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HomeContentsThemes > Halftones


Information requests
761.01   Improving content on photographic techniques
761.02   Halftones
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
Information requests 
761.01   Photo-mechanical processes >  Improving content on photographic techniques 
We are seeking to expand the themes covering photographic techniques and processes. These sections will include:
  • Invention of the process
  • Any related patents
  • Trade literature
  • Contemporary advertisements and announcements of the innovation
  • A description of the process and its variants
  • Historical examples and details of where examples can be located in public collections
  • Contemporary examples by photographers using the exact process.
Conservation will not initially be included but may be in the future if required.
761.02   Photo-mechanical processes >  Halftones 
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During the nineteenth century a number of people worked on photomechinal processes[1] to enable the reproduction of photographs and the halftone[2] was one of the most significant of these. Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877), Georg Meisenbach (18411912), Frederic Ives (18561937) and Max Levy (18571926) all made their own contributions to its improvement.
At its most basic most mechanical printing presses in the nineteenth century could only print black or white and so shades were impossible and shades are essential to handle all the grays between black and white. By using screens a picture can be constructed from dots where the varying sizes of the dots create the visual illusion of continuous shades. 

  1. Λ David A. Hanson Collection of the History of Photomechanical Reproduction, The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute
    (Accessed: 6 August 2013) 
  2. Λ Dusan C. Stulik & Art Kaplan, 2013, The Atlas of Analytical Signatures of Photographic Processes, (Getty Conservation Institute)
    (Online - accessed 6 August 2013)


HomeContents > Further research

General reading 
Stulik, Dusan & Kaplan, Art, 2013, The Atlas of Analytical Signatures of Photographic Processes: Halftone, (Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute) [Δ
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - 

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

F. Holland Day  (1864-1933) • Robert Demachy  (1859-1936) • Rudolf Eickemeyer  (1862-1932) • T. Enami  (1859-1929) • Hofmeister Brothers • Ogawa Kazumasa • Emile Joachim Constant Puyo  (1857-1933) • Alfred Stieglitz  (1864-1946) • Eva Watson-Schutze  (check)
HomeTechniquesPhoto-mechanical processes > Halftones 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
Publications, books, manuals, journals and magazines 

HomeVisual indexes > Halftones

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailPhoto-mechanical processes: Examples 
ThumbnailPhoto-mechanical processes: Halftones 
Refreshed: 17 August 2014, 09:03
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