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HomeContentsThemes > Pictorialism

Contents

Introduction to Pictorialism
8.01   Introduction to Pictorialism
8.02   The roots of Pictorialism
Naturalism and Pictorialism
8.03   Naturalism and Pictorialism
8.04   Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936)
8.05   Peter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves (1895)
Photo-Club de Paris
8.06   Photo-Club de Paris: Première Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1894
8.07   Photo-Club de Paris: Deuxième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1895
8.08   Photo-Club de Paris: Troisième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1896
8.09   Photo-Club de Paris: Quatrième Année Salon de Photographie - 1897
8.10   Clarence H. White: Portraits
Key subjects for Pictorialism
8.11   Pictorialism and trees
8.12   Flowers: A Pictorialist perspective
8.13   Pictorialism: Landscapes of ice and snow
8.14   Pictorialism and the innocence of children
8.15   Pictorialism and the portrait
8.16   Pictorialism, the nude and erotica
Case studies
8.17   Robert Demachy: Struggle
8.18   Edward Steichen: The Flatiron
8.19   Edward Steichen: Rodin's statue of Balzac (1908)
8.20   Clarence H. White: Ring Toss (1899)
8.21   Edward S. Curtis and Pictorialism
8.22   William Dassonville: Trees and the San Francisco skyline
8.23   Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes
8.24   Fred Judge: UK: Postcards
8.25   Japanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards
Concluding remarks
8.26   Concluding thoughts on Pictorialism
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction to Pictorialism 
  
8.01   Pictorialism >  Introduction to Pictorialism 
  
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From the invention of photography some of its key proponents saw the illustrative power of the new medium. As early as 1845 John Jabez Edwin Mayall illustrated The Lord's Prayer with a series of ten Daguerreotypes and photographs were used as the basis for printed illustrations long before the halftone. Later photographers such as Oscar Gustave Rejlander (1813-1875) and Henry Peach Robinson (1830-1901), saw the potential of using technology to create art works that were the aesthetic equivalent of painting. Henry Peach Robinson's book Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers (1869)[1] which went through numerous editions clearly stated the need for using compositional techniques that were well known to artists and applying them to photography to create visually pleasing images.  
  
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Henry Peach Robinson: Pictorial Effect in Photography 
  
By describing methods of lighting, composition and combination printing Robinson encouraged the utilization of techniques well known to water colourists and oil painters. His photographs such as Fading Away (1858), with its variants, were constructed using multiple negatives to create a seamless whole that captured a time of intense sorrow. It was a fabrication but it was in sync with Victorian attitudes to family and death.  
  
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Henry Peach Robinson: Fading Away (1858) 
  
For some of his photographs Henry Peach Robinson made studies to assist in planning the final piece that still survive. For example a preliminary sketch survives for his photograph Carolling.[2]  
  
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Henry Peach Robinson: Studies for photographs 
  
 
  
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Henry Peach Robinson: Carolling 
  
Henry Peach Robinson was an artist before becoming a photographer and had had his drawings published in the Illustrated London News and in 1852 he had one of his paintings in annual exhibition of the Royal Academy.[3] It was his combination of artistic talent combined with photographic skills that allowed him to create photographs that captured small moments with touching sentiment.
 
During the nineteenth century the Industrial Revolution was changing the way that products were manufactured with a switched from handcrafted to machine made. This affected everything and some felt that the decorative arts and the qualities of traditional craftsmanship were being eroded with an emphasis on cost rather than design. In Victorian Britain a reaction to this was the Arts and Crafts Movement[4] which sought to re-establish the value of craft within furniture, interior design, painting, printing, architecture and the arts in general. The work of William Morris (1834-1896)[5] and Edward Burne-Jones (1833-1898)[6] was closely linked to Medievalist motifs and the critical writings of John Ruskin were reappraising Classical and Renaissance Art and it is this cultural atmosphere that the flourishing of Pictorialism with photography took place within Europe and North America. Just as the supporters of handcrafts saw the unique qualities of a well made chair constructed with care by a talented craftsman[7] so photographers sought to apply their individual talents to their images. For those with skills in drawing and painting this could be expressed by using multiple negatives, hand working negatives and prints by using techniques such bromoil and gum bichromate for others it was the selection of subjects and how they were composed that highlighted the links to painting.  
  
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Robert Demachy: Struggle 
  
 
  
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Pictorialism: Bromoil prints 
  
The Pictorialist community was both elitist and relatively small but it had influence through exhibitions, books, portfolios, specialist journals and authors who contributed pieces to the wider photographic press. Some groups such as the Linked Ring Brotherhood[8] in Britain and the Photo-Club de Paris in France held popular exhibitions of Pictorialist works and publications such as Die Kunst in der Photographie (Germany and Wiener Photographische Blätter - Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (Austria were based on the same motivations. In the USA Alfred Stieglitz spread the same ideas through the journals he edited Camera Notes[9] and more importantly Camera Work[7] Camera Work which was published from 1903 until 1917.
 
Pictorialism was influential within an elite but the risk of mimicking painting was that photography could never be more than a painting and this ignored the unique possibilities of photography, such as clarity, movement, tonality and many others that made it distinct from other arts. The arguments over whether photography is art still rumble but at certain historically decisive moments the craft of photography has been influenced by the debate with photographers striving to produce unique and irreproducible artworks that are indistinguishable from painting. 
  
8.02   Pictorialism >  The roots of Pictorialism 
  
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Early photographers had little stylistic choice but to reference the artistic milieu with which they were aware. The inventors of photography such as Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Mandé Daguerre and Fox Talbot were cultured people who were immersed in both the arts and sciences of their time. Here four examples clearly show how emerging photography was influenced by engravings and paintings.
  • One of the earliest heliographs by Nicéphore Niépce on a pewter plate in about 1820 was copy of a print of Cardinal d'Amboise. The early photographers such as Fox Talbot, John Dillwyn Llewelyn and many others copied artworks as a means of testing the fidelity of their photographs and demonstrating their utility.
     
  • In the still life by Louis Jules Duboscq from about 1850 the layout of objects is far from random and it closely follows spacing rules used to create a harmonious painting.
     
  • Early portraits were often uninteresting but there are some photographers who seem a hundred years before their time and the partnership of David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson in the 1840s is one of these. In this 1844 portrait of James Nasmyth, inventor of the steam hammer, the pose and gaze resemble a painting or engraving with his eyes avoiding the viewer and seemingly deep in thought.
     
  • With the 1877 photograph "When the Day‘s Work Is Done" Henry Peach Robinson has constructed a set of props where costumed models play roles in a living tableau. Images that showed hard work with nostalgic overtones for a rural past were popular in Victorian Britain. Using people in period costumes to imitate paintings was used by other photographers including Oscar Gustave Rejlander[11], Guido Rey[12], Richard Polak[13], Lejaren à Hiller[14] and more recently with Cindy Sherman[15] and Sandy Skoglund.[16]
     
The links between photographic subjects and painting are unmistakable and understanding these roots helps in appreciating the rise of Pictorialism that was so important in photography until the 1920s. 
  
Naturalism and Pictorialism 
  
8.03   Pictorialism >  Naturalism and Pictorialism 
  
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The technology that was available to the 19th century photographer necessitated slow exposure times[17] and this tended to promote the use of studio settings for art photography. This is not to say that landscapes were not taken from the earliest days of photography but there were largely documentary rather than artistic in intention and this difference is significant. Within the studio the light could be controlled, the subjects posed and time taken to achieve the ideal composition often based upon classical or allegorical themes and this was inspired by the genres of the contemporary art salons.
 
Between 1886 and 1895 Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936) published eight books or portfolios including:
Life and Landscape on the Norfolk Broads, 1886
The Complete Angler, Vol. 1 & 2, 1888
Pictures of East Anglian Life, 1888
Wild Life on a Tidal Water, 1890
On English Lagoons, 1893
Marsh Leaves, 1895
Based on his understanding of human vision Peter Henry Emerson proposed that photography should mimic the characteristic of the eye with differential focus, the emphasis of the subject and the subordination of extraneous detail and control of the tonal range.[18] His photography in the late 1890s used this approach and he championed it in his book Naturalistic Photography for Students of Art (1888). Similar approaches using atmospheric effects and a softer approached were being used by the Impressionists for painting from the 1870s.
 
There was none of the rigidity of the studio in Emerson's Life and Landscape on the Norfolk Broads (1886) which included forty platinum prints of daily rural life in East Anglia (England). The images showed life as it was but at the same time the resulting images taken with a whole plate (6 1/2 x 8 1/2 inches) view camera have the beauty of a painting but lack the sentimentality that was common in contemporary Victorian painting.
 
Although in the angry arguments that followed his assertion that photography is a pictorial art he later changed his opinion and came to the conclusion that because of technical limitations photography was not an art. Having said that he had an immense influence on the way 'artist' photography would develop.[19] 
  
8.04   Pictorialism >  Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Peter Henry Emerson was a motivated, argumentative and talented amateur photographer in Victorian England who attacked head on the staged portraiture of Henry Peach Robinson and Julia Margaret Cameron. He argued in his 1889 book Naturalistic Photography for Students of Art for Naturalism in photography that took the actual world that was in front of the camera.[20] The image should imitate what the eye actually saw and this was not hard edged but soft and slightly out of focus - this approach had outcomes - firstly it heralded in a type of photography that was distinct from the over sentimental paintings that were in vogue at the time and secondly the softer prints had a profound effect of the pictorialists that followed him. As he stated in a paper read to the Camera Club Conference on 26th March 1889:
The student will see it constantly advocated that every detail of a picture should be impartially rendered with a biting accuracy, and this in all cases. This biting sharpness being, as Mr. T. F. Goodall, the landscape-painter, says, "Quite fatal from the artistic standpoint." If the rendering were always given sharply, the work would belong to the category of topography or the knowledge of places, that is Science.[21]
Emerson argued that overall clarity was a scientific rather than an artistic aspiration. Science was a quest for "whole truth" and "facts" and art had no part in it. He changed his views on photography the following year and published the black bordered pamphlet The Death of Naturalistic Photography: A Renunciation (1890) that shocked the community by stating that "Photography is a very limited art".[22]
 
The influence of Peter Henry Emerson was profound and even though he renounced his approach in the preface to the 1893 edition of Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers an influential book Henry Peach Robinson wrote:
About 1886, Dr. P.H. Emerson, reviving the subject, argued out, with unusual strength of conviction, doctrines he afterwards formally renounced. His ardent advocacy had, however, the merit of calling attention to the use of diffusion of focus, and, as usual with new or revised methods, the practice has been carried to excess by a few photographers; but others who have employed it with discretion have found it an aid to pictorial effect. [23]
 
  
8.05   Pictorialism >  Peter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves (1895) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1895 Peter Henry Emerson produced Marsh Leaves[24], the last of his volumes of photographs to be published. Smaller in format than the early works, it is illustrated with sixteen photogravures. For On English Lagoons and Marsh Leaves Emerson did, as he claimed he would do, make all his own photogravure plates, finally freeing himself from commercial engravers.
 
Many of the photographs in this last book demonstrate that he was no longer exclusively concerned with the direct transcribing of perception. Several are taken with a lens of relatively long focal length, resulting in a distant, two-dimensional view quite different from unaided human vision. He was using, to borrow a phrase from Aaron Scharf[25], ‘the vocabulary and syntax’ of photography. It is possible that, released by his "Renunciation" from the requirement to follow artistic conventions, Emerson at last felt free to discover what photography itself had to offer.
 
It is tempting to see, in Emerson’s last published photographs, the first suggestions that he had begun to adopt an approach and a working practice that were closer to the twentieth century than to the nineteenth, and it is certainly true that he maintained a keen interest in the most recent technology. No photograph he took after the mid-nineties has been identified, however, so as far as posterity is concerned, his career as a photographer ended in 1895.
 
The distinctive characteristics of Emerson's later work have been noted by other writers, notably Ian Jeffrey (1989)[26] and Mark Durden (1994)[27].
 
The 16 photogravures in Marsh Leaves are:
I A Winter's Sunrise
II The Lone Lagoon
III The Fetters of Winter
IV A Waterside Inn
V A Winter Pastoral
VI Marsh Weeds
VII Gnarled Thorn-Trees
VIII The Misty River
IX Bleak Winter
X The Waking River
XI The Bridge
XII The Snow Garden
XIII A Corner of the Farm-Yard
XIV Rime Crystals
XV The Lonely Fisher
XVI The Last Gate
[Courtesy of David Stone] 
  
   Peter Henry  Emerson Marsh Leaves 
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Photo-Club de Paris 
  
8.06   Pictorialism >  Photo-Club de Paris: Première Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1894 
  
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The Photo-Club de Paris was created by members who seceded from the Société Francaise de Photographie and it included influential photographers including Robert Demachy and Constant Puyo. In 1894 they hosted one of the most lavish and international of the artistic photographic salons of the late nineteenth century. Precedents to this had been set by the 1888 Vienna salon, followed by the Vienna salons of 1891 and 1892 and the first London (Linked Ring) salon held in 1893. Each of these broke away from the older established photographic societies that were inclusive but frequently interested in technical rather than artistic achievement.
 
On 20th July 1893 the 10 articles outlining the rules for entry to this first French exposition (Première Exposition d‘Art Photographique) were established by Photo-Club de Paris president Maurice Bucquet and counter-signed by the club‘s secretary Paul Bourgeois. A jury of ten men was established headed by Armand Dayot, the Inspecteur des Beaux-Arts, and it included five painters, a sculptor, an art-critic and two photographers who were members of the committee for the Société Francaise de Photographie. It was seen as important by the founders of the salons that photography was accepted within the broader community of the arts and the composition of the jury reflects this goal.
 
The first exhibition, the "Première Exposition d‘Art Photographique", ran from 10th - 30th January 1894 and was held by the fashionable Galleries Georges Petit at 8 Rue de Seze in Paris. The exact number of photographs and entrants is given differently by different sources - Weston Naef in his book The Collection of Alfred Stieglitz gives 505 photographs by 156 photographers were accepted and displayed[28] and a contemporary reviewer (G.M.) in La Nature: Revue Des Sciences (1894 -premier semestre) gives 511 accepted photographs from the 2000 submitted. Whatever the exact figure it was a very substantial exhibition.
 
A contemporary review (La Nature: Revue Des Sciences - 1894 -premier semestre) gives the breakdown of the accepted prints by country:
France - 300
England - 115
Austria - 52
America - 45
Switzerland - 50
Russia - 22
Belgium - 18
It is not surprising given the location that sixty nine of the photographers accepted for this first exposition were from France but the material included was highly international. There were thirty photographers from Great Britain including Scotland and the Isle of Wight; Austria had seventeen followed by Belgium and Holland with ten. Nine were from America: including Emilie Clarkson, John Bullock, John Dumont, Rudolph Eickemeyer, Emma Farnsworth, Clarence Moore, William Post, Robert Redfield and Alfred Stieglitz. Works from Germany, Italy, Spain, Russia and Switzerland were hung. Algeria was represented by at least one photograph by the Frenchman Emile Fréchon. The work of the deceased, but influential, British photographer Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) was acknowledged by the exposition committee members and she had an unknown number of works accepted for hanging.
 
Weston Naef in his book The Collection of Alfred Stieglitz describes this first French exposition:
The most stunning event, outdoing anything yet seen in the world of photography, was the 1894 Première Exposition d‘Art Photographique held by the Photo-Club de Paris.[29]
but he also makes the observation that
The selection process was not as highly selective as that of the Photographic Salon in London, nor did it reflect the direction Stieglitz would take in organizing American exhibitions.[30]
Naef continues:
Winner of the sweepstakes for most works exhibited at Paris was J. Craig Annan with fifteen photographs, followed closely by René Le Bègue, with fourteen pictures. Surprisingly high in the running was Emma Justine Farnsworth, whose nine images considerably outdistanced Eickemeyer‘s seven and Stieglitz‘s three. The exhibition reflected the tastes of a jury half of which consisted of painters and sculptors, while the selection in the deluxe catalog was made by the photographers.[31]
An Austrian perspective of this first French exposition was included in the March 1894 issue of the Vienna Camera Club journal Wiener Photographische Blätter. Club president Alfred Buschbeck first gave notice of the groundbreaking photographic art exhibition held by his club in 1892 and how the 1893 London salon of the Linked Ring Brotherhood followed suit. He stated that the 1894 Paris exposition was done in the same spirit and acknowledged the fine entries accepted by several members of the Vienna club. Furthermore, he informed interested members that copies of a "werk" with "50 heliogravures" could be purchased for the price of 50 French francs. Further acknowledgment of this exposition catalogue appears on page 164 and lists seven Vienna Camera Club members who participated in the show and the six who had work reproduced in the catalogue.
 
This online version of the spectacular portfolio of large-plate heliogravures (photogravures), comes from the personal copy of Photo-Club de Paris founder member Constant Puyo. It is example #42 of 470 deluxe copies printed on French hand-made white Marais paper. An additional 30 copies were printed on Imperial Japan paper. All of the heliogravures were printed by the important French lithography firm of LeMercier & Cie. Fifty of the copper plates were made by M. Fillon and the remaining six were by Blechinger, Richard Paulussen of Vienna, Dujardin, James Craig Annan of Scotland and gallery host Georges Petit for the watercolor by artist Guillaume Dubufe that began the catalogue as the first plate.[32] 
  
   Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1894 
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8.07   Pictorialism >  Photo-Club de Paris: Deuxième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1895 
  
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In 1894 the Photo-Club of Paris (Photo-Club de Paris) with Constant Puyo, Robert Demachy, René Le Begue, Hachette and De Singly held its first exhibition the Première exposition d‘art photographique. This section includes all the plates printed as photogravures in the catalogue of the second exhibition that took place in 1895; the Deuxième exposition d‘art photographique.
 
Within this exhibition there are some well known names such as Alfred Stieglitz from the USA and the founders of the Photo Club, Constant Puyo, Robert Demachy and René Le Begue but the key point is to appreciate the international flavor of the pictorialists in the 1890s. The photographers represented in the catalogue are from France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, England, Scotland, Austria and the USA while others from Italy, Germany and Switzerland were included in the hung exhibition.
 
Hans Watzek (1848-1903) and Hugo Henneberg (1863-1918) from Austria would go on to found the ‘The Clover Leaf‘ (‘Das Kleeblatt‘ or ‘Trifolium‘) society of pictorialist photographers with Heinrich Kühn in 1896. Although many of the photographers listed are relatively unknown J. Craig Annan (1864-1946) was a masterful Scottish photographer and in the 1890s he printed the photographs of David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson. Also of note is Baron Adolph de Meyer who became one of the greatest of the early fashion photographers and was the chief photographer at Vogue in the USA for many years.
 
The history of photography has not been kind to many people and most of the photographers shown here are now forgotten but we should resist using modern viewpoints to judge the talents of these amateurs. They were involved in a movement that fundamentally changed the course of artistic photography.[33] 
  
   Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1895 
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8.08   Pictorialism >  Photo-Club de Paris: Troisième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1896 
  
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The third international photographic art exposition hosted by the Photo-Club de Paris was held at the Galerie Des Champs Elysées at 72 Avenue des Champs Elysées in Paris between May 12th and 31st, 1896. The Photo-Club de Paris was created by members who seceded from the Société Francaise de Photographie and it included influential photographers including Constant Puyo and Robert Demachy.
 
This was also the third year the Photo-Club de Paris issued a commemorative portfolio for the exposition. This portfolio broke with the tradition of the first two years of the exposition portfolios being bound volumes with printed tissue guards. Instead, the vellum plate large-format photogravures were printed in the ateliers Charles Wittmann (470 deluxe copies printed on paper manufactured by Blanchet and Kléber of Rives, France) blind-stamp numbered which corresponded to a list of plates (Table des Planches) and inserted loosely into an olive cloth portfolio with silk ties. The presence of several loose tissue guards (unprinted) scattered among the plates is also evident in this copy: #128.
 
This portfolio, along with the successive Photo Club de Paris Exposition d‘Art Photographique portfolios in Photoseed for the years 1894, 1895, and 1897, were the personal copies of Photo-Club de Paris co-founder Constant Puyo.
 
A three-page "Liste des Exposants" included in the letterpress at the beginning of the portfolio lists a total of 223 distinct photographers who entered their work in this third exposition. The breakdown of the number of photographers from each country was:
France - 116
England / Scotland - 46
Belgium - 21
Austria - 14
America - 11
Other countries represented include Germany, Sweden, Spain, Russia, and Ireland - represented by a Mr. Alfred Werner from Dublin.
 
This portfolio contains 42 individual large format photogravures and one lithographic plate-depicting an Art-Nouveau style drawing by the French artist Edme Couty of a woman holding out a flower. Background on individual photographs has been included where appropriate. In addition to containing several important and ground-breaking examples in the history of photography, the portfolio also brings new discoveries of material worthy of further photographic scholarship.[34] 
  
   Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1896 
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8.09   Pictorialism >  Photo-Club de Paris: Quatrième Année Salon de Photographie - 1897 
  
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This fourth international photographic art exposition (Quatrième Année Salon de Photographie) hosted by the Photo-Club de Paris at the Galerie Des Champs Elysées in Paris was held between 13th and 28th April 1897. The Photo-Club de Paris was created by members who seceded from the Société Francaise de Photographie and it included influential photographers including Constant Puyo and Robert Demachy.
 
This was also the fourth year that the Photo-Club de Paris issued a commemorative portfolio for the exposition. It seems the decision was made to issue this portfolio in a much smaller edition than the previous three years. This example in this exhibition (#40) was the personal copy of Constant Puyo, and was one of only 200 examples printed on vellum. Another 30 deluxe examples were issued printed in a double suite of plates on Impérial Japan paper and vellum. Each of the large plate photogravures was printed on paper manufactured by Blanchet and Kléber of Rives, France. Several notable things were eliminated in the introductory letterpress for this portfolio. Principally, these were the "Règlement de l‘Exposition", which were basically the rules for entering the exhibition and most notably, the lengthy exhibitors list for all those photographers who had their work accepted for hanging at the exhibition.
 
We have included an example of the large color lithographic poster used to promote the exhibition. If this was made into a reduced form and included as a plate similar to the Edme Couty lithograph in the third portfolio catalogue of 1896, then it has gone missing from this particular copy. This large poster (34 x 47 2/3") went unsold in a major recent German camera auction.
 
There are 38 photogravures in this portfolio, also a major reduction considering the first year showcased 64 photographs printed on 56 individual plates. The majority of the copper plates in this portfolio were engraved by the firm of Fillon et Heuse, an atelier based in Paris. All of the plates were printed by Charles Wittmann. The letterpress, along with the poster, were printed at Imprimerie Chaix in Paris - perhaps better known for the fact that it was headed up by artist Jules Cheret - its‘ principal artist and director best known for his series of large lithographs of the Folies-Bergére.
 
On the judging front however, there was a noticeable difference - and one might even call it "progress" in giving the photographs a stronger voice on the judging panel. This was because unlike the first three years (1894-1896) of the expositions, in which the largely unknown amateur photographers Audra and Saint-Senoch were the only photographic voices among the artists, sculptors and critics acting as judges, the fourth year was a great leap in that three very well known "artistic" photographers: Hector Colard (Belgium: 1851-1923), Paul Bergon (France: 1863-1912) and René Le Beque (France: 1857-1914) were represented on the judging committee.
 
It is known that there was a fifth year for this international salon sponsored by the Photo-Club de Paris, also held at the Galerie Des Champs Elysées (May 3-29, 1898). However, it is unknown if there was a final portfolio similar to the previous four issued for the 1898 salon.[35] 
  
   Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1897 
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8.10   Pictorialism >  Clarence H. White: Portraits 
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Clarence H. White (1871-1925)[36] early on was a pictorialist and elected to the Linked Ring in 1900 and a member of the Photo-Secession. He worked closely with the Photo-Secession photographers and taught photography at university level. He was a master platinum printer,[37] rarely using anything else. He set up his own schools of photography in New York, Maine and Mexico City[36] and was a founder of the Pictorial Photographers of America. Although his work covered the transition between Pictorialism and Modernity his portraits fitted into the soft-focused homely pre-First World War world. 
  
   Clarence H  White 
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Key subjects for Pictorialism 
  
8.11   Pictorialism >  Pictorialism and trees 
  
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Although snow-covered landscapes had been photographed long before the Pictorialists it is with them that we start to get a sense of a moody chill.  
  
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Trees in the snow 
  
We see not only the same themes repeating but the same photographs being published in the catalogues for the different Pictorialist salons. For example At the Rushy Pool by Hugo Henneberg was in "The Photographic Salon" (London} in 1895 and as Am Schilfweiher in Wiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien in January 1896.  
  
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Tranquil water and trees 
  
 
  
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Figures in a Pictorialist landscape 
  
 
  
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Mystery amongst the trees 
  
 
  
   Nature Trees Pictorialist 
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8.12   Pictorialism >  Flowers: A Pictorialist perspective 
  
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This selection is rather limited in the examples it has of pictorialist flower photography but we are seeking to include further examples. Examples from the Clarence H. White School of Photography[39] have been included which show the intellectual and stylistic changes from Pictorialism to Modernism
  
   Nature Flowers Pictorialist 
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8.13   Pictorialism >  Pictorialism: Landscapes of ice and snow 
  
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Photographing ice and snow falls to two main types under pictorialism the first are the photographs that use contrast as the defining element and the second are those of a very restricted contrast range. The George H. Seeley gum bichromate and platinum print of a Winter Landscape (1909) is unusual as it preceeds Modernism and yet has all the signs of an Edward Weston dune photograph of twenty years later.  
  
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High contrast 
  
Low contrast unpopulated photographs give a tranquil reflective mood to the viewer - bleak landscapes to be viewed within warm interiors.  
  
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Limited contrast 
  
People in Pictorialist snowscapes are focal points but the photographs are rarely about humanity in the board sense.  
  
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Figures in Pictorialist snowscapes 
  
 
  
8.14   Pictorialism >  Pictorialism and the innocence of children 
  
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The portrayal of children by pictorialist photographers is predominantly simplistic and linked to innocence and purity. There are some outside shots showing children at play as in Les uns perdent, les autres gagnent! (1896)[40] by Walter B. Welford or In Arkadien (1901)[41] by Herbert Arthur Hess but these are little known photographers.  
  
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Children at play 
  
The Ring Toss[42] by Clarence Hudson White[43] is probably the best known example and has a dream like quality it to. This image differs widely depending on the chemical processes used.  
  
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Clarence Hudson White: The Ring Toss 
  
Most of the other pictorialist images have a candy-box trite quality which shows none of the vitality of youth with children in a straitjacket of convention. Most are uninteresting as they show little about the personality of the child portrayed. This has little to do with cameras or technology but everything to do with the attitudes of society and the photographers. There are however a couple of photographs that by the way they are shot are far superior to the others. The sensitive portraits by Heinrich Kühn of his children display deep attachment rather than the detachment of most pictorialist portraits.  
  
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Heinrich Kühn: Children in his family 
  
Overall it needs to said that pictorialists, with rare exceptions, did not excel at portraits as their sentimentality comes through rather than any attempt to capture the vivacious complexity of youth. Since the 1890s anybody had been able to take snapshots and so the relatively small clique of pictorialists needed to distinguish themselves through associations with art and that was done by the poses selected. This was photography acting as a mimic of another form and thus tending towards an outmoded and fruitless exploration of the portrait. By the early 1900s Jacques-Henri Lartigue (1894-1986) was showing how a child, he was only nine or ten when he took these, with a handheld camera was able to take snapshots that realistically captured a priviledged boyhood.[44]  
  
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Jacques-Henri Lartigue: Early examples (1903-1904) 
  
With the harsh reality of the industrialised slaughter of the First World War (1914-1918) and the increasingly popularity of snapshot cameras pictorialism was a conservative style doomed to oblivion.[45] 
  
   Portrait Children 
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8.15   Pictorialism >  Pictorialism and the portrait 
  
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Old men with hats 
  
Pictorialist portraits of men show predominantly old men with sage-like qualities and this may be linked to the idea that elders have time-honoured knowledge. The fact that some of them are wearing historical costumes provides the Medieval and Renaissance associations that were praised by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood[46] and the Arts and Crafts Movement[47] in Victorian Britain. In the 1860s David Wilkie Wynfield had done a series of portraits of members of the Royal Academy in similar poses. In many ways the Pictorialist approach to male portraiture was a continuation of the work of David Wilkie Wynfield[48] and Julia Margaret Cameron.[49] An oddity within Pictorialism is the almost total absence of males aged between 15 and 40 - there are exceptions but not many.  
  
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Men as artists 
  
As Pictorialism was partly an attempt to link photography to art by compositional similarities an association with painters through their portraits is not surprising.  
  
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Women with head coverings and hats 
  
Portraits of women are more common than those of men and they show an affluent respectability. There was little social commentary in Pictorialism of poverty or working conditions. The photographs with their constrained poses provided the basis for early fashion photography which showed what female celebrities were wearing rather than paid models. There are female nudes with Pictorialism and far less commonly male nudes are found.[50] 
  
8.16   Pictorialism >  Pictorialism, the nude and erotica 
  
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During the height of the Pictorialist period which ran from the middle of the 1890s until the First World War (1914-1918) a number of the leading exponents took nudes and they were reproduced as photogravures in publications such as Camera Work, Die Kunst in der Photographie and the catalogues of the Photo-Club de Paris. Masters of the period such as René Le Begue, Robert Demachy,[51] Emile Joachim Constant Puyo,[52] George Berteaux, Paul Bergon, Clarence H. White,[53] Georg Einbeck, Anne Brigman,[54] Edward Steichen,[55] George H. Seeley and Frank Eugene all took nudes and the misty softness of the pictorialist style was appropriate to contemporary taste.
 
The titles of the photographs Figure Decorative, Etude, Act-Studie were often those of the Académies of fifty years earlier the intention being to show that they were artistic studies rather than depraved exhibitions of indecency. Frank Eugene entitled one of his photographs Adam and Eve. The mix of Biblical innocence and purity with temptation summed up the conservatism of the Pictorialistsblended with a hint of the forbidden.
 
Photographs of naked children do occur in Pictorialism to portray innocence in themselves or maternal love as in Amour maternel (1894) by .[56]  
  
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Michel Bovi (Naples): Amour maternel (1894) 
  
 
  
   Erotica Pictorialist 
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Case studies 
  
8.17   Pictorialism >  Robert Demachy: Struggle 
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The Struggle[57] by the French Pictorialist Robert Demachy[58] breaks free of reality by its lack of clarity and technical mastery of the gum-bichromate process. His commitment was to a higher purpose within photography than using a negative to preserve the world, as he wrote:
A work of art must be a transcription, not a copy of nature … there is not a particle of art in the most beautiful scene of nature. The art is man’s alone, it is subjective not objective.[59]
Although a photograph the hand-worked nature of the print gives the impression of a striving to break forth from the two-dimensional print. Pictorialism can be criticised for its simplistic copying of painting composition but the Struggle combines technique and allegorical strength to show what Pictorialism could achieve in the hands of a master.[60] 
  
8.18   Pictorialism >  Edward Steichen: The Flatiron 
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The Flatiron building that opened in 1902 in New York remains one of the iconic skyscrapers.[61] Edward Steichen, who was outstanding at every form of photography he undertook during a long life, was involved in Pictorialism through his friendship with Alfred Stieglitz . His photograph of the Flatiron building was printed in variant forms such as gum bichromate over platinum print but there were other processes used where the exact process used is not as clear. 
  
8.19   Pictorialism >  Edward Steichen: Rodin's statue of Balzac (1908) 
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Rodin (1840-1917) had been commissioned by The Société des Gens de Lettres to prepare a sculpture of the French author Balzac (1799-1850) and when he first exhibited it the work was not accepted as it failed to depict a recognizable likeness of the author. This created a considerable scandal in the press. Although it was initially rejected public interest in the monument grew and in 1908 Rodin contacted three people Jacques-Ernest Bulloz, Jean Limet and his friend Edward Steichen, who was almost 40 years younger than Rodin, about photographing the sculpture. Edward Steichen photographed the sculpture with the soft-muted tones of Pictorialism to create a sombre and reflective mood - a heroic silhouette. Here there is minimal detail just as the sculpture itself is an impression of Balzac rather than a real person.[62] 
  
8.20   Pictorialism >  Clarence H. White: Ring Toss (1899) 
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In 1899 photograph by Clarence Hudson White variously called Ring Toss or The Ring Toss was printed as both gum bichromate prints[63] and platinum prints[64] and included in Camera Work as a photogravure.
 
Curatorial comments at the Metropolitan Museum of Art point out how this is the same theme that had been painted in oils by William Merritt Chase (1849-1916)[65] in 1896.
The Ring Toss is an ingratiating vision of youthful feminine grace in a domestic setting. It signals a remove from the modern urban world and demonstrates White's ability to find sentiment even in the commonplace.[66]
 
  
8.21   Pictorialism >  Edward S. Curtis and Pictorialism 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The Native American photographs taken by Edward Sheriff Curtis for his 20 volume series The North American Indian (1907-1930)[67] can be viewed from multiple perspectives. His books contain extensive ethnographic research and documentation and there are photographs that accurately reflect the clothing of a particular group but Curtis was also interested in the preservation of a record of groups that were being affected by outside influences, had been largely moved into reserves, and traditional practices were being replaced or forgotten as traditional cultural connections and trade routes had been disrupted.[68]
 
Photographs by Curtis can be magnificent but they don't always reflect the time in which they were taken and are a nostalgic look back on a past age. There is no sign of outside contact in these photographs. His use of poses that are reminiscent of contemporary pictorialism with soft-focus and printed with photogravures are selected for mood rather than scientific rigour. Individual images can be magnificent but the titles such as At the Old Well at Acoma, Prayer to the Stars, Homeward Bound and most famously The Vanishing Race which shows a group riding slowly away from the camera are about states of mind - a romanticized view of the past that has no place in ethnography. He chose titles that hint at nostalgia. Although contemporary writers have concerns about the work of Curtis it remains the most comprehensive of the period. 
  
8.22   Pictorialism >  William Dassonville: Trees and the San Francisco skyline 
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William Dassonville (1879-1957)[69] was American West Coast pictorialist photographer. Although he took portraits early in his career, he is now known for his photographs of the California landscape, especially of San Francisco‘s waterfront and bay and Yosemite
  
8.23   Pictorialism >  Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes 
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Anne Brigman (1869-1950)[70] was a famous Pictorialist photographer and a member of Alfred Stieglitz's inner circle of the Photo-Secession.[71] Her blending of female nudes amidst the blasted pines of California were unusual in the 1920s for their unashamed praise of ethereal but erotic forms. These are the naked spirits of A Midsummer Night's Dream - inhabitants of a primordial world and the title of her book Songs of a Pagan (1949)[72] hints at this otherworldliness. 
  
8.24   Pictorialism >  Fred Judge: UK: Postcards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Fred Judge[73] gave up his first career as an engineer in Yorkshire, England to pursue his passion for photography by setting up a photographic studio in Hastings in 1902, producing postcards of local and, later, national views. He invented the bromoil transfer process and was a successful exhibitor in photographic competitions worldwide. 
  
8.25   Pictorialism >  Japanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards 
  
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Concluding remarks 
  
8.26   Pictorialism >  Concluding thoughts on Pictorialism 
  
To understand Pictorialism requires an understanding of the attitudes to art and design amongst a reality small group of the more wealthy elites at the time it was created. The Arts and Crafts Movement[74] in Britain from around 1880 was followed by Art Nouveaux[75] or Jugendstil[76] from around 1890 until 1910 were elitist styles in Europe that influenced architecture, interior design, art and the decorative arts. Rich in ornamental elements Art Nouveaux used natural forms often of an erotic nature combined with plant-like 3d forms to decorate functional elements. Here a stair rail was a seemingly living form of roots, branches, tendrils, leaves rather than a piece of wood or metal. A door looked as if it was designed by Hobbits and Elves rather than mortals. Function was within the design but it was concealed by decoration that had no functional purpose other than visual beauty. The excess was appreciated and purchased only by those with the wealth to have a custom built house or the spending power to buy luxury items - this was the age of the art glass of René Lalique, Émile Gallé and Louis Comfort Tiffany, the artworks of Alphonse Mucha and Aubrey Beardsley and the architecture of Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926).
 
The age when Art Nouveaux was most popular during the 1890s and the first decade of the twentieth century overlaps with Naturalism and Pictorialism in photography. With Pictorialism the Photo-Club de Paris had annual exhibitions with elaborate exhibitions with catalogues containing photogravures between 1894 and 1897 and Art Nouveaux designs were used within the catalogues. The tissue guard of the 1894 Photo-Club de Paris catalogues was a reproduction of a watercolour drawing by Guillaume Dubufe[77] which was in the Art Nouveaux style.  
  
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Photo-Club de Paris: Art Nouveaux designs 
  
In America Camera Notes edited by Alfred Stieglitz and the more famous Camera Work (1903-1917) both included elements of Art Nouveaux design. In the first issue of Camera Work on page 15 is printed the famous "An Apology" by Alfred Stieglitz which begins with the sentence:
 
  
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An Apology (1903) 
  
The time appearing ripe for the publication of an independent American photographic magazine devoted largely to the interests of pictorial photography, "Camera Work" makes its appearance as the logical outcome of the evolution of the photographic art.
The typology of the first letter is pure Art Nouveaux.  
  
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Camera Notes 
  
 
  
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Camera Work 
  
Art Nouveaux was for a wealthy cultural elite of those sophisticated enough to understand it and wealthy enough to afford it. Camera Notes and Camera Work were not designed for the masses. The expensive photogravure plates, design aesthetics and special papers ensured that it was elitist. Whilst in "An Apology" a paragraph stated:
It is proposed to issue quarterly an illustrated publication which will appeal to the ever-increasing ranks of those who have faith in photography as a medium of individual expression, and, in addition, to make converts of many at present ignorant of its possibilities.[78]
The production standards ensured a high cost far beyond the snapshot photographers of the age - it consciously a quality publication with an artistic, and elitist, agenda. If the masses didn't get the point Alfred Stieglitz was not going to be concerned other than for declining subscriptions. Just as Art Nouveaux was criticized by the Austrian architect Adolf Loos[79] for excessive ornament that was wasteful and going to go out of style so pictorialist photography was taking itself rapidly into an intellectual dead-end. The Pictorialists attempted to prove that photography was an art by mimicking the rules and genres of salon painting. In doing so photography was nothing new and always going to be second best to traditional art. It would take Modernism, the Bauhaus and the snapshot to break photography free of the self-imposed constraints of the nineteenth century salon mindset. 
  
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Henry Peach Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter) [British editions: 1869, 1879, 1881, 1893.; American: 1881, 1892; French: 1885; German:1886. Reprinted with an introduction by Robert A. Sobieszek (Pawley: Helios, 1971)] 
      
  2. Λ For a contemporary review of "Carolling" see Andrew Pringle, Sun Artists, (Number 2):
    At the first blush we should expect the two women in 'Carolling' to be joyous and frivolous, but we find one is not so gay as her companion; she looks back as well as forward, she has doubts as well as hopes, and her comparative gravity enhances the gaiety of the other, and gives intensity and intention to the episode.
     
      
  3. Λ Christian A. Peterson, 2012, Pictorial Photography at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, (Christian A. Peterson: Privately printed) 
      
  4. Λ Gillian Naylor, 1971, The Arts and Crafts Movement: A study of its sources, ideals and influence on design theory, (London: Studio Vista); Elizabeth Cumming & Wendy Kaplan, 1991, Arts & Crafts Movement, (London: Thames & Hudson)
     
    Arts and Crafts movement - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 28 July 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement 
      
  5. Λ Linda Parry (ed.), 1996, William Morris, (Abrams) 
      
  6. Λ Stephen Wildman, 1998, Edward Burne-Jones: Victorian Artist-Dreamer, (Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
      
  7. Λ The value of creative talent and hard work so praised by the Arts and Crafts Movement was acknowledged by Alfred Stieglitz in choosing the title Camera Work for one of his journals. 
      
  8. Λ For a thorough study of the Linked Ring - Margaret F. Harker, 1979, The Linked Ring - The Secession in Photography In Britain, 1892-1910 , (A Royal Photographic Society Publication) 
      
  9. Λ Christian A. Peterson, 1993, Alfred Stieglitz’s “Camera Notes”, (New York: W. W. Norton)  
      
  10. Λ Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) 
      
  11. Λ Peter C. Bunnell, 1979, The Photography of O. G. Rejlander: Two Selections, (New York: Arno); Edgar Yoxall Jones, 1973, Father of Art Photography: O. G. Rejlander, 1813-1875, (London: David and Charles); Stephanie Spencer, 1984, ‘O. G. Rejlander's Photographs of Street Urchins‘, Oxford Art Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 17-24; Stephanie Spencer, 1985, O. G. Rejlander: Photography as Art, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press) 
      
  12. Λ Sadakichi Hartmann, "Guido Rey: A Master of Detail Composition" IN Sadakichi Hartmann, 1978,The Valiant Knights of Daguerre: Selected Critical Essays on Photography and Profiles of Photographic Pioneers, (University of California Press) 
      
  13. Λ Richard Polak, 1913-1915, Photographs from Life in Old Dutch Costume [Folio of sixty-five photogravures, variously sized to approx. 9 x 6½ in., each with printed credit, process and title, mounted on thick card with Printed in Germany blindstamp, printed title page, introduction by F.J. Mortimer and plate list, 20 x 14½ in.] 
      
  14. Λ Paul Benton and John H. Hewlett, 1944, Surgery Through the Ages: A Pictorial Chronicle, (New York: Hasting House) [photographs by Lejaren à Hiller.] 
      
  15. Λ Cindy Sherman & Peter Galassi, 2003, Cindy Sherman: The Complete Untitled Film Stills, (New York: Musem of Modern Art) 
      
  16. Λ Sandy Skoglund, 1998, Sandy Skoglund: Reality Under Siege A Retrospective, (Harry N. Abrams) 
      
  17. Λ Exposure times in the nineteenth century were not as short as is commonly believed and by 1846 J.E. Mayall was able to take Daguerreotypes with exposure of 3-9 seconds (Beaumont Newhall, 1976, The Daguerreotype in America, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [3rd revised edition]) and so the technology was well able to take landscapes early on. 
      
  18. Λ Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) had been using a similar approach in her portraits from the 1860s. 
      
  19. Λ P.H. Emerson, 1888, Naturalistic Photography for Students of Art, (New York: Scovill & Adams); Nancy Newhall, 1975, P. H. Emerson: The Fight for Photography as a Fine Art, (New York: Aperture); John Taylor, 2006, The Old Order and the New: P. H. Emerson and Photography, 1885-1895, (Prestel) 
      
  20. Λ P.H. Emerson, 1888, Naturalistic Photography for Students of Art, (New York: Scovill & Adams); Nancy Newhall, 1975, P. H. Emerson: The Fight for Photography as a Fine Art, (New York: Aperture); John Taylor, 2006, The Old Order and the New: P. H. Emerson and Photography, 1885-1895, (Prestel) 
      
  21. Λ P.H. Emerson, 1890, Naturalistic Photography for Students of Art, (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington), Second edition. Appendix II, Science and Art" which was a paper read at the Camera Club Conference, held in the rooms of the Society of Arts, London, on March 26th, 1889. 
      
  22. Λ Emerson's 1890 renunciation must have come as something of a shock to his London publisher S. Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington as they published a second edition of Naturalistic Photography for Students of Art the same year. The second edition included an appendix "Science and Art" which was a paper read at the Camera Club Conference, held in the rooms of the Society of Arts, London, on March 26th, 1889. 
      
  23. Λ The quote is taken from the preface to the 1893 edition.
     
    H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter) [British editions: 1869, 1879, 1881, 1893.; American: 1881, 1892; French: 1885; German:1886. Reprinted with an introduction by Robert A. Sobieszek (Pawley: Helios, 1971)] 
      
  24. Λ P.H. Emerson, 1895, Marsh Leaves, (London: D. Nutt) 
      
  25. Λ Aaron Scharf, 1986, ‘P. H. Emerson: Naturalist and Iconoclast‘, in Neil McWilliam & Veronica Sekules (eds.), Life and Landscape: P. H. Emerson: Art and Photography in East Anglia, 1885-1900, pp. 21-33 
      
  26. Λ Ian Jeffrey, 1989, ‘Emerson Overturned; On English Lagoons and Marsh Leaves‘, in Weaver, Mike (ed.), British Photography in the Nineteenth Century, (Cambridge University Press) 
      
  27. Λ Mark Durden, 1994, Autumn, ‘Peter Henry Emerson, The Limits of Representation‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 281-284 
      
  28. Λ Weston Naef, 1978, The Collection of Alfred Stiegltiz: Fifty Pioneers of Modern Photography, (The Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
      
  29. Λ Weston Naef, 1978, The Collection of Alfred Stiegltiz: Fifty Pioneers of Modern Photography, (The Metropolitan Museum of Art), p. 30 
      
  30. Λ Weston Naef, 1978, The Collection of Alfred Stiegltiz: Fifty Pioneers of Modern Photography, (The Metropolitan Museum of Art), p. 32 
      
  31. Λ Weston Naef, 1978, The Collection of Alfred Stiegltiz: Fifty Pioneers of Modern Photography, (The Metropolitan Museum of Art), p. 32 
      
  32. Λ Photoseed is honored and pleased to let people around the world experience the beauty of this important 1894 exposition by means of the Internet.
     
    Translations from the French have been kindly provided by Frédéric Perrier where necessary and I have done my best to include accents but apologies if some have been missed.
     
    D. Spencer (Photoseed) 
      
  33. Λ Text courtesy of Photoseed. 
      
  34. Λ Photoseed is honored and pleased to let people around the world experience the beauty of this important 1896 exposition portfolio by means of the Internet. 
      
  35. Λ Photoseed is honored and pleased to let people around the world experience the beauty of this important 1897 exhibition catalog. 
      
  36. Λ William Innes Homer, 1977, Symbolism of Light: The Photographs of Clarence H. White, (Wilmington, DE: Delaware Art Museum) 
      
  37. Λ Clarence Hudson White was a co-founder of the magazine Platinum Print. A Journal of personal expression, which was published intermittently between 1913 and 1917. 
      
  38. Λ Marianne Fulton et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  39. Λ Marianne Fulton et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  40. Λ Walter B. Welford, "Les uns perdent, les autres gagnent!", [Photo-Club de Paris / 1896, Pl. XLII], 1896, Heliogravure / Photogravure 
      
  41. Λ Herbert Arthur Hess (Philadelphia), "In Arkadien", [Die Kunst in der Photographie (Art Folio #6)], 1901, Photogravure, Chine-collé 
      
  42. Λ The Ring Toss, 1899, Clarence H. White - Heilbrunn Timeeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/33.43.303 
      
  43. Λ Marianne Fulton et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  44. Λ Jacques-Henri Lartigue, 1966, Boyhood Photos of J. H. Lartigue: The Family Album of a Gilded Age, (Lausanne, Switzerland: Ami Guichard); Martine D’Astier, Quentin Bajac & Alain Saya, 2003, Lartigue: Album of a Century, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) 
      
  45. Λ Having said this pictorialist styles did continue in numerous Camera Clubs which tended to be conservative in their membership and styles. 
      
  46. Λ For Pre-Raphaelite photography - Graham Ovenden, 1972, Pre-Raphaelite Photography, (New York: St. Martins / Academy); Graham Ovendon (ed.), 1975, A Victorian Album: Julia Margaret Cameron and Her Circle, (New York: Da Capo); Bartram, Michael, 1985, Pre-Raphaelite Camera: Aspects of Victorian Photography, (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson); Allen Staley et al., 1995, The Post-Pre-Raphaelite Print: Etching, Illustration, Reproductive Engraving and Photography in England in and around the 1860s, (Miriam & Ira D. Wallach Art Gallery, Columbia University); Allen Staley & C. Newall,, 2004, Pre-Raphaelite Vision: Truth to Nature, (London: Tate); Diane Waggoner (ed.) et al., 2010, The Pre-Raphaelite Lens: British Photography and Painting, 1848-1875, (Washington-Paris: Lund Humphries Publishers) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  47. Λ Gillian Naylor, 1971, The Arts and Crafts Movement: A study of its sources, ideals and influence on design theory, (London: Studio Vista); Elizabeth Cumming & Wendy Kaplan, 1991, Arts & Crafts Movement, (London: Thames & Hudson)
     
    Arts and Crafts movement - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 28 July 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement 
      
  48. Λ Juliet Hacking, 1995, ‘David Wilkie Wynfield: The Great Amateur‘, History of Photography, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 322-327; Juliet Hacking, 2000, Princes of Victorian Bohemia, (Prestel) 
      
  49. Λ For a catalogue raisonné of the photographs of Julia Margaret Cameron - Julian Cox & Colin Ford, 2003, Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs, (Los Angeles: Getty Publications)
     
    For the album Julia Margaret Cameron gave to her friend Sir John Herschel - Colin Ford, 1975, The Cameron Collection: An Album of Photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron Presented to Sir John Herschel, (Workingham, England: Van Nostrand Reinhold, in association with the National Portrait Gallery, London)
     
    Julia Margaret Cameron, 1874, Annals of My Glass House (Unfinished manuscript); Reprinted in full in - Violet Hamilton, 1996, Annals of my glass house: photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron, (Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery), p. 15; Also reprinted in - Beaumont Newhall, 1980, "Annals of my Glass House" IN, Photography: Essays and Images, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) 
      
  50. Λ For an excellent example of a male nude see - George H. Seeley, "Nude, the Pool", 1910, Photogravure, Camera Work 
      
  51. Λ Bill Jay, 1974, Robert Demachy, 1859–1936, (New York: St. Martin’s Press); Robery Demachy, 1990, Robert Demachy: Pictorialist, ( Paris: Bookking International) 
      
  52. Λ Emile Joachim Constant Puyo, 1896, Notes sur la Photographie Artistique. Texte et Illustrations par C. Puyo, (Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils Editeurs) 
      
  53. Λ Marianne Fulton et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  54. Λ For the photographs of Anne Brigman - Anne Brigman, 1949, Songs of a Pagan, (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers); Susan Ehrens, 1995, A Poetic Vision: The Photographs of Anne Brigman, (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Art) 
      
  55. Λ Edward Steichen, 1985, A Life In Photography, (New York: Bonanza Books); J. Steichen (ed.), 2000, Steichen’s Legacy: Photographs, 1895–1973, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) 
      
  56. Λ Michel Bovi (Naples), "Amour maternel", [Photo-Club de Paris / 1894, Pl. XXXIII bis / XXXIII], 1894, Heliogravure / Photogravure, 11.1 x 8.1 cm, Photoseed, Photograph courtesy PhotoSeed.com
     
    This photograph by Michel Bovi is similar stylistically to the 1897 Gertrude Kasebier's photograph "Mother and Child or Adoration and The Vision" - Barbara L. Michaels, 1992, Gertrude Kasebier: The Photographer and her Photographs, (Harry N. Abrams), p. 47 
      
  57. Λ There are multiple versions in public collections including - Robert Demachy, "Struggle", 1903 (or earlier), Gum bichromate print, 17.4 x 11.6 cm (6 7/8 x 4 9/16 ins) (image), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Isaac Lagnado, in honor of Thomas P. Campbell, 2008, Accession Number: 2008.666.3 
      
  58. Λ Bill Jay, 1974, Robert Demachy, 1859–1936, (New York: St. Martin’s Press); Robery Demachy, 1990, Robert Demachy: Pictorialist, ( Paris: Bookking International) 
      
  59. Λ Robert Hirsch, 2007, "Robert Demachy" in Michael Peres (Editor-in-Chief), 2007, Focal Encyclopedia of Photography, 4th edition, (Focal Press) 
      
  60. Λ Similar mastery of hand-working prints can be found in the works of Frank Eugene (1865-1936) and later William Mortensen (1897-1965). 
      
  61. Λ Peter Gwillim Kreitler, 1991, Flatiron: A Photographic History of the World's First Steel Frame Skyscraper, 1901-1990, (AIA Press)
     
    Flariron Building - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 25 April 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatiron_Building 
      
  62. Λ Rodin and Steichen - Musée Rodin
    (Accessed: 5 November 2013)
    www.musee-rodin.fr/en/rodin/educational-files/rodin-and-steichen 
      
  63. Λ Clarence H. White, The Ring Toss, 1899, Gum bichromate print, 18 x 13.9 cm (7 1/16 x 5 1/2 in), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Copyright ® 2000-2005 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. - Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1933 (33.43.303) 
      
  64. Λ Clarence H. White, The Ring Toss, 1899, Platinum print, Yale Visual Resources Collection (VRC), Accession number requested 
      
  65. Λ William Merritt Chase, 1896, Ring Toss, Oil on canvas, 102.6 x 89.2 cm, Private collection
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chase_William_Merritt_Ring_Toss_1896.jpg 
      
  66. Λ The Ring Toss, 1899, Clarence H. White - Heilbrunn Timeeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/33.43.303 
      
  67. Λ Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26) 
      
  68. Λ The bibliography on Edward S. Curtis is considerable. For his unpublished memoir - Edward S. Curtis, n.d., As it Was [Unpublished memoir, University of Washington Library, Special Collections]
     
    For publications by Curtis - Edward S. Curtis, 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Northwest Plains‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 657-671; Edward S. Curtis, 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Southwest‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 513-529; Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26); Edward S. Curtis, 1909, ‘Village Tribes of the Desert Land‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 274-287; Edward S. Curtis, 1914, Indian Days of the Long Ago, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1915, In the Land of the Head-Hunters, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1992, Native Nations: First Americans as Seen by Edward Curtis, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1997, The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolio, (New York: Köln: Taschen)
     
    There are innumerable other reprints and studies on Curtis. 
      
  69. Λ Peter Palmquist, 1999, Dassonville: William E. Dassonville, California Photographer (1879-1957), (Carl Mautz Publishing) 
      
  70. Λ S. Ehrens, 1995, A Poetic Vision: The Photographs of Anne Brigman, (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Art) 
      
  71. Λ William Innes Homer, 1983, Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession, (New York: Little, Brown) 
      
  72. Λ Anne Brigman, 1949, Songs of a Pagan, (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers) 
      
  73. Λ I'm indebted to Pam Roberts and John Toohey for bringing the postcards of Fred Judge to my attention. 
      
  74. Λ Gillian Naylor, 1971, The Arts and Crafts Movement: A study of its sources, ideals and influence on design theory, (London: Studio Vista); Elizabeth Cumming & Wendy Kaplan, 1991, Arts & Crafts Movement, (London: Thames & Hudson)
     
    Arts and Crafts movement - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 28 July 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement 
      
  75. Λ Alastair Duncan, 1994, Art Nouveau, (New York: Thames and Hudson) [World of Art series] 
      
  76. Λ Jugendstil was the German name for Art Nouveaux and was derived from the Munich art journal Die Jugend founded in 1896 by Georg Hirth. 
      
  77. Λ Guillaume Dubufe, A watercolor drawing (aquarelle) on tissue guard: "Exécutée spécialement pour la couverture du catalogue de l'Exposition", Photo-Club de Paris / 1894, Pl. I] Colophon states that the copper plate was made (or supplied by) the Georges Petit gallery of Paris: "qui l'a offerte pur la couverture du catalogue de l'Exposition"
     
    The Georges Petit Gallery, a famous Paris art gallery where the works of Rodin, Monet, Whistler and other important artists were shown, hosted this first exposition of art photography put on by the Photo Club de Paris in 1894. (January 10-30th) 
      
  78. Λ Alfred Stieglitz, 1903, "An Apology", [Camera Work, no. 1, p. 15 
      
  79. Λ On 21 January 1910 Adold Loos gave a lecture in Vienna on the theme "Ornament and Crime" that proposed that unnecessary ornamentation was a manifestation of the degenerate and not a moral addition to functionality. The lecture was published in Cahiers d'aujourd'hui, No. 5 (1913).
     
    Janet Stewart, 2000, Fashioning Vienna: Adolf Loos's Cultural Criticism, (London: Routledge) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
1895, Pictorial Photographs. A Record of Photographic Salon 1895. In Twenty Plates Reproduced in Photogravure by Walter L. Colls, (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co.) [Δ
  
1994, Pictorialism in California: Photographs 1900–1940, (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum; San Marino, CA: Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery) [Δ
  
Bannon, Anthony, 1981, The Photo-Pictorialists of Buffalo, (Buffalo, NY: Media Study) [Δ
  
Boonstra, Janrense, 2010, In Atmospheric Light: Pictorialism in Dutch Photography 1890-1925, (W Books) isbn-10: 9040076863 isbn-13: 978-9040076862 [Δ
  
Borcoman, James, 1974, December, ‘Purism Versus Pictorialism: The 135 Years War. Some Notes On Photographic Aesthetics‘, ArtsCanada, no. 192-195, pp. 68-82 [Δ
  
Buerger, Janet E., 1984, The Last Decade: The Emergence of Art Photography in the 1890s, (Rochester, NY: International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House) [Δ
  
Bunnell, Peter (ed.), 1980, A Photographic Vision: Pictorial Photography, 1889–1923, (Salt Lake City, UT: Peregrine Smith) [Δ
  
Fulton, Marianne et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts) [Δ
  
Green, Jonathan (ed.), 1973, Camera Work: A Critical Anthology, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
  
Hübscher, Manon, 2006, ‘The Vienna Camera Club: Catalyst and Crucible‘, in Prodger, Phillip; Daum, Patrick & Ribemont, Francis (eds.), 2006, Impressionist Camera: Pictorial Photography in Europe, 1888-1918 (Merrell Publishers Limited in Association with the Saint Louis Art Museum) [Δ
  
Lukacher, Brian, 1994, ‘Powers of Sight: Robinson, Emerson, and the Polemics of Pictorial Photography‘, in Ellen Handy (ed.), Pictorial Effect Naturalistic Vision: The Photographs and Theories of Henry Peach Robinson and Peter Henry Emerson, pp. 29-51 [Δ
  
Mauro, Alessandra, 2014, ‘Alfred Stieglitz and 291‘, in Alessandra Mauro (ed.), 2014, Photoshow: Landmark Exhibitions that Defined the History of Photography, (Contrasto), pp. 101-128 [Δ
  
Nordstrom, Alison, 2011, Truth Beauty: Pictorialism and the Photograph as Art, 1845-1945, (Douglas & McIntyre) isbn-10: 1553659813 isbn-13: 978-1553659815 [Second edition] [Δ
  
Peterson, Christian A., 2012, Pictorial Photography at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, (Christian A. Peterson: Privately printed) [Limited to 50 initialed copies] [Δ
  
Prodger, Phillip; Daum, Patrick & Ribemont, Francis (eds.), 2006, Impressionist Camera: Pictorial Photography in Europe, 1888-1918, (Merrell Publishers Limited in Association with the Saint Louis Art Museum) isbn-10: 1858943310 isbn-13: 978-1858943312 [Δ
  
Roberts, Pam, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) [Δ
  
Roberts, Pam, 2008, Camera Work: The Complete Photographs 1903–1917, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3822837849 isbn-13: 978-3822837849 [Δ
  
Weaver, Mike, 1986, The Photographic Art. Pictorial Traditions in Britain and America, (London: The Herbert Press) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
G.L. Arlaud 
  
Arlaud, G.L., 1920, Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air, (Paris, Horos Editions) [Δ
  
John Bullock 
  
Beck, Tom, 1989, An American Vision: John G. Bullock and the Photo-Secession, (Baltimore: Aperture in Association with University of Maryland) [Foreword by William Innes Homer] [Δ
  
Alvin Langdon Coburn 
  
Bellman, David, 1994 (ca), Quest for beauty: Alvin Langdon Coburn: artist -photographer, Wales 1919-1966 = Cwest am harddwch: artist -ffotograffydd, Cymru 1919-1966, (Mold: Clwyd County Council Library and Information Service) isbn-10: 1859910068 [Δ
  
Chesterton, G.K. & Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1914, London With ten photographs by Alvin Langdon Coburn, (London: Privately printed for Alvin Langdon Coburn & Edmund D. Brooks and their friends) [Δ
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1909, London, (London: Duckworth & Co.) [Δ
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1910, New York, (London: Duckworth and New York: Brentano‘s) [Introductory essay by H.G. Wells] [Δ
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1978, Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1882-1966: an exhibition of photographs from the International Museum of Photography, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York [organized by the] Arts Council of Great Britain / [with an essay by Paul Blatchford], ([London: The Council]) isbn-10: 0728701731 [Δ
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1998 (ca), Alvin Langdon Coburn: Fotografien, 1900-1924 / herausgegeben von Karl Steinorth; mit einem Essay von Nancy Newhall, (Zu¨rich: Edition Stemmle) isbn-10: 3908161320 [Δ
  
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison (eds.), 1966, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Photographer, An Autobiography, (New York: Praeger) [Published in London by Faber & Faber 1966. Also published by Dover Publications 1978] [Δ
  
Weaver, Mike, 1986, Alvin Langdon Coburn: Symbolist Photographer, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Wells, H.G., 1911, The Door in the Wall, and other stories Illustrated with photogravures from photographs by Alvin Langdon Coburn, (London: Grant Richards) [Δ
  
F. Holland Day 
  
Crump, James, 1995, F. Holland Day: Suffering the Ideal, (Santa Fe: Twin Palms Publishers) [Δ
  
Jussim, Estelle, 1981, Slave to Beauty: The Eccentric Life and Controversial Career of F. Holland Day, (Boston: David R. Godine) [Δ
  
Robert Demachy 
  
Demachy, Robert, 1990, Robert Demachy: Pictorialist, (Paris: Bookking International) isbn-10: 287714044X isbn-13: 978-2877140447 [Δ
  
Jay, Bill, 1974, Robert Demachy, 1859–1936, (New York: St. Martin’s Press) [Δ
  
Frantisek Drtikol 
  
Drtikol, Frantisek, 1929, Le nus de Drtikol, (Paris: Libraire des Arts Decoratifs) [Preface de Claude de Santeul. Includes 30 photogravure reproductions of Drtikol's nude studies] [Δ
  
Alison Gernsheim 
  
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison (eds.), 1966, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Photographer, An Autobiography, (New York: Praeger) [Published in London by Faber & Faber 1966. Also published by Dover Publications 1978] [Δ
  
Helmut Gernsheim 
  
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison (eds.), 1966, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Photographer, An Autobiography, (New York: Praeger) [Published in London by Faber & Faber 1966. Also published by Dover Publications 1978] [Δ
  
Bill Jay 
  
Jay, Bill, 1974, Robert Demachy, 1859–1936, (New York: St. Martin’s Press) [Δ
  
Gertrude Käsebier 
  
Michaels, Barbara, 1992, Gertrude Käsebier: The Photographer and Her Photographs, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
Alexander Keighley 
  
Keighley, Alexander, 1890, The Amateur Photographer Prize Pictures. Photographs by A. Keighley ... With descriptive letterpress, etc., (London) [Δ
  
Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain, Pictorial Group, 1947, Alexander Keighley, Hon. F.R.P.S. A memorial. [Reproductions. With a portrait.], (London) [Title on binding "Alex. Keighley, Artist and Photographer, 1883-1947"] [Δ
  
Vintner, Ray, 2013, Alex. Keighley: A Pioneer of the Pictorial Movement in Photography, (Linkhall Publications) isbn-13: 978-0992740207 [Δ
  
Heinrich Kühn 
  
Farber, Monika (ed.), 2012, Heinrich Kuehn and His American Circle: Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen, (Prestel / Neue Galerie) isbn-10: 3791351966 isbn-13: 978-3791351964 [Δ
  
Donald M. Mennie 
  
Cooper, Elizabeth, 1914, My Lady of the Chinese Courtyard, (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co.,) [Includes thirty-one duo-tone illustrations from photographs by Donald Mennie] [Δ
  
Mennie, Donald, 19-?, China by Land and Water, (Shanghai: A.S. Watson) [Δ
  
Mennie, Donald, 1920 (?), Glimpses of China, (Shanghai: A.S. Watson & Co. Ltd.) [Δ
  
Mennie, Donald, 1922, China, North and South, (Shanghai: A.S. Watson) [Δ
  
Mennie, Donald, 1926, The Grandeur of the Gorges. Fifty photographic studies, with descriptive notes, of China's great waterway, the Yangtze Kiang, including twelve hand-coloured prints. From photographs by Donald Mennie, (Shanghai: A.S. Watson & Co.) [Δ
  
Mennie, Donald & Weale, Putnam, 1922, The Pageant of Peking. Comprising sixty-six Vandyck photogravures of Peking and environs from photographs by Donald Mennie, (Shanghai: A.S. Watson & Co.) [With an introduction by Putnam Weale. Descriptive notes by S. Couling. Third edition. The first edition was published in 1920] [Δ
  
Léonard Misonne 
  
Misonne, Léonard, 1976, Le´onard Misonne: Ein Fotograf aus Belgien 1870-1943 - Romantische Landschaft, (Seebruck am Chiemsee: Heering-Verlag) [Δ
  
William Mortensen 
  
Mortensen, William; Dawson, Michael; Dillon, Diane; Coleman, A.D.; Tytle, Larry & Rule, Amy, 1998, William Mortensen: A Revival, (Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona) isbn-10: 0938262335 isbn-13: 978-0938262336 [ The Archive (Book 33)] [Δ
  
Mortensen, William; Dunham, George; Moynihan, Michael & Lytle, Larry, 2014, The Command to Look: A Master Photographer’s Method for Controlling the Human Gaze, (Feral House) isbn-10: 1627310010 isbn-13: 978-1627310017 [Reprint] [Δ
  
Mortensen, William; Lytle, Larry; Coleman, A.D. & Moynihan, Michael, 2014, American Grotesque: The Life and Art of William Mortensen, (Feral House) isbn-10: 1936239973 isbn-13: 978-1936239979 [Δ
  
José Ortiz-Echagüe 
  
Ortiz-Echagüe, José & Diaz, Julio Montero, 2011, November, ‘Documentary Uses of Artistic Photography: Spain. Types and Costumes by José Ortiz-Echagüe‘, History of Photography, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 394-415 [Δ
  
Emile Joachim Constant Puyo 
  
Puyo, Emile Joachim Constant, 1896, Notes sur la Photographie Artistique. Texte et Illustrations par C. Puyo, (Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils Editeurs) [Δ
  
Henry Peach Robinson 
  
Robinson, Henry Peach, 1896, The Elements of a Pictorial Photograph, (London: Percy Lund) [Δ
  
Edward Steichen 
  
Brandow, Todd, & Ewing, William A., 2007, Edward Steichen: Lives in Photography, (Minneapolis: Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography) [Δ
  
Farber, Monika (ed.), 2012, Heinrich Kuehn and His American Circle: Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen, (Prestel / Neue Galerie) isbn-10: 3791351966 isbn-13: 978-3791351964 [Δ
  
Haskell, Barbara, 2000, Edward Steichen, (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art) isbn-10: 0874271266 isbn-13: 978-0874271263 [Δ
  
Smith, Joel, 1999, Edward Steichen: The Early Years, (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press and the Metropolitan Museum of Art) isbn-13: 978-0691048734 [Δ
  
Torosian, Michael & Greenberg, Howard, 2011, Steichen: Eduard et Voulangis. The Early Modernist Period 1915 - 1923, (Howard Greenberg Gallery and Lumiere Press) [Δ
  
Alfred Stieglitz 
  
Doty, Robert, 1978, Photo-Secession: Stieglitz and the Fine-Art Movement in Photography, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [Foreword by Beaumont Newhall] [Δ
  
Farber, Monika (ed.), 2012, Heinrich Kuehn and His American Circle: Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen, (Prestel / Neue Galerie) isbn-10: 3791351966 isbn-13: 978-3791351964 [Δ
  
Greenough, Sarah, 2000, Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and his New York Galleries, (Washington: National Gallery of Art.) isbn-10: 0894682830 [Also published by Bullfinch Press, ISBN-10: 0821227289, ISBN-13: 978-0821227282] [Δ
  
Greenough, Sarah, 2002, Alfred Stieglitz: The Key Set, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art) [2 volumes] [Δ
  
Greenough, Sarah & Hamilton, Juan, 1999, Alfred Stieglitz: Photographs & Writings, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art) [2nd edition] [Δ
  
Homer, William Innes, 1977, Alfred Stieglitz and the American Avant-Garde, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) isbn-10: 0821207555 [Δ
  
Homer, William Innes, 1983, Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession, (New York: Little, Brown) [Δ
  
Lowe, S. D., 1983, Stieglitz: A Memoir/Biography, (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux) [Δ
  
Messinger, Lisa Mintz, 2011, Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keefe, (Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art) isbn-10: 0300175884 isbn-13: 978-0300175882 [Δ
  
Naef, Weston, 1995, In Focus: Alfred Stieglitz: Photographs from the J. Paul Getty Museum, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 0892363037 isbn-13: 978-0892363032 [Δ
  
Norman, Dorothy, 1900, Alfred Stieglitz: An American Seer, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Peterson, Christian A., 1993, Alfred Stieglitz’s “Camera Notes.”, (New York: W. W. Norton) [Δ
  
Stieglitz, Alfred, 1897, Picturesque Bits of New York and Other Studies, (New York: R.H. Russell) [Δ
  
Waldo, Frank et al., 1934, America and Alfred Stieglitz: A Collective Portrait with 120 illustrations, (New York: Doubleday Doran & Company) [Δ
  
Waldo, Frank et al., 1979, America and Alfred Stieglitz: A Collective Portrait. 1934, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Revised edition of the 1934 original] [Δ
  
Whelan, R., 1995, Alfred Stieglitz: A Biography, (Boston: Little, Brown) [Δ
  
Whelan, Richard & Greenough, Sarah, 2000, Stieglitz on photography: His selected essays and notes, (Aperture) [Δ
  
Yochelson, Bonnie, 2010, Alfred Stieglitz: New York, (Skira Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847834905 isbn-13: 978-0847834907 [Δ
  
Paul Strand 
  
Barnes, Martin; Beckman, Karen et al., 2014, Paul Strand: Master of Modern Photography, (Philadelphia Museum) isbn-10: 0300207921 isbn-13: 978-0300207927 [Δ
  
Greenough, Sarah, 1990, Paul Strand, An American Vision, (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art in association with Aperture Foundation) [Δ
  
Margaret Watkins 
  
Pauli, Lori, 2012, Margaret Watkins: Domestic Symphonies, (National Gallery of Canada) isbn-10: 0888849036 isbn-13: 978-0888849038 [Introduction by Joseph Mulholland] [Δ
  
Eva Watson-Schutze 
  
Wolf, Tom M., 2009, Eva Watson-Schutze: Photographer, (SUNY Press) isbn-10: 1438431295 isbn-13: 978-1438431291 [Samuel Dorsky Museum of Art Series] [Δ
  
Clarence H. White 
  
Homer, William Innes, 1977, Symbolism of Light: The Photographs of Clarence H. White, (Wilmington, DE: Delaware Art Museum) [Δ
  
Daisy Wu 
  
Wu, Francis, 1967, Chinese Beauties Through The Camera Lens Of Francis And Daisy Wu, (Photo Arts Publications) [Δ
  
Francis C.K. Wu 
  
Wu, Francis, 1950, February, ‘Francis Wu's Hong Kong‘, PSA Journal, vol. 16 [Δ
  
Wu, Francis, 1967, Chinese Beauties Through The Camera Lens Of Francis And Daisy Wu, (Photo Arts Publications) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Julia M. Cameron 
http://www.ocaiw.com ... 
  
Rev. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson: aka Lewis Carroll 
http://www.people.virginia.edu ... 
  
Pictorialist exhibition catalogues 
http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org ... 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art has scanned more than one hundred Pictorialist photography exhibition catalogues, most of them donated to the Museum by Alfred Stieglitz in 1922 and many of them not found elsewhere. These fully searchable scans provide a valuable new research tool for people studying turn-of-the-century photographic history. (Malcolm Daniel, 28 June 2013, British Photographic History) 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
C. Yarnall Abbott  (1870-1938) • Juan C. Abel  (1869-1960) • Prescott Adamson  (1863-1933) • Carl J. Agrell  (1900-1967) • Wayne Albee  (1882-1937) • Laure Albin-Guillot  (1879-1962) • Edward K. Alenius  (1892-1950) • John Allen  (check) • Gustav Anderson  (1897-1974) • John H. Anderson  (check) • J. Craig Annan  (1864-1946) • Frederick R. Archer  (1889-1963) • George Arcus  (1904-1965) • G.L. Arlaud  (1869-1944) • Ernest Ashton  (1860-1951) • Edward L. Bafford  (1902-1981) • Axel Bahnsen  (1907-1978) • Jessie Tarbox Beals  (1870-1942) • Charles H. Bell  (1907-2003) • James Ford Bell Jr.  (1903-1981) • James G. Bennett  (1898-1962) • Theodore W. Bennett  (1906-1983) • Charles Berg  (1856-1926) • Clark Blickensderfer  (1882-1962) • Sigismund Blumann  (check) • A. Aubrey Bodine  (1906-1970) • Ernest G. Boon  (1864-1959) • Alice Boughton  (check) • Laverne L. Bovair  (1914-1991) • Martin Bovey Jr.  (1928-) • Tom Bright • Anne Brigman  (1869-1950) • George Brookwell  (1866-1941) • Clarence K. Bros  (1902-1985) • Leverett W. Brownell  (1871-1951) • Francis Bruguière  (1879-1945) • John Bullock  (1854-1939) • Eustace Calland  (1865-1959) • Julia Margaret Cameron  (1815-1879) • Lewis Carroll  (1832-1898) • J. Wells Champney  (1843-1903) • Rose Clark  (1852-1942) • Emilie V. Clarkson  (1863-1946) • Alvin Langdon Coburn  (1882-1966) • Charles F. Cochran • Imogen Cunningham  (1883-1976) • Gordon A. Curtis  (1905-1997) • Eleanor Parke Custis  (1897-1983) • William Dassonville  (1879-1957) • A. Leaman Davis • Dwight A. Davis  (1852-1944) • George Davison  (check) • F. Holland Day  (1864-1933) • Karl De Laittre Jr.  (1909-1939) • Baron Adolph de Meyer  (1868-1946) • Herman De Wetter  (1880-1950) • Robert Demachy  (1859-1936) • Mary Devens  (1857-1920) • Anne Pilger Dewey  (1890-1980) • Edward R. Dickson  (1880-1922) • Boris Dobro  (check) • Nell Dorr  (1893-1988) • A. Radclyffe Dugmore  (1870-1955) • John E. Dumont  (1856-1944) • William B. Dyer  (check) • Sarah J. Eddy  (1851-1945) • Fred W. Edwards  (1911-1978) • Jane Bell Edwards  (1908-2002) • Rudolf Eickemeyer  (1862-1932) • Theodore Eitel  (check) • Peter Henry Emerson  (1856-1936) • Frank Eugene  (1865-1936) • Frederick H. Evans  (1853-1943) • Earl H. Evers  (1912-1999) • Mary B. Faegre  (1891-1952) • Uno Falkengren  (1886-1964) • Emma J. Farnsworth  (1860-1952) • Adolf Fassbender  (1884-1980) • William H. Feldman  (check) • J.H. Field  (1869-1936) • Louis Fleckenstein  (1866-1943) • Christine B. Fletcher  (1871-1961) • C.W. Frankenberger • Frank R. Fraprie  (1874-1951) • William A. Fraser  (check) • Herbert G. French  (1872-1942) • Dallett Fuguet  (1868-1933) • Arnold Genthe  (1869-1942) • Laura Gilpin  (1891-1979) • Cesare Giulio • Franz Goerke • Louis A. Goetz • G.G. Granger  (1903-1946) • Howard Hammitt  (1876-1960) • Arthur Hammond  (check) • Forman G. Hanna  (1881-1950) • Martha Hale Harvey  (1862-1949) • Paul Burty Haviland  (1880-1950) • Frank J. Heller  (1917-2008) • Hugo Henneberg  (1863-1918) • Arthur T. Henrici  (1889-1943) • F. Benedict Herzog  (1860-1912) • Hill & Adamson • A. Horsley Hinton  (1863-1908) • Edwin C. Hirschoff  (1905-2002) • James M. Hoddle  (1902-1992) • Hofmeister Brothers • John R. Hogan  (1888-1965) • Burton D. Holley  (1900-1978) • Venning P. Hollis  (check) • Buck Hoy  (check) • Betty Henderson Hulett • Conn H. Irber  (1911-1982) • Charles Job  (1853-1930) • Francis Benjamin Johnston  (1864-1952) • Val G. Jurgell  (check) • Hans Kaden  (1890-1961) • Edward W. Keck  (1870-1912) • Alexander Keighley  (1861-1947) • Joseph T. Keiley  (1869-1914) • Marshall R. Kernochan  (1880-1955) • Monroe P. Killy  (1910-2010) • T.W. Kilmer  (1872-1946) • Merrill H. Klassy  (1900-1995) • Rudolf Koppitz  (1884-1936) • Fred G. Korth  (1902-1982) • Karl F. Kunkel  (1900-1995) • Heinrich Kühn  (1866-1944) • Gertrude Käsebier  (1852-1934) • Lane Ladd  (1913-1988) • Horace A. Latimer  (1860-1931) • René Le Begue  (1857-1914) • W. Doval Le Sage • Wellington Lee  (1918-2001) • Albert J. Leigh  (1895-1982) • Alexander Leventon  (1895-1950) • Arthur Allen Lewis  (1873-1957) • Thomas Limborg  (1894-1992) • Edwin Hale Lincoln  (1848-1938) • Frank F. Lockwood • Ghislain J. Lootens  (check) • Don Loving  (check) • Pirie MacDonald  (1867-1942) • William E. Macnaughton  (check) • Gustave Marissiaux  (1872-1929) • Julia Marshall  (1896-1994) • C.J. Marvin • Oscar Maurer  (1871-1965) • Ella E. McBride  (1862-1965) • Lewis M. McCormick  (1863-1922) • Robert L. McFerran  (check) • Edward P. McMurtry  (1883-1969) • Donald M. Mennie  (check) • Sheila Metzner  (1939-) • Walter S. Meyers  (1884-1960) • Lowell N. Miller  (1914-1999) • Léonard Misonne  (1870-1943) • Earl L. Mohr  (1919-1974) • William Mortensen  (1897-1965) • H. Mortimer-Lamb  (1872-1970) • Will H. Moses  (1871-1923) • Alphonse Marie Mucha  (1860-1939) • William James Mullins  (1860-1917) • William D. Murphy  (1859-1935) • Harland P. Nasvik  (1908-1993) • Nojima Yasuzõ  (1889-1964) • Robert C. Nyquist  (1924-2000) • B.J. Ochsner  (1869-1953) • P.H. Oelman  (1880-1957) • José Ortiz-Echagüe  (1886-1980) • A.J. Patel  (check) • James Patrick • Domenico Riccardo Peretti-Griva  (1882-1962) • Charles B. Phelps Jr.  (1891-1949) • Harry G. Phister  (check) • Wilbur H. Porterfield  (1873-1958) • William B. Post  (1857-1921) • George C. Poundstone  (1870-1938) • Frederick H. Pratt  (1873-1958) • Emile Joachim Constant Puyo  (1857-1933) • Edward Quigley  (1898-1977) • Carl Rau  (1858-1940) • Oscar Gustave Rejlander  (1813-1875) • William W. Renwick  (1865-1933) • Guido Rey  (1861-1935) • James Bartlett Rich  (1866-1942) • John W. Riley • Henry Peach Robinson  (1830-1901) • Ralph Winwood Robinson  (1861-1942) • Vernon J. Roufs  (1908-2004) • Harry C. Rubincam  (check) • Drahomir Ruzicka  (1870-1960) • Lyddell Sawyer  (1856-1927) • Raymond A. Scallen  (1892-1976) • Roland E. Schneider  (1884-1934) • Sarah Choate Sears  (1858-1935) • Edna Seaton • George H. Seeley  (1880-1955) • George Bernard Shaw  (1856-1950) • Thomas O. Sheckell  (1883-1943) • Harry K. Shigeta  (1887-1963) • T.K. Shindo  (1890-1974) • John V. Sigford  (check) • Lillian A. Sigford  (check) • Marshall Sigford  (1910-2002) • Henry Sill  (check) • Clara Estelle Sipprell  (1885-1975) • Bernhard A. Skomars  (1913-1988) • Paul R. Skoog  (check) • T. O'Conor Sloane Jr.  (1870-1963) • Ethel M. Smith  (1886-1964) • Ema Spencer  (1857-1941) • L. Whitney Standish  (check) • Edward Steichen  (1879-1973) • Louis F. Stephany  (1873-1952) • Alfred Stieglitz  (1864-1946) • Edmund Stirling  (1861-1948) • A.H. Stoiber  (1853-1916) • John Francis Strauss • Karl Struss  (1886-1981) • Frank Meadow Sutcliffe  (1853-1941) • Y.H. Sümmons • G.V. Thomson  (1887-1986) • Max Thorek  (1880-1960) • George Timmins  (1855-1920) • Arthur M. Tomlinson • H.C. Torrance  (1859-1931) • Edward W. Trevelyan  (1881-1947) • Henri Troth  (1860-1945) • Doris Ulmann  (1882-1934) • Maurice Ummels • Elizabeth Flint Wade  (check) • Margaret Watkins  (1884-1969) • Eva Watson-Schutze  (check) • Hans Watzek  (1848-1903) • Mathilde Weil  (check) • J.B.B. Wellington  (1858-1939) • George Wells • Clarence H. White  (1871-1925) • John M. Whitehead  (check) • William E. Wilmerding  (1858-1932) • Donald P. Wilson  (1902-1993) • Gordon E. Winters  (check) • Willard Worden  (1868-1946) • Francis C.K. Wu  (1911-1989) • K.H. Wu  (1920-) • James Yarnell  (1917-2011)
HomeThemes > Pictorialism 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Art 
Camera Notes 
Camera Work 
Die Kunst in der Photographie 
Landscape photography and the New Pictorialism 
Naturalism 
Photo-Club de Paris 
Photo-Secession 
Styles and movements 
Wiener Photographische Blätter - Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Pictorialism

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailA Record of the Photographic Salon of 1895 (London) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailA. Aubrey Bodine: Baltimore Pictorialist 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 10, 2007)
ThumbnailAlfred Stieglitz: Picturesque Bits of New York and Other Studies (1897) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 1, 2006)
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: London 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 18, 2006)
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: New York 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 18, 2006) Thanks to Mark Katzman of the photogravure.com website for supplying the missing images.
ThumbnailAmerican Pictorialism: Camera Work (1903-1917) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailChildren in Pictorialism 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 26, 2012)
ThumbnailDeuxième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1895 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailDie Kunst in der Photographie (1897) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (January 25, 2007) Translations of texts now included thanks to Helga Lunsford and Wilhelm Bierling.
ThumbnailDie Kunst in der Photographie (1897-1908) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailDie Kunst in der Photographie (1898) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 12, 2007)
ThumbnailDie Kunst in der Photographie (1899) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 16, 2007)
ThumbnailDie Kunst in der Photographie (1900) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 12, 2007)
ThumbnailDie Kunst in der Photographie (1901) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 4, 2007)
ThumbnailErotica: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 2, 2007) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailFlowers: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 23, 2007)
ThumbnailG.L. Arlaud: Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 13, 2007) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailGertrude Käsebier 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 6, 2010)
ThumbnailGustave Marissiaux: Visions d’Artistes (1908) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 1, 2006)
ThumbnailJapanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 22, 2008)
ThumbnailJapanese pictorialism: Bunka Shashin-shu (1922) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailKodak Portfolio: Souvenir of the Eastman Photographic Exhibition 1897 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 3, 2006) A rare portfolio of pictorialist photographs.
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - A Pictorialist Perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 22, 2012)
ThumbnailPeter Henry Emerson - Marsh Leaves 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 6, 2011)
ThumbnailPictorialism 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 6, 2012)
ThumbnailPictorialism - American Women Photographers 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 6, 2010)
ThumbnailPortraits: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 19, 2006) When viewed together the pictorialist portrait style becomes clear.
ThumbnailPremière Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1894 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (September 8, 2006) Translations added
ThumbnailQuatrième Année Salon de Photographie - 1897 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 24, 2006)
ThumbnailThe Clarence H. White School of Photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 30, 2006) The Warren and Margot Coville Collection at the Library of Congress.
ThumbnailTrees: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 20, 2007)
ThumbnailTroisième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1896 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 18, 2006)
ThumbnailWiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1894) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 2, 2006)
ThumbnailWiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1896) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 2, 2006)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Pictorialism

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailSadakichi Hartmann 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAdolf Fassbender: Pictorial Artistry 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfred Fauvarque-Omez: Stylistic changes (ca. 1930s) 
ThumbnailAlfred Stieglitz: Camera Notes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfred Stieglitz: Camera Work 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfred Stieglitz: Camera Work: An Apology 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBerenice Abbott: Flatiron Building 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailClarence H. White: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDonald M. Mennie: Pictorialist China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: Pictorialism 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Steichen: Rodin's statue of Balzac (1908) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEva Watson-Schutze: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge Davison: The Onion Field 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGertrude Käsebier: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustave Marissiaux: Visions d’Artistes (1908) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHans Watzek: Un Tyrolien 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinrich Kuhn: Camera 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinrich Kühn: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLéonard Misonne: Coming towards the camera 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLéonard Misonne: Pastoral 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLéonard Misonne: Trees 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Demachy: Landscapes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Demachy: Struggle 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRudolf Koppitz: Movement study (Bewegungsstudie) and variant 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRudolf Koppitz: Trees 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailPictorialism: A Record of the Photographic Salon of 1895 (London) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Agriculture 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Classic examples 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Deuxième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1895 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Die Kunst in der Photographie (1897) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Die Kunst in der Photographie (1899) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Die Kunst in der Photographie (1900) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Die Kunst in der Photographie (1901) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Kodak Portfolio: Souvenir of the Eastman Photographic Exhibition 1897 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Portraits 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Première Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1894 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Quatrième Année Salon de Photographie - 1897 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Troisième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1896 (The Photo-Club de Paris) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Wiener Photographische Blätter Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1894) 
ThumbnailPictorialism: Wiener Photographische Blätter Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1896) 
 
 
  
    
  
ThumbnailCamera Work 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAlbright Art Gallery International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography (1912) 
ThumbnailChildren in Pictorialism 
ThumbnailDie Kunst in der Photographie 
ThumbnailLinked Ring Brotherhood 
ThumbnailNaturalism, Pictorialism and the Occupational Portrait 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 16 December 2014, 01:49
 
  
 
  
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