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19th century botany
747.01   19th century botany
747.02   Photomicrographs of botany
Flowers
747.03   Flowers
Photographers
747.04   Anna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854)
747.05   Anna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854)
747.06   Henry Fox Talbot: Botany
747.07   Henry Fox Talbot: The Bertoloni Album
747.08   Constantin v. Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny: Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum (1855-1856)
747.09   Louis Godefroy Lucy-Fossarieu: Jardin Zoologique & Botanique D'Acclimtatation du Bois de Boulogne (ca. 1860)
747.10   Eugène Charles de Gayffier: Herbier Forestier de la France (1867)
747.11   Adolphe Braun: Flower studies
747.12   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States
747.13   Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952)
X-rays
747.14   Professor Albert Richards: X-rays of Flowers
747.15   Karl Blossfeldt: Books
747.16   Karl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature"
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
19th century botany 
  
747.01   Scientific >  19th century botany 
  
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Botany is the study of plant life in all its complexity. From the eighteenth century increasingly sophisticated classifications of plant species were being developed the most famous of which was the Species Plantarum[1] of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)[2] published in 1753. The book was important, and still is, as it established a hierarchical binominal genus species nomenclature that could act as a foundation for research but still be added to and refined over time.  
  
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Botanical illustrations by Georg Dionysius Ehret (1707-1770) 
  
The bedroom walls of Linnaeus were papered with proofs of botanical illustrations by Charles Plumier (French botanist and ecclesiastic, 1646-1704) and Georg Dionysius Ehret (botanical artist, 1707-1770)[3] and his bed curtain was printed with designs based on the Linnaea borealis[4] which was his favourite flower.[5]  
  
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Emma Schenson (1827-1913), Memorials of Linnaeus 
  
The works of Linneaus went through numerous editions and it is important to appreciate that the concepts proposed were only eighty years old by the 1830s when experimentation on photography was commencing in earnest prior to the official announcement by Daguerre in 1839. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was born in 1765 when Carl Linnaeus was still alive and other pioneers of photography including Jacques Mandé Daguerre, Henry Fox Talbot and John Herschel were born within 25 years of his death.[6]
 
As scientific nomenclature was relatively recent there were innumerable gaps with new species awaiting discovery and description encouraging both professional interest from botanists and from large numbers of enthusiastic amateurs amongst the leisured classes supported by books[7] and microscopes.[8] The collecting of fossils, rocks, insects and plants along with the preservation of dried specimens was a widespread hobby in the nineteenth century.[9] Scientific taxonomies were being prepared in Germany, France, Italy, England and elsewhere - all countries where photography was going to have a profound impact. Polymaths like Henry Fox Talbot[10] and amateur botanists like Anna Atkins[11] combined their interests in photography and botany - Talbot with the photogenic drawings that he sent to Italian botanist Antonio Bertoloni[12] and Atkins with her cyanotypes of algae[13] and flowering plants.[14]
 
Gardens have been the basis of plant study and their applications to medicine, agriculture, herbs, scents and natural aesthetics since the Ancient World. Evolving through the Physic gardens of the Medieval period and the enlightenment into the scientific botanical gardens, herbariums and research centres of today. The writings of Linnaeus encouraged scientific rigour by providing an agreed structure for plant identification and description. The spread of botanical interest occurred during the most intense period of Colonialism which was partly based on the exploitation of natural, including plant-based, resources. The foundation of botanical gardens throughout the world from the early eighteenth century was an offshoot of this taxonomic zeal.[15] Botanists with their plant presses and vasculums[16] were travelling the world to collect specimens for research and nurseries.  
  
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Botanists 
  
Veitch, a nursery company in England, funded the first plant hunting expeditions in 1840.[17] Photography was used for educational magic lantern slides of plants and in plant catalogues and on first glance it would seem ideal for taxonomic analysis but this is not the case. Herbariums and botanical gardens relied on original specimens for their work and a photograph could never be a substitute for that. Although botanists accompanied expeditions they were rarely the sole reason and therefore their photographic needs would be subservient to the military, railroad construction and survey objectives. This has the result that nineteenth century photographic botanical documentation is not as common as one would imagine.[18] At the very end of the nineteenth century Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) undertook plant hunting expeditions for the English nursery firm Veitch and Sons and later for the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University. Travelling widely between 1899 and 1922 in China, Japan and Korea Wilson brought back 2,488 glass plates showing botanical studies and landscapes but this was a rare exception.[19]  
  
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Botanical gardens 
  
 
  
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Botanical teaching laboratories 
  
 
  
   Scientific Botany 
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747.02   Scientific >  Photomicrographs of botany 
  
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The realization that photography could create a visual memory for microscropy took place almost as soon as the discovery was announced. On 3 March 1840 Andreas Ritter von Ettingshausen, who was involved in the earliest experiments with photography in Vienna, made a whole plate daguerreotype of the Cross section of a clematis stem.[20] Adolphe Bertsch would do a cut through pin sylvestre (1857) and John William Draper would take photomicrographs of algae along with his studies of frog blood and a Fly's Proboscis
  
Flowers 
  
747.03   Scientific >  Flowers 
  
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There are three distinct strands of flower still life photography - one is the artistic trend of seeing flowers as intrinsically beautiful, the second sees them as a stimulus to design creativity and the third sees them as objects of science.
  1. Intrinsically beautiful
     
    Set piece photographs that are reminiscent of the flower, fruit and vegetable paintings of the Dutch masters Jan Davidsz de Heem (1606-1684), Rachel Ruysch (1664-1750) and Jan van Huysum (1682-1749) and were created as ornamental studies.
     
    • Roger Fenton (1819-1869), well known for his photographs of the Crimean War[21], took studies of fruit and flowers with sensitivity and astounding detail.  
        
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    • Charles Hippolyte Aubry (1811-1877) was a French industrial designer who in 1864 formed a short-lived company in Paris to manufacture plaster casts of plants. He took early plant and flower albumen prints which he marketed to art students and drawing schools.  
        
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    • Charles Jones (1866-1959) took photographs of flowers and piled up vegetables to create patterns in a multitude of shapes.[22]  
        
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    • Edward Weston (1886-1956) revealed in the sensuous curves of a cabbage leaf, a cross section of an artichoke, or the smooth shapes of contorted bell peppers. Whilst not flowers they show Edward Weston's understanding of natural forms.  
        
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  2. Design creativity
     
    Creative artists continually seek inspiration and nature provides it in abundance. Adolphe Braun[23] worked in textile design and Karl Blossfeldt[24] in an iron works but both of them saw how the photography of natural forms could inspire artists.
     
    • Adolphe Braun (ca.1811-1877) produced over 300 studies of flowers to provide thought provoking examples to stimulate artists, graphic designers and textile designers.  
        
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    • Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) Primarily took his detailed photographs of plants to serve as illustrative examples for designers.  
        
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  3. Science
     
    Botanical illustrators, such as Georg Dionysius Ehret (German Painter and Illustrator, 1710-1770)[25] or Pierre-Joseph Redoute (Flemish-born French Painter, 1759-1840),[26] completed their work to further scientific analysis and aid comparative classification. Soon after the invention of photography in the mid-nineteenth century scientists appreciated its ability to capture a permanent record of botanical samples that could be used as reference works for comparative analysis. The object was not so much to provide an artistic study but rather a facsimile of the plant.
     
    • The nineteenth century amateur botanist Anna Atkins (1799-1871) used the cyanotype process to create startling blue images of specimens of British algae, flowering plants and ferns.[27]  
        
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    • Franz Antoine (1815-1886) worked his way up as a gardener at the Royal Parks of Vienna becoming court gardener in 1841 and director of the court gardens in 1865. He took photographs of plants to illustrate his books and further scientific research.  
        
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    • Constantin von Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny were two Austrian botanists who used nature prints to document the plant species of the Austro-Hungarian Empire publishing a book on the subject in 1855-1856.[28]  
        
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    In the early scientific still life photographs of plants all surrounding details are irrelevant as they distract from the single object under study.
 
  
Photographers 
  
747.04   Scientific >  Anna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) 
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In 1841 an Irish botanist William Henry Harvey (1811-1866) published A Manual of the British Algae, the book lacked illustrations making identification difficult and its utility limited.[29] Anna Atkins knew of the cyanotype process through her family acquaintance Sir John Herschel and she recognised that it could provide illustrations of the specimens.
 
The first installment of the self-published Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions by Anna Atkins[30] was issued in October 1843 preceding the first part of Pencil of Nature by Henry Fox Talbot by eight months and therefore making it the first book illustrated by photographs.
 
As each cyanotype was hand-printed the labour in the construction of the books was considerable and the surviving copies vary in the number of plates included. 
  
   Anna  Atkins 
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747.05   Scientific >  Anna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854) 
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Anna Atkins,[31] who had already privately published and distributed the first book ever produced using photographic illustrations Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions (1843 onwards),[32] collaborated with Anne Dixon on further, and rarer, publication was privately published Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns.[33] As each cyanotype was created by hand the quality of the prints varied and at times improved versions were supplied to replace earlier ones. This means that the numbers of plates in the different copies varies considerably. 
  
   Anna  Atkins 
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747.06   Scientific >  Henry Fox Talbot: Botany 
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Henry Fox Talbot made “photogenic drawings” by soaking writing paper in salt water, drying it and then brushing the surface to be exposed with silver nitrate and washing again with a stronger salt water solution. Objects, such as botanical specimens, were placed on the treated surface and exposed to light until the image appeared. The exposed image was then fixed using a strong salt water solution although there were variants on this. The washing did not remove all the active silver nitrate and so images that appeared stable at first were often “fugitive” and disappeared over time. Sir John Herschel, a friend of Talbot, proposed “fixing” the image with hyposulfite of soda which provided far more stable photographs.[34]
 
Popular interest in botany at the time and a ready supply of specimens from his surroundings at Laycock Abbey[35] was a perfect match and demonstrated the scientific application of photography. Henry Fox Talbot supplied examples of his botanical photogenic drawings to botanists to show the utility of his techniques and to promote their application.[36] 
  
747.07   Scientific >  Henry Fox Talbot: The Bertoloni Album 
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Slideshow 
  
Henry Fox Talbot sent examples of his photogenic drawings of botanical specimens to Italian botanist Antonio Bertoloni (1775-1869)[37] that are preserved in an album at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  
747.08   Scientific >  Constantin v. Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny: Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum (1855-1856) 
  
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747.09   Scientific >  Louis Godefroy Lucy-Fossarieu: Jardin Zoologique & Botanique D'Acclimtatation du Bois de Boulogne (ca. 1860) 
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747.10   Scientific >  Eugène Charles de Gayffier: Herbier Forestier de la France (1867) 
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In France there was an interest in using photography as an aid to botanical illustration and the book by Eugène Charles de Gayffier on the wild herbs of France - Herbier Forestier de la France (1867) – is an example of this activity.[38] A note in a 2013 auction lot stated that:
In 1867 De Gayffier was appointed by the Minister of Agriculture to its "special photographic operations"[39]
 
  
747.11   Scientific >  Adolphe Braun: Flower studies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Slideshow 
  
Adolphe Braun[40] was a textile designer who at first used photography as a visual aid. Taking up photography in 1853 he took a series of 300 flower studies. The intention here was not botanical accuracy but seeking artistic inspiration from nature. He went on to create one of the largest companies[41] for the reproduction of artworks.[42] 
  
747.12   Scientific >  Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Edwin Hale Lincoln (1848-1938[43] is remembered for his studies of shipping and yachts, summer cottages[44] and the estates of New England but it is his monumental works on wildflowers and orchids that stand out. He never owned a car but walked the countryside bringing home plants that he photographed in a studio in his basement. This intensive research led to two major publications, the eight volume Wild Flowers of New England (1910-1914)[45] and the two volume Orchids of the North Eastern United States, Photographed from Nature (1931).[46] 
  
747.13   Scientific >  Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) 
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Early in his working life the German photographer Karl Blossfeldt worked as a sculptor in iron foundries but he became interested in the relationships between natural forms and decorative art - an endeavor that was supported by the Prussian government. From 1898 he taught at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin and built up an archive of plant photographs each meticulously detailed and on a plain background to remove any distractions. In 1928 he published Urformen Der Kunst. Photographische Pflanzenbilder (Berlin) which has become one of the seminal photobooks.[47] 
  
   Karl  Blossfeldt 
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X-rays 
  
747.14   Scientific >  Professor Albert Richards: X-rays of Flowers 
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Albert G. Richards was born in Chicago in 1917. His training in photography began at an early age, because his father was a professional photographer. Formal training at the University of Michigan led to degrees in Chemical Engineering and Physics. In 1940, he joined the School of Dentistry staff as an instructor and focused his interest on x-ray photography and its application to dentistry by teaching himself dental radiography. By 1959 he was made Professor and in 1974 was named the Marcus L. Ward Professor of Dentistry, the first distinguished professorship at the University of Michigan’s dental school. His teaching career at Michigan spanned more than four decades.[48] 
  
   Albert  Richards 
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747.15   Scientific >  Karl Blossfeldt: Books 
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   Karl  Blossfeldt 
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747.16   Scientific >  Karl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
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The magnificent, modernist botanical studies of Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1932) were first published in his Urformen der Kunst in 1928. The work contains 120 single-sided rotary gravure plates, prefaced with an introductory text and list of plate subjects. (Although printed in 1928, the first edition apparently listed no date of publication on the title page.) A second edition of the work was published in 1929, containing the same images and text as the first edition. The 1929 edition was printed in Germany in German, American, English, and perhaps other national versions, which seem to differ only in the publisher‘s imprint and opening text. English printings of the 1929 edition were given the title "Art Forms in Nature".
 
While the 1929 second edition of "Urformen der Kunst" contains the same images as the first, these seem to have been printed from a different set of printing plates. Having had the opportunity to examine a copy cataloged as first edition from the Yale Library, along with American, German and British 1929 editions, the following differences were noted: First edition plates are neutal in tone, while those from the second edition have a slightly green tone. First edition plates are sometimes more "contrasty" than second edition plates (although this was not the case for all plates in the series) and first edition plates are often of slightly narrower dimensions. Along with these differences in dimension, plates from the two editions show a variety of differing printing flaws which indicate that each edition was printed from a different set of printing plates. In contrast, aside from small variations which probably stem from the nature of rotogravure printing, the three 1929 editions examined appeared identical in the dimensions, coloration, and imperfections of the plates. The photographs on plates 62 and 118 appear to have been rotated 180 degrees in the second edition.
 
A second work "Wundergarten der Natur" was published with a new set of 120 images in 1932. After Blossfeldt‘s death in 1932 a number of works were published with his images, which continue to the present day. A different "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" was published with 96 gravures in various editions circa 1935-1941, and a "Wunder in der Natur" with 120 gravures was printed circa 1942, during WWII in Leipzig.
 
This exhibition includes all 120 plates of the first version of "Urformen der Kunst," taken from the 1929 second edition (German and American printings). The gravures measure roughly 10.25 x 7.5 inches (26x19 cm) and are printed on sheets 12.25 x 9.5 inches (31x24 cm) with plate number printed in the lower right corner. Images illustrated in horizontal format have been rotated 90 degrees clockwise. Plate descriptions are transcribed from the American printing (E. Weythe, New York, 1929)[49] 
  
   Karl  Blossfeldt 
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Carl Linnaeus, 1753, Species Plantarum, (Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius) 
      
  2. Λ Also known as Carl von Linné. 
      
  3. Λ For Georg Dionysius Ehret [1708-1770] - E.S. Barton, 1896, "A Memoir of Georg Dionysius Ehret [1708-1770]", Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. 1894-95, pp. 41-58; C. Murdoch, 1970, G.D. Ehret: Botanical artist: A tribute to his genius, (Inverness), 28pp.
     
    Georg Dionys Ehret Collection - Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Melloon University
    (Accessed: 9 March 2014)
    huntbot.andrew.cmu.edu/HIBD/Departments/Art/Ehret.shtml 
      
  4. Λ Commonly known as "Twinflower" or "Twin flower". 
      
  5. Λ Curatorial notes for - Emma Schenson (1827-1913), "The Bedroom of Linnaeus" [Memorials of Linnaeus], 1864, Albumen print, from glass negative, 16.3 x 13.8 cm, Victoria and Albert Museum, Museum number: 72:382 
      
  6. Λ The life dates are: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1833); Louis Daguerre (1787-1851); John Herschel (1792-1871); Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) 
      
  7. Λ Examples of some of the key books on nineteenth century botany include - Matthias Schleiden, 1842, Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen Botanik (Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann) published in English in 1849 as Principles of Scientific Botany, (Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans); George Bentham, 1858, Handbook of the British flora, (London: Lovell Reeve); G. Bentham and J.D. Hooker, 1862-1883, Genera plantarum :ad exemplaria imprimis in Herberiis Kewensibus servata definite, (London), 3 volumes.
     
    This is a small selection of a highly intensive period of botanical research around the world. 
      
  8. Λ William J, Croft, 2006, Under the Microscope: A Brief History of Microscopy, (World Scientific), Volume 5 of Series in popular science 
      
  9. Λ There are many examples of books on collecting specimens that went through multiple editions - Thomas Brown, 1881, The Taxidermist's Manual: Or, the Art of Collecting, Preparing, and Preserving Objects of Natural History, Designed for the Use of Travelers, Conservators of Museums and Private Collectors, (G.P. Putnam) ; John Ellor Taylor (ed.), 1883, Notes on Collecting and Preserving Natural-history Objects, (London: W.H. Allen), New edition 
      
  10. Λ For Henry Fox Talbot and the Bertoloni Album - Malcolm Daniel, 1992, 'L’Album Bertoloni', in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 
      
  11. Λ Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  12. Λ Malcolm Daniel, 1992, ‘L’Album Bertoloni‘, in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 
      
  13. Λ Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication] 
      
  14. Λ Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication) 
      
  15. Λ Examples of botanical gardens with their foundation dates:
     
    Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden (1714)
    Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (1755)
    Kew Gardens (1759)
    Botanic Gardens St. Vincent, West Indies (1764)
    Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1808)
    Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, (1816)
    Singapore Botanical Gardens (1822)
    Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis (1859)
    Hong Kong Botanic Gardens, (1871)
    Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University (1872)
    Orman Garden, Cairo, Egypt (1875)
    New York Botanical Garden (1891)
    Huntington Botanical Gardens (1906)
     
    Along with botanical gardens specialist libraries were founded:
     
    Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh (1961) now the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation 
      
  16. Λ Vasculum - a usually metal and commonly cylindrical or flattened covered box used in collecting plants. (Merriam-Webster) 
      
  17. Λ Veitch Nurseries - Wikipedia
    (Acquired: 1 April 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veitch_Nurseries
     
    William Lobb, a notable early plant collector, left Falmouth in England in November 1840 for Brazil, the Andes and Chile on an expedition for James Veitch (1792-1863) the son of John Veitch (1752-1839) who founded the nursery. 
      
  18. Λ Thanks to Dan Weinstock for his thoughts on early botanical photography. (pers. emails, Dan Weinstock to Alan Griffiths, 31 March 2014) 
      
  19. Λ Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) - The Arnold Arboteum of Harvard University
    (Accessed: 31 March 2014)
    arboretum.harvard.edu/library/image-collection/botanical-and-cultural-images-of-eastern-asia/ernest-henry-wilson/ 
      
  20. Λ Andreas Ritter von Ettingshausen, "Cross section of a clematis stem", 4 March 1840, Daguerreotype, whole plate, Albertina 
      
  21. Λ Roger Fenton is the best known of Crimean War photographers and there is a considerable amount written about him - Gordon Baldwin et al., 2004, All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852–1860, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); Helmut & Alison Gernsheim, 1954, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the Crimean War, (London: Secker & Warburg); John Hannavy, 1975, Fenton of Crimble Hall, (Boston: David R. Godine); Valerie Lloyd, 1988, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the 1850s, (London: South Bank Board); Richard Pare, 1987, Roger Fenton, (New York: Aperture).
     
    For a rephotographic study - David R. Jones, 2012, In the Footsteps of Roger Fenton, Crimean War Photographer, (www.lulu.com: self-published) 
      
  22. Λ Sean Sexton; Robert Flynn Johnson; Alice Waters & Charles Jones, 1998, Plant Kingdoms of Charles Jones, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  23. Λ For Adolphe Braun - Christian Kempf, 1994, Adolphe Braun et la photographie 1812-1877, (Lucigraphie); Mary Bergstein, 2000, <>Image and enterprise: The photographs of Adolphe Braun, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  24. Λ Karl Blossfeldt, 1929, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [Second German edition]; Karl Blossfeldt, 1998, Natural Art Forms: 120 Classic Photographs, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications). The photographs of Karl Blossfeldt have continued popularity and nemerous editions of his books and selections from his work have been published. 
      
  25. Λ Georg Dionys Ehret Collection - Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Melloon University
    (Accessed: 9 March 2014)
    huntbot.andrew.cmu.edu/HIBD/Departments/Art/Ehret.shtml 
      
  26. Λ Pierre-Joseph Redouté - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 9 March 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre-Joseph_Redout%C3%A9 
      
  27. Λ For Anna Atkins her books of cyanotypes include - Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication]; Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication). For a scholarly analysis - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  28. Λ Constantin von Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny, 1855-6, Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum. Der Naturselbstdruck in seiner Anwendung auf die Gefässpflanzen des österreichischen Kaiserstaates, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nervation in den Flächenorganen der Pflanzen, (Vienna, K.K. Hof und Staatsdruckerei) 
      
  29. Λ William Henry Harvey, 1841, A Manual of the British Algae (London: John Van Voorst) 
      
  30. Λ For Anna Atkins her books of cyanotypes include - Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication]; Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication). For a scholarly analysis - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  31. Λ For a scholarly analysis - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  32. Λ Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication] 
      
  33. Λ Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication) 
      
  34. Λ At the end of January 1839 John Herschel informs Henry Fox Talbot by letter of a way of fixing photographs using "hyposulphite of Soda".
     
    The Correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot
    Document number: 3780
    Date: 30 Jan 1839
    Recipient: TALBOT William Henry Fox
    Author: HERSCHEL John Frederick William
    Collection: National Media Museum, Bradford
    Collection number: 1937-4829
    Collection 2: draft "much altered" in Royal Society London
    Collection 2 number: RS17:279bis
     
    Mike Ware, 1994, Mechanisms of Image Deterioration in Early Photographs: The Sensitivity to Light of W.H.F. Talbot's Halide-fixed Images, 1834-1844, (NMSI Trading Ltd,) 
      
  35. Λ Lacock Abbey, Fox Talbot Museum and Village, Wltshire, England. Home of Henry Fox Talbot. Now a National Trust property.
    (Accessed: 9 March 2014)
    www.nationaltrust.org.uk/lacock/ 
      
  36. Λ For Henry Fox Talbot and the Bertoloni Album - Malcolm Daniel, 1992, ‘L’Album Bertoloni‘, in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 
      
  37. Λ For Henry Fox Talbot and the Bertoloni Album - Malcolm Daniel, 1992, ‘L’Album Bertoloni‘, in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 
      
  38. Λ Eugène Charles de Gayffier, 1867, Herbier Forestier de la France, [Illustrated with photographs] 
      
  39. Λ Bassenge - Auction, 4 December 2013, lot: 4040. Original source of this information is requested – alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  40. Λ For Adolphe Braun - Christian Kempf, 1994, Adolphe Braun et la photographie 1812-1877, (Lucigraphie); Mary Bergstein, 2000, <>Image and enterprise: The photographs of Adolphe Braun, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  41. Λ The firm of Adolphe Braun in Switzerland was one of the leading establishments for the photographic copying of artworks in the nineteenth century. An account of an 1873 visit to the works was published in The British Journal of Photography on 23rd October 1874.
     
    In 1876, the year before Adolphe Braun’s death, the firm of Adolphe Braun et Cie (1876-1889) was established and his son Gaston Braun continued the business. The firm continued under different names - Braun Clément & Cie (1889-1910) and Braun et Cie (1910-). 
      
  42. Λ Charlène Sébert, 2010, La reproduction photographique d'œuvres d'art au xixe siècle. L'exemple de la maison Braun & Cie, avec huit albums conservés au musée d'Orsay, (Mémoire de Recherche, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, sous la direction de Mme Claire Barbillon) 
      
  43. Λ Edwin Hale Lincoln had been a drummer boy during the American Civil War and his diary has been published - Edwin Hale Lincoln, Karl Marty & Lee C. Drickamer, 2006, Drummer boy: The Civil War diary of Edwin Hale Lincoln, (Raleigh, NC: Ivy House Pub. Group) 
      
  44. Λ For the summer cottages photographed by Edwin Hale Lincoln - Edwin Hale Lincoln; Walter Hilton Scott & Donald Thomas Oakes, 1981, A pride of palaces: Lenox summer cottages, 1883-1933 - sixty photographs, (Lenox Library Association) 
      
  45. Λ Edwin Hale Lincoln, 1910-1914, Wild Flowers of New England, (Pittsfield, Massachusetts) 
      
  46. Λ Edwin Hale Lincoln, 1931, Orchids of the North Eastern United States, Photographed from Nature, (Pittsfield, Massachusetts: published by the author). Two volumes. In the Forword it says "One life-size print on platinum paper of every orchid known to grow in the United States east of the Mississippi river and north of the parallel of Washington." 
      
  47. Λ Karl Blossfeldt, 1929, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [Second German edition]; Karl Blossfeldt, 1998, Natural Art Forms: 120 Classic Photographs, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications). The photographs of Karl Blossfeldt have continued popularity and nemerous editions of his books and selections from his work have been published. 
      
  48. Λ X-rays kindly provided by Richards‘ Radiographs. With the assistance of The Museum of Jurassic Technology, Culver City, California, USA 
      
  49. Λ © Christopher Wahren - Christopher Wahren Fine Photographs - www.cwfp.biz 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
Ibbetson, L.L. Boscawen, 1839, Le Premier Livre Imprimè par le Soleil [An album of botanical contacts prints. It was shown at the exhibition of the Society of Arts (1852). Although the album had a limited circulation and had a photographically printed title page and preface the claim that it was an actual publication is dubious.] [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Anna Atkins 
  
Atkins, Anna, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication] [Δ
  
Atkins, Anna, 1853, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Ferns, (Private publication) [Copy at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, USA] [Δ
  
Atkins, Anna, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication) [Δ
  
George F. Atkinson 
  
Fitzpatrick, H.M., 1919, ‘George Francis Atkinson‘, Science, N.S., vol. 49, no. 1268, pp. 371-372 [Δ
  
Korf, R.P., 1991, ‘An historical perspective: Mycology in the Departments of Botany and of Plant Pathology at Cornell University and the Geneva Agricultural Experiment Station‘, Mycotaxon, vol. 40, pp. 107-128 [Δ
  
Thom, C., 1956, ‘George Francis Atkinson, 1854–1918‘, Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences, pp. 17-44 [Δ
  
Golding Bird 
  
Bird, Golding, 1939, 20 April, ‘Fac-Simile of a Photogenic Drawing‘, Mirror, vol. XXXIII, no. 945 [With reprint of Bird’s article in Magazine of Natural History] [Δ
  
Bird, Golding, 1939, April, ‘Observations on the Application of Heliographic or Photogenic Drawing to Botanical Purposes‘, Magazine of Natural History, vol. n.s. 3, pp. 188-92 [Δ
  
Karl Blossfeldt 
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1928, Urformen der Kunst: Photographische Pflanzenbilder, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [First German edition] [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1929, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [Second German edition] [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1932, Wundergarten der Natur. Neue Bilddokumente schöner Pflanzenformen, (Berlin: Verlag für Kunstwissenschaften) [Included 120 images. German] [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1935, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth) [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1942 (ca), Wunder in der Natur, (Leipzig: H. Schmidt & C. Günther. Pantheon-Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft) [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1967, Urformen der Kunst, (Tübingen, Germany: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag) [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1998, Natural Art Forms: 120 Classic Photographs, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications) [Δ
  
Cora Huidekoper Clarke 
  
1916, June, ‘Cora Clarke [obituary]‘, Psyche, vol. 23, no. 3, p. 94 [Δ
  
Read, Anne L., 1912, ‘Cora H. Clarke‘, The Bryologist, vol. 19, p. 73 [Δ
  
Ettingshausen & Pokorny 
  
Ettingshausen, Constantin v. & Pokorny, A., 1855-1856, Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum. Der Naturselbstdruck in seiner Anwendung auf die Gefässpflanzen des österreichischen Kaiserstaates, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nervation in den Flächenorganen der Pflanzen, (), (Vienna: K.K. Hof und Staatsdruckerei) [Δ
  
Eugène Charles de Gayffier 
  
Gayffier, Eugène de, 1868-1871, Herbier Forestier de la France, (Paris: J. Rothschild) [Illustrated with photographs] [Δ
  
Edwin Hale Lincoln 
  
Lincoln, Edwin Hale, 1910-1914, Wild Flowers of New England, (Pittsfield, Massachusetts) [8 volumes] [Δ
  
Lincoln, Edwin Hale, 1931, Orchids of the North Eastern United States, Photographed from Nature, (Pittsfield, Massachusetts: published by the author) [2 volumes. "One life-size print on platinum paper of every orchid known to grow in the United States east of the Mississippi river and north of the parallel of Washington." -Foreword.] [Δ
  
William Copeland McCalla 
  
McCalla, William Copeland, 1920, Wild Flowers of Western Canada, (Toronto: Musson Book Co) [With sixty plates from original photographs by the author] [Δ
  
Joel Meyerowitz 
  
Meyerowitz, Joel, 1983, Wild Flowers, (Boston: New Graphic Society) [Δ
  
George S. Penney 
  
Penny, George S., 1873, ‘Pigment Printing Applied to Botanical Specimens, &c.‘, BJPA, pp. 74-76 [Δ
  
Albert Renger-Patzsch 
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1924, Orchideen: Die Welt der Pflanze, Bd. I, (Berlin: Auriga-Verlag) [Ed. Ernst Fuhrmann] [Δ
  
Henry Fox Talbot 
  
Daniel, Malcolm, 1992, ‘L’Album Bertoloni‘, in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis) [Δ
  
Smith, Graham, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 [Δ
  
Ron van Dongen 
  
van Dongen, Ron, 1999, Alba Nero, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 3923922744 isbn-13: 978-3923922741 [Δ
  
van Dongen, Ron, 2000, Vulgaris, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 3923922868 isbn-13: 978-3923922864 [Δ
  
van Dongen, Ron, 2001, Nudare, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 1590050002 isbn-13: 978-1590050002 [Δ
  
van Dongen, Ron, 2004, Opis Opis, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 1590050967 isbn-13: 978-1590050965 [Δ
  
van Dongen, Ron, 2006, Effusus, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 159005153X isbn-13: 978-1590051535 [Δ
  
van Dongen, Ron, 2007, Bloom, (Chronicle Books) isbn-10: 0811857565 isbn-13: 978-0811857567 [Δ
  
van Dongen, Ron, 2008, Aurora, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 1590052137 isbn-13: 978-1590052136 [Δ
  
van Dongen, Ron, 2012, Proof, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 1590053397 isbn-13: 978-1590053393 [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Nancy Smith Weber, Photography changes how mushrooms are collected 
http://click.si.edu ... 
  
George F. Atkinson 
http://blog.mycology.cornell.edu ... 
Mycologist at Cornell University. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Franz Antoine  (1815-1886) • Anna Atkins  (1799-1871) • George F. Atkinson  (check) • Tom Baril  (1952-) • Golding Bird  (1814-1854) • Karl Blossfeldt  (1865-1932) • Adolphe Braun  (1812-1877) • Cora Huidekoper Clarke  (1851-1916) • Cy DeCosse  (1929-) • Ettingshausen & Pokorny • Harold Feinstein  (1931-) • Eugène Charles de Gayffier • Hajicek & Panaro-Smith • James Hill • Caroline Hyman  (1944-) • Levett Landen Boscawen Ibbetson  (1799-1869) • Charles Jones  (1866-1959) • Edwin Hale Lincoln  (1848-1938) • Louis Godefroy Lucy-Fossarieu • Robert Mapplethorpe  (1946-1989) • William Copeland McCalla  (1872-1962) • Arthur Clarence Pillsbury  (1870-1946) • Henry Fox Talbot  (1800-1877) • Dain L. Tasker  (1872-1964) • Ron van Dongen  (1961-) • Ernest Henry Wilson  (1876-1930)
HomeThemesScientific > Botany 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Flowers 
Forest of Fontainebleau 
Forests 
Fruits 
Landscape 
Nature 
Rural pathways, tracks, trails and lanes 
Trees 
Vegetables 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Botany

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAnna Atkins 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 9, 2010)
ThumbnailCaroline Hyman: Botanicals 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 27, 2007)
ThumbnailCy Decosse: Gioco di Luce / Play of the Light 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 11, 2007)
ThumbnailFlowers: A 19th Century perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (March 7, 2007)
ThumbnailFlowers: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 23, 2007)
ThumbnailFlowers: Through the 20th Century 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (May 16, 2007)
ThumbnailJames Hajicek & Carol Panaro-Smith 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 14, 2007)
ThumbnailJames Hill: The Flower Studies 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 7, 2007)
ThumbnailKarl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 3, 2006)
ThumbnailProfessor Albert Richards: X-rays of Flowers 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 16, 2010)
ThumbnailRon van Dongen: Flora 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 13, 2007)
ThumbnailScientific: 19th Century Botany 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 27, 2010)
ThumbnailStill-life: Apples 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 9, 2009)
ThumbnailStill-life: Pears 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 23, 2007)
ThumbnailTrees: A 19th Century perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 20, 2007)
ThumbnailTrees: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 20, 2007)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Botany

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAdolphe Braun: Flower studies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAnna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Ferns 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAnna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailConstantin v. Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny: Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum (1855-1856) 
ThumbnailEmma Schenson: Memorials of Linnaeus 
ThumbnailEugène Charles de Gayffier: Herbier Forestier de la France (1867) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFranz Antoine: Plants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorg Dionysius Ehret: Botanical illustrations 
ThumbnailGeorge W. Henzel: Portrait of Edwin Hale Lincoln 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot : Botany 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: The Bertoloni Album 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis Godefroy Lucy-Fossarieu: Jardin Zoologique & Botanique D'Acclimtatation du Bois de Boulogne (ca. 1860) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoger Kockaerts: Cyanotypes of Endangered plants 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: La Veta Pass, Colorado (July 1877) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Occupationals 
  
ThumbnailBotanists 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Ferns 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: A 19th century perspective 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: A 20th century perspective 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: A Pictorialist perspective 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Dandelions 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Orchids 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Peonies 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Poppies 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Sunflowers 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Thistles 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Tulips 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Flowers: Water lilies 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Fruits 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Fruits: Apples 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Fruits: Grapes 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Fruits: Pears 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Leaves 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Succulents and cacti 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Trees: A 19th century perspective 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Trees: A 20th century perspective 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Trees: A Pictorialist perspective 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Trees: Apple trees 
ThumbnailNature: Flora: Vegetables 
ThumbnailScientific: Botany 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Flowers 
ThumbnailSmithsonian Institution: Field Book Project 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailCyanotypes: Themes: Botany 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailBeautiful in Death 
ThumbnailBotany laboratory of the Philadelphia Normal School for Girls 
ThumbnailThe Cedars of Lebanon 
Thumbnail[The pond in front of the Linnean House, Shaw's Missouri Botanical Garden 
 
  
Refreshed: 13 November 2014, 14:50
 
  
 
  
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