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HomeContentsThemes > Collage


829.01   Collage - Defined
Decorated album pages
829.02   Decorated pages in nineteenth century photograph albums
829.03   Frances Carlhian: Album page showing the Shah of Persia - Nasir al-Din Shah
829.04   Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer: Decorated album pages
Spirit photography
829.05   Cottingley Fairies
829.06   William H. Mumler: Spirit photography
829.07   William Hope: Spirit photography and séances
829.08   Paul Citroen: Metropolis
Appropriating card photographs
829.09   Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages
829.10   The Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates...
829.11   Contemporary artworks using card photographs
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
829.01   Photomontage >  Collage - Defined 
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Slideshow (Be patient as this has 24 slides to load.) 
A collage is made by placing different elements together on a flat surface. In this the photograph is only one of the possibilities and the final collage might include text, clippings, graphics and fabric. The term photocollage is used when photographs are the dominant elements of the overall collage.
Widely used in graphic design and advertising this technique has sporadically flourished for political propaganda - most notably in the period between the First World War (1914-1918) and the rise of Fascism in Weimar Germany with John Heartfield[1] and Hannah Höch[2] and in Russia with Alexander Rodchenko[3] and El Lissitzky[4] particularly with the magazine USSR in Construction in the years between 1930 and 1941.[5]  
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John Heartfield 
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Alexander Rodchenko 
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Herbert Matter 
The use of mixed media that incorporate photographs has been an ongoing thread within photohistory.  
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Mixed-media and photography 
Political collage from 1970 onwards has emerged as a means of forcing home a message with maximum impact and the German artist Klaus Staeck was influential in this with a prodigious output including his 1971 book Pornografie that attacked the twisted attitudes and hypocrisy of society.[6]
Photographers using collage include: Wallace Berman, Victor Burgin, Paul Citroen, Nancy Goldring, John Heartfield, Hannah Höch, Gustav Klutsis, El Lissitzky, Herbert Matter, László Moholy-Nagy, Alexander Rodchenko, Klaus Staeck, Edmund Teske, Piet Zwart 
Decorated album pages 
829.02   Photomontage >  Decorated pages in nineteenth century photograph albums 
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The leisured classes of society during the nineteenth century spent their time in tranquil pursuits of drawing, painting, scrapbooking and innumerable hobbies supported by how-to guides and magazines. The introduction of photography allowed imagery from the real world to be incorporated into whimsical artistic fantasies. This was the age of Lewis Carroll[7], Alice and the Bandersnatch.[8] Albums with decorated pages are uncommon but are important for the history of photocollage and photomontage.[9] 
829.03   Photomontage >  Frances Carlhian: Album page showing the Shah of Persia - Nasir al-Din Shah 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Frances Carlhian (1818-1870)[10] was a French photographer in Iran who set up the first official photographic studio in the royal palace in Tehran under the patronage of Nasir al-Din Shah.[11] 
829.04   Photomontage >  Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer: Decorated album pages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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The album of Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer in the collection of Harvard Art Museum/Fogg Museum shows how framing and layout on the page could use photographs in creative ways that combined intimate views of the family circle blended with the creative crafts of drawing and painting.[12][13] 
Spirit photography 
829.05   Photomontage >  Cottingley Fairies 
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Two films Photographing Fairies (1997) and FairyTale: A True Story (1997) have been loosely based upon the 1912 Cottingley Fairies Hoax. 
829.06   Photomontage >  William H. Mumler: Spirit photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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William H. Mummler (1832-1884) was one of American's great spirit photographers and also a considerable fraud.[14] At the time of national grieving for the terrible losses of the American Civil War (1861-1865) he took photographs of people with departed relatives. The most famous of these is his portrait of Mary Todd Lincoln, the wife of Abraham Lincoln, sitting with the departed President standing behind her with his hand affectionately resting on her shoulder. In April 1869 he was tried for fraud and P.T. Barnum testified against him and had the noted New York photographer Abraham Bogardus created a fake to show how it could be done.
A contemporary account of the evidence given by P.T. Barnum at the trial of William H. Mummler was published in the The Saturday Review and reprinted in The Living Age:
The celebrated Barnum was called among other witnesses for the prosecution, and he stated that he had devoted a portion of his life to the detection of humbugs. About seven years ago Mr. Barnum was composing a book on humbugs, and he wrote to Mr. Mumler that he wished to purchase specimens of his so-called spirit photographs for the Museum of humbugs established by him, Barnum. Spirit photographs were accordingly supplied by Mr. Mumler at two dollars apiece, and they were hung by Mr. Barnum on the walls of the Museum for three or four years. Among them were spirit photographs of Napoleon Bonaparte and Henry Clay, and the positions of the figures were exactly like the well-known engravings of these personages. The title of Mr. Barnum's book was The Humbugs of the World. All the chapter relating to spirit photographs, referred to Mr. Mumler, who does not seem to have objected to the celebrity thus bestowed upon him. The spirit photographs which were hung upon the walls of Mr. Barnum's Museum were labelled "humbug," and the compliment thus conveyed was not repudiated by Mr. Mumler.[15]
829.07   Photomontage >  William Hope: Spirit photography and séances 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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829.08   Photomontage >  Paul Citroen: Metropolis 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
In 1923 the German artist Paul Citroen (1896-1903)[16], who was a friend of the Berlin Dadaists, put together a collage made up of postcards and printed illustrations and called it Metropolis it's an abstract design of different buildings and perspectives crushed together. This is the most famous of all his work and it has become an iconic image of the 20th century city. The designs for Fritz Lang's 1929 film Metropolis appear to have their foundations in this chaotic image. 
Appropriating card photographs 
829.09   Photomontage >  Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Bohumil Stepán was a Czech graphic designer who created satirical photocollages in the 1960s using carte de visites and cabinet cards as his starting point.[17] 
829.10   Photomontage >  The Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates... 
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Slideshow (Be patient as this has 69 slides to load.) 
Between 2002 and 2008 an assortment of American collectors, dealers and secretive individuals with surrealist yearnings and a sense of humour conspired together to create the "Carte Horse Conspiracy" to say that there is an official history of such a group would be pushing the bounds of scholarship but an introduction provided by an anonymous member sets the tone.
Late in 2002, Larry Gottheim of BE-HOLD sent a letter and a page from an auction catalog illustrating an album of photo-collaged cartes-de-visite and cabinet cards done by Bohumil Stepán to a bored horse cart driver.
Almost immediately the Horse Carte Conspiracy formed; the members put things to order and got down to the business of conspiring. Between 2002 and 2008 they mercilessly contrived carte-works.
In 2008 there was a big collision of cartes, horses and drivers and all ended up in a ditch. Their glue sticks, tweezers and tiny scissors were scattered across the countryside
Abigail Snippe
Directress of The Home for Aged Carte Horse Conspirators
Curatrix des Cartes.
View exhibition 
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829.11   Photomontage >  Contemporary artworks using card photographs 
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There are artistic flourishes within those who collect both carte de visite and cabinet cards to use the more common ones as the starting point for artistic exuberence. The first significant person to do this was Czech graphic designer Bohumil Stepán but numerous othes have followed. 

  1. Λ John Heartfield, 1977, Photomontages of the Nazi Period, (New York: Universe Books); Peter Pachnicke & Klaus Honnef (eds.), 1992, John Heartfield, (New York: Harry N. Abrams); Andres Mario Zervigon, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University of Chicago Press) 
  2. Λ Maud Lavin, 1993, Cut with the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of Hannah Höch, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press) 
  3. Λ Examples examples of the collages of Alexander Rodchenko - Vladimir Mayakovsky, 1923, Pro Eto. Ei i Mne [About this. To Her and to Me], (Moscow and Petrograd: Gosudarstvennoe Izdatel'stvo)
    For books on Alexander Rodchenko - David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press); Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate) 
  4. Λ Victor Margolin, 1998, The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy-Nagy, 1917-1946, (University Of Chicago Press); El Lissitzky & B.M.Tal (ed.), 1935, Industriia Sotsializma [Socialist Industry], (Moscow: IZOGIZ) 
  5. Λ Erika Wolf, 1999, "When Photographs Speak, To Whom Do They Talk? The Origins and Audience of SSSR na stroike (USSR in Construction)", Left History, vol. 6 no. 2, pp. 53-82 
  6. Λ Klaus Staeck, 1971, Pornografie, (Göttingen: Steidl Verlag). Republished by Steidl in 2008. 
  7. Λ Lewis Carroll was also a significant British photographer - Helmut Gernsheim, 1950, Lewis Carroll: Photographer, (London: Max Parrish) [2nd edition]; Douglas R. Nickel, 2002, Dreaming in Pictures: The Photography of Lewis Carroll, (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Yale University Press, New Haven and London); Roger Taylor & Edward Wakeling, 2002, Lewis Carroll: Photographer, (Princeton: Princeton University Press) 
  8. Λ The Bandersnatch is a fictional character in Lewis Carroll's poem Jabberwocky which is a part of his 1872 novel Through the Looking Glass. Carroll's 1874 poem The Hunting of the Snark gives a cryptic description with his "frumious jaws." 
  9. Λ Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage, (Art Institute of Chicago); Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, The Marvelous Album of Madame B: Being the Handiwork of a Victorian Lady of Considerable Talent, (Scala Publishers) 
  10. Λ It is likely that there are significant holdings of the photographs of Frances Carlhian in the Golestan Palace in Tehran, Iran and we would welcome further details on this - 
  11. Λ Nasir al-Din Shah ruled Iran from 1848 to 1896. 
  12. Λ Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer, 1862-1888, [My Book], Harvard Art Museum/Fogg Museum, Purchase through the generosity of Melvin R. Seiden, © President and Fellows of Harvard College, Item Identifier: P1982.359 
  13. Λ Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage, (Art Institute of Chicago); Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, The Marvelous Album of Madame B: Being the Handiwork of a Victorian Lady of Considerable Talent, (Scala Publishers) 
  14. Λ Louis Kaplan, 2008, The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer, (University of Minnesota Press) 
  15. Λ "Spiritual Photography", 1869, The Living Age, vol. 102, pp. 314-315 gives an account of the trial of William H. Mummler taken from The Saturday Review 
  16. Λ Gerard Forde, 1993, Paul Citroen & Erwin Blumenfeld 1919-1939, (London: The Photographers' Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue] 
  17. Λ Bohumil Stepán, 1971, Familienalbum. Collagen (Munich)


HomeContents > Further research

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General reading 
Ades, Dawn, 1993, Photomontage, (New York: Thames and Hudson) [Δ
Busch, Dennis; Klanten, Robert & Hellige, Hendrik (eds.), 2013, The Art of Collage: Contemporary Collage in Modern Art, (Gestalten) isbn-13: 978-3899554830 [Δ
Hoy, Anne H., 1987, Fabrications: Staged, Altered and Appropriated Photographs, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Δ
Nakamori, Yasufumi, 2012, Utopia/Dystopia Construction and Destruction in Photography and Collage, (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts) isbn-13: 978-0300179606 [With Graham Bader] [Δ
Siegel, Elizabeth, 2009, Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage, (Art Institute of Chicago) isbn-10: 0300141149 isbn-13: 978-0300141146 [Δ
Siegel, Elizabeth, 2009, The Marvelous Album of Madame B: Being the Handiwork of a Victorian Lady of Considerable Talent, (Scala Publishers) isbn-10: 1857595793 isbn-13: 978-1857595796 [Δ
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
Llyn Foulkes 
Foulkes, Lynn, 1974, Llyn Foulkes: Fifty Paintings, Collages and Prints from Southern California Collections: A Survey Exhibition 1959-1974, (Newport Beach: Newport Harbor Art Museum) [Δ
Foulkes, Lynn, 1987, Llyn Foulkes: The Sixties, (New York: Kent Fine Art) [EXhibition catalogue. 15 October - 14 November 1987, New York, Kent Fine Art] [Δ
Knode, Marilu & Brooks, Rosetta, 1995, Llyn Foulkes: Between a Rock and a Hard Place, (Los Angeles: Fellows of Contemporary Art; Laguna Beach: Laguna Art Museum) [Δ
Subotnick, Ali, 2013, Llyn Foulkes: A Retrospective, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791352741 isbn-13: 978-3791352749 [Δ
Raoul Hausmann 
Hausmann, Raoul, 1979, Photographies, 1927–1957, (Paris: Créatis) [Δ
John Heartfield 
AM Zehnhoff, H. W., 1988, ‘Satire in word and image: satirical techniques of John Heartfield and Kurt Tucholsky in Deutschland, Deutschland über alles‘, Word & Image, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 157-162 [Δ
Broscoe, Stephen, 1996, August, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles : Kurt Tucholsky zwischen Auflehnung und Resignation, (Department of German, McGill University, Monueal: MA Thesis) [Δ
Heartfield, John, 1977, Photomontages of the Nazi Period, (New York: Universe Books) [Δ
Heartfield, John, 1992, John Heartfield : AIZ/ VI 1930-38, (Kent Gallery) [Δ
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1978, Deutschland, Deutschland u¨ber alles / a picture-book by Kurt Tucholsky. Photos. assembled by John Heartfield, (Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press) [Translated from the German by Anne Halley. Afterword and notes by Harry Zohn] [Δ
Pachnicke, Peter & Honnef, Klaus (eds.), 1992, John Heartfield, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
Paenhuysen, An, 2009, ‘Kurt Tucholsky, John Heartfield and Deutschland, Deutschland uber Alles‘, History of Photography, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 39-54 [Δ
Willett, John, 1997, Heartfield Versus Hitler, (Hazan Editeur) isbn-10: 285025536X isbn-13: 978-2850255366 [Δ
Zervigon, Andres Mario, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226981770 isbn-13: 978-0226981772 [Δ
Robert Heinecken 
Borger, I. et al., 1999, Robert Heinecken, Photographist: A Thirty-Five Year Retrospective, (Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art) [Δ
Enyeart, J. (ed.), 1980, Heinecken, (Carmel, CA: The Friends of Photography) [Δ
Respini, Eva (Editor), 2014, Robert Heinecken: Object Matter, (New York: The Museum of Modern Art) isbn-10: 0870709062 isbn-13: 978-0870709067 [Δ
Hannah Höch 
Ades, Dawn & Herrmann, Daniel F., 2014, Hannah Hoch, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791353438 isbn-13: 978-3791353432 [Δ
Lavin, Maud, 1993, Cut with the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of Hannah Höch, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press) [Δ
Frederick Sommer 
Sommer, Frederick, 2005, The Art of Frederick Sommer: Photography, Drawing, Collage, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) [Δ
Weiss, John (ed.), 1980, Venus, Jupiter and Mars: The Photographs of Frederick Sommer, (Wilmington, DE: Delaware Art Museum) [Δ
Bohumil Stepán 
Stepán, Bohumil, 1971, Bohumil Stepán: Familienalbum. Collagen, (Munich: dtv) [Δ
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - 

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

Peter Beard  (1938-) • Nusch Eluard  (1906-1946) • Llyn Foulkes  (1934-) • Raoul Hausmann  (1886-1971) • John Heartfield  (1891-1968) • Robert Heinecken  (1931-2006) • Hannah Höch  (1889-1978) • Robert Rauschenberg  (1925-2008) • Frederick Sommer  (1905-1999) • Bohumil Stepán  (1913-1985) • Jindrich Styrsky  (1899-1942)
HomeThemesPhotomontage > Collage 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
Experimental and manipulated photography 
Mixed media 

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Collage

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Released (April 29, 2012)

HomeVisual indexes > Collage

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ThumbnailBohumil Stepán: Satirical photocollages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBruce Charlesworth: Polaroid SX-70 prints with acrylic and collage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDonald Lorimer: Experimental collage 
ThumbnailRana Javadi: Photocollages 
ThumbnailRaoul Hausmann: Dada photomontage and collage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailStacy Waldman & Bronwen Hodgkinson: Cabinet card photocollages 
ThumbnailCottingley Fairies 
   Equipment and supplies 
ThumbnailPhotograph albums: Decorated pages 
Refreshed: 12 January 2015, 03:10
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