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HomeContentsThemes > Marketing

Curatorial and planning notes 
This theme concentrates on nineteeth century marketing. It will be extended to include examples of evites, iPhone and iPad applications, the use of social media and contemporary marketing strategies.

Marketing techniques
773.01   Photographs of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios
773.02   Illustrations of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios
773.03   Marketing: Signage and banners
773.04   Richard Beard: Trade card
773.05   Marketing: Cased photographs
773.06   Marketing: Banknotes and premiums
773.07   Handbills, broadsides and paper-based promotional material
773.08   Marketing: Business cards of Daguerreotypists
773.09   Marketing: Business cards
773.10   Marketing: Business stationery
773.11   Carte de visites: Advertising for photographers
773.12   Marketing: Sample books
773.13   Marketing: Commercial catalogues
773.14   Marketing: Advertisements in newspapers
773.15   Marketing: Advertisements in publications
773.16   Marketing: In the popular press
773.17   Marketing: Trade directories
773.18   Marketing: Photographic publications
773.19   Marketing: Photographer and studio labels
773.20   Marketing: Puzzles
773.21   Marketing: Stamps
773.22   Marketing: Studio marks in negative
773.23   I.W. Taber: Contemporary account of meeting the photographer in San Francisco
773.24   Marketing: Touting for business
773.25   Marketing: En plein air
773.26   Marketing: Photographing celebrities
773.27   Marketing: Posters
773.28   Marketing: Showcasing photographs
Marketing for photographic studios
773.29   Mathew B. Brady: Brady's Daguerrean Gallery
773.30   Mr. Pratt's Gallery at Richmond, VA - Coloring Daguerreotypes (1851)
773.31   Jeremiah Gurney: J. Gurney's Premium Daguerreotype Gallery
773.32   Jeremiah Gurney: Premiums
Companies selling reproductions of works of art in the nineteenth century
773.33   Companies providing photographic reproductions of art in the nineteenth century
773.34   Camera clubs and get-togethers of photographers
Contemporary marketing
773.35   Evites
773.36   iPhone applications
773.37   iPad applications
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
Marketing techniques 
773.01   Marketing >  Photographs of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
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   19thc Studio Exteriors 
View exhibition 
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773.02   Marketing >  Illustrations of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
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   19thc Studio Exteriors 
View exhibition 
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773.03   Marketing >  Marketing: Signage and banners 
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773.04   Marketing >  Richard Beard: Trade card 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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The text below the image says:
The Trade Card reproduced above is an important item in the history of photography. In the year 1839, Daguerre‘s process of photography on a metal plate had been announced to the world, and in 1840 the English patent was acquired by Richard Beard, a London coal merchant. The original card was printed by chromo-lithography and, although its exact date is unknown, we do know that in 1842 Beard had the three studios proclaimed above: at Parliament Street, King William Street and Regent Street, for in that year The Illustrated London News was founded and in its issue dated July 23 there appears Beard's first advertisement bearing the same three addresses, and stating that his charge for a miniature portrait bust was one guinea, two guineas for a full-length, and "10s 6d. For each additional likeness to form a group." Our reproduction is published by courtesy of Mr. George H. Gabb, F.C.S.
Reproduced in The Illustrated London News Christmas Number, 1947,p. 14 
773.05   Marketing >  Marketing: Cased photographs 
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The cases used to protect photographs, mostly notably daguerreotypes and ambrotypes but not exclusively, offered additional ways of marketing for a photographer including:
  • Embrossing and gilding the exterior of the case if it was leather as was done by William Edward Kilburn in London.
  • Marking the velvet lining with the photographer's name as with Marcus Aurelius Root of "Root's Gallery" of Philadelphia and Robert H. Vance and his "Premium Daguerrean Galleries" of "San Francisco, Sacramento and Marysville".
  • Using stamped metal preservers that held in the protective glass and this was used by A.M. Allen, Jenks Bros. (Patterson, NJ), Rufus P. Anson and many others.
   19thc Studio Marketing 
View exhibition 
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773.06   Marketing >  Marketing: Banknotes and premiums 
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773.07   Marketing >  Handbills, broadsides and paper-based promotional material 
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773.08   Marketing >  Marketing: Business cards of Daguerreotypists 
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   19thc Studio Marketing 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
773.09   Marketing >  Marketing: Business cards 
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773.10   Marketing >  Marketing: Business stationery 
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Printed envelopes, letterheads, invoices, receipts and all the printed ephemera of business are part of the marketing of photographers. This is an area that has not as yet been researched in detail.[1] 
773.11   Marketing >  Carte de visites: Advertising for photographers 
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André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri> (1819-1889)[2] was a French photographer who in November 1854 took out a patent for carte de visite.[3] By affixing albumen prints to cards of a set size he created the first standardized format that was suitable for mass production and dissemination. Carte de visites became a worldwide craze from the 1850s onwards and allowed for the first photograph albums as distinct from scrapbooks. In societies where giving cards to acquaintances and business associates was common the addition of a photograph was a visual reminder that encouraged reciprocity. Disdéri> himself took numerous self-portraits that he used to promote his own business.  
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Photographers making carte de visites appreciated they could also take advantage of the opportunities for a visual business cards. The cards photographers created were basically of two types the cards showing the range of equipment the photographer had available for use or sale, as the cases of Richard Walzl (Baltimore) and Carlier, and the other was using a collage of photographs showing images for sale. 
773.12   Marketing >  Marketing: Sample books 
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773.13   Marketing >  Marketing: Commercial catalogues 
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To improve access to the large numbers of photographs available photographers had lists printed[4] for distribution and others had illustrated catalogues or photomontages of their images.[5] 
   19thc Studio Marketing 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
773.14   Marketing >  Marketing: Advertisements in newspapers 
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773.15   Marketing >  Marketing: Advertisements in publications 
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773.16   Marketing >  Marketing: In the popular press 
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773.17   Marketing >  Marketing: Trade directories 
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773.18   Marketing >  Marketing: Photographic publications 
773.19   Marketing >  Marketing: Photographer and studio labels 
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773.20   Marketing >  Marketing: Puzzles 
773.21   Marketing >  Marketing: Stamps 
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Stamps can be divided up in two ways.
  • The first is the type a wet stamp where ink is used and the second embossed, also known as a blind ("uncoloured") stamp where a metal stamp with text, a picture or decoration is applied with pressure causing a raised relief on the matte or photograph.
  • The second is the purpose of the stamp this can be for a photographer, studio, distribution organisations such as an image library, collective or publication, estate stamps that are used to indicate the prints at the time of death or those produced after the death of the photographer, and stamps used by collectors and institutions.
The preparation of chronological series of well-authenticated stamps for a photographer can be useful for dating prints. Sets of stamps are rarely published with Man Ray,[6] Walker Evans[7] and a few others being notable exceptions.
As the value of photographs has risen so has the temptation to produce fraudulent copies and so stamps need to be carefully checked. Some prints were never meant to sold and may be indicated by a stamp that says "Complimentary copy" but as with anything else these now have a commercial value and are purchased by those who don't know better. 
773.22   Marketing >  Marketing: Studio marks in negative 
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773.23   Marketing >  I.W. Taber: Contemporary account of meeting the photographer in San Francisco 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
In 1881 account of his voyage around the world[8] he recorded a visit to the photographic studio of "Mr. Tabor" in San Francisco, California:
I must not leave this part of my journey without a word on that for which this place bears a world-wide renown; I allude to photography. The first morning after my arrival, when I got up to take in my boots, I found outside my door two envelopes addressed to me, each containing a cabinet photograph of some evidently well-known actress, and a card requesting me to visit the studio of the sender. As I had already collected a large assortment of photographic views on my travels, I now determined to add to it a collection of portraits as specimens of the art in the States. I called at several studios to make purchases, and at each place a lovely specimen of art was gratuitously given, in addition to what I bought. I think, as I have before said, that the San Francisco portraits rank first in my collection. The photographers themselves were highly intellectual men, and I owe much to Mr. Tabor and Mr. Boyd, for many pleasant moments spent in their studios. The former took the trouble to send after me to New York a duplicate of a work of art that I had much admired in his collection.[9]
"Tabor" is presumably a misspelling of Isiah West Taber who was a notable San Francisco photographer of the period.[10] 
773.24   Marketing >  Marketing: Touting for business 
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773.25   Marketing >  Marketing: En plein air 
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773.26   Marketing >  Marketing: Photographing celebrities 
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773.27   Marketing >  Marketing: Posters 
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773.28   Marketing >  Marketing: Showcasing photographs 
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Marketing for photographic studios 
773.29   Marketing >  Mathew B. Brady: Brady's Daguerrean Gallery 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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773.30   Marketing >  Mr. Pratt's Gallery at Richmond, VA - Coloring Daguerreotypes (1851) 
A letter from daguerreotypist William A. Pratt of Richmond, Virginia published in 1851 in The Photographic Art Journal described his studio and working methods:
Richmond, October 10th, 1851.
Mr. H. H. Snelling : Dear Sir: I at length have found a few moments to devote to you, and I assure you that it is at the earliest period, as you may be sure the cares of so extensive an establishment as ours, after three months-absence, preclude the possibility of giving much time to any other purpose.
You already have published a description of the interior of our establishment, and I will now give the best I can of its outside, but the illustration itself affords almost all that could be desired. The object was to obtain as much boauty as possible, consistent with utility, and to make the alterations without disturbing the original building more than I could avoid. The immense bay window which forms the principal ornament in front, is eight feet wide by about 16 feet in height, and in combination with the gothic screen work above, also filled with glass, forms our operating light, which is about thirty feet from the floor of the room and runs back about ten feet. This window projects two feet into the street, and forms a conspicuous object in connection with the parapet above from nearly every part of the city. The entire front has been remodelled and painted so as to present the hall-like appearance which the illustration portrays, and as it forms the centre of the finest row of buildings in Richmond, we think that we have obtained the objects most to be desired in a Daguerrean establishment, viz.: Publicity, an immense northern window in combination with a sky-light, a fine operating room in the third-story, surrounded with the necessary offices for cleaning, buffing, &c., and a show room, which in all my travels I have not yet seen surpassed except in point of size.
I would take the opportunity here to mention that no attention has been paid to either convenience or beauty of arrangement in the European galleries. I visited nearly all in England and in Paris, and found them, generally speaking, below mediocrity. Their pictures, too, were so inferior to those of America, with two exceptions, (Thomson and Mayall, both formerly of Philadelphia,) as to occasion no surprise at the great want of popularity of the daguerreotype in England. Their great object seems to be to disguise it by colors, varnishes, &c., to hide all the beauty of the original proof, and to produce instead an inferior specimen of miniature painting; true, some of the French have, by the exquisite pencil of their finest artists, produced pictures which both astonish and delight, but these alas ! Are, from their very nature, (viz.: being worked up with gum colors,) liable to turn of a rusty hue, which destroys their beauty, and leaves them with the aspect of a faded engraving after being exposed in a shop window. Mr. Beard claims to have discovered a method by which these difficulties are obviated, but unless I am much deceived, it is the same as that practised by me, and of which I have specimens four years old. For the information of your readers I will detail it.
After your picture- is gilded and dry, pour over it quickly and steadily, a thin solution of bright copal varnish, and let it drain off either in the sun or before a gentle fire a stove is best; when perfectly hard, which it will be in the course of a day, color it as usual with dry colors. An exposure to the gentle heat of a spirit lamp will cause them to sink in and become permanent, thus giving all the effect of enamel. After this is completed you may coat it over with varnish, until you get sufficient to rub down, and you will obtain an imperishable enamelled daguerreotype.
This has probably been tried by more than one besides Mr. Beard, and only proves that "there is nothing new under the sun," in coloring daguerreotypes, at least, for where such a host of operators are engaged, the probability is, that nearly everything has been attempted of this kind that afforded any chance of success. Very respectfully yours,
William A. Pratt.[11]
773.31   Marketing >  Jeremiah Gurney: J. Gurney's Premium Daguerreotype Gallery 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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773.32   Marketing >  Jeremiah Gurney: Premiums 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Companies selling reproductions of works of art in the nineteenth century 
773.33   Marketing >  Companies providing photographic reproductions of art in the nineteenth century 
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773.34   Marketing >  Camera clubs and get-togethers of photographers 
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Contemporary marketing 
773.35   Marketing >  Evites 
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"Ephemera is transitory written and printed matter, not intended to be retained or preserved. The word derives from the Greek, meaning things lasting no more than a day." (Wikipedia, May 24, 2008)
Emails containing invitations, Evites, concerning gallery exhibitions, art fairs, book signings and artists receptions are increasingly commonplace and not designed for preservation even by the organizations that create them. They are however a part of the history of photography and this exhibition includes some examples for your visual delight. 
   Ephemera Evites 
View exhibition 
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773.36   Marketing >  iPhone applications 
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773.37   Marketing >  iPad applications 
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  1. Λ If you know of any research into the printed ephemera of photography I would be most interested - 
  2. Λ Elizabeth Anne McCauley, 1985, A. A. E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait, (New Haven: Yale) 
  3. Λ William Culp Darrah, 1981, Cartes De Visite In Nineteenth Century Photography, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah); Thomas Harris, 2013, ‘The Mighty, Yet Diminutive, Carte de Visite‘, in Bryan & Page Ginns, 2013, Antique Photographica: The Collector's Vision (Schiffer), pp. 100-120; Elizabeth Anne McCauley, 1985, A. A. E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait, (New Haven: Yale) 
  4. Λ The London Stereoscopic Company, Alphonse Bernoud, Lawrence & Houseworth, Giacomo Brogi and the Soule Photograph Company all printed catalogues and no doubt there were a great many more. 
  5. Λ Thomas Houseworth in the USA and Giocomo Brogi in Italy each had prints that showed a selection of their images. 
  6. Λ Steven Manford, 2006, Behind the Photo: The Stamps of Man Ray, (Carnet de Rhinocéros jr.) 
  7. Λ Judith Keller, 1995, Walker Evans: The Getty Museum Collection, (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum), pp. xvi-xvii 
  8. Λ Captain S.H. Jones-Parry, My Journey Round the World via Ceylon, New Zealand, Australia, Torres Straits, China, Japan, and the United States, Two Volumes (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1881) 
  9. Λ Captain S.H. Jones-Parry, My Journey Round the World via Ceylon, New Zealand, Australia, Torres Straits, China, Japan, and the United States, Two Volumes (London: Hurst and Blackett, 1881), vol. II, pp.145-146. 
  10. Λ For Isiah West Taber in San Francisco - Carl Mautz, 1997, Biographies of Western Photographers. A Reference Guide to Photographers Working in the 19th Century American West, (Nevada City: Carl Mautz Publishing), p. 147.
    Thomas Henry Boyd was a partner of Isiash West Taber 1876-78 or later - Carl Mautz, 1997, Biographies of Western Photographers. A Reference Guide to Photographers Working in the 19th Century American West, (Nevada City: Carl Mautz Publishing), p. 83. 
  11. Λ William A. Pratt, 1851, "Mr. Pratt's Gallery at Richmond, VA Coloring Daguerreotypes", The Photographic Art Journal, vol. 2, pp. 235-236


HomeContents > Further research

General reading 
Chalabala, Mark S., 2013, American Backmark: The Art and Artistry of the Carte de Visite Imprint 1860-1890, (Privately printed) [Δ
Craig, J.S., 1994, Craig’s Daguerreian Registry, (Torrington, Conn.: John S. Craig) [Δ
Henisch, Heinz K & Henisch, Bridget A., 1993, The Photographic Experience, 1839–1914: Images and Attitudes, (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press) [Δ
Mann, Charles & Collins, Kathleen, 1984, ‘Studio Sample Sheet‘, History of Photography, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 197-200 [Δ
Pritchard, H. Baden, 1882, The Photographic Studios of Europe, (London: Piper and Carter) [Δ
Pritchard, Michael, 2009, Summer, ‘The photographic trade catalogue in Britain‘, The Ephemerist, no. 145, pp. 3-12 [Δ
Pritchard, Michael, 2013, ‘British Photographic Trade Catalogues: 1839-1939‘, in Bryan Ginns & Page Ginns, 2013, Antique Photographica: The Collector's Vision (Schiffer), pp. 258-272 [Δ
Smith, Roger, 1988, ‘Selling Photography: Aspects of Photographic Patronage in Nineteenth-Century Britain‘, History of Photography, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 317-326 [Δ
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
Man Ray 
Manford, Steven, 2006, Behind the Photo: The Stamps of Man Ray, (Carnet de Rhinocéros jr.) isbn-10: 2849400211 isbn-13: 978-2849400210 [Limited edition] [Δ
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - 

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

I.W. Taber  (1830-1912)
HomeThe business of photography > Marketing 
Related topics 

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Marketing

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan -

Thumbnail19th Century Photographic Studios: Exteriors 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (February 18, 2010)
Thumbnail19th Century Photographic Studios: Marketing 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 28, 2010) I've added in touting for business by leaving examples of work at hotels (Taber) and touters at the docks for creating paintings based on photographs in China as described by John Thomson in Illustrations of China and Its People... (1873-1874).
ThumbnailCabinet cards: Backs 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailCarte de visite: Backs 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)

HomeVisual indexes > Marketing

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailA.P. Webb: Business card with stamp portrait 
ThumbnailAbdullah frères: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAbraham Bogardus: Keep this as your guide to get Fine Photographs 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAbraham Bogardus: Publicity 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlphonse Bernoud: Catalogo di Alfonso Bernoud (1864) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAtelier Kohout: Backmarks 
ThumbnailBradley and Rulofson: Daguerrian publicity materials 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCarlo Naya: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCarlo Naya: Studio stamps 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailD: Appleton: Stereoscopes and Views 
ThumbnailElliot & Fry: Sample book 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailF.M. Yeager (433 1/2 Penn Street, Reading, Pa.): Photographic equipment and photographs 
ThumbnailGeorge S. Cook: Advertisements 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustave Le Gray: Business cards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHall (Great Barrington, Massachusetts): Hall's Centennial Exhibit 
ThumbnailJeremiah Gurney: Premiums 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Bulmer: Sunday Times Magazine tear sheets 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJosef Spithover: Book and print seller in Rome 
ThumbnailOliver Sarony: Advertising Carte de Visite 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailR. Goebel: Photographie-Gallerie 
ThumbnailRichard Beard: Trade card 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Walzl: Advertising card for photographic supplies from Richard Walzl, Baltimore 
ThumbnailRobert H. Vance: First Premium Again 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel Broadbent and partners: Trade cards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSouthworth & Hawes: Season ticket 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSouthworth & Hawes: Wood engraving advertisement 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: McAllister & Brother shop at 728 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia 
ThumbnailW. Stevens: Tintype tent 
ThumbnailYamabe Photo Co: Price list 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot - Nicolaas Henneman 
ThumbnailKarl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers 
ThumbnailExhibition labels 
ThumbnailStamps: Purpose: Distribution 
ThumbnailStamps: Purpose: Estate 
ThumbnailStamps: Purpose: Studio 
ThumbnailStamps: Type: Blind 
ThumbnailStamps: Type: Wet 
ThumbnailMarketing: Adverts: Handbills and broadsides 
ThumbnailMarketing: Adverts: Newspapers 
ThumbnailMarketing: Adverts: Publications 
ThumbnailMarketing: Banknotes and premiums 
ThumbnailMarketing: Business cards 
ThumbnailMarketing: Business stationery 
ThumbnailMarketing: Cased photographs 
ThumbnailMarketing: Commercial catalogues 
ThumbnailMarketing: En pleine air 
ThumbnailMarketing: In the popular press 
ThumbnailMarketing: On cabinet cards 
ThumbnailMarketing: On carte de visites 
ThumbnailMarketing: On stereocards 
ThumbnailMarketing: On tintypes 
ThumbnailMarketing: Photographer and studio labels 
ThumbnailMarketing: Photographic publications 
ThumbnailMarketing: Photographing celebrities 
ThumbnailMarketing: Posters 
ThumbnailMarketing: Sample books and sample boards 
ThumbnailMarketing: Showcasing photographs 
ThumbnailMarketing: Signage and banners 
ThumbnailMarketing: Stamps 
ThumbnailMarketing: Studio marks in negative 
ThumbnailMarketing: Touting for business 
ThumbnailMarketing: Trade directories 
ThumbnailAwards: Medals and plaques 
ThumbnailMedals and plaques: Commemorative medal for the 50th anniversary of the invention of photography 
ThumbnailCabinet cards: Backs: Electric light 
ThumbnailCabinet cards: Backs: Medals and prizes won 
ThumbnailCabinet cards: Backs: Photographic studios 
ThumbnailCabinet cards: Backs: Royal patronage 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Additional products 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Catalogue pages 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Change of business ownership 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Diverse occupations 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Elevator available 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Medals and prizes won 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Negatives preserved, copies made and enlargements 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Photograph cars 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Photographic studios 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Product promotion 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Royal patronage 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Teaching available 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Labels 
   Private collections 
ThumbnailThe Isenburg Collection @ AMC Toronto: Admission and season tickets 
ThumbnailThe Isenburg Collection @ AMC Toronto: Adverts 
ThumbnailThe Isenburg Collection @ AMC Toronto: Bottles 
ThumbnailThe Isenburg Collection @ AMC Toronto: Broadsides 
ThumbnailThe Isenburg Collection @ AMC Toronto: Business cards 
   Still thinking about these... 
ThumbnailCamera clubs and get-togethers of photographers 
ThumbnailMarketing: Puzzles 
ThumbnailNineteenth century book and print sellers 
ThumbnailPhotography stores 
ThumbnailStudio of Swedish photographer Peter P. Lundh 
Refreshed: 27 August 2014, 06:58
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