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HomeContentsThemes > Photomontage

Contents

Introduction
7.01   Introduction to photomontage
7.02   Understanding the terms
7.03   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph
Composite photographs
7.04   Composite and combination prints: Defined
7.05   George N. Barnard: Composite photographs during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
7.06   George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta
Photomontage
7.07   Photomontage - Defined
7.08   Henry Hering - Alfred Reeves: Photograph. The Kings and Queens of England
7.09   William Notman: Photomontages
7.10   Eli Lotar: Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique (1930)
7.11   J. Pécsi: Photo und Publizität - Photo and Advertising (1930)
7.12   Portugal 1934: Photomontage as propaganda
7.13   Harold Feinstein: Photomontage
Collage
7.14   Collage - Defined
7.15   Decorated pages in nineteenth century photograph albums
7.16   Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer: Decorated album pages
Techniques and processes
7.17   Carte de visites: Photomontage
7.18   Cabinet cards: Photomontage
Spirit photography
7.19   William H. Mumler: Spirit photography
7.20   William Hope: Spirit photography and séances
7.21   Richard Boursnell & J. Evans Sterling (London Spiritualists): Spirit photographs
7.22   Cottingley Fairies
Reusing card photographs
7.23   Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages
7.24   Contemporary artworks using card photographs
7.25   The Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates...
Assemblage
7.26   Assemblage - Defined
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
7.01   Photomontage >  Introduction to photomontage 
  
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The use of multiple images to create a single final image occurred within ten years of the announcement of the invention of photography with possibly the earliest being made by Dr Thomas Keith (1827-1895) of the Grassmarket in Edinburgh in around 1848 where he created multiple calotype images on a single paper negative. In the collection at St. Andrews University in Scotland there is a strange calotype showing the head of a tiger on the left with Captain Campbell with a rifle on the right with two gun dogs and his gillie - this must have involved printing from two negatives onto the same sheet.[1] In America the ever-inventive partnership of Southworth & Hawes in the 1850s created Seated Man with Brattle Street Church Seen Through Window[2] which was presumably created with two exposures on a single daguerreotype plate which would have been quite a feat at the time.
 
To start any discussion in this area it is useful to clarify some of the terminology used to be sure we are all talking about the same subject. There are multiple ways of putting together photographs to create a single finished image or object and these include:
Composite photographs
Photomontage
Collage
Assemblage
 
  
   Photomontage 
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7.02   Photomontage >  Understanding the terms 
  
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These examples show the four types of artworks that combine photographs into a single piece:
 
Composite photograph / Combination print
In an age when it was difficult to get the correct exposure for both the sky and the sea Gustave Le Gray used two negatives used to create a single image.  
  
Gustave Le Gray: Composite photographs / Combination prints 
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Photomontage
Eugčne Appert used multiple photographs to construct a single image with a more powerful message during the Paris Commune of 1871 to create political propaganda.  
  
Eugčne Appert: Photomontage 
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Collage
The design work of Alexander Rodchenko[3] in Russian books and magazines of the 1930s merged photographs with graphics and typography.  
  
Alexander Rodchenko: Collage 
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Assemblage
Man Ray combined photographs with other objects and media to create artworks.  
  
Man Ray: Assemblage 
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Early examples of assemblage 
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7.03   Photomontage >  C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
  
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This rare carte de visite series shows photographer C.W. Applegreen preparing a composite photograph along with the fruit of his labour. 
  
Composite photographs 
  
7.04   Photomontage >  Composite and combination prints: Defined 
  
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Creating a Composite photograph (also called a combination print) means having one or more negatives that are then used to create a single print and the method for doing this was well known in the nineteenth century.[4] To accomplish a seamless whole requires careful planning and scrupulous attention to detail during the printing to get smooth transitions between the different parts of the image. Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884) used this technique for his seascapes so that both the sea and sky could be correctly exposed. Perhaps the most famous example of a composite photograph is the Two Ways of Life (1857) by the Swedish born photographer Oscar Rejlander who combined thirty negatives of figures and groups to create a single 16" x 31" image.
 
Photographers who made combination prints:
George N. Barnard[5]
Gustave Le Gray[6]
Oscar Rejlander[7]
Henry Peach Robinson[8]
The 1869 instructional classic by Henry Peach Robinson Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing includes a contemporary method for creating combination prints. 
  
7.05   Photomontage >  George N. Barnard: Composite photographs during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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With wet collodion negatives the light sensitivity of the chemicals was such that one could get the correct exposure for the sky or for the landscape but rarely both. The French master of seascapes, Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884), got around this by taking two plates each exposed correctly for a part of the shot and then creating a final image that was a composite of the two.
 
With George N. Barnard[9] during the American Civil War (1861-1865) these examples show both the original negative (presumably from a plate) and the retouched version where the clouds are both dramatic and visible. If you look at the skyline on the retouched version of the Potter House image and examine the trees on the right hand side you can clearly see where the two images have been joined. 
  
7.06   Photomontage >  George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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An examination of the skyline and the edges of the tree branches in the photograph Rebel Works in front of Atlanta, No. 1 by American Civil War (1861-1865) photographer George N. Barnard[10] shows that this is a composite made from multiple distinct negatives
  
Photomontage 
  
7.07   Photomontage >  Photomontage - Defined 
  
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Photomontage is the process of placing together two or more different photographs, or parts of the same photograph, together to form a single image. This used to be done by physically cutting the photographs and then pasting the different parts together. The joins concealed by sanding them down and painting them and the pasted image rephotographed to create the final photomontage. This technique was widely used in the 1920's and 1930's for political propaganda, advertising, exaggeration photo postcards and image experimentation.
 
Computer assisted photomontage has extended the possibilities of photomontage and many artists now combine photographs to create seamless worlds of fantasy. The worlds of Jerry Uelsmann relied on imagination and darkroom technique but with contemporary artists the digital darkroom has replaced the chemical. Some creators use existing photographs and computer algorithms to generate a new work - for example Robert Silvers does this wth his photomosaics. Others, such as John Paul Caponigro, combine the computer and their own images to create digital images that evoke moods and deeper emotions. For Maggie Taylor the scanner is as important as the camera and the scanned objects are combined into surreal colour fantasies.
 
Photographers:  Eugčne Appert (during the Paris Commune, 1871), John Paul Caponigro, David Hockney, William H. 'Dad' Martin, Herbert Matter, Scott Mutter (Surrational images), Robert Silvers (Photomosaics), Maggie Taylor, Val Telberg, Jerry Uelsmann 
  
7.08   Photomontage >  Henry Hering - Alfred Reeves: Photograph. The Kings and Queens of England 
  
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An advertisement was published in the 31 May 1862 issue of The Bookseller for a carte de visite with "A Beautiful Portrait of 83 Portraits of the Kings and Queens of England". The unusual card had a lot to recommend its educational potential and part of the marketing was to give the carte for "School Prizes, or Rewards for Good Conduct". The person to contact on the advertisement was H. Hering of 137 Regent Street, London.[11]
 
Henry Hering had been in the bookbinding trade, photographed inmates at an insane asylum (1852-1862) for Dr. Hugh Welsh Diamond,[12] and exhibited photographs.[13] It is not certain who made this photograph as Alfred Reeves[14] had made photomicrograph slides with the same image that were described in 1859.[15] There are multiple possibilities here - Henry Hering produced the image, Alfred Reeves or another person created it and Henry Hering was the publisher.[16] 
  
7.09   Photomontage >  William Notman: Photomontages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William Notman[17] emigrated to Canada in 1856 and became one of the preeminent Canadian portrait photographers who also took cityscapes of Montreal and intriguing photocollages of large groups.[18] For one composite photograph of the Skating Carnival, Victoria Rink (1870) in Montreal he used over 300 individual portraits to construct the scene.
 
William Notman had studios in various cities including Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto and Halifax. 
  
7.10   Photomontage >  Eli Lotar: Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique (1930) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The Graphic Arts Collection of Princeton University Library includes a copy of the Le Theatre Alfred Jarry de l'Hostilite Publique (1930).[19][20] Although the 1930 season never took place the volume includes illustrated wrappers by G.L. Roux and photomontages by Eli Lotar (1905-1969). The Théatre Alfred-Jarry was named after Alfred Jarry (1873-1907) and it presented avant-garde performances from 1926-1929 under the directorship of Antonin Artaud (1896-1948).[21]
 
The photomontages of Eli Lotar show figures with the superimposed faces of actress Josette Lusson, playright Roger Vitrac and actor / director Antonin Artaud. Although not officially amongst the Surrealists at this time the work was influenced by their ideas. 
  
7.11   Photomontage >  J. Pécsi: Photo und Publizität - Photo and Advertising (1930) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Jozsef Pécsi in his book Photo und Publizität - Photo and Advertising[22] included remarkably bold advertising photomontages, and one of the first books on the subject of photography in advertising. Both the leading prize in commercial photography in Hungary and the library at the House of Hungarian photography are named after this key figure of the New Objectivity and European avant-garde
  
7.12   Photomontage >  Portugal 1934: Photomontage as propaganda 
  
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This series on Portugal shows the powerful combinations of photographs and text that were becoming common in European propaganda during the 1920s and 30s. In the Soviet Union Alexander Rodchenko[23] was using similar layouts to portray technical achievements in USSR in Construction[24] along with other photomontagists such as Gustav Klutsis. In Weimar Germany John Heartfield was using graphical juxtapositions to highlight the dangers of rising Fascism.
 
The illustrations for this exhibition are taken from the book Portugal 1934[25] published in Lisbon and edited by S.P.N. The acronym stood for the Secretariado Nacional de Propaganda in the days before Joseph Goebbels put such negative connotations on the word that it is still difficult to use it. This book was the official propaganda book for the Estado Novo, the right-wing regime inaugurated by António de Oliveira Salazar in 1933 and it includes photographs by the most famous Portuguese photographers of the time: Alvăo, A. Rasteiro, Joăo Martins, Diniz Salgado, Ferreira da Cunha, Francisco Santos, Horácio Novais, J. Benoliel, José Mesquita, Luis Teixeira, Pinheiro Correia, Mário de Novais, Octávio Bobone, Raimundo Vaissier, Raúl Reis, Salazar Diniz, Serra Ribeiro and V. Rodrigues.
 
 
  
   Photomontage Portugal 1934 
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7.13   Photomontage >  Harold Feinstein: Photomontage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Collage 
  
7.14   Photomontage >  Collage - Defined 
  
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A collage is made by placing different elements together on a flat surface. In this the photograph is only one of the possibilities and the final collage might include text, clippings, graphics and fabric. The term photocollage is used when photographs are the dominant elements of the overall collage.
 
Widely used in graphic design and advertising this technique has sporadically flourished for political propaganda - most notably in the period between the First World War (1914-1918) and the rise of Fascism in Weimar Germany with John Heartfield[26] and Hannah Höch[27] and in Russia with Alexander Rodchenko[28] and El Lissitzky[29] particularly with the magazine USSR in Construction in the years between 1930 and 1941.[30]
 
Political collage from 1970 onwards has emerged as a means of forcing home a message with maximum impact and the German artist Klaus Staeck was influential in this with a prodigious output including his 1971 book Pornografie that attacked the twisted attitudes and hypocrisy of society.[31]
 
Photographers:  Wallace Berman, Victor Burgin, Paul Citroen, Nancy Goldring, John Heartfield, Hannah Höch, Gustav Klutsis, El Lissitzky, László Moholy-Nagy, Alexander Rodchenko, Klaus Staeck, Edmund Teske, Piet Zwart 
  
7.15   Photomontage >  Decorated pages in nineteenth century photograph albums 
  
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The leisured classes of society during the nineteenth century spent their time in tranquil pursuits of drawing, painting, scrapbooking and innumerable hobbies supported by how-to guides and magazines. The introduction of photography allowed imagery from the real world to be incorporated into whimsical artistic fantasies. This was the age of Lewis Carroll[32], Alice and the Bandersnatch.[33] Albums with decorated pages are uncommon but are important for the history of photocollage and photomontage.[34] 
  
7.16   Photomontage >  Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer: Decorated album pages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The album of Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer in the collection of Harvard Art Museum/Fogg Museum shows how framing and layout on the page could use photographs in creative ways that combined intimate views of the family circle blended with the creative crafts of drawing and painting.[35][36] 
  
Techniques and processes 
  
7.17   Photomontage >  Carte de visites: Photomontage 
  
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7.18   Photomontage >  Cabinet cards: Photomontage 
  
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Spirit photography 
  
7.19   Photomontage >  William H. Mumler: Spirit photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William H. Mummler (1832-1884) was one of American's great spirit photographers and also a considerable fraud.[37] At the time of national grieving for the terrible losses of the American Civil War (1861-1865) he took photographs of people with departed relatives. The most famous of these is his portrait of Mary Todd Lincoln, the wife of Abraham Lincoln, sitting with the departed President standing behind her with his hand affectionately resting on her shoulder. In April 1869 he was tried for fraud and P.T. Barnum testified against him and had the noted New York photographer Abraham Bogardus created a fake to show how it could be done.
 
A contemporary account of the evidence given by P.T. Barnum at the trial of William H. Mummler was published in the The Saturday Review and reprinted in The Living Age:
The celebrated Barnum was called among other witnesses for the prosecution, and he stated that he had devoted a portion of his life to the detection of humbugs. About seven years ago Mr. Barnum was composing a book on humbugs, and he wrote to Mr. Mumler that he wished to purchase specimens of his so-called spirit photographs for the Museum of humbugs established by him, Barnum. Spirit photographs were accordingly supplied by Mr. Mumler at two dollars apiece, and they were hung by Mr. Barnum on the walls of the Museum for three or four years. Among them were spirit photographs of Napoleon Bonaparte and Henry Clay, and the positions of the figures were exactly like the well-known engravings of these personages. The title of Mr. Barnum's book was The Humbugs of the World. All the chapter relating to spirit photographs, referred to Mr. Mumler, who does not seem to have objected to the celebrity thus bestowed upon him. The spirit photographs which were hung upon the walls of Mr. Barnum's Museum were labelled "humbug," and the compliment thus conveyed was not repudiated by Mr. Mumler.[38]
 
  
7.20   Photomontage >  William Hope: Spirit photography and séances 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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7.21   Photomontage >  Richard Boursnell & J. Evans Sterling (London Spiritualists): Spirit photographs 
  
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7.22   Photomontage >  Cottingley Fairies 
  
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Two films Photographing Fairies (1997) and FairyTale: A True Story (1997) have been loosely based upon the 1912 Cottingley Fairies Hoax. 
  
Reusing card photographs 
  
7.23   Photomontage >  Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Bohumil Stepán was a Czech graphic designer who created satirical photocollages in the 1960s using carte de visites and cabinet cards as his starting point.[39] 
  
7.24   Photomontage >  Contemporary artworks using card photographs 
  
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There are artistic flourishes within those who collect both carte de visite and cabinet cards to use the more common ones as the starting point for artistic exuberence. The first significant person to do this was Czech graphic designer Bohumil Stepán but numerous othes have followed. 
  
7.25   Photomontage >  The Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates... 
  
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Between 2002 and 2008 an assortment of American collectors, dealers and secretive individuals with surrealist yearnings and a sense of humour conspired together to create the "Carte Horse Conspiracy" to say that there is an official history of such a group would be pushing the bounds of scholarship but an introduction provided by an anonymous member sets the tone.
 
Late in 2002, Larry Gottheim of BE-HOLD sent a letter and a page from an auction catalog illustrating an album of photo-collaged cartes-de-visite and cabinet cards done by Bohumil Stepán to a bored horse cart driver.
 
Almost immediately the Horse Carte Conspiracy formed; the members put things to order and got down to the business of conspiring. Between 2002 and 2008 they mercilessly contrived carte-works.
 
In 2008 there was a big collision of cartes, horses and drivers and all ended up in a ditch. Their glue sticks, tweezers and tiny scissors were scattered across the countryside
 
Abigail Snippe
Directress of The Home for Aged Carte Horse Conspirators
and
Curatrix des Cartes.
 
  
   CarteHorseConspiracy 
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Assemblage 
  
7.26   Photomontage >  Assemblage - Defined 
  
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An assemblage is the putting together of multiple two-dimensional and three-dimensional 'found' elements to create a single artistic object. The cultural roots of photographic assemblages have their roots in the art movements of Dada, Surrealism,[40] the cubist constructions of Pablo Picasso[41] and the "Readymades" of Marcel Duchamp. Physical objects were incorporated into new artworks and recontextualized in the process.
 
Photographs were added to fans and incorporated into gameboards[42] in the nineteeth century as adornments to items used in leisure activities but these are distinct from object created to subvert or expand the nature of art. In the history of photography there are several notable examples of this but the most memorable is the Object Indestructible by Man Ray which consists of a metronome with the affixed eye of Lee Miller on it's swinging arm.[43]
 
Photographers: Hans Belmer with his female dolls,[44] Joseph Cornell, Raoul Hausmann,[45] Man Ray,[46] Ivo Precek and Robert Rauschenberg[47] 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ The original daguerreotype is in The Isenburg Collection @ AMC Toronto. 
      
  2. Λ Unidentified photographer, "Captain [David] Campbell (Schiehallion) [and Tiger]", 1845 (ca), Calotype, photomontage, St. Andrews University Library, Special Collections / The Photographic Collection, Record: ALB6-100-1 
      
  3. Λ David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press); Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate) 
      
  4. Λ Accounts of composite printing in the nineteenth and early twentieth century include:
    1869 - H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter)
     
    1870 - 1870, "Combination printing", The Popular Science Review (London), vol. IX, p. 326
     
    1879 - Described in a speech by John Bole O'Reilly - James Jeffrey Roche & Mary Murphy O'Reilly, 1891, Life of John Boyle O'Reilly ... Together with His Complete Poems and Speeches, (Cassell), pp. 195-196
     
    1883 - Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344
     
    1888 - April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237
     
    1905 - Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1
    There are no doubt numerous other sources and some of the most notable examples by Alexander Gardner and Camille Silvy were made before these texts were published. 
      
  5. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  6. Λ Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884, (Paris, BnF / Gallimard) [Exhibition, Paris, Bibliothčque nationale de France, 19 March - 16 June 2002]; Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820–1884, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); Lisa Barro & Nora W. Kennedy, 2005, ‘Gustave Le Gray's Salted Paper Prints‘, in Pre-Prints of the 14th Triennial Meeting Amsterdam, ICOM Committee for Conservation, pp. 533–540; Eugenia Parry Janis, 1987, The Photography of Gustave Le Gray, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press) 
      
  7. Λ Peter C. Bunnell, 1979, The Photography of O. G. Rejlander: Two Selections, (New York: Arno); Edgar Yoxall Jones, 1973, Father of Art Photography: O. G. Rejlander, 1813-1875, (London: David and Charles); Stephanie Spencer, 1984, ‘O. G. Rejlander's Photographs of Street Urchins‘, Oxford Art Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 17-24; Stephanie Spencer, 1985, O. G. Rejlander: Photography as Art, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press) 
      
  8. Λ H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter) [British editions: 1869, 1879, 1881, 1893.; American: 1881, 1892; French: 1885; German:1886. Reprinted with an introduction by Robert A. Sobieszek (Pawley: Helios, 1971) 
      
  9. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  10. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  11. Λ For the original carte de visite - Henry Hering (1814-1893), The Kings and Queens of England: From the Conquest to Queen Victoria, 1862, Carte de visite, photomontage, 2 7/8 x 2 1/8 ins (image), National Portrait Gallery (NPG), Given by Algernon Graves, 1916, NPG Ax13139 
      
  12. Λ Sander Gilman (ed.), 1976, The Face of Madness: Hugh W. Diamond and the Origin of Psychiatric Photography, (Brunner/Mazel); Sander L. Gilman, 1882, Seeing the Insane, (NY: John Wiley in association with Brunner/Mazel) 
      
  13. Λ Roger Taylor & Larry J. Schaaf, 2007, Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840-1860, (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) 
      
  14. Λ The initials A.R. appear on microscope slides from the mid 1850s and in the Summer 2007 issue of "Micro Miscellanea" ("Initials on microphotographs – thoughts on AR", no. 66, pages 20-29) Stanley Warren proposed an excellent argument that A.R. was Alfred Reeves. Alfred Reeves was able to copy painting onto microscope slides and managed to place all eighty five portraits of the "Kings & Queens of England, From the Conquest to Queen Victoria" on a single slide.
     
    An account of the life of Alfred Reeves will be found at microscopist.net
     
    With thanks to Professor Brian Stevenson. 
      
  15. Λ With thanks to Professor Brian Stevenson for bringing this to my attention. (pers. emails: Professor Brian Stevenson to Alan Griffiths) 
      
  16. Λ I would be interested in research that sheds light on who the original photographer was - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  17. Λ Books by William Notman include - William Notman, 1860 [?], Victoria Bridge, Montreal, (Montreal); William Notman, 1863, Photographic selections, (Montreal) [Text by Thomas D. King. Includes 44 photographs of old masters and contemporary paintings and two of Notman's photographs "from nature"]; William Notman, 1865, Notman's Photographic Selections, (Montreal); William Notman, [1864], North American scenery . . . 1863–64, (Montreal); William Notman & John Fennings Taylor, 1865–68, Portraits of British Americans, with biographical sketches, (Montreal: W. Notman) [3 volumes] 
      
  18. Λ Stanley G. Triggs, 1994, The Composite Photographs of William Notman, (Montreal: McCord Museum of Canadian History) 
      
  19. Λ 1930, Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique, (Paris: Antonin Artaud and Roger Vitrac) 
      
  20. Λ Le Theatre Alfred Jarry de l'Hostilite Publique
    Graphic Arts Collection, Princeton University Library, Posted by Julie L. Mellby on July 16, 2010
    blogs.princeton.edu/graphicarts/2010/07/le_theatre_alfred_jarry_de_lho.html 
      
  21. Λ Antonin Artaud had been expelled from the surrealists by André Breton (1896-1966). This was not an unusual event as Breton pushed his own agenda and had limited patience for those who didn't agree with it. 
      
  22. Λ J. Pécsi, 1930, Photo und Publizität - Photo and Advertising (Berlin: Josef Singer A.-G.), [Text is in German and English.] 
      
  23. Λ David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press); Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate) 
      
  24. Λ Erika Wolf, 1999, "When Photographs Speak, To Whom Do They Talk? The Origins and Audience of SSSR na stroike (USSR in Construction)", Left History, vol. 6 no. 2, pp. 53-82 
      
  25. Λ Black cover. Fully illustrated with almost 200 photographs. This large format edition was published with three different covers (orange, green and black). The book includes several half-size pages, full double-pages bleeds and fold-outs. 
      
  26. Λ John Heartfield, 1977, Photomontages of the Nazi Period, (New York: Universe Books); Peter Pachnicke & Klaus Honnef (eds.), 1992, John Heartfield, (New York: Harry N. Abrams); Andres Mario Zervigon, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University of Chicago Press) 
      
  27. Λ Maud Lavin, 1993, Cut with the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of Hannah Höch, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press) 
      
  28. Λ David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press); Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate) 
      
  29. Λ Victor Margolin, 1998, The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy-Nagy, 1917-1946, (University Of Chicago Press); El Lissitzky & B.M.Tal (ed.), 1935, Industriia Sotsializma [Socialist Industry], (Moscow: IZOGIZ) 
      
  30. Λ Erika Wolf, 1999, "When Photographs Speak, To Whom Do They Talk? The Origins and Audience of SSSR na stroike (USSR in Construction)", Left History, vol. 6 no. 2, pp. 53-82 
      
  31. Λ Klaus Staeck, 1971, Pornografie, (Göttingen: Steidl Verlag). Republished by Steidl in 2008. 
      
  32. Λ Lewis Carroll was also a significant British photographer - Helmut Gernsheim, 1950, Lewis Carroll: Photographer, (London: Max Parrish) [2nd edition]; Douglas R. Nickel, 2002, Dreaming in Pictures: The Photography of Lewis Carroll, (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Yale University Press, New Haven and London); Roger Taylor & Edward Wakeling, 2002, Lewis Carroll: Photographer, (Princeton: Princeton University Press) 
      
  33. Λ The Bandersnatch is a fictional character in Lewis Carroll's poem Jabberwocky which is a part of his 1872 novel Through the Looking Glass. Carroll's 1874 poem The Hunting of the Snark gives a cryptic description with his "frumious jaws." 
      
  34. Λ Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage, (Art Institute of Chicago); Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, The Marvelous Album of Madame B: Being the Handiwork of a Victorian Lady of Considerable Talent, (Scala Publishers) 
      
  35. Λ Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer, 1862-1888, [My Book], Harvard Art Museum/Fogg Museum, Purchase through the generosity of Melvin R. Seiden, © President and Fellows of Harvard College, Item Identifier: P1982.359 
      
  36. Λ Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage, (Art Institute of Chicago); Elizabeth Siegel, 2009, The Marvelous Album of Madame B: Being the Handiwork of a Victorian Lady of Considerable Talent, (Scala Publishers) 
      
  37. Λ Louis Kaplan, 2008, The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer, (University of Minnesota Press) 
      
  38. Λ "Spiritual Photography", 1869, The Living Age, vol. 102, pp. 314-315 gives an account of the trial of William H. Mummler taken from The Saturday Review 
      
  39. Λ Bohumil Stepán, 1971, Familienalbum. Collagen (Munich) 
      
  40. Λ Rosalind E. Krauss & Jane Livingston, 1985, L'Amour Fou: Photography & Surrealism, (New York: Abbeville) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  41. Λ Anne Baldassari, 1997, Picasso and Photography: The Dark Mirror, (Paris: Flammarion; Houston: The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston) 
      
  42. Λ In the Brian D. Caplan Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York) there is an 1862 game board with portraits of President Abraham Lincoln and Union generals. 
      
  43. Λ Man Ray, "Indestructible Object", 1965, Wood, fiber, metal, and paper on cardboard, 8 1/2 x 4 1/2 x 4 1/2 in, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Samuel M. Greenbaum and Helen Mark families in memory of Helen Mark Greenbaum 1993.43 bellmer_01 
      
  44. Λ Raoul Hausmann, 1979, Photographies, 1927–1957, (Paris: Créatis) 
      
  45. Λ For Man Ray's autobiography - Man Ray, 1963, Self Portrait, (Boston: Little, Brown) 
      
  46. Λ Walter Hopps, Susan Davidson et al., 1997, Robert Rauschenberg: A Retrospective, (New York: Guggenheim Museum); M. L. Kotz, 1990, Rauschenberg, Art and Life, (New York: Harry N. Abrams); Robert Rauschenberg, 1969, Rauschenberg, (New York: Abrams); Robert Rauschenberg, 1981, Photographs / Robert Rauschenberg, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
1930, Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique, (Paris: Antonin Artaud and Roger Vitrac) [Includes photomontages by Eli Lotar] [Δ
  
Burns, Stanley, 2008, Newsart: The Manipulated Photographs from the Burns Archive, (Burns Press) isbn-13: 978-1576874646 [Δ
  
Busch, Dennis; Klanten, Robert & Hellige, Hendrik (eds.), 2013, The Art of Collage: Contemporary Collage in Modern Art, (Gestalten) isbn-13: 978-3899554830 [Δ
  
Card, Hayley, 2007, ‘The Tate Modern’s USSR In Construction‘, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 149-152 [Δ
  
Ewing, William A., 2002, Flora Photographica: Masterpieces of Flower Photography, 1835 to the Present, (Thames & Hudson) isbn-10: 0500283486 isbn-13: 978-0500283486 [Δ
  
Fineman, Mia, 2012, Faking it: Manipulated photography before Photoshop, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art) isbn-10: 0300185014 isbn-13: 978-0300185010 [Distributed by Yale University Press] [Δ
  
Galton, Francis, 1879, ‘Composite Portraits‘, Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vol. 8, pp. 132-142 [Δ
  
Goldberg, Vicki, 1996, 12 April, ‘Photography Review: From a Soviet Magazine That Made a Revolution Of Its Own in Design‘, New York Times, Arts [Δ
  
Heller, Steven & Balance, Georgette, 2001, Graphic Design History, (Skyhorse Publishing Inc.) isbn-10: 1581150946 isbn-13: 978-1581150940 [Δ
  
Hopkins, Albert A., 1897, Magic: Stage Illusions and Scientific Diversions Including Trick Photography, (London: Low) [Δ
  
Hoy, Anne H., 1987, Fabrications: Staged, Altered and Appropriated Photographs, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Δ
  
Margolin, Victor, 1998, The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy-Nagy, 1917-1946, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226505162 isbn-13: 978-0226505169 [Δ
  
Nakamori, Yasufumi, 2012, Utopia/Dystopia Construction and Destruction in Photography and Collage, (Houston: Museum of Fine Arts) isbn-13: 978-0300179606 [With Graham Bader] [Δ
  
Rubin, Cynthia Elyce & Williams, Morgan, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915, (Abbeville Press) [Δ
  
S.P.N. [Secretariado Nacional de Propaganda] (eds.), 1934, Portugal 1934, (Lisbon: S.P.N. [Secretariado Nacional de Propaganda]) [Δ
  
Siegel, Elizabeth, 2009, Playing with Pictures: The Art of Victorian Photocollage, (Art Institute of Chicago) isbn-10: 0300141149 isbn-13: 978-0300141146 [Δ
  
Siegel, Elizabeth, 2009, The Marvelous Album of Madame B: Being the Handiwork of a Victorian Lady of Considerable Talent, (Scala Publishers) isbn-10: 1857595793 isbn-13: 978-1857595796 [Δ
  
Teitelbaum, Matthew (ed.), 1992, Montage and Modern Life, 1919–1942, (Cambridge: The MIT Press; Boston: The Institute of Contemporary Art) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Omar Said Bakor 
  
Behrend, Heike, 2009, ‘'To Make Strange Things Possible': The Photomontages of the Bakor Photo Studio in Lamu, Kenya‘, in Kimani Njogu & John F.M. Middleton (eds.), 2009, Media and Identity in Africa, (Edinburgh Universty Press) [Δ
  
Thomas F. Barrow 
  
McCarthy Gauss, Kathleen, 1986, Inventories and Transformations: The Photographs of Thomas Barrow, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
Heinz Hajek-Halke 
  
Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 1978, Heinz Hajek-Halke Fotografie Foto-Grafik Licht-Grafik, (Galerie Werner Kunze) [Δ
  
Pasquer, Priska & Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 2008, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Artist, Anarchist, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865211348 isbn-13: 978-3865211347 [Δ
  
Raoul Hausmann 
  
Hausmann, Raoul, 1979, Photographies, 1927–1957, (Paris: Créatis) [Δ
  
John Heartfield 
  
AM Zehnhoff, H. W., 1988, ‘Satire in word and image: satirical techniques of John Heartfield and Kurt Tucholsky in Deutschland, Deutschland über alles‘, Word & Image, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 157-162 [Δ
  
Broscoe, Stephen, 1996, August, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles : Kurt Tucholsky zwischen Auflehnung und Resignation, (Department of German, McGill University, Monueal: MA Thesis) [Δ
  
Heartfield, John, 1977, Photomontages of the Nazi Period, (New York: Universe Books) [Δ
  
Heartfield, John, 1992, John Heartfield : AIZ/ VI 1930-38, (Kent Gallery) [Δ
  
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1929, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, (Berlin: Neuer Deutscher Verlag) [Δ
  
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1929, Deutschland, Deutschland über alles, (Berlin: Universum-Bücherei für Alle) [Δ
  
Heartfield, John & Tucholsky, Kurt, 1978, Deutschland, Deutschland u¨ber alles / a picture-book by Kurt Tucholsky. Photos. assembled by John Heartfield, (Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press) [Translated from the German by Anne Halley. Afterword and notes by Harry Zohn] [Δ
  
Pachnicke, Peter & Honnef, Klaus (eds.), 1992, John Heartfield, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
Paenhuysen, An, 2009, ‘Kurt Tucholsky, John Heartfield and Deutschland, Deutschland uber Alles‘, History of Photography, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 39-54 [Δ
  
Willett, John, 1997, Heartfield Versus Hitler, (Hazan Editeur) isbn-10: 285025536X isbn-13: 978-2850255366 [Δ
  
Zervigon, Andres Mario, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226981770 isbn-13: 978-0226981772 [Δ
  
Robert Heinecken 
  
Borger, I. et al., 1999, Robert Heinecken, Photographist: A Thirty-Five Year Retrospective, (Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art) [Δ
  
Enyeart, J. (ed.), 1980, Heinecken, (Carmel, CA: The Friends of Photography) [Δ
  
Hannah Höch 
  
Lavin, Maud, 1993, Cut with the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of Hannah Höch, (New Haven and London: Yale University Press) [Δ
  
David Hockney 
  
Weschler, L., 1984, Cameraworks: David Hockney, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) [Δ
  
Barbara Kruger 
  
Kruger, Barbara, 1990, Love for Sale, (NY: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
William Notman 
  
Triggs, Stanley G., 1994, The Composite Photographs of William Notman, (Montreal: McCord Museum of Canadian History) isbn-10: 1895615089 [Δ
  
Henry Peach Robinson 
  
Robinson, H.P., 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter) [British editions: 1869, 1879, 1881, 1893.; American: 1881, 1892; French: 1885; German:1886. Reprinted with an introduction by Robert A. Sobieszek (Pawley: Helios, 1971)] [Δ
  
Alexander Rodchenko 
  
Elliott, David (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Khan-Magomedov, S.O., 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press) [Δ
  
Lavrentiev, Alexander, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press) [Δ
  
Noever, P. (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel) [Δ
  
Klaus Staeck 
  
Staeck, Klaus, 1971, Pornografie, (Göttingen: Steidl Verlag) [Δ
  
Bohumil Stepán 
  
Stepán, Bohumil, 1971, Bohumil Stepán: Familienalbum. Collagen, (Munich: dtv) [Δ
  
Maggie Taylor 
  
2007, Maggie Taylor & Jerry Uelsmann, (Seoul: Museum of Photography) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Carroll, Lewis & Taylor, Maggie, 2008, Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures In Wonderland: Illustrated By Maggie Taylor, (Palo Alto: Modernbook Gallery) isbn-10: 0980104408 isbn-13: 978-0980104400 [Δ
  
Haskins, Lola & Taylor, Maggie, 2008, Solutions Beginning with A, (Palo Alto: Modernbook Gallery) [Δ
  
Standen, Amy, 2005, Maggie Taylor's Landscape of Dreams, (Adobe Press) [Δ
  
Taylor, Maggie, 2012, No Ordinary Days, (The University Press of Florida) [Essay by A.D. Coleman] [Δ
  
Jerry N. Uelsmann 
  
2007, Maggie Taylor & Jerry Uelsmann, (Seoul: Museum of Photography) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Enyeart, J. L., 1982, Jerry N. Uelsmann, Twenty-Five Years: A Retrospective, (Boston: Little, Brown) [Δ
  
Uelsmann, Jerry N., 1970, Jerry N. Uelsmann, (New York: Aperture) [Essay by Peter Bunnell] [Δ
  
Uelsmann, Jerry N., 1977, Silver Meditations, (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan and Morgan) [Δ
  
Uelsmann, Jerry N., 1992, Photo-Synthesis: Photographs by Jerry Uelsmann, (Gainesville: University of Florida Press) [Δ
  
Uelsmann, Jerry N., 2000, Approaching the Shadow, (Tucson, AZ: Nazraeli Press) [Δ
  
Uelsmann, Jerry N., 2005, Other Realities, (New York: Bulfinch Press) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Misha Gordin - Conceptual photography 
http://www.bsimple.com ... 
  
Jerry Uelsmann 
http://www.uelsmann.com 
  
Scott Mutter - Photomontages. 
http://www.photographymuseum.com ... 
  
Cut and Paste: A History of Photomontage 
http://www.cutandpaste.info ... 
  
An Irish artist Seán Hillen uses photomontage to examine the "troubles" of Northern Ireland. 
http://www.seanhillen.com ... 
  
USSR in Construction 
http://library2.usask.ca ... 
A detailed, well illustrated and scholarly overview of USSR in Construction provided by the University of Saskatchewan. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Emilio Amero  (1901-1976) • Shimon Attie  (1957-) • Herbert Bayer  (1900-1985) • Mieczyslaw Berman  (1903-1975) • Wallace Berman  (1926-1976) • George Blair • John Paul Caponigro  (1965-) • Paul Citroen  (check) • Nusch Eluard  (1906-1946) • Harold Feinstein  (1931-) • Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer  (1838-1903) • Fran Forman • John Heartfield  (1891-1968) • Robert Heinecken  (1931-2006) • Paula Hocks • Thomas Kellner  (1966-) • Edmund Kesting  (1892-1970) • Gustav Klutsis  (1895-1944) • Michael Lebron  (1954-) • El Lissitzky  (1890-1941) • Man Ray  (1890-1976) • William H. Martin • Herbert Matter  (1907-1984) • Annu Palakunnathu Matthew  (1964-) • Annu Palakunnathu Matthew  (1964-) • Pedro Meyer  (1935-) • Erdély Miklós  (1928-1986) • Barbara Morgan  (1900-1992) • Bruno Munari  (1907-1998) • Scott Mutter  (check) • Patrick Nagatani  (1945-) • Ryan Obermeyer  (1981-) • Robert Rauschenberg  (1925-2008) • Oscar Gustave Rejlander  (1813-1875) • Villroy L. Richardson • Alexander Rodchenko  (1891-1956) • Jaroslav Rössler  (1902-1990) • Dominic Rouse  (1959-) • Sergei Senkin • Robert Silvers  (1968-) • Klaus Staeck  (1938-) • Maggie Taylor  (1961-) • Karel Teige  (1900-1951) • Edmund Teske  (1911-1996) • Hulleah Tsinhnahjinnie  (1954-) • Jerry N. Uelsmann  (1934-) • Moi Ver  (1904-1995) • Alexander Zhitomirsky  (1907-1993)
HomeThemes > Photomontage 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Appropriation 
Experimental and manipulated photography 
USSR in Construction 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Photomontage

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAngus McBean - The Christmas Cards 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 21, 2010)
ThumbnailAppropriation 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 29, 2012)
ThumbnailDominic Rouse 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 19, 2006)
ThumbnailGeorges Méličs: Voyage dans la Lune (1902) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 1, 2006)
ThumbnailHugh Shurley: An evolving retrospective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 19, 2006)
ThumbnailJerry Uelsmann: Trees 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 17, 2008)
ThumbnailKarl Baden: An Evolving Retrospective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 24, 2007)
ThumbnailMaggie Taylor 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 19, 2007)
ThumbnailPeter Engblom 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 18, 2008)
ThumbnailPhotomontage 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 29, 2010)
ThumbnailPhotomontage: USSR in Construction 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 22, 2011)
ThumbnailPortugal 1934: Photomontage as propaganda 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 29, 2007)
ThumbnailPostcards with a message (1980-2000) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 17, 2010) These postcards are the copyright of different individuals and organisations and are shown here for educational purposes. Should any party with a legitimate claim wish to have an image removed please let me know.
ThumbnailThe Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates... 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 29, 2011)
ThumbnailThomas Kellner: Dancing Walls 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 8, 2008)
  
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Photomontage

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA. Dauge: Photomontage with a hunting theme 
ThumbnailAlexander Rodchenko: Vladimir Mayakovsky: Pro Eto. Ei i Mne (About This. To Her and to Me) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAndré Adolphe-Eugčne Disdéri: Photomontages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAngus McBean: Angus McBean Sends Greetings, Xmas 1953 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAngus McBean: The Christmas Cards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAngus McBean: Xmas Greetings 1950 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBarbara Morgan: Photomontages and multiple images 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBohumil Stepán: Satirical photocollages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailC. W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
ThumbnailC.W. Carter: Composite of illustrious individuals 
ThumbnailEdmund Teske: Kenneth Anger overlaid with Gustave Dore 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEl Lissitzky 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEli Lotar: Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique (1930) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugčne Appert: Crimes de la Commune 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFran Forman: Photomontage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard: Destruction of Hood’s Ordnance Train 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHarold Feinstein: Photomontage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Hering / Alfred Reeves: Photograph. The Kings & Queens of England 
ThumbnailHenry Peach Robinson: Carrolling 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Peach Robinson: Fading Away 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ. Pécsi: Photo und Publizität - Photo and Advertising (1930) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Heartfield & Max Tucholsky: Deutschland, Deutschland über alles (1929) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Heartfield: Adolf, the Superman, Swallows Gold and Spouts Tin 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Heartfield: Anti-Fascist photomontages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOliver Sarony: Advertising Carte de Visite 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOscar Gustave Rejlander: Two Ways of Life 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailR. Goebel: Photographie-Gallerie 
ThumbnailRaoul Hausmann: Dada photomontage and collage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Boursnell & J. Evans Sterling (London Spiritualists): Spirit photographs 
ThumbnailSouthworth & Hawes: Photomontage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailStacy Waldman & Bronwen Hodgkinson: Cabinet card photocollages 
ThumbnailWilliam Notman: Photomontages 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailZybach & Co.: Undaunted by the Waves 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailGustave Dore - Edmund Teske 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailCollage 
ThumbnailComposite portraits 
ThumbnailCottingley Fairies 
ThumbnailErik Johansson: Digital photomontages 
ThumbnailLandscape: Fantasy 
ThumbnailPhotomontage: An illustrated history 
ThumbnailPhotomontage: Multiple exposures on leaves 
ThumbnailPhotomontage: Postcards with a message (1980-2000) 
ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung 
ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: USSR in Construction 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Propaganda 
 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailAlbumen prints: Themes: Photomontages 
ThumbnailAmbrotypes: Themes: Photomontages 
ThumbnailCabinet cards: Themes: Photomontage 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Themes: Photomontages 
ThumbnailReal photo postcards: Themes: Photomontage 
ThumbnailSalt prints: Themes: Photographica 
ThumbnailSalt prints: Themes: Photomontage 
 
 
  
   Private collections 
  
ThumbnailCollection Laddy Kite: Photomontages 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailMan photographing his "twin" by double exposure 
ThumbnailPropaganda 
ThumbnailRobert Silvers: Life - Photomosaic 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 16 August 2014, 01:18
 
  
 
  
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