; 1810-1885], pl. 4
 
The Rev. Newman Hall, LL.B. [clergyman, 1816-1902], pl. 5
 
The Right Hon. Lord Winmarleigh [Col. John Wilson-Patten, 1st Baron Winmarleigh; 1802-1892], pl. 6
 
Comte Victor Marie Hugo, poet, dramatist, and novelist [1802-1885.- Portrait photograph is by Etienne Carjat ], pl. 7
 
Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S., Civil Engineer [1811-1891], pl. 8
 
Mr. William Black, novelist [1841-1898], pl. 9
 
The Most Noble The Marquis of Salisbury, Secretary of State for India [Lord Robert (Gascoyne-) Cecil, Viscount Cranborne; 1830-1903], pl. 10
 
The Late Sir William Ferguson, Bart., F.R.S., Serjeant-Surgeon to the Queen [1st Baronet; 1808-1877], pl. 11
 
Admiral Sir Richard Collinson, K.C.B., F.R.G.S., Deputy-Master of The Trinity House [1811-1883], pl. 12
 
The Right Hon. Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, Bart., M.P., Chancellor of the Exchequer [1818-1887], pl. 13
 
The Right Hon. Lyon Playfair, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. [1819-1898], pl. 14
 
Sir George Biddell Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal [1801-1892], pl. 15
 
The Right Hon. Austen Henry Layard, D.C.L., Ambassador at Constantinople [1817-1894], pl. 16
 
Sir William Vernon Harcourt, Q.C., M.P., Professor of International Law at Cambridge [1827-1904], pl. 17
 
James Nasmyth, Engineer and Astronomer [1808-1890], pl. 18
 
Sir Joseph Bazalgette, C.B., Engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works [1819-1891], pl. 19
 
The Hon. Sir William R. Grove, D.C.L., F.R.S., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1811-1896], pl. 20
 
Sir Henry Cole, K.C.B. [1808-1882], pl. 21
 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. [1834-1913], pl. 22
 
James Sant, Esq., R.A., Principal Painter in ordinary to the Queen [1820-1916], pl. 23
 
M. Jules [Gabriel] Verne, French novelist [1828-1905; photo by Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon], pl. 24
 
Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B., D.C.L., President of the Royal Geographical Society [1809-1897], pl. 25
 
The Right Rev. George Moberly, D.C.L., Lord Bishop of Salisbury [1803-1885], pl. 26
 
Thomas Woolner, Esq., R.A., Professor of Sculpture in the Royal Academy [1825-1892], pl. 27
 
Sir John Gilbert, R.A., President of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours [1817-1897], pl. 28
 
Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, the Homeric archaeologist [1822-1890], pl. 29
 
The Hon. Sir Henry Hawkins, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1st Baron Brompton; 1816 (correct: 1817)-1907], pl. 30
 
The Right Hon. Sir William Baliol Brett, Judge of the Court of Appeal [1st Viscount Esher; 1817-1899], pl. 31
 
The Rev. Robert Gregory, M.A., Canon residentiary of St. Paul’s [1819-1911], pl. 32
 
Captain Frederick Burnaby, of the Royal Horse Guards [1842-1885], pl. 33
 
The Right Rev. William Connor Magee, D.D., Bishop of Peterborough [1821-1891]. pl. 34
 
The Right Hon. George Joachim Goschen, M.P. for the City of London [1st Viscount Goschen; 1831-1907], pl. 35
 
M. Paul Gustave Doré [1832-1883], pl. 36
 
Third series (1878)
 
The Most Reverend William Thomson, D.D., Archbishop of York [1819-1890], pl. 1
 
Anthony Trollope, Esq. [1815-1882], pl. 2
 
Sir George Strong Nares, K.C.B. [1831-1915], pl. 3
 
The Right Hon. Lord John [James Robert] Manners, M.P., Postmaster-General [7th Duke of Rutland; 1818-1906], pl. 4
 
Richard Redgrave, Esq., R. A. [1804-1888], pl. 5
 
The Right Hon. Stephen Cave, M.P., Paymaster-General [1820-1880], pl. 6
 
The Right Hon. Lord Airey, G.C.B. [General Richard Airey, 1st Baron Airey; 1803-1881], pl. 7
 
The Right Hon. [William] Edward Forster, M.P. [1818-1886], pl. 8
 
Joseph Durham, Esq., A.R.A., sculptor [1813 (1814?)-1877], pl. 9
 
The Right Hon. [1st] Viscount Cardwell [Edward Cardwell; 1813-1886], pl. 10
 
The Right Rev. Alfred Ollivant, D.D., Bishop of Llandaff [1798-1882], pl. 11
 
Edward Matthew Ward, Esq., Royal Academician [1816-1879], pl. 12
 
Frederick Goodall, Esq., R.A. [1822-1904], pl. 13
 
The Right Hon. Viscount Sandon, M.P., President of the Board of Trade [Dudley Francis Stuart Ryder, 3rd Earl of Harrowby; 1831-1900], pl. 14
 
John Scott Russell, Esq., F.R.S., Civil Engineer and Naval Architect [1808-1882], pl. 15
 
The Right Rev. James Fraser, D.D., Bishop of Manchester [1818-1885], pl. 16
 
The Right Hon. George [Limbrey] Sclater-Booth, M.P., President of the Local Government Board [1826-1894], pl. 17
 
Thomas Webster, Esq., R.A. [1800-1886], pl. 18
 
Vice-Admiral Sir Francis Leopold McClintock [Francis Leopold M'Clintock], Kt., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D., &c. [explorer who three times went in search of Franklin's expedition in the Arctic; 1819-1907], pl. 19
 
Goldwin Smith, LL.D., M.A. [1823-1910], pl. 20
 
Henry Tanworth Wells, Esq., R.A. [1828-1903], pl. 21
 
Richard Owen, Esq., C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. [1804-1892], pl. 22
 
Frederick [Friedrich] Max Müller, M.A., LL.D., Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford [1823-1900], pl. 23
 
George Edmund Street, Esq., R.A., F.S.A., Architect [1824-1881], pl. 24
 
Lord Napier of Magdala, G.C.B., G.C.S.I. [Field Marshall Robert Cornelis Napier; 1810-1890], pl. 25
 
William Calder Marshall; R.A., Sculptor [1813-1894], pl. 26
 
The Rev. Charles Old Goodford, D.D., Provost of Eton College [1812-1884], pl. 27
 
The Right Hon. Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, M.P., F.R.S. [1827-1896], pl. 28
 
Andrew Clark, M.D., Senior Physician to the London Hospital [1st Baronet; 1826-1893], pl. 29
 
John Stainer, M.A., Mus.Doc., Organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral [1840-1901], pl. 30
 
The Right Rev. James Atlay, D.D., Bishop of Hereford [1817-1894], pl. 31
 
Commander Verney Lovett Cameron, C.B., D.C.L., African Explorer [1844-1894], pl. 32
 
Edward Armitage, R.A., Professor and Lecturer on Painting to the Royal Academy [1817-1896], pl. 33
 
The Right Hon. Robert Lowe [1st Viscount Sherbrooke], M.P. [1811-1892], pl. 34
 
Sir William Withey Gull, Bart., M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. [1816-1890], pl. 35
 
Charles Robert Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. [1809-1882], pl. 36
 
Fourth series (1880)
 
His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince of Germany [Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl von Hohenzollern; in 1888 Friedrich III, German Emperor; 1831-1888], frontispiece
 
The Right Hon. Richard Assheton Cross, M.P., Secretary of State for the Home Department [1st Viscount Cross; 1823-1914], pl. 1
 
The Right Rev. Edward White Benson, D.D., Lord Bishop of Truro [1829-1896], pl. 2
 
William Gifford Palgrave [F.R.G.S, RAS; 1826-1888], pl. 3
 
The Very Reverend Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., F.R.S., Dean of Westminster [1815-1881], pl. 4
 
The Hon. Sir John Mellor, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1809-1887], pl. 5
 
John Hall Gladstone, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the Chemical Society [1827-1902], pl. 6
 
The Reverend Joseph Barber Lightfoot, D.D., Bishop Designate of Durham [1828-1889], pl. 7
 
Sir Samuel White Baker, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.S.A., F.R.G.S., African Explorer [1821-1893], pl. 8
 
Erskine Nicol, Esq., A.R.A. [1825-1904], pl. 9
 
James Russell Woodford, D.D., Bishop of Ely [1820-1885], pl. 10
 
The Right Hon. Sir Fitz-Roy [Fitzroy] Edward Kelly, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer [1796-1880], pl. 11
 
Edward Frankland, D.C.L., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in the Royal School of Mines [1825-1899], pl. 12
 
Sir Charles Reed, LL.D., F.S.A., Chairman of the London School Board [1819-1881], pl. 13
 
Rev. Charles Haddon Spurgeon, Pastor of the Metropolitan Tabernacle [1834-1892], pl. 14
 
The Right Hon. Sir William Milbourne James, Lord Justice of the Court of Appeal [1807-1881], pl. 15
 
The Right Hon. and Right Rev. Lord Arthur Charles Hervey, D.D., Bishop of Bath and Wells [1808-1894], pl. 16
 
Edward John Poynter, Esq., Royal Academician [1836-1919], pl. 17
 
Kuo Sung-Tao [Kuo Tajen; Guo Songtao], First Chinese Envoy to Great Britain [1818-1891], pl. 18
 
The Right Hon. Lord Penzance, Judge of the Court of Arches [James Plaisted Wilde, 1st Baron Penzance; 1816-1899], pl. 19
 
Sir Francis Philip Cunliffe-Owen, K.C.M.G., C.B., Director of the South Kensington Museum [1828-1894], pl. 20
 
William Powell Frith, Esq., Royal Academician [1819-1909], pl. 21
 
Henry Morton Stanley, Esq., African Explorer [1840 (correct: 1841)-1904], pl. 22
 
The Right Hon. Lord Augustus Loftus, G.C.B., Governor of New South Wales [Augustus William Frederick Spencer; 1817-1904], pl. 23
 
Walter William Ouless, Esq. A.R.A., Portrait Painter [1848-1933], pl. 24
 
Thomas Henry Huxley, LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural History in the Royal School of Mines [1825-1895], pl. 25
 
The Hon. Sir Henry Manisty, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1808-1890], pl. 26
 
[Myles] Birket [Birkett] Foster, Member of the Water-Colour Society [1825-1899], pl. 27
 
The Right Hon. Alfred Henry Thesiger, Lord Justice of Appeal [1838-1880], pl. 28
 
William Bowman, F.R.S. [1st Baronet; 1816-1892], pl. 29
 
Thomas Faed, R.A. [1826-1900], pl. 30
 
The Hon. Sir Anthony Cleasby, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1804-1879], pl. 31
 
James Clark [Clarke] Hook, R.A. [1819-1907], pl. 32
 
The Right Hon. Sir Robert Porrett Collier [1st Baron Monkswell], Judge of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council [1817-1886], pl. 33
 
The Right Honourable The [4th] Earl of Carnarvon, [Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert], President of the Society of Antiquaries [1831-1890], pl. 34
 
Thomas Hughes, Q.C. [1823 (?1822)-1896], pl. 35
 
The Very Rev. Edward Meyrick Goulburn, D.D., Dean of Norwich [1818-1897], pl. 36
Fifth series (1881)
 
The Right Hon. The [1st] Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G., Prime Minister of England [Benjamin Disraeli; 1804-1881], pl. 1
 
Charles Rivers Wilson, Esq., C.B. [1831-1916], pl. 2
 
Major John Rouse Merriott Chard, R.E., V.C. [1847-1897], pl. 3
 
William Hepworth Dixon, Historian and traveller [1821-1879], pl. 4
 
The Right Hon. [1st] Earl Cairns, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain [Hugh McCalmont Cairns; 1819-1885], pl. 5
 
The Right Hon. John Arthur Roebuck, M.P. [1801 (correct: 1802) -1879], pl. 6
 
His Grace The [7th] Duke of Marlborough, K.G., Lord Lieutnant of Ireland [John Winston Spencer-Churchill, 1822-1883], pl. 7
 
William Harrison Ainsworth [1805-1882], pl. 8
 
The Hon. Sir Henry Charles Lopes [1st Baron Ludlow], Judge of the High Court of Justice [1828-1899], pl. 9
 
The Hon. Sir Charles Edward Pollock, Senior Baron of the Exchequer Division, and a Judge of the High Court of Justice [1823-1897], pl. 10
 
Wikie Collins, Esq., Novelist and Dramatist [1824-1889], pl. 11
 
Sir Julius Benedict, Musical Composer [1804-1885], pl. 12
 
The Right Hon. Sir George Jessel, Master of the Rolls [1824-1883], pl. 13
 
Vicat Cole, A.R.A., Landscape Painter [1833-1893], pl. 14
 
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I, C.B., M.D., F.R.S., etc., Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew [1817-1911], pl. 15
 
The Right Hon. Sir Robert Lush, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1807-1881], pl. 16
 
Robert Browning, M.A., LL.D., Poet and Dramatist [1812-1889], pl. 17
 
William Charles Thomas Dobson, Royal Aacdemician [1817-1898], pl. 18
 
William Dalrymple Maclagan, D.D., Bishop of Lichfield [1826-1910], pl. 19
 
The Rev. Henry Parry Liddon, D.D., D.C.L., Canon of St. Paul’s [1929-1890], pl. 20
 
Joseph Cowen, M.P. [1831 (1829?)-1900], pl. 21
 
Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, Bart., M.P., Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affiars [2nd Baronet; 1843-1911], pl. 22
 
Tom Taylor, Dramatist and Critic [1817-1880], pl. 23
 
Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Royal Academician [1836-1912], pl. 24
 
The Right Hon. [1st] Viscount Cranbrook, G.C.S.I. [Earl of Cranbrook (1892), Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy; 1814-1906], pl. 25
 
The Hon. Sir Edward Fry, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1827-1918], pl. 26
 
Hormuzd Rassam, F.R.G.S. [1826-1910], pl. 27
 
The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., President of the Board of Trade [1836-1914], pl. 28
 
Sir Henry Bessemer, C.E., F.R.S. [1813-1898], pl. 29
 
George Alexander Macfarren, Mus.Doc. [1813-1887], pl. 30
 
The Right Hon. William Henry Smith, M.P. [1825-1891], pl. 31
 
The Right Hon. Sir Henry Cotton, Lord Justice of Appeal [1821-1892], pl 32
 
Alfred Elmore, Royal Academician [1815-1881], pl. 33
 
The Right Hon. The [15th] Earl of Derby [Edward Henry Stanley; 1826-1893], pl. 34
 
The Right Rev. Anthony Wilson Thorold, D.D., Bishop of Rochester [Winchester] [1825 (1826?)-1895], pl. 35
 
Sir Theodore Martin, K.C.B. [1816-1909], pl. 36
 
Sixth series (1882)
 
The Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone, M.P., Prime Minister [1809-1898], pl. 1
 
The Very Rev. Charles John Vaughan, D.D., Dean of Llandaff, and Master of the Temple [1816-1897], pl. 2
 
Sir Henry Thompson [entry incomplete; 1820-1904], pl. 3
 
Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, K.C.B., F.R.S., LL,D., and D.C.L. [1810-1895], pl. 4
 
Sir John Fowler, Esq., Past President of the Institution of Civil Engineers [1817-1898], pl. 5
 
William Quiller Orchardson, Esq., Royal Academician [1838 (correct: 1832)-1910], pl. 6
 
The Right Hon. Major-General Lord Chelmsford, G.C.B. [Frederic Augustus Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford; 1827-1905], pl. 7
 
John Pettie, Royal Academician [1839-1839], p. 8
 
The Right Rev. James Colquhoun Campbell, DD., Bishop of Bangor [1813-1895], pl. 9
 
The Right Hon. [2nd] Earl Granville, K.G., Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs [Granville George Leveson-Gower; 1815-1891], pl. 10
 
The Very Rev. Richard William Church, M.A., Dean of St. Paul’s [1815-1890], pl. 11
 
George Dunlop Leslie, Royal Academician [1835-1921], p. 12
 
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart., M.P. for Carlisle [2nd Baronet of Brayton; 1829-1906], pl. 13
 
The Hon. Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, K.C.S.I., D.C.L., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1st Baronet Stephen; 1829-1894], pl. 14
 
Philip Hermogenes Calderon, Esq., Royal Academician [1833-1898], pl. 15
 
The Hon. George Denman, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1819-1896], pl. 16
 
General Sir Daniel Lysons, K.C.B. [1816-1898], pl. 17
 
Samuel Morley, M.P. [1809-1886], pl. 18
 
Sir William George Armstrong, F.R.S. [1st Baron Armstrong; 1810-1900], pl. 19
 
George Frederick Watts, Esq., Royal Academician [1817-1904], pl. 20
 
Sir George Job Elvey, Mus. Doc., Musical Composer [1816-1893], pl. 21
 
[6th] Duke of Richmond and [1st Duke of] Gordon, K.G. [Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March; 1818-1903], pl. 22
 
Thomas Hutchinson Tristram, Q.C., D.C.L., Judge of the Consistory Court of London [1825-1912], p. 23 [attn.: marked 24]
 
The Right Hon. Sir Richard Malins [Q.C., M.P., Vice-Chancellor; 1805-1882], p. 24
 
General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts, G.C.B., V.C. [1st Earl Roberts; 1832-1914], p. 25
 
Warren De la Rue, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. [1815-1889], p. 26
 
Briton Riviere, Royal Academician [1840-1920], p. 27
 
Sir William Nathan Wright [Wrighte] Hewett, K.C.B., V.C., Rear-Admiral [1834-1888], pl. 28
 
The Very Rev. John Saul Howson, D.D., Dean of Chester [1816-1885], pl. 29
 
John Calcott Horsley, Royal Academician [1817-1903], pl. 30
 
Léon Gambetta, President of the French Chamber of Deputies [1838-1882], pl. 31
 
William Ballantine, Serjeant-at-Law [1812-1887], pl. 32
 
Marcus Stone, Associate of the Royal Academy [1840-1921], pl. 33
 
The Right Hon. Lord Abderdare [Henry Austin Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare; 1815-1895], pl. 34
 
Hobart Pacha [Pasha], Marshal of the Ottoman Empire [Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden; 1822-1886], pl. 35
 
Frederick Richard Pickersgill, Royal Academician [1820-1900], pl. 36
 
Seventh series (1883)
 
Admiral Sir A. [Astley] Cooper Key, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.C. L. (Oxon.), First Sea Lord of the Admiralty [1821-1888], pl. 1
 
The Hon. Sir Lewis William Cave, Judge of the High Court of Judicature [1832-1897], pl. 2
 
Richard Norman Shaw, R.A., Architect [1831-1912], pl. 3
 
The Right Hon. Lord Carlingford, Lord Privy Seal [Chichester Samuel Parkinson-Fortescue, 2nd Baron Clermont and 1st Baron Carlingford; 1823-1898], pl. 4
 
William Benjamin Carpenter, C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. [1813-1885], pl. 5
 
The Very Reverend Edward Hayes Plumptre, D.D., Dean of Wells [1821-1891], pl. 6
 
The Honourable Sir James Charles Mathew, LL.D., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1830-?], pl. 7
 
The Right Hon. George Osborne Morgan, Q.C., M.P., Judge Advocate-General [1st Baronet; 1826-1897], pl. 8
 
Lumb Stocks, R.A. [1812-1892], pl. 9
 
Major General Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, V.C., K.C.B. [1838-1919], pl. 10
 
Henry Baker Tristram, M.A., F.R.S., LL.D., Canon of Durham [1822-1906], pl. 11
 
Sir Michael [Andrew Angus] Costa, Musical Composer [Michele Andrea Agnello Costa; 1810 (correct: 1808)-1884], pl. 12
 
Sir John Edmund Commerell, K.C.B., V.C., Vice Admiral [1829-1901], pl. 13
 
William Frederick Yeames, Royal Academician [1835-1918], pl. 14
 
Admiral Sir Sydney Colpoys Dacres, Governor of Greenwich Hospital [G.C.B.; 1804 (1805?)-1884], pl. 15
 
His Grace The [8th] Duke of Argyll, K.T. [George John Douglas Campbell, Marquess of Lorne; 1823-1900], pl. 16
 
Alfred Tennyson, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., poet laureate [1809-1892; Photograph by John Jabez Edwin Mayall], pl. 17
 
The Very Rev. George Granville Bradley, D.D., Dean of Westminster [1821-1903], pl. 18
 
Henry Irving, Actor [1838-1905], pl. 19
 
Benjamin Ward Richardson, M.D., LL:D., F.R.S., F.S.A. [1828-1896], pl. 20
 
The Right Rev. John Charles Ryle, D.D., Bishop of Liverpool [1810 (correct: 1816?)-1900], pl. 21
 
The Rev. Alfred Barry, D.D., D.C.L., Principal of King’s College, London [1826-1910], pl. 22
 
The Hon. Sir Edward Ebenezer Kay, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1822-1897], pl. 23
 
Richard Ansdell, Royal Academician [1815-1885], pl. 24
 
Lord Charles William Delapoer [de la Poer] Beresford, Captain, R.N. [1846-1919], pl. 25
 
Henry Hugh Armstead, Royal Academician [1828-1905], pl. 26
 
Captain Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan Pim, R.N. [1826-1886], pl. 27
 
Hon. Sir Joseph William Chitty, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1828-1899], pl. 28
 
Joseph Edgar Boehm, R.A. [1834-1890], pl. 29
 
Frank Dicksee, A.R.A. [1853-1928], pl. 30
 
Frank Holl, Associate of the Royal Academy. [1845-1888], pl. 31
 
Charles Thomas Newton, C.B., D.C.L., Professor of Archaeology at University College, London [1816-1894], pl. 32
 
John MacWhirter, A.R.A., H.R.S.A. [1839-1911], pl. 33
 
Dr. Charles William [Carl Wilhelm] Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. [industrialist; 1823-1883], pl. 34
 
The Right Rev. Alfred Blomfield, D.D., Bishop of Colchester [1833-1894], pl. 35
 
Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Professor of Music in the University of Oxford [1825-1889], pl. 36

The British Journal of Photography, Vol.XXIII, No.865, December 1, 1876, p.571-572.
Men Of Mark. By George C. Whitfield.
London: Samson Low And Co.
 
We now redeem the promise made in the course of our notices of the pictures at the recent Exhibition, and devote a short space to giving a more detailed account of Men of Mark than was possible at that time. Those who desire to see what the Woodbury process is capable of producing when worked at its best can certainly have their wish gratified by a perusal of this work. It will be remembered that the Woodbury Company exhibited a series of portraits of men who had achieved eminence in various walks of life in politics, theology, and soforth; and it will also be remembered by those who saw these portraits that the brilliancy, depth, purity, and perfection of half-tone were such as to have induced several spectators to observe that it was impossible that works so charming could have been produced by a mechanical printing process; yet such is the case.
 
Men of Mark form a gallery of contemporary portraits of men "distinguished in the senate, the church, in science, literature and art, the army, navy, law, medicine, &c." In the present work the first of a consecutive series of volumes there are thirty-six portraits of men coming under the above voluminous category, each portrait accompanied by a page of descriptive text, by Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. It is, however, in the photographs we are more particularly interested. They have all been photographed from life by Messrs. Lock and Mr. G. C. Whitfield, under whose superintendence this volume has been produced, deserves great credit for the felicitous manner in which he has managed to associate in one "happy family" the distinctive characters of which it is composed; for, as no special attempt at classification seems to have been intended, so there are no invidious distinctions observable in regard to priority of place. Churchmen and catholics, liberals and conservatives, and people holding the most diverse phases of opinion all are mixed together very harmoniously.
 
This volume, so replete with gems of portraiture, should find a place on the reception-room table of every photographer, as well as take a distinguished position among the pictorial treasures usually found on the table of the private drawing-room.

The British Journal of Photography, Vol.XXIV, No.919, December 14, 1877, p.594-595.
Men of Mark. (Second series).
London ; Sampson Low And Co.
 
If we were asked to indicate any special collection of portraits we should recommend to photographers as containing the most perfect studies of light and shade and breadth combined with sharpness, we should unhesitatingly name Men of Mark as that which fulfilled best these conditions. This work was commenced last year under the superintending care of Mr. George C. Whitfield, a member of the firm of Lock and Whitfield, and the first series having been concluded at the close of 1876 a second series was commenced, and is now completed under the same management. The present series of Men of Mark contains thirty-six portraits of "men distinguished in the senate, the church, in science, literature, and art, the army, navy, law and medicine." With two exceptions all these portraits have been taken by Messrs. Lock and Whitfield, these exceptions being Jules Verne (by M. Adam-Salomon) and Victor Hugo (by M. Carjat). The introduction of such portraits affords an opportunity of comparing the works of distinguished foreign artists with those of equal distinction in this oountry, with a result which must be gratifying to those good patriots who cannot discover anything abroad which surpasses "our own glorious constitution and institutions." Among the thirty-six portraits here presented there are indeed many "men of mark." Opening with Mr. Frederick Leighton, R.A, whose portrait is in profile, we soon come upon the open, honest face of Professor Tyndall, by which we are reminded that "once upon a time" it was our good fortune to receive a volume of portraits of men who were famous in the world of science, that of Professor Tyndall forming one of the number. These portraits of a former period are now "faded and withered;" most of them, in fact, seem to have been bleached out of the paper upon which they were printed. With the "men of mark" in the volume now under review no such fading can possibly take place, these portraits being printed by the Woodbury process, which is a guarantee not only for the faithful rendering of a negative but of absolute permanence. The portraits respectively of Mr. William Black, the Right Hon. Sir Stafford Northcote, Sir George Biddell Airy, the Hon. Sir William R, Grove, and Sir John Lubbock are exceedingly striking for their lifelike fidelity. Captain Burnaby, of Asiatic celebrity, Mr. Gustave Dore, Sir John Gilbert, the Right Hon. Lyon Playfair, Mr. James Nasmyth, and others of equal celebrity, are all here assembled, forming, out of elements of a diversified character, one harmonious whole. It need scarcely be said that a page of descriptive and biographical text accompanies each portrait, written by Mr. Thompson Cooper, F.S. A. The characteristics of these portraits are singular clearness, perfection of detail, skilful posing, and light and shade rendered in the most unexceptionable manner. We commend Men of Mark as a study to photographers.

 
[Hans Christian Adam] 
  
9.45   Portrait >  Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique (1876-1884)[52] was a periodical printed by the French printer Goupil et Cie and included woodburytypes of notable figures in French society.
 
Biographies of those included were accompanied by portraits taken by some of the finest French photographers of the period:
Antoine-Samuel Adam-Salomon
Ernest Eugène Appert
L. Baschet
Charles-Albert Arnoux Bertall
Étienne Carjat
Emile Courtin
Delphin
G. Fontaine
Franck
Lejeune
Melandri
Ferdinand Mulnier
Nadar
Pierre Petit
Émile Tourtin
Valery
Vallois
 
  
9.46   Portrait >  Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Numerous portraits by Parisian photographer Nadar[53] were included in the Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique 
  
   Nadar Galerie Contemporaine 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.47   Portrait >  Herbert Rose Barraud: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Herbert Rose Barraud (1845-1896) was a prominent late 19th century London portrait photographer with studios at various locations including 96 Gloucester Place, Portman Square (1883); 263 Oxford Street (1883-91); 73 Piccadilly (1893-96) and 126 Piccadilly (1897).[54] Some of his photographs were published in his two volume Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture (1888-1889).[55] The first volume included such luminaries as Robert Browning, Joseph Chamberlain, Lord Alfred Tennyson, Ellen Tracy, Henry Irving and John Sims Reeves.
 
Note: Sometimes the prints in Men and Women of the Day are listed as woodburytypes but other sources list them as carbon prints.[56] 
  
   Herbert Rose  Barraud 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Pictorialism 
  
9.48   Portrait >  Pictorialism and the innocence of children 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The portrayal of children by pictorialist photographers is predominantly simplistic and linked to innocence and purity. There are some outside shots showing children at play as in Les uns perdent, les autres gagnent! (1896)[57] by Walter B. Welford or In Arkadien (1901)[58] by Herbert Arthur Hess but these are little known photographers.  
  
Children at play 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The Ring Toss[59] by Clarence Hudson White[60] is probably the best known example and has a dream like quality it to. This image differs widely depending on the chemical processes used.  
  
Clarence Hudson White: The Ring Toss 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Most of the other pictorialist images have a candy-box trite quality which shows none of the vitality of youth with children in a straitjacket of convention. Most are uninteresting as they show little about the personality of the child portrayed. This has little to do with cameras or technology but everything to do with the attitudes of society and the photographers. There are however a couple of photographs that by the way they are shot are far superior to the others. The sensitive portraits by Heinrich Kühn of his children display deep attachment rather than the detachment of most pictorialist portraits.  
  
Heinrich Kühn: Children in his family 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Overall it needs to said that pictorialists, with rare exceptions, did not excel at portraits as their sentimentality comes through rather than any attempt to capture the vivacious complexity of youth. Since the 1890s anybody had been able to take snapshots and so the relatively small clique of pictorialists needed to distinguish themselves through associations with art and that was done by the poses selected. This was photography acting as a mimic of another form and thus tending towards an outmoded and fruitless exploration of the portrait. By the early 1900s Jacques-Henri Lartigue (1894-1986) was showing how a child, he was only nine or ten when he took these, with a handheld camera was able to take snapshots that realistically captured a priviledged boyhood.[61]  
  
Jacques-Henri Lartigue: Early examples (1903-1904) 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
With the harsh reality of the industrialised slaughter of the First World War (1914-1918) and the increasingly popularity of snapshot cameras pictorialism was a conservative style doomed to oblivion.[62] 
  
   Portrait Children 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.49   Portrait >  Pictorialism and the portrait 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Old men with hats 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Men as artists 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Women with headcoverings and hats 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.50   Portrait >  Clarence H. White: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
   Clarence H  White 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Modernism and the portrait 
  
9.51   Portrait >  The move from Pictorialism to Modernism in portraiture 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
As pictorialism waned in influence in America and Western Europe with the First World War and the influential Camera Work[63] ceasing publication in 1917 there was a trend towards a different style of portrait photography. This led to two distinct approaches:
  • Face on confrontation with the camera
     
    This is best characterized by the catalogue of the German people created by August Sander - the photographs showed people as they really are with no retouching or hired in costumes. It is perhaps not surprising that his work did not find favor in the Germany of the 1930's and 40's. Martin Chambi at the same period was creating a remarkable body of work in the Andes where the subject accepted the formal pose required by the photographer.
     
  • Tension in the shot
     
    With other photographers the camera angle selected created a tension in the shot that was unsettling and powerful. This style is perhaps best demonstrated by the portraits of Alexander Rodchenko[64] or the photographs Leni Riefenstahl took of the athletes for the infamous Berlin Olympics.
With so many portrait photographers now working the market has changed and is fragmented into an impossibly wide variety of styles, techniques and subjects. 
  
9.52   Portrait >  August Sander (1876-1964) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
August Sander is known for his monumental work Citizens of the Twentieth Century (Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts)[65] which consists of face-on portraits of all classes of German society during the first half of the nineteenth century. The portraits are highly detailed and show people in their working or everyday clothes sometimes accompanied by the tools or symbols of their trade. In 1909 in an advertising brochure he wrote:
I am not concerned with providing commonplace photographs like those made in the finer large-scale studios of the city, but simple, natural portraits that show the subjects in an environment corresponding to their own individuality, portraits that claim the right to be evaluated as works of art and to be used as wall adornments.[66]
In 1929 sixty of his portraits were published in the book Antlitz der Zeit (Face of our Time)[67] but the veracity of the portraits was at odds with the propaganda myths of the Aryan super race that the Nazi party was seeking to promote. In November 1936 the Reich Chamber of Visual Arts banned the book, seized any copies they could and destroyed the printing plates. This was a difficult period for Sander as his son, Erich, was imprisoned for left-wing sympathies and the production of pamphlets, and as the Nazi party gained influence his work on cataloguing the German peoples was out of step with the times and so he concentrated on landscapes[68] and the architecture of Cologne.[69]
 
Sander attempted at various times to create classifications of archetypes and there were far from consistent and flexed over time but even with the difficulties of groupings the work of August Sander is now regarded as one of the key projects in photographic portrait history and his style has been widely copied. 
  
   August  Sander 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.53   Portrait >  Helmar Lerski: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
If August Sander was demonstrating that a typology of citizens could be created in his Citizens of the Twentieth Century (Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts)[70] Helmar Lerski (1871-1956) showed that the apparent role of a person could be altered through the way a photograph was taken and a person could have multiple roles.
 
Helmar Lerski started as a banker and then became an actor and cinematographer. He took up photography when he was 39 and his striking portrait style, using a harsh and at time unflattering light, was well respected. He was involved in special effects for the film industry working on masterpieces like Fritz Lang's Metropolis and he was cinematographer on over 40 films.[71] At the Film und Foto (FiFo)[72] exhibition in Stuttgart in 1929 his photographs were well represented with 15 showing. He saw the potential of using sophisticated lighting for portraits and his 1931 book Köpfe des Alltags[73] took ordinary people from Berlin and through the use of titles gave them roles - he demonstrated that the viewers perception of the sitter could be radically influenced by the lighting and title.
 
In his "Metamorphosis through light" series he pushed this idea to the extreme by taking over 140 close-up portraits of a single person, Leo Uschatz,[74] using as many as 16 mirrors and a number of filters. The result was a study in the variations of a single person through photography and a clear demonstration that the lens does not have to be objective. Attempts to publish "Metamorphosis through light" failed during his lifetime and it was only in 1982 that it was published.[75] 
  
Vernacular portraits 
  
9.54   Portrait >  Photobooth portraits 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.55   Portrait >  Mike Disfarmer: Heber Springs portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Mike Disfarmer (1884-1959) was enigmatic portrait photographer who produced a extraordinary body of work at the farming community of Heber Springs, Arkansas.[76] 
  
9.56   Portrait >  Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Joseph Selle was a commercial photographer in the Union Square area of San Francisco for forty years, from the 30s to the 70s. He took candid snapshots of pedestrians and then sold the portraits by mail for fifty cents each. When he retired his entire archive - totaling some one million images - went to Visual Studies Workshop in Rochester, New York. Now, due to digital technology, a small selection of this vast body of work is available. It is an enormously moving experience of time travel to "walk" the streets along with Selle and see our parents and grandparents or younger selves on display. Curated with the cooperation of VSW archivist Andrew Eskind, this preliminary exhibition will include video projection of thousands of images.
 
Joseph Selle: Curatorial Reflections
 
I distinctly remember a tall older man haunting Union Square in the early 70s, offering to sell pedestrians their photographic portraits. After more than three decades I still remember him for some reason: perhaps it was his height, his odd outfit of a taxi driver’s hat and long duster. It is a supreme coincidence that after all this time I have come to work with Joseph Selle’s lifetime accumulated archive.
 
Viewing these images is an overwhelming emotional experience. After a session editing the photographs, one is unlikely to ever walk the city streets in quite the same way, because an awareness of the lives that once occupied these same sidewalks becomes unshakable. The Selle archive is as close as we will ever come to the experience of time travel, experiencing the streets of San Francisco half a century ago. Truly a memento mori, we encounter vibrantly alive people in the midst of their quotidian lives, people whom we infer are now long dead, while the children displayed are themselves entering late middle age. I don’t believe I have ever understood both the tragedy and dignity of life as viscerally as I have while immersed in this project.
 
It is fascinating and moving to see how people organize themselves, create structure, within such a simple act as walking down the street. Mothers and grandmothers hold children’s hands. Adult children support their aged parents. Women friends walk side by side, talking, touching. Couples and families align themselves with each other, to other pedestrians, and to the architecture. Vehicle traffic and crowding causes odd behavior and balletic moves.
 
This is to some extent an anthropological experience, as we see that a trip downtown to Union Square, even well into the 1960s, was an occasion for wearing one’s best clothing. Women inevitably wear white gloves and hats, and almost never wear slacks. Fox stoles and mink coats abound. Men wear suits and ties, and hats. Everyone smokes. Everyone shops. Everyone’s clean. Just blocks away on Market Street, we discover more people of color and more casually dressed people, especially as the 50s move along into the 60s. Taken at the end of the baby boom, the pictures include many more pregnant women than we are used to seeing on the streets today. Men smoke pipes.
 
People are faced with a behavioral choice if they see someone like Selle about to approach them on the street. Most ignore him if they notice him at all, but once they realize what he is up to, and that he’s harmless, often give themselves away by touching their hair or putting their best foot forward. Quite a few put their hands up to signal stop; many others laugh at being caught unaware.
 
History is lurking in the shadows of every photograph. In the 50s material one can detect the impact of Mamie Eisenhower’s conservative style on the women, and then suddenly just a few months later, Jackie Kennedy’s more chic approach is seen everywhere. We see an elderly man wearing a Kennedy straw hat during the election campaign. Then one evening on Market Street we see people carrying newspapers under their arms with the enormous banner headline: "….SLAIN!" and we can painfully infer that it marks the assassination of the President. Among the well-dressed people streaming by the photographer’s lens are a great number African American and Asian American people, and even a significant number of mixed-race couples; more occasionally we see Latinos, or a hipster in jeans or leather, or out gay people. San Francisco’s particular character was already apparently well on its way to being established.
 
Organizing the archive places the curator into several vexing dilemmas. These images have been captured for four decades like genies in a bottle, waiting to be released. Selecting a few of them for this catalogue feels like a betrayal to all the other lives glimpsed and not included that will now recede back into obscurity forever. Selecting a tiny number of these works to represent the whole is a daunting curatorial task. Arguably, to be most true to the archive one should allow chance to determine the selection: the richness of this work is the profound beauty of its ordinariness. As curator I am drawn to the most artfully or quirkily framed shots. I am tempted to disregard the great majority of the pictures that are out of focus. As historian one could cull the 18,000 images for important moments. As anthropologist there is the opportunity to represent the entire population: the wealthy, the middle class, the working class, all the racial backgrounds, the clothing, lifestyles and eccentricities of the culture. I have tried to represent all these approaches as best I can; a book many times the size of this catalogue is called for.
 
The territory of museums has widened over the past decade to include more and more consideration of visual materials made by non-artists that nonetheless reflect skill, style, meaning and power. The street vendor work of Joseph Selle is just at the brink of being appreciated in that same way and it is a thrill and a privilege to participate in that rediscovery. This project could not have happened without the energy and dedication of Andrew Eskind of Visual Studies Workshop in Rochester, New York. Eskind has taken on the pursuit of information about Selle with the precision of a private eye and the dedicated professionalism of the historian he truly is. I offer my humble thanks to him for bringing this project to me, enabling the Nelson Gallery to share it with the UC Davis community.
 
© Renny Pritikin
Davis, California
February 2005
 
How long does it take to look at a million photographs? Is it even possible? It‘s said that in today‘s media saturated society, we‘re each exposed to 1500 images daily. If that‘s an average (and not counting TV and movies), what are the high and low extremes? Can one look at, say, even 10,000 in a day and still make any sense out of them?
 
This conceptual conundrum is perhaps what delayed archivists and students from exploring and exhibiting the more than one million surviving negatives made between the 1950s and 1970s by the San Francisco street vendor photographic firm, Fox Movie Flash.
 
Fox Movie Flash was owned by Joseph Selle (1906-1988) and operated out of 942 Market Street from the 1930s until the 1970s. Selle ventured out onto Market Street often framing his photographs under the marquee of the neighboring Pix Theatre at 946 Market. He also worked all of the corners and side streets around Union Square during peak periods of pedestrian traffic. He and associate photographers wearing the Fox Movie Flash cap carried rather heavy, modified DeVry movie cameras (marketed by Burke & James, Inc as "Street Vending Cameras"). They were pre focused at 10 ft and loaded with sufficient film to snap up to 1500 images of shoppers and tourists with the hope of selling some percentage of them souvenir portraits of their visit to San Francisco‘s prime retail shopping district. Charlie Rester, the last living Fox Movie Flash associate photographer recalls that on good days photographers could earn $100/day - a respectable living at the time.
 
This photographic genre - street vendor photography - has yet to attract much attention from museums, collectors, or historians. Yet there is anecdotal evidence that similar cameras and the same business model were used in many other American cities as well as abroad. Selle and fellow practitioners were not at all interested in the esthetics of their photographs. In fact, it is unlikely they even looked at every frame among the 1500 on the 100-foot rolls of negatives. The one-out-of-10 (or more likely one-out-of-100) pedestrians who actually paid the 50 cents ($1 by the 1970s) for the postcard-size souvenirs made their purchase decisions sight-unseen. Neither creator nor purchaser was making decisions on the basis of visual interest, or qualitative judgment. Only those frames matched by ticket number to individual purchasers were even printed. Among the many permutations of the speculative commercial practice now called street vendor photography, this one has also been aptly referred to as ‘surprise photography‘. (cf Mapping Sitting: On Portraiture and Photography; Walid Raad, Karl Bassil, Zeina Maasri, Akram Zaatari; 2002)
 
The term "surprise" is fitting in more ways than one. The purchaser received the souvenir within a few weeks in the mail. Having no opportunity for a preview, the end-product may have been a pleasant surprise, or a dud. Not every frame is sharp, well composed, or properly exposed. San Franciscan Jack Tillmany recalls his mother making 2 purchases from Fox Movie Flash operators when he was a kid going downtown with her in the 1950s. The first is a cherished memento; the second a disappointment. The photographers, too, should have experienced surprises - both while on the streets encountering sailors, shoppers, tourists, lovers, families - as well as in the darkroom where surely they looked at, and, perhaps laughed at frames which hadn‘t sold as well as those which were printed for buyers. The best surprise of all, however, are the many reactions we can experience today whether selecting previously unseen images for publication, or viewing original shooting sequences as if they were movies - complete with bad frames, changing weather, newspaper headlines, movie theatre marquees, dress, kids, smokers, relationships.
 
US Davis American Studies professor Jay Mechling refers to the psychological term "intermittant reward" to explain why many viewers become so captivated watching the original unedited shooting sequences that they‘ll continue watching without knowing when - or if - there will soon be an end. If every once in a while, we‘re rewarded by a surprise - by an image striking to us for its accidental composition, for its recollection of someone we knew or loved, for its goofiness - we‘ll happily continue watching expecting a new surprise at any moment.
 
Thus, beyond the sheer logistical challenge of exploring over a million undifferentiated images, the archivist today needs to consider the multitude of potential unimagined points of interest represented in this vast documentary record. For curators, such as Renny Pritikin, there‘s the irresistible temptation to do what Selle and his co-hort photographers never found time or motivation to do. He has applied the criteria of visual interest we‘d otherwise associate with non-commercial street photographers such as Walker Evans, Lee Friedlander, Garry Winogrand, Harry Callahan, or even Weegee. His selections reproduced here from the 18,000 frames digitally scanned to date (only 1% of the extant total) could easily be matched by totally different sets selected from the perspective of social historians, movie buffs (theatre marquees are a recurring theme), architecture historians, urbanologists, or those of us who are plain and simple sentimental old picture junkies.
 
© Andrew Eskind
Rochester, NY
March 2005
 
[These texts accompanied the exhibition Joseph Selle‘s Fox Movie Flash - Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography that was held at the Nelson Gallery at UC Davis, January 13th - March 13th, 2005. This exhibition used projected images.] 
  
   Portrait SF Street Vendor 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Bust portraits 
  
9.57   Portrait >  Bust portraits 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Humanistic portraiture 
  
9.58   Portrait >  The Family of Man Exhibition (1955) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The photojournalists who take images of the unknown people use their everyday surroundings to tell us about the hardships of daily existence. Lewis W. Hine did this with portraits of men, women and children in the industrial hell holes of the early 20th century. Dorothea Lange and Walker Evans showed the poverty and dignity of depression era share croppers. Eugene Smith did this in his photo essay for LIFE magazine on the Country doctor and Sebastião Salgado does it in his works on workers and migrants. The great portrait puts a person in context so that we understand who they really are.
 
This theme is perhaps best demonstrated by the Family of Man[77] exhibition of 1955 organized by Edward Steichen that was the most popular photographic exhibition upto that point. In his introduction Edward Steichen explained the rationale:
"It was conceived as a mirror of the universal elements and emotions in the everydayness of life - as a mirror of the essential oneness of mankind throughout the world."[78]
It was first shown in New York City and then toured to widespread acclaim.[79]
 
Edward Steichen, a remarkable photographer with a well attuned eye, with the editors selected 503 works by 273 photographers from 68 countries. Out of the over two million images that the editors had to select from there are many classic images provided by photographers from LIFE magazine and the talented Magnum collective as well as less well known photographers.
 
The following is a selection of the photographers who participated in the The Family of Man (1955):
Berenice Abbott
Ansel Adams
Manuel Alvarez Bravo
Lola Alvarez Bravo
Emmy Andriesse
Diane Arbus
Allen Arbus
Eve Arnold
Eugène Atget
Richard Avedon
Eva Besnyö
Werner Bischof
Edouard Boubat
Margaret Bourke-White
Mathew Brady
Bill Brandt
Brassaï
Josef Breitenbach
Esther Bubley
Cornell Capa
Harry Callahan
Robert Capa
Lewis Carroll
Henri Cartier-Bresson
Edward Clark
Roy DeCarava
Jack Delano
Robert Doisneau
Alfred Eisenstaedt
Pat English
Elliott Erwitt
Louis Faurer
Andreas Feininger
Robert Frank
Burt Glinn
René Groebli
Ernst Haas
Bert Hardy
Eugene Harris
Paul Himmel
Tana Hoban
Frank Horvat
Yasuhiro Ishimoto
Izis
Clemens Kalischer
Simpson Kalisher
Consuelo Kanaga
Ihei Kimura
Dorothea Lange
Harry Lapow
Constance Stuart Larabee
Arthur Lavine
Russell Lee
Arthur Leipzig
Leon Levinstein
Helen Levitt
Sol Libsohn
Herbert List
Lee Miller
Wayne Miller
Lisette Model
Barbara Morgan
Carl Mydans
Lennart Nilsson
Cas Oorthuys
Ruth Orkin
Marion Palfi
Gordon Parks
Irving Penn
George Rodger
Willy Ronis
August Sander
Frank Scherschel
Gotthard Schuh
Eric Schwab
David (Chim) Seymour
Ben Shahn
W. Eugene Smith
Edward Steichen
Ezra Stoller
Lou Stoumen
Jakob Tuggener
Ed van der Elsken
Pierre Verger
Roman Vishniac
Sabine Weiss
Edward Weston
Bob Willoughby
Garry Winogrand
Yosuke Yamahata
The Family of Man exhibition remains on display at the castle of Clervaux in Luxumbourg after being restored by the Centre national de l’audiovisuel (CNA – Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg).[80]
 
The Family of Man exhibition raised public interest in portraiture and photography but at the same time it led to a number of projects over the following years that did not match its high standards. In 1965 the world renowned anthropologist Margaret Mead worked with the photographer Ken Heyman to produce The World's Family - he took seven years to take the photographs and visited 45 countries in the process.[81] [82] came out in 1977 and The Family of Woman[83] in 1979 both edited by Jerry Mason who had been the editor for the original Family of Man volume and although they contain many excellent images they don't work as well.
 
There has been a trend to produce books of heart warming photographs for ever smaller groups - this can yield coffee table books that are short term gifts with a 'oh' factor that lasts until the book has been gone through once. The books deal with single groups, women, men, fathers and sons, mothers and daughters, grandfathers and grandsons, sisters, brothers, gay couples etc. Some of these books include meaningful autobiographical pieces or appropriate poetry or quotations. Most of them, and there are a great many, would have been better if kept to an idea and they have little longevity. 
  
9.59   Portrait >  Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
This exhibition includes the fifteen photographs shown at the first show by Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer that was held at "Bali-Kino" in West Berlin, Germany in October 1974. The following comments prepared by the photographers for this online exhibition provide the context.
 
For the first exhibition of our photographs 1974 in West-Berlin we wrote:
"We show festive events, moments where a person rises above his everyday life, such as to elevate himself by joining a well-meaning circle in the certainty about the indivisibility of the nation, or to bask in the radiance from a trophy for his dog; or even to make sure to be among the redeemed by taking part in the procession on Corpus Christi Day. Should anybody nevertheless feel signs of sadness in our pictures, the blame should not be laid on us. Perhaps it is the paltriness of our everyday life, the insufficient conditions of production and working, which even in these festive moments show discernibly through."
Today, rereading these lines, we are astonished at our self-assuredness then: The precisely formulated concept of "alienated leisure time" had been our guideline in finding and selecting motifs; however, dragged along by the passage of history we now find that our pictures may not be locked up within such boundaries.
 
Since then our endeavor has developed further, unpredictable and difficult to explain. Nevertheless, we believe strongly that we are still in pursuit of the same task. Now we are especially led by the magical space provided by the glance and posture of the photographed, by their aura: the tension between being repelled and attracted, which includes us as well as the viewer and which at the same time expels us and shows us our place.
 
Inevitably, political and social climate shows up in these pictures. We as anyone have our opinion about that. But we trust it’s better to leave the viewer on his own and let him enter unguided so that he may find his own self.
 
Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer (December 2006) 
  
   1 Nothhelfer Nothhelfer 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
9.60   Portrait >  Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers? 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
In the beginning, we were interested in the documentary force of photography. We wanted to illustrate and criticize social manifestations like the alienation of leisure. But this documentary intention faded in the face of the impact of the individual pictures: if successful, it gave us an impulse, and we were moved by its particular points, which could be brought onto a socially critical denominator. We realized that the preliminary theoretical decisions cannot be a substitute for the spontaneous grasping of a moment. We moved closer to the anarchic element of photography — where chance is often given more credit than the photographer did. And since there is no point in being jealous of chance, it didn‘t bother us being limited in our impact. For it was only within these limits that our intentions could be realized. The way from reality to a photograph is not a technical process. The photographic process is determined by thought and sense and leads from the conspicuous situation through the taking, discussing and selecting of the picture into the rational eye of the public.
 
All of the photographs were taken in Berlin. They show people with which we share the experience of living in the same city. The anonymity of a city is not a magic cap, which makes the social roles invisible. What is our concern with these strangers? In passing they give us inducement to think, to experience emotions of attraction or disgust. Our photography also finds itself in this conflict.
 
Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer (May 2007) 
  
   1 Nothhelfer Nothhelfer 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Diversity in portraiture 
  
9.61   Portrait >  Photographers who photograph representations of people 
  
Another approach in portraiture is to photograph two dimensional or three dimensional representations of individuals. For example one might take a negative or digital copy of a source image and then manipulate it with the selection of lenses, light, filters etc into a different form and change it chemically or digitally into a totally new creation. Andy Warhol used this approach to create a blend of photography and painting.
 
The Japanese photographer Hiroshi Sugimoto, for his Portraits series commissioned by Deutsche Guggenheim Berlin, placed the wax figures of Madame Tussaud against a black background to create high contrast black and white images of major personalities of Western history such as Napoleon Bonaparte, Henry VIII and Queen Victoria. This intriguing work questions the nature of history and what a portrait is. 
  
Post-modernism 
  
9.62   Portrait >  Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Some series from the work of Philip-Lorca diCorcia[84] blur the boundaries between different genre including street photography, documentary, staged photography and fabricated realities. The use of sophisticated lighting systems such as those used by Gregory Crewdson[85] mean that there is intentionality as the location was selected, lighting set up and the shot framed before the subject arrived. In one series by Lorca diCorcia the location was prepared and then street hustlers from Santa Monica Boulevard in Los Angeles were picked up and paid their normal rate for a sexual act. No sexual act took place but the hustler was taken to the prepared location and photographed - the photographs having a title made up of three parts - the name of the person, where they came from and the amount paid. The resulting photograph is therefore partly documentary with portraits of social outsiders but it breaks the rules by changing location and it is not a street photography even though it takes place on the street. Reality has been twisted by the use of additional lighting and so what are we seeing? The resulting staged tableaux can be considered exploitative but they make the viewer question their pre-conceptions of reality and genre. 
  
9.63   Portrait >  The contemporary portrait 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The diversity of portraiture makes any attempt at structure difficult and fraught with preconceptions and subjective statements. Having said this as a justification for the simplicity of what is to follow there are trends and patterns that have taken place over the last thirty years. The world of portraits could be divided up in a vast number of ways so consider this as a starting point for your own explorations.
A desire not to be taken  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
Masks and veils  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
The seemingly normal portrait  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
Alternate personalities and questioning identity  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
Appropriation  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
Identity documents  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
Icons through alternative processes  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
Death and crossing the Styx  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
9.64   Portrait >  Keeping abreast of changes in portraiture 
  
One of the best ways of keeping up with current trends in portrait photography is to examine the international awards that are presented each year for individual portraits or for books by photographers. Also examine the websites of museum and galleries that have permanent collections of portrait photographs or that hold exhibitions to monitor changing styles. 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Carte de vistes (cdv) were patented in France by André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri in 1854.
     
    William Culp Darrah, 1981, Cartes De Visite In Nineteenth Century Photography, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah); Thomas Harris, 2013, ‘The Mighty, Yet Diminutive, Carte de Visite‘, in Bryan & Page Ginns, 2013, Antique Photographica: The Collector's Vision (Schiffer), pp. 100-120; Elizabeth Anne McCauley, 1985, A. A. E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait, (New Haven: Yale) 
      
  2. Λ Illustrated in Case Histories: The Packaging and Presentation of the Photographic Portrait in Victorian Britain 1840-1875 by John Hannavy (Antique Collectors' Club, 2006) 
      
  3. Λ Collection Henry Koilski (Galerie de Chartres, Auction, 8 October 2011, Lot: 24) 
      
  4. Λ J. Werge, April 13, 1866, "Rambles among the Studios of New York", The Photographic News, vol. X, no. 397, pp. 171-173. Walt Whitman (attributed as he was the editor of the paper), Brooklyn Daily Eagle, vol. 5, no. 160 (2 July 1846) front page 
      
  5. Λ Sara Stevenson, 1990, Hill and Adamson's The Fishermen and Women of the Firth of Forth, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland) 
      
  6. Λ British Patent no. 2338 of 1864. 
      
  7. Λ Thompson Cooper (1837-1904), Men of Mark, a Gallery of Contemporary Portraits of Men Distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in Science, Literature and Art, the Army, Navy, Law, Medicine, etc. [Woodburytyped] from Life by Lock and Whitfield (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1876-1883). Seven series were published. 
      
  8. Λ Men of Mark, First series, (1876), pl. 8 
      
  9. Λ Men of Mark, Seventh series, (1883), pl. 23 
      
  10. Λ A set of scans from the Galerie Contemporaine is available online at the Musée d'Art Moderne et Contemporain, Strasbourg, France
    www.musees.strasbourg.eu/index.php?page=mamcs 
      
  11. Λ Mathew Joseph Steffens, "Automatic Photographic Apparatus ", United States Patent, no. 429,705 - Patented June 10, 1890 
      
  12. Λ "Anatol Josepho", Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, George Grantham Bain Collection, LC-DIG-ggbain-25079 
      
  13. Λ Jacques-Henri Lartigue, 1966, Boyhood Photos of J. H. Lartigue: The Family Album of a Gilded Age, (Lausanne, Switzerland: Ami Guichard); Martine D’Astier, Quentin Bajac & Alain Saya, 2003, Lartigue: Album of a Century, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) 
      
  14. Λ For an interesting series of portraits of Salvador Dali see the portraits by Philippe Halsman - Philippe Halsman & Salvador Dali, 1954, Dali’s Mustache, (New York: Simon and Schuster); Philippe Halsman & Salvador Dali, 1996, Dali’s Mustache, (Flammarion) [2nd edition] 
      
  15. Λ J. Werge, April 13, 1866, "Rambles among the Studios of New York", The Photographic News, vol. X, no. 397, pp. 171-173 
      
  16. Λ Walt Whitman (attributed as he was the editor of the paper), Brooklyn Daily Eagle vol. 5, no. 160 (2 July 1846) front page 
      
  17. Λ Further examples of daguerreotype occupationals, especially of women and children, are requested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  18. Λ Henry Mayhew, 1861, London Labour and the London Poor, Volume 1, (London: Griffin, Bohn, and Company, 1861). The location of the original daguerreotypes by Richard Beard is not known and if you have any information on the missing plate I'd be grateful - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  19. Λ I'd be most interested in locating any daguerreotype occupational portraits of women - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  20. Λ For a biography on Louis Agassiz - Christoph Irmscher, 2013, Louis Agassiz: Creator of American Science, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)
     
    For the daguerreotypes of slaves that were taken for him - Elinor Reichlin, 1977, Summer, ‘Faces of Slavery‘, American Heritage, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4-11; Brian Wallis, 1995, Summer, ‘Black Bodies, White Science: Louis Agassiz's Slave Daguerreotypes‘, American Art, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 38-61  
      
  21. Λ A number of the Joseph T. Zealy daguerreotypes of Renty, Drana and Delia are in the collections at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 
      
  22. Λ Punch's Almanack for 1855 
      
  23. Λ Letter from W.L. Marcy, Secretary of War, to Major General Z. Taylor, Commanding Army of Occupation, Monterey, Mexico (5 October 1846). This letter is published in Message of the President of the United States, pp. 113-114. 
      
  24. Λ Jesse Gostick, 1860, Mechanical Photography: Including Positive, Negative, and Dryplate Pictures - Photographic Printing - Transparencies - Microphotographs, and life-size Portraits - Photographic Difficulties - Backgrounds, Solutions, and Miscellaneous Instructions., (London: G. T. Stevenson) 
      
  25. Λ 1890, American Journal of Photography, vol. XI, p.180 
      
  26. Λ For a biography on Louis Agassiz - Christoph Irmscher, 2013, Louis Agassiz: Creator of American Science, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)
     
    For the daguerreotypes of slaves that were taken for him - Elinor Reichlin, 1977, Summer, ‘Faces of Slavery‘, American Heritage, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4-11; Brian Wallis, 1995, Summer, ‘Black Bodies, White Science: Louis Agassiz's Slave Daguerreotypes‘, American Art, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 38-61  
      
  27. Λ A number of the Joseph T. Zealy daguerreotypes of Renty, Drana and Delia are in the collections at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 
      
  28. Λ Text courtesy of Charles Schwartz. 
      
  29. Λ Letter from David Octavius Hill to Hanry Sanford Bicknell, 17 January 1849 (George Eastman House, Rochester, NY). Quoted in Hans P. Kraus, Jr.; text by Larry J. Schaff with Russell Lord, 2009, Sun Pictures: Catalogue Nineteen. Silver Anniversary, (New York: Hans P. Kraus, Jr.), p. 18 
      
  30. Λ Cost of paper over metal plates, ease of transport, availability and above all the use of a negative so multiple prints could be made. 
      
  31. Λ Juliet Hacking, 1995, ‘David Wilkie Wynfield: The Great Amateur‘, History of Photography, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 322-327; Juliet Hacking, 2000, Princes of Victorian Bohemia, (Prestel) 
      
  32. Λ The National Portrait Gallery in London has a collection of portraits by David Wilkie Wynfield - www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/set/362 as does the Royal Academy of Arts (London). 
      
  33. Λ For a catalogue raisonné of the photographs of Julia Margaret Cameron - Julian Cox & Colin Ford, 2003, Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs, (Los Angeles: Getty Publications) 
      
  34. Λ For a catalogue raisonné of the photographs of Julia Margaret Cameron - Julian Cox & Colin Ford, 2003, Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs, (Los Angeles: Getty Publications) 
      
  35. Λ For the album Julia Margaret Cameron gave to her friend Sir John Herschel - Colin Ford, 1975, The Cameron Collection: An Album of Photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron Presented to Sir John Herschel, (Workingham, England: Van Nostrand Reinhold, in association with the National Portrait Gallery, London) 
      
  36. Λ 1893, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and his friends, (London: T. Fisher Unwin) 
      
  37. Λ Julia Margaret Cameron, 1874, Annals of My Glass House (Unfinished manuscript); Reprinted in full in - Violet Hamilton, 1996, Annals of my glass house: photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron, (Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery), p. 15; Also reprinted in - Beaumont Newhall, 1980, "Annals of my Glass House" IN, Photography: Essays and Images, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) 
      
  38. Λ Cited in: Anthony Lane, 2 September 2013, "Names and Faces: The portraits of Julia Margaret Cameron", The New Yorker - Review of an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    (Accessed: 30 August 2013)
    www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2013/09/02/130902crat_atlarge_lane?currentPage=all
     
    Original source - H. Allingham & D. Radford, 1907, William Allingham: A Diary, (Macmillan & Co.), pp. 152-153 
      
  39. Λ January 1877, "Characteristics of the International Fair. VI. Closing Days", The Atlantic Monthly, vol. XXXIX, p. 94
    The invention deserves universal gratitude for this and the numerous facilities which it offers, but it should be kept within its proper limits. The most egregious instance of its exceeding them is to be found in the English department of Photographic Hall; there are some absurd, blurred groups, representing scenes from the Idyls of the King, which everybody who has been to London will recognize as Mrs. Cameron's. The attempt at artistic and dramatic effect is enormous; the result is merely a series of very poor photographs of ill-dressed actors and actresses in exaggerated attitudes. Unfortunately, it is but another case of overdoing a successful experiment: eight or ten years ago Mrs. Cameron, then an amateur, I believe, took very striking and agreeable likenesses; one of her favorite subjects was the druidical physiognomy of Henry Taylor, author of Philip van Artevelde, whom she used as an advertisement.
     
      
  40. Λ For the photographs of - Graham Ovenden, 1974, Clementina: Lady Hawarden, (London: Academy Editions / NY: St. Martin's Press); Graham Ovenden, (ed.), 1989, Clementina, Viscountess Hawarden, Photographer, (London: Victoria and Albert Museum); V. Dodier, 1990, Domestic Idylls: Photographs by Lady Hawarden from the Victoria and Albert Museum, (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum); Carol Mavor, 1999, Becoming: The Photographs of Clementina, Viscountess Hawarden, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press) 
      
  41. Λ For a catalogue raisonné of the photographs of Julia Margaret Cameron - Julian Cox & Colin Ford, 2003, Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs, (Los Angeles: Getty Publications) 
      
  42. Λ For "hidden mothers" - Laura Lee Shill, 2012, Hidden Mother Tintypes and the Performance of the Self, (University of Colorado); Linda Fregni Nagler, 2013, The Hidden Mother, (Mack) 
      
  43. Λ "Myron T. Baldwin, of La Grange, Illinois. Infant's Posing-Chair", U.S. Patent Office, Letter's Patent no. 321,076, dated June 30, 1885.; "George F. Goullee, of Wellsville, Missouri, assignor to himself and Thomas K. Shelby, of Wellsville, Missouri", .S. Patent Office, Letter's Patent no. 918,666, patented: April 20, 1909.
     
    These are only example patents and research will yield many more in different countries. 
      
  44. Λ "A Combination Picture", 5 May 1888, Harper's Bazaar, vol. XXI, no. 18, p. 300
     
    With thanks to Beverly and Jack Wilgus for bringing this to my attention. (Facebook, Victorian Images group, 5 April 2014) 
      
  45. Λ Elizabeth Anne McCauley, 1985, A. A. E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait, (New Haven: Yale) 
      
  46. Λ A. Wynter, 1 March 1862, "Cartes-de-Visite.", Saturday Evening Post, p. 3. [From Once a Week]. 
      
  47. Λ Wladimiro Settimelli, 1982, Garibaldi: L'Album Fotografico, (Alinari) 
      
  48. Λ Lucy Riall, 2007, Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero, (Yale University Press). Yale University Press book description:
    Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian revolutionary leader and popular hero, was among the best-known figures of the nineteenth century. This book seeks to examine his life and the making of his cult, to assess its impact, and understand its surprising success.
     
    For thirty years Garibaldi was involved in every combative event in Italy. His greatest moment came in 1860, when he defended a revolution in Sicily and provoked the collapse of the Bourbon monarchy, the overthrow of papal power in central Italy, and the creation of the Italian nation state. It made him a global icon, representing strength, bravery, manliness, saintliness, and a spirit of adventure. Handsome, flamboyant, and sexually attractive, he was worshiped in life and became a cult figure after his death in 1882.
     
    Lucy Riall shows that the emerging cult of Garibaldi was initially conceived by revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the status quo, that it was also the result of a collaborative effort involving writers, artists, actors, and publishers, and that it became genuinely and enduringly popular among a broad public. The book demonstrates that Garibaldi played an integral part in fashioning and promoting himself as a new kind of “charismatic” political hero. It analyzes the way the Garibaldi myth has been harnessed both to legitimize and to challenge national political structures. And it identifies elements of Garibaldi’s political style appropriated by political leaders around the world, including Mussolini and Che Guevara.
     
      
  49. Λ The Photographic News, June 29, 1866, pp. 311-312. 
      
  50. Λ Janice G. Schimmelman, 2011, Twelve for a Quarter: The American Gem Tintype Album (www.blurb.com, self-published). A selection of gem tintypes from the private collection of Janice G. Schimmelman
    www.blurb.com/b/2485684-twelve-for-a-quarter 
      
  51. Λ Marcel Safier, 1998 (updated 29 April 2012), "The Gem & Carte de Visite Tintype"
    members.ozemail.com.au/~msafier/photos/tintypes.html 
      
  52. Λ Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique was issued between 1876 and 1884 - year 1 (1st/2nd half, 1876), year 2 (1st/2nd half, 1876/1877), year 3 (1st/2nd half, 1878), year 4 (1st/2nd half, 1879), year 5 (1st half, 1880) with a New Series, year 5-8 (1881-1884). 
      
  53. Λ For Nadar - Jean Prinet & Antoinette Dilasser, 1966, Nadar, (Paris: Armand Colin); Nigel Gosling, 1976, Nadar, (Alfred A. Knopf); Nadar, 1979, Nadar, (Milan: Electa Editrice); Maria Morris Hambourg; Francoise Heilburn & Philippe Neagu, 1995, Nadar, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
      
  54. Λ You should check the date of his last studio at 126 Piccadilly which is down as 1897 but he died in 1896. 
      
  55. Λ Herbert Rose Barraud, 1888, Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture, (London: Richard Bentley & Son). A further volume was published in 1889. Each volume contained 36 carbon prints. 
      
  56. Λ Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture - Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin
    (Accessed: 27 January 2014)
    norman.hrc.utexas.edu/photoPublic/fullDisplay.cfm?CollID=967 
      
  57. Λ Walter B. Welford, "Les uns perdent, les autres gagnent!", [Photo-Club de Paris / 1896, Pl. XLII], 1896, Heliogravure / Photogravure 
      
  58. Λ Herbert Arthur Hess (Philadelphia), "In Arkadien", [Die Kunst in der Photographie (Art Folio #6)], 1901, Photogravure, Chine-collé 
      
  59. Λ The Ring Toss, 1899, Clarence H. White - Heilbrunn Timeeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/33.43.303 
      
  60. Λ Marianne Fulton et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  61. Λ Jacques-Henri Lartigue, 1966, Boyhood Photos of J. H. Lartigue: The Family Album of a Gilded Age, (Lausanne, Switzerland: Ami Guichard); Martine D’Astier, Quentin Bajac & Alain Saya, 2003, Lartigue: Album of a Century, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) 
      
  62. Λ Having said this pictorialist styles did continue in numerous Camera Clubs which tended to be conservative in their membership and styles. 
      
  63. Λ For Camera Work - Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) 
      
  64. Λ David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press); Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate) 
      
  65. Λ August Sander, 1986, August Sander: Citizens of the Twentieth Century: Portrait Photographs 1892–1952, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Edited by Gunther Sander]; August Sander, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer]; Manfred Heiting (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) 
      
  66. Λ Cited in: George Steeves, 2013, August Sander: Objective Romantic, (Halifax, NS, Canada: Mount St. Vincent Art Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, September 7 - October 20, 2013], p. 11 
      
  67. Λ August Sander, 1929, Antlitz der Zeit, (Munich: Transmare and Kurt Wolff). The preface Faces, Images, and Their Truth was written by Alfred Döblin whose novel Berlin Alexanderplatz was published the same year. 
      
  68. Λ August Sander, 2004, August Sander: Photographs of the German Landscape, (Washingon: The Phillips Collection) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  69. Λ August Sander created sixteen portfolios of photographs of the city of Cologne which were purchased by the city administration for 25,000 marks. George Steeves, 2013, August Sander: Objective Romantic, (Halifax, NS, Canada: Mount St. Vincent Art Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, September 7 - October 20, 2013], p. 15.
     
    The work of August Sander on Cologne would later be published in 1952 as Cologne: As It Was which has been republished as Kölnisches Stadtmuseum (ed.), 1995, August Sander: Köln wie es war, (Cologne) 
      
  70. Λ August Sander, 1986, August Sander: Citizens of the Twentieth Century: Portrait Photographs 1892–1952, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Edited by Gunther Sander]; August Sander, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer]; Manfred Heiting (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen)  
      
  71. Λ Helmar Lerski (1871–1956) - IMDB
    (Accessed: 10 January 2014)
    www.imdb.com/name/nm0503814/ 
      
  72. Λ For the original catalogue of Film und Foto - 1929, Internationale Ausstellung des Deutschen Werkbunds Film Und Foto Stuttgart 1929. See also - Ute Eskildsen & J.-C. Horak (eds.), 1979, Film und Foto der Zwanziger Jahre (Wurttembergischer Kunstverein) [German] 
      
  73. Λ Helmar Lerski, 1931, Köpfe des Alltags: Unbekannte Menschen gesehen von Helmar Lerski, (Berlin: Verlag Hermann Reckendorf) 
      
  74. Λ The photographs for "Metamorphosis through light" were taken in Tel Aviv and the subject Leo Uschatz was an unemployed draughtman and athlete.
    Helmar Lerski: Metamorphosis - 12 March to 22 May 2005, Exhibition at Fotostiftung Schweiz, curated by Peter Pfrunder
    (Accessed: 10 January 2014)
    www.fotostiftung.ch/en/exhibitions/past/helmar-lerski-metamorphoses-of-the-face/ 
      
  75. Λ Ute Eskildsen (ed.) & Helmar Lerski, 1982, Verwandlungen durch Licht / Metamorphosis through light, (Luca: Freren) 
      
  76. Λ J. Scully, 2005, Disfarmer, the Heber Springs Portraits 1939–1946, (New York: powerhouse Books); R.B. Woodward, 2005, Disfarmer: The Vintage Prints, (New York: powerHouse Books) 
      
  77. Λ Eric J. Sandeen, 1995, Picturing an Exhibition: ‘The Family of Man’ and 1950s America, (University of New Mexico Press) 
      
  78. Λ Edward Steichen, 1955, The Family of Man (Simon and Schuster / Museum of Modern Art) [Exhibition catalogue - frequently reprinted.] 
      
  79. Λ Photographs of the mounted exhibition are requested along with ephemera from the tour. Publicity materials, banners, signage, brochures, contemporary reviews, ticket stubs are all required - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  80. Λ Clervaux, Luxembourg - The Family of Man
    (Accessed: 6 October 2013)
    www.clervauximage.lu/ 
      
  81. Λ Ken Heyman, 1986, The World's Family, (Putnam) 
      
  82. Λ Jerry Mason (ed.), 1977, The Family of Children, (Jonathan Cape) 
      
  83. Λ Jerry Mason (ed.), 1980, The Family of Woman, (Perigee), New edition 
      
  84. Λ Philip-Lorca diCorcia & Peter Galassi, 1995, Philip-Lorca diCorcia, (New York: Museum of Modern Art; distributed by Abrams); Philip-Lorca diCorcia, 2003, A Storybook Life, (Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms Publishers); Dennis Freedman (ed.) & Philip-Lorca diCorcia, 2011, Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Eleven, (Freedman Damiani); Philip-Lorca diCorcia, 2013, Hustlers, (Steidl) 
      
  85. Λ Rick Moody & Gregory Crewdson, 2002, Twilight: Photographs by Gregory Crewdson, (Abrams); Stephan Berg (ed.), 2005, Gregory Crewdson, 1985–2005, (Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz); Gregory Crewdson & Russell Banks, 2008, Beneath the Roses, (Abrams); Gregory Crewdson & Craig Burnett, 2011, Gregory Crewdson: In a Lonely Place, (Abrams) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
Adams, Robert, 1981, Beauty in Photography, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
  
Billeter, Erika (ed.), 1985, Self-Portrait in the Age of Photography: Photographers reflecting their own image, (Bern: Benteli Verlag / Musee cantonal des Beaux-Arts Lausanne) [Exhibition catalogue, Houston 2-30 March 1986, San Antonio 12-27 April 1986, texts by Erika Billeter and Roger Marcel Mayou] [Δ
  
Boyle, Ben & Duchin, Linda, 1987, Photomaton: A Contemporary Survey of Photobooth Art, (Rochester, NY: Pyramid Arts Center) [Exhibition catalogue - 11/20/87 - 1/2/88] [Δ
  
Bright, Susan, 2010, Auto Focus: The Self-Portrait in Contemporary Photography, (The Monacelli Press) isbn-10: 1580933009 isbn-13: 978-1580933001 [Δ
  
Bright, Susan, 2013, Home Truths: Photography and Motherhood, (London: Photographers' Gallery) isbn-10: 1908970103 isbn-13: 978-1908970107 [Δ
  
Cooper, Thompson, 1876-1883, Men of Mark, (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington) [Δ
  
Doyle, Peter, 2009, Crooks Like Us, (Historic Houses Trust Of New South Wales) isbn-10: 1876991348 isbn-13: 978-1876991340 [Δ
  
Eskildsen, Ute, 2008, On the Human Being: International Photography 1900-1950, (Turner Ediciones) isbn-10: 8475068219 isbn-13: 978-8475068213 [Δ
  
Ford, Colin, 1983, Portraits, (London: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
  
Goranin, Näkki, 2008, American Photobooth, (New York & London: W.W. Norton) [Δ
  
Hamilton, Peter & Hargreaves, Roger, 2001, The Beautiful and the Damned: The Creation of Identity in Nineteenth-Century Photography, (London: Lund Humphries Publishers in association with The National Portrait Gallery, London) isbn-10: 0853318212 isbn-13: 978-0853318217 [Δ
  
Hayert, Elizabeth, 1979, The Glass-House Years Victorian Portrait Photography 1839 - 1870, (Montclair and London: Allanheld & Schram and George Prior) [Δ
  
Heathcote, Bernard & Heathcote, Pauline, 2002, A Faithful Likeness: The First Photographic Portrait Studios in the British Isles 1841 to 1855, (Bernard And Pauline Heathcote) isbn-10: 0954193407 isbn-13: 978-0954193409 [Δ
  
Hunt, W.A. (ed.) & Ewing, William A. (introduction), 2011, The Unseen Eye: Photographs from the Unconscious, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597111937 isbn-13: 978-1597111935 [Δ
  
Jay, Bill, 2007, Bill Jay's Album, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 1590052005 isbn-13: 978-1590052006 [Δ
  
Kasher, Steven & Michaelson, Mark, 2009, Least Wanted: A Century of American Mugshots, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865212913 isbn-13: 978-3865212917 [Essay by Bob Nickas, texts by Mark Michaelson and Kio Stark] [Δ
  
Kozloff, Max, 2007, The Theatre of the Face: Portrait Photography since 1900, (Phaidon Press Inc.) isbn-10: 0714843725 isbn-13: 978-0714843728 [Δ
  
Lyden, Anne M., 2014, A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 1606061550 isbn-13: 978-1606061558 [Δ
  
Mathews, Oliver, 1974, The Album of Carte-de-visite and Cabinet Portrait Photographs 1854–1914, (London: Reedminster Publications, Ltd) [Δ
  
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne, 1980, Likenesses: Portrait Photography in Europe, 1850–1870, (Albuquerque: Art Museum, University of New Mexico) [Δ
  
McCauley, Elizabeth Anne, 1985, A. A. E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait, (New Haven: Yale) [Δ
  
Pellicer, Raynal, 2011, Photobooth: The Art of the Automatic Portrait, (Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810996111 isbn-13: 978-0810996113 [Δ
  
Pfister, Harol, 1978, Facing the Light: Historic American Portrait Daguerreotypes, (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press) [Δ
  
Pier 24 (gallery), 2014, About Face, (San Francisco: Pier 24) [Exhibition catalogue with essays by Philip Gefter - Photography critic and writer, Sandra S. Phillips - Senior Curator of Photography, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and Ulrike Schneider - Head of Fine Art, Niederächsische Sparkassenstiftung, Hannover Germany] [Δ
  
Severa, Joan L., 2006, My Likeness Taken: Daguerreian Portraits In America, (Kent State Univ Press) isbn-10: 0873388372 isbn-13: 978-0873388375 [Δ
  
Somoroff, Michael, 2012, A Moment - Master Photographers: Portraits by Michael Somoroff, (Damiani editore) isbn-13: 978-8862082112 [Preface by Julian Sander, essays by William Ewing and Michael Somoroff] [Δ
  
Svenson, Arne, 1997, Prisoners: Murder, Mayhem, and Petit Larceny, (Blast Books) isbn-10: 0922233187 isbn-13: 978-0922233182 [Δ
  
Taylor, Maureen, 2010, The Last Muster: Images of the Revolutionary War Generation, (Kent State Univ Press) isbn-10: 1606350552 isbn-13: 978-1606350553 [Δ
  
Werge, J., 1866, 13 April, ‘Rambles among the Studios of New York‘, , vol. X, no. 397, pp. 171-173 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Richard Avedon 
  
Avedon, Richard; Hambourg, Maria Morris & Fineman, Mia, 2002, Richard Avedon Portraits, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art; New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Foreword by Philippe de Montebello] [Δ
  
Herbert Rose Barraud 
  
Barraud, Herbert Rose, 1888-1889, Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture, (London: Richard Bentley & Son) [Two volumes containing photographs by Herbert Rose Barraud] [Δ
  
Carol Beckwith 
  
Beckwith, Carol & Fisher, Angela, 2012, Painted Bodies: African Body Painting, Tattoos, and Scarification, (Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847834050 isbn-13: 978-0847834051 [Δ
  
Beckwith & Fisher 
  
Beckwith, Carol & Fisher, Angela, 2012, Painted Bodies: African Body Painting, Tattoos, and Scarification, (Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847834050 isbn-13: 978-0847834051 [Δ
  
Samuel Broadbent 
  
Norris, Rebecca, 2001, ‘Samuel Broadbent, Daguerreian Artist‘, The Daguerreian Annual, pp. 134-147 [Δ
  
Julia Margaret Cameron 
  
1893, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and his friends, (London: T. Fisher Unwin) [Δ
  
Cameron, Julia Margaret, 1926, Victorian Photographs of Famous Men and Fair Women, (New York: Harcourt, Brace) [Δ
  
Alvin Langdon Coburn 
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1913, Men of Mark, (London: Duckworth & Co.) [Includes 33 photogravures printed by Alvin Langdon Coburn. Limited edition of 300 copies] [Δ
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1922, More Men of Mark, (London: Duckworth & Co.) [Includes collotypes by Alvin Langdon Coburn] [Δ
  
Robert Cornelius 
  
Stapp, William; Carson, Marion & Barger, M. Susan, 1983, Robert Cornelius: Portraits from the Dawn of Photography, (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press) [Δ
  
Mike Disfarmer 
  
Scully, J., 2005, Disfarmer, the Heber Springs Portraits 1939–1946, (New York: powerhouse Books) [Δ
  
Woodward, R. B., 2005, Disfarmer: The Vintage Prints, (New York: powerHouse Books) [Δ
  
Angela Fisher 
  
Beckwith, Carol & Fisher, Angela, 2012, Painted Bodies: African Body Painting, Tattoos, and Scarification, (Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847834050 isbn-13: 978-0847834051 [Δ
  
Alexander Gardner 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 1872, Photographs of Red Cloud and Principal Chiefs of Dacotah Indians Taken on Their Visit to Washington, D.C., May, 1872, (Washington D.C.: for Trustees of Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, England, [Gibson Brothers, Printers]) [Δ
  
Philippe Halsman 
  
Halsman, P., 1959, Jump Book, (New York: Simon & Schuster) [Δ
  
Horst 
  
Pepper, T., 2001, Horst Portraits: 60 Years of Style, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
Bill Jay 
  
Jay, Bill, 1983, Photographer's Photographed, (Peregrine Smith Books) isbn-10: 0879051469 isbn-13: 978-0879051464 [Δ
  
Yousuf Karsh 
  
Karsh, Yousuf, 1996, A Sixty-Year Retrospective, (Boston: Little, Brown) [Δ
  
Seydou Keita 
  
Magnin, Andre (ed.), 1997, Seydou Keïta, (New York: Scalo Publishers) isbn-10: 3931141462 isbn-13: 978-3931141462 [Δ
  
Annelise Kretschmer 
  
Kretschmer, Annelise, 2003, Annelise Kretschmer 1927-1937, (Steidl) [Δ
  
Kretschmer, Annelise & Eskildsen, Ute, 1982, Annelise Kretschmer: Fotografin, (Fotografische Sammlung im Museum Folkwang Essen) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Annie Leibovitz 
  
Leibovitz, Annie, 1984, Annie Leibovitz: Photographs, (New York: Pantheon/Rolling Stone) [Introduction by T. Wolfe] [Δ
  
Leibovitz, Annie, 1999, Women, (New York: Random House) [Introduction by S. Sontag] [Δ
  
Leibovitz, Annie & Sischy, I., 1992, Photographs, Annie Leibovitz, (New York: Harper Collins) [Δ
  
Helmar Lerski 
  
Ebner, Florian, 2002, Metamorphosen des Gesichts. Die "Verwandlungen durch Licht" von Helmar Lerski, (Göttingen: Steidl Verlag) isbn-10: 3882438088 [Δ
  
George Platt Lynes 
  
Kirstein, L., 1960, George Platt Lynes Portraits 1931–1952, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago) [Δ
  
Woody, J., 1981, George Platt Lynes: Photographs, 1931–1955, (Pasadena, CA: Twelvetrees Press) [Δ
  
Man Ray 
  
Warner, Marina; Pepper, Terence & Trompeteler, Helen, 2013, Man Ray Portraits, (National Portrait Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, National Portrait Gallery, London, 7 February - 27 May 2013, texts by] [Δ
  
Sally Mann 
  
Mann, Sally, 1988, At Twelve: Portraits of Young Women, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Mary Ellen Mark 
  
Mark, Mary Ellen, 2003, Twins, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Joel Meyerowitz 
  
Meyerowitz, Joel, 1990, Redheads, (New York: Rizzoli) [Δ
  
Duane Michals 
  
Michals, Duane, 1988, Album: The Portraits of Duane Michals: 1958–1988, (Pasadena, CA: Twelvetrees) [Δ
  
Yasumasa Morimura 
  
Morimura, Yasumasa, 2003, Daughter of Art History: Photographs by Yasumasa Morimura, (New York: Aperture) [Introduction by D. Kuspit] [Δ
  
Arnold Newman 
  
Fern, Alan & Newman, Arnold, 1992, Arnold Newman’s Americans, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
Newman, Arnold, 1974, One Mind’s Eye: The Portraits and Other Photographs of Arnold Newman, (Boston: David R. Godine) [Δ
  
Nicholas Nixon 
  
Nixon, Nicholas, 1991, People With AIDS: Photographs by Nicholas Nixon, (Boston: David R. Godine) [Δ
  
Louis Pierson 
  
Apraxine, Pierre & Demange, Xavier, 2000, "La Divine Comtesse": Photographs of the Countess de Castiglione, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; New Haven: Yale University Press) [With Françoise Heilbrun and Michele Falzone del Barbarò] [Δ
  
John Plumbe Jr. 
  
Norris, Rebecca, 2001, ‘Samuel Broadbent, Daguerreian Artist‘, The Daguerreian Annual, pp. 134-147 [Δ
  
Erich Salomon 
  
Hunter-Salomon, Peter, 1967, Erich Salomon: Portrait of an Age, (New York: Macmillan) [Δ
  
Salomon, Erich, 1975, Portrait of an Age, (New York: Collier Books) [Δ
  
Salomon, Erich, 1978, Erich Salomon, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
  
Lucas Samaras 
  
Prather, M. & Samaras, L., 2003, Unrepentant Ego: The Self Portraits of Lucas Samaras, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
August Sander 
  
Heiting, Manfred (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) [Δ
  
Sander, August, 1973, Men Without Masks: Faces of Germany, 1910–1938, (Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
  
Sander, August, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer] [Δ
  
Sander, August, 2003, Antlitz der Zeit, (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
Gary Schneider 
  
Schneider, Gary, 2005, Nudes, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1931788626 isbn-13: 978-1931788625 [Δ
  
Schneider, Gary, 2010, Handbook, (Aperture / Print on demand) [Δ
  
Schneider, Gary & Kao, Deborah Martin, 2004, Portraits, (Yale University Press / Harvard Art Museum) isbn-13: 978-0300100549 [Δ
  
Camille Silvy 
  
Haworth-Booth, Mark, 2010, Camille Silvy: Photographer of Modern Life, (London: National Portrait Gallery) [Δ
  
Taryn Simon 
  
Neufeld, Peter; Scheck, Barry & Simon, Taryn, 2008, The Innocents, (Umbrage Editions) isbn-10: 1884167187 isbn-13: 978-1884167188 [Δ
  
Strauss-Peyton 
  
White, Stephen (ed.) & Buckland, Gail, 2006, Strauss-Peyton: Celebrity and Glamour, (Stephen White Editions) isbn-10: 097688044X isbn-13: 978-0976880448 [Δ
  
Thomas Struth 
  
Bryson, Norman; Buchloh, Benjamin H.D. & Weski, Thomas (essays), 2001, Thomas Struth: Portraits, (Munich: P Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
Struth, Thomas; Lingwood, J. & Teitelbaum, M. (eds.), 1994, Thomas Struth: Strangers and Friends: Photographs 1986–1992, (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press) [Δ
  
Hiroshi Sugimoto 
  
Bashkoff, T. & Spector, N., 2000, Sugimoto Portraits, (New York: Guggenheim Museum Publications) [Δ
  
Albrecht Tübke 
  
Tübke, Albrecht, 2006, Albrecht Tübke: Portraits, (Verlag Moderne Kunst) isbn-10: 3938821329 isbn-13: 978-3938821329 [Δ
  
Tübke, Albrecht, 2011, Albrecht Tübke: Youth, (Sandstone communication) isbn-10: 3942422247 isbn-13: 978-3942422246 [German / English] [Δ
  
Doris Ulmann 
  
Featherstone, D., 1985, Doris Ulmann, American Portraits, (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
Peterkin, J. & Ulmann, D., 1933, Roll, Jordan, Roll, (New York: Robert O. Ballou) [Δ
  
Ulmann, Doris, 1925, A Portrait Gallery of American Editors. Being a Group of 43 Likenesses, (New York: William Edwin Rudge)) [Δ
  
Ulmann, Doris, 1974, The Darkness and the Light: Photographs by Doris Ulmann, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
  
James Van der Zee 
  
Van Der Zee, James, 1968, Harlem on My Mind: Cultural Capital of Black America, 1900–1968., (Metropolitan Museum of Art Exhibition. New York: Random House) [Edited by Allon Schoener. Preface by Thomas P. F. Hoving. Introduction by Candice Van Ellison] [Δ
  
Van Der Zee, James, 1973, James Van Der Zee, (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan and Morgan) [Δ
  
Van Der Zee, James, 1978, The Harlem Book of the Dead: James Van Der Zee, Owen Dodson, Camille Billops, (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan) [Foreword by Toni Morrison] [Δ
  
Willis-Braithwaite, Deborah, 1993, Van Der Zee: Photographer, 1886–1983, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Creative Americans: Portraits by Carl Van Vechten, 1932-1964 
http://memory.loc.gov ... 
  
Personages 
http://www.geh.org ... 
  
Robert Mapplethorpe: Portraits 
http://www.mapplethorpe.org ... 
  
Robert Mapplethorpe: Self Portraits 
http://www.mapplethorpe.org ... 
  
Tête à Tête: Portraits by Henri Cartier-Bresson 
http://www.npg.si.edu ... 
  
Disfarmer (1884-1959) 
http://www.disfarmer.com ... 
Born Mike Meyers a highly talented portrait photographer active in Heber Springs, Arkansas between 1939 and 1945. 
  
Lothar Wolleh: Wonderful portraits of notable artists. 
http://www.lothar-wolleh.de 
[German / English] 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
James Abbe  (1883-1973) • Nubar Alexanian  (1950-) • Diane Arbus  (1923-1971) • Atelier Adele • Richard Avedon  (1923-2004) • David Bailey  (1938-) • Cecil Beaton  (1904-1980) • Richard Billingham  (1970-) • Jane Brown  (1925-) • Sophie Calle  (1953-) • Julia Margaret Cameron  (1815-1879) • Lewis Carroll  (1832-1898) • Martin Chambi  (1891-1973) • Anton Corbijn • Robert Cornelius  (1809-1893) • Denis Dailleux  (1958-) • Roy DeCarava  (1919-2009) • Mike Disfarmer  (1884-1959) • Jeff Dunas  (1954-) • Patrick Faigenbaum  (1954-) • Bernard Faucon  (1950-) • Peter Feldstein • Samuel Fosso  (1962-) • Jona Frank • Gisèle Freund  (1912-2000) • Robert Gardner  (1925-) • Arlene Gottfried • Philippe Halsman  (1906-1979) • Ruth Handley  (1899-1957) • Hill & Adamson • E.O. Hoppé  (1878-1972) • Horst  (1906-1999) • Frank Horvat  (1928-) • George Hurrell  (1904-1992) • Yousuf Karsh  (1908-2002) • Ken Kitano • Annelise Kretschmer  (1903-1987) • David LaChapelle  (1969-) • Eva Lauterlein  (1977-) • Annie Leibovitz  (1949-) • Helmar Lerski  (1871-1956) • Loretta Lux  (1969-) • Sally Mann  (1951-) • Mary Ellen Mark  (1940-) • Edith Maybin • Anne Arden McDonald  (1966-) • Andrea Modica  (1960-) • Jose Mora  (check) • Arnold Newman  (1918-2006) • Helmut Newton  (1920-2004) • Pierre et Gilles • Jack Pierson  (1960-) • Milton Rogovin  (1909-2011) • August Sander  (1876-1964) • Michelle Sank  (1953-) • Tomoko Sawada  (1977-) • Gary Schneider  (1954-) • Augustus Francis Sherman • Cindy Sherman  (1954-) • Antonio Sorgato  (1825-1885) • Strauss-Peyton • Hiroshi Sugimoto  (1948-) • Ellen Susan • Joyce Tenneson  (1945-) • Wolfgang Tillmans • Waldemar Franz Herman Titzenthaler  (1869-1937) • Anton Josef Trcka • James Van der Zee  (1886-1983) • Neil S. Winokur  (1945-)
HomeThemes > Portrait 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Adolescents 
Artist studies - Académies 
Babies 
Children 
Dead 
Elderly 
Head rests 
Identity documents and badges 
Life stages 
Middle age 
Mugshots 
Peoples of the world 
Photobooths 
Physionotrace 
Silhouette 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Portrait

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
Thumbnail20th Century Augustus Francis Sherman and Ellis Island (1905-1920) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 6, 2011)
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 5, 2007)
ThumbnailAmbrotypes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 18, 2006)
ThumbnailAngelika Rinnhofer: Menschenkunde 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 19, 2006)
ThumbnailAntoine François Jean Claudet 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 19, 2009)
ThumbnailAugust Sander: People of the 20th Century: Portraits of German Citizens 1910-1940 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 27, 2007)
ThumbnailBenjamin C. Tankersley: Portraits 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 26, 2007)
ThumbnailBenjamin Strauss and Homer Peyton: Celebrity portraits 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 27, 2007)
ThumbnailBill Jay 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 19, 2006)
ThumbnailChildren in 19th Century Photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 9, 2012)
ThumbnailChildren in Humanistic Photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 20, 2012)
ThumbnailChildren in Pictorialism 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 26, 2012)
ThumbnailClaudia Kunin: 3D Ghost Stories 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 16, 2007)
ThumbnailClaudia Kunin: 3D Holy Ghost Stories 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 14, 2007)
ThumbnailCountess of Castiglione 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 15, 2012)
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Portraits 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 13, 2006)
ThumbnailDoug Dubois: Barbershop 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 1, 2008)
ThumbnailEllen Susan: Soldier Portraits 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 6, 2008)
ThumbnailGabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 30, 2006)
ThumbnailGabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers? 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 31, 2007)
ThumbnailGertrude Käsebier 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 6, 2010)
ThumbnailHenry Horenstein: Close Relations 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 2, 2007)
ThumbnailHerbert Rose Barraud 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 18, 2006)
ThumbnailHill & Adamson - Newhaven 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 14, 2010)
ThumbnailHill & Adamson: Masters of the calotype portrait 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 29, 2006)
ThumbnailIdentity cards 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 23, 2010) Does anybody have examples of nineteenth century railway passes?
ThumbnailJapanese Ambrotypes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 5, 2007)
ThumbnailJeff Dunas 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 23, 2006)
ThumbnailJohn Jabez Mayall - Royalty 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 6, 2010)
ThumbnailJoseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 14, 2006)
ThumbnailJulia Margaret Cameron 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 9, 2010)
ThumbnailKurt Edward Fishback: Portraits of the American Photographic Community 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 17, 2010) Portraits of photographers are always appreciated.
ThumbnailLady Clementina Hawarden 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 7, 2007)
ThumbnailLalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 23, 2008)
ThumbnailLeast Wanted: A Century of American Mugshots 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 8, 2007)
ThumbnailMartin Schoeller: Portraits 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 16, 2007)
ThumbnailMichelle Sank: An Evolving Retrospective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 19, 2007) Portrait studies that explore the essence of adolescence.
ThumbnailNadar: Galerie Contemporaine 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 14, 2010)
ThumbnailNajaf Shokri: Iran Dokht 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 6, 2011)
ThumbnailPeople looking through windows 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 1, 2012)
ThumbnailPortrait: An Aversion to Face 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 23, 2007)
ThumbnailPortrait: Back view 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 26, 2008)
ThumbnailPortrait: LIFE Photographers 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 1, 2009)
ThumbnailPortrait: The Unknown Sitter - African American Portraits of the 1860s-1880s 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 23, 2010) Any help on identifying the sitters would be appreciated.
ThumbnailPortraits: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 19, 2006) When viewed together the pictorialist portrait style becomes clear.
ThumbnailPortraits: Profiles 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 2, 2011)
ThumbnailReal Photo Postcards - Portraits: The Brian Smolens Collection 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 4, 2008)
ThumbnailRené de Carufel: The Photographer’s Eye 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 1, 2006)
ThumbnailReutlinger Studio 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 30, 2006)
ThumbnailRichard Beard 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 6, 2010)
ThumbnailRobb Kendrick: Cowboys 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 17, 2007)
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: Borroro male beauty 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 7, 2008)
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: The Borroro - Gerewol and Yaki 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 16, 2008)
ThumbnailRoyalty and Photography in Europe, An Introduction 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 18, 2007)
ThumbnailSouthwell Brothers: Photographers of Victorian London society 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 27, 2006)
ThumbnailThe Bieber Family: A study in studio dating 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 21, 2007) New material added to the chronological analysis of a German photographic studio (ca. 1865 - ca. 1910)
ThumbnailThe Second Empire through the Lens of A.A.E. Disdéri 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 14, 2006)
ThumbnailVan Leo: An Armenian Photographer in Cairo 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 14, 2008)
ThumbnailVernacular photography: Photobooths 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (February 16, 2008) Four new images added from the collection of John Foster.
ThumbnailWalter Schels: Life before Death 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 22, 2008)
ThumbnailWilliam Coupon: Portraits 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 29, 2007)
ThumbnailWilliam Edward Kilburn (1818-1891): London Daguerreotypist 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 12, 2009)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Portrait

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailWalt Whitman 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAbdullah frères: Turkish women 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbrecht Tübke: Twins 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: Men of Mark (1913) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: More Men of Mark (1922) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAntoine Claudet: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArnulf Rainer: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Rothstein: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailC. Portier: Algerian portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCindy Sherman: Untitled film stills 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailClarence H. White: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDoris Ulmann: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailE.O. Hoppé: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEduard Isaac Asser: Family portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElena Dorfman: Fandomania 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailErnest Edwards: Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science and Art, with Biographical Memoirs (1863) 
ThumbnailEtienne Carjat: Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFranz Antoine: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederick Gutekunst: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge S. Cook: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGertrude Käsebier: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGillian Wearing: Album 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGyörgy Kepes: Faces 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinrich Kühn: Family portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinrich Kühn: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHelmar Lerski: Köpfe des Alltags (1931) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHelmar Lerski: Metamorphosis of light 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Darley Crozier: Military portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: Nicolaas Henneman sleeping 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHermann Krone: Self portraits with cameras (1858) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHill & Adamson: James Linton at Newhaven 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.E. Mayall: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJeremiah Gurney: Carte de visites: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJeremiah Gurney: Daguerreotypes: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Robert Parsons: Jane Morris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJosef Albert: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoseph T. Keiley: Miss De C. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJuan Laurent: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKen Kitano: Our Face Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLady Clementina Hawarden: Photographic studies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLehnert & Landrock: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLisette Model: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLoretta Lux: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis-Adolphe Humbert de Molard: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLucas Samaras: Photo-Transformations 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaison Prod’hom: Algerian portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMalick Sidibé: Catalogues 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMalick Sidibé: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMarcus Aurelius Root: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMark Cohen: The Partial Human 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMike Disfarmer: Heber Springs portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNadar: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNan Goldin: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNan Goldin: The Ballard of Sexual Dependency 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNicolas Andriomenos: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNikki S. Lee: Projects 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPaul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: I'll write whenever I can 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhilip Trager: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhilippe Halsman: Jump 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhilippe Potteau: Portrait of Marie Dannier 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRafael Goldchain: Familial Ground 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Beard: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Billingham: Ray and Liz 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRineke Dijkstra: Beach portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Cornelius: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Cornelius: Portrait of Martin Hans Boyè 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Demachy: Portrait of a child 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: Borroro male beauty - SX-70 prints 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Howlett: Isambard Kingdom Brunel 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Silvers: Photomosaics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Portraits from the Crimea 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRufus P. Anson: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRuth Handley: Portraits: Colour 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSally Mann: Immediate Family 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel Broadbent: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel Broadbent: The Wood family of Philadelphia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel Fosso: Alternate personalities 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSeydou Keita: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSouthworth & Hawes: Medallion portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSouthworth & Hawes: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailStrauss-Peyton: Celebrity portaits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTancrède Dumas: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTomoko Sawada: ID400 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTomoko Sawada: Masquerade 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW. Fechner: Front and back views of a gentleman 
ThumbnailW. Hammerschmidt: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW.P. Floyd: Studio portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: Dress 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWeegee: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Edward Kilburn: Daguerreotype portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailYasumasa Morimura: Self portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailGeorge Zimbel - Sam Shaw 
ThumbnailGeorgii Petrusov - Marie Hansen 
ThumbnailIdentity cards 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer - Karl Meckes - Annie Leibovitz 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailFront and back views 
ThumbnailGroup portraits 
ThumbnailIllustrations based on Daguerreotypes: Portraits 
ThumbnailMirror portraits 
ThumbnailMultiple portraits taken using mirrors 
ThumbnailPeople looking through windows 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Portraits 
ThumbnailPortrait: Bust portraits 
ThumbnailPortrait: Early examples of Self portraits 
ThumbnailPortrait: Intimate relationships 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Arms 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Back: Groups 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Back: Single person 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Breasts 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Ears 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Eyes 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Feet 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Hair 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Hands 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Legs 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Skeletons 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Skulls 
ThumbnailPortrait: Parts of the body: Torsos 
ThumbnailPortrait: Professions: Composers 
ThumbnailPortrait: Professions: Photographers 
ThumbnailPortrait: Professions: Photographers: Self portraits 
ThumbnailPortrait: Professions: Politicians 
ThumbnailPortrait: Profiles 
ThumbnailPortrait: Shooting gallery self portraits 
ThumbnailPortrait: Strange 
ThumbnailPortrait: Twins 
ThumbnailThe Face Acrobatic Morimoto, Kyoto, Japan 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailAfrica: Portraits 
 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailAlbumen prints: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailAmbrotypes: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailAmbrotypes: Themes: Portrait: Actors 
ThumbnailAutochromes: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailCalotypes: Themes: Portraits 
ThumbnailCyanotypes: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Portrait: Actors 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Portrait: Self-portraits 
ThumbnailPhotogravures: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailReal photo postcards: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailSalt prints: Themes: Portraits 
ThumbnailTintypes: Themes: Portrait 
ThumbnailTintypes: Themes: Portrait: Celebrities 
ThumbnailWoodburytypes: Themes : Portraits 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAmerican Civil War (1861-1865): Portraits in brass bezels 
ThumbnailChildren in Pictorialism 
ThumbnailCultural intersections 
ThumbnailHarper's Bazaar: A Combination Picture (5 May 1888) 
ThumbnailInteresting group posed for a Daguerreotype by a friend of the family / Interesting and valuable result 
ThumbnailMen of Mark: Contemporary Portraits of Distinguished Men 
ThumbnailPeople wearing boxes or paper bags 
ThumbnailTin Type Album: Little Gem tintypes 
 
  
Refreshed: 25 July 2014, 06:02
 
  
 
  
HOME  BACKFREE NEWSLETTER
 Facebook LuminousLint 
 Twitter @LuminousLint