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Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
826.01 Viewers > Stereoscopes: Book and magazine illustrations
826.02 Viewers > Stereoscopes: Becker
826.03 Viewers > Stereoscopes: Brewster
826.04 Viewers > Stereoscopes: Holmes-Bates
826.05 Viewers > Stereoscopes: Lewis Patent
826.06 Viewers > Stereoscopes: Mascher
Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts, March, 1855, p.214-215.
COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND THE ARTS.
Report on J. F. Mascher's Stereoscope.
The Committee on Science and the Arts, constituted by the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, for the promotion of the Mechanic Arts, to whom was referred for examination, "an Improvement in Stereoscopes," invented by Mr. J. F. Mascher, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Report :
That the instrument submitted by Mr. Mascher, consists of a light lid or flap fitted into a case similar to those commonly used for daguerreotype pictures, and containing two lenses of short focus, and fitted to the view of any stereoscopic pictures fitted permanently or temporarily into the case. The advantages presented by this very neat apparatus of Mr. Mascher are; 1st, That from its simplicity it can be made much more cheaply than almost any other form of stereoscope; 2d, That when in action it allows the light to fall upon the pictures at any required angle, and in any desirable quantity, there being no solid sides to interfere with the arrangement of the light. In these two respects it shares its advantages with a light and cheap form of instrument which has been for several years in use. But, 3d, Mr. Mascher's instrument is very compact, the bent frame folding down into the case, thus allowing a stereoscope daguerreotype to be kept with its proper lenses in the same case that is used for ordinary pictures; and the mobility of the lens frame by its rocking motion on its hinge, gives very greatly increased facility for the arrangement of the focal distance to suit any eyes, and for the other adjustment of the lenses for distinct vision.
In reference to the originality of the invention, it is sufficient to say that Mr. Mascher has obtained Letters Patent for his invention, and of course, the only proper course to attack him on this point would be by taking means to obtain the decision of a court of law upon the point.
As this matter is not within the scope of the examinations of the Committee of Science and the Arts in such cases, they content themselves with recommending to general use, the stereoscope patented by Mr. Mascher, as being a very neat, cheap, durable, convenient, and easily adjusted instrument, superior, for ordinary purposes, to those forms commonly in use.
By order of the Committee,
Wm. Hamilton, Actuary.
Philadelphia, February 8th, 1855.
Since the adoption of the above report, Mr. Mascher has invented and submitted to the inspection of the members of the Institute, a stereoscope arranged in a locket of the usual form and size. The arrangement is illustrated by the accompanying wood-cut, and besides the convenience of the size and mode of preserving the pictures, the lenses are made more powerful than those of other stereoscopes, and the pictures are thus more highly magnified. Ed.
American Journal of Science and Arts", Second Series, Volume XIX, May, 1855, p.447.
1. Mascher's Stereoscopes. The annexed figure is a perspective view of a very ingenious application of the stereoscope to daguerreotype medallions. A patent for this improvement has been recently granted to J. F. Mascher of Philadelphia. Attached lo the main central rim of a locket, there are two lids with daguerreotype pictures on them; these lids are hinged on each side of the rim. There are also two supplementary lids, each containing a lens, which are also hinged to the rim as shown, but are fitted to fold within the picture lids, and are arranged in such relation to the same, that upon being opened and properly adjusted, the lenses will stand opposite to the pictures, and convert the medallion into a stereoscope, by which a person looking through the glasses, will see but one picture, solid and life-like. The patentee has applied double convex lenses to these medallions the sides of which are of unequal convexity (as one to six) according to Brewster, so that the picture is rendered very clear. A medallion of this character can be used for a microscope and sun glass, and thus it can be carried around in the pocket, both as an ornamental and useful memento of affection.
More information may be obtained by letter addressed to J. F. Mascher, No. 408 North Second street, Philadelphia, Pa. Sci. Amer.
The Statutes at Large, Treaties and Proclamations of the United States of America (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1869), Vol.XV, December 1867-March 1869 , p.403.
CHAP. CCLXXXVL An Act for the Relief of Eliza Mascher, Widow of John F. Mascher. - July 27, 1868.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That Eliza Mascher, administratrix of John F. Mascher, deceased, who obtained a patent No. 9611 for an improvement in daguerreotype cases, dated the eighth of March, eighteen hundred and fifty-three, with additional improvement, No. 134, annexed to said original patent, dated nineteenth of February, eighteen hundred and fifty-six, for fourteen years, which expired on the eighth day of March, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, be authorized to apply to the commissioner of patents for the extension of said patent for seven years, under the regulations now in force for the extension of patents, as if she had made application previous to its expiration, as required by law; and the commissioner of patents is directed to investigate and decide the application for extension on the same evidence and in the same manner as other applications for extension are decided : Provided, That the application for extension be made within thirty days after approval of this act, and the decision of the commissioner be rendered within ninety days from the filing of said application in the patent office : And provided further, That nothing herein shall be so construed as to hold responsible in damages any person who may have manufactured or used the daguerreotype cases with the improvement and addition aforesaid, or used cases containing the improvement and addition aforesaid, between the expiration of the patent and the approval of this act : And provided also, That the commissioner shall be satisfied before granting euch extension that it will enure entirely to the benefit of the said Eliza Mascher.
Approved, July 27, 1868
826.07 Viewers > Stereoscopes: Desktop
Books with stereo photographs
826.08 Viewers > Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857)
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
Published in Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, No.96., Oct. 31, 1857, p.356
Stereoscopic Book Illustrations. Mr. C. Piazzi Smith's forthcoming account of his Astronomical Expedition to the Peak of Teneriffe is to be illustrated by twenty, double vignette photo-stereographs. This is such an important step in the application of photography to book illustration that we must quote the publisher's remarks upon the subject.
"The publisher, anxious as the author to put all the actual facts of nature in the elevated regions that were visited as completely as possible before the public, has been earnestly at work for some time past, and has now succeeded in maturing plans for illustrating the letterpress with a series of photo-stereographs, which will be found to do neither more nor less than veritable reproductions of the scenes themselves.
"This method of book-illustration never having been attempted before, may excuse a word on this part of the subject. By its necessary faithfulness, a photograph of any sort must keep a salutary check on the pencil or longbow of the traveller; but it is not perfect; it may be tampered with, and may suffer from accidental faults of the material. These, which might sometimes produce a great alteration of meaning in important parts of a view, may, however, be eliminated, when, as here, we have two distinct pictures of each object
"Correctness is thus ensured; and then if we wish to enjoy the effects either of solidity or of distance, effects which are the cynosures of all the great painters, we have only to combine the two photographs stereoscopically, and those bewitching qualities are produced. Stereographs have not hitherto been bound up, as plates, in a volume; yet that will be found a most convenient way of keeping them, not incompatible with the use of the ordinary stereoscope, provided it is glazed at the base with clear in place of ground glass, and well adapted for a new form of the instrument, which the publisher anticipates being able to produce at a very moderate cost, under the name of the ' Book Stereoscope.'
"The plates, though packed up between the flat boards of a book, will appear on examination to have all the solidity, and all the appearance of distance, that the spectator could have acquired from viewing the scenes themselves."
826.09 Viewers > Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860)
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
Darrah, William Culp, 1964, Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and Their Collection, (Gettysburg, PA: Times and News Publishing Co.) [Δ]
Darrah, William Culp, 1977, The World of Stereographs, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah) [Δ]
Earle, Edward W. (ed.), 1979, Points of View: The Stereograph in America - Cultural History, (Rochester, NY: The Visual Studies Workshop Press in collaboration with the Gallery Association of New York Stat) [Δ]
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1859, June, ‘The Stereoscope and the Stereograph‘, Atlantic Monthly, vol.3, pp.738-48 [Δ]
Jenkins, Harold F., 1957, Two Points of View: The History of the Parlor Stereoscope, (Elmira, NY: World in Color Productions) [Δ]
Jones, John, 1976, Wonders of Stereoscope, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) [Δ]
Mabie, Roy W., 1942, The Stereoscope and Stereograph, (New York: Privately printed) [Δ]
Pellerin, D., 1995, La Photographie Stéréoscopique Sous Le Second Empire, (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale De France) [Δ]
Smith, Lyndsay, 1989, ‘The Elusive Depth of Field: Stereoscopy and the Pre-Raphaelites‘, in Pointon, Marcia (ed.), Pre-Raphaelites Re-Viewed, pp.84-99 [Δ]
Treadwell, T.K. & Darrah, William C., 1984 (ca), Stereographers of the World. Vol. 1: Foreign; vol. 2: United States [Δ]
Waldsmith, John S, 2002, Stereo Views: An Illustrated History and Price Guide, (Iola, WI: Gazelle) [Δ]
Zotti, Arlo Alberto Minici, 2003, Il Fascino Discreto della Stereoscopia: Venezia e altre suggestive immagini in 3D - Subtle Charm of Stereoscopy: Venice and other impressive views, (Padova: Grafiche Turato) [Introduction by Italo Zannier] [Δ]
Readings on, or by, individual photographers
Brewster, David, 1856, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory, and Construction, (London: John Murray) [Δ]
Brewster, Sir David, 1870, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory and Construction, (London: John Camden Hotton) [Δ]
Brewster, Sir David, 1971, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory and Construction. Facsimile edition, (Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: Morgan & Morgan) [Reprint] [Δ]
Claudet, Antoine Franc¸ois Jean, 1853, Du ste´re´oscope et de ses applications a` la photographie, par A. Claudet ... et derniers perfectionnements apporte´s au Dauerre´otype, par F. Colas., (Paris) [Δ]
Joseph Ellis Jr.
Ellis Jr., Joseph, 1856, Progress of Photography — Collodion, the Stereoscope: A Lecture by Joseph Ellis, (London: Bell & Daldy) [Δ]
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1861, July, ‘Sun-Painting and Sun-Sculpture; With a Stereoscopic Trip Across the Atlantic‘, Atlantic Monthly, pp.13-29 [Δ]
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - email@example.com
David Brewster (1781-1868) • Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894)
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