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HomeContentsThemes > Manipulated photography

Curatorial and planning notes 
Manipulated photography includes any steps during the taking of the photograph through to the creation of the final image that alter the "truth" of the visible world. This might include the selection of capture methods (i.e. infrared) that alter the reality of the visual image prior to capture, through the handworking of negatives so common with Pictorial photography, hand-colouring or the post-processing of digital images in Lightroom, Photoshop or other software. It can include scratching negatives, writing on prints, collage, photomontage or the intentional, or unintentional, burning of prints.

Information requests
681.01   Improving content on photographic techniques
681.02   Manipulated photography
Composite and combination prints
681.03   Composite and combination prints: Defined
681.04   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph
Composite portraits
681.05   Composite and combination prints: Portraits
Painting on photographs
681.06   Introduction to painting on photographs
681.07   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists
681.08   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong
Exaggeration photo postcards
681.09   Exaggeration postcards
681.10   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards
681.11   Distortions: Defined
681.12   Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage
681.13   Introduction to solarization
681.14   Examples of solarization
681.15   Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations
Photojournalism and painting on photographs
681.16   Press photographs with paint or instructions
681.17   Ellen Carey: Pulls
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
Information requests 
681.01   Process and product >  Improving content on photographic techniques 
We are seeking to expand the themes covering photographic techniques and processes. These sections will include:
  • Invention of the process
  • Any related patents
  • Trade literature
  • Contemporary advertisements and announcements of the innovation
  • A description of the process and its variants
  • Historical examples and details of where examples can be located in public collections
  • Contemporary examples by photographers using the exact process.
Conservation will not initially be included but may be in the future if required.
681.02   Process and product >  Manipulated photography 
Manipulated photography is a large topic which the "Faking It: Manipulated Photography before Photoshop" exhibition curated by Mia Fineman at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (11 October 2012 - 27 January 2013) addressed with an accompanying well researched exibition catalogue. The exhibition is refreshing as it clearly demonstrated that photographers who claimed to be "straight photographers" such as Paul Strand, Ansel Adams and many others manipulated their negatives and photographs to obtain their desired goals.
Some of the techniques applied in the pre-digital era were:
  • Composite photographs where two or more negatives were used to construct a single photograph. 
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  • Composite portraits where two or more negatives to create a portrait designed to show the characteristics of a class of people. 
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  • Exaggeration postcards combined multiple images to create surreal images of American rural life. William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas became the most popular of these photographers although there were others including Henry M. Beach 
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  • Painted photographs where paints were blown onto the photograph or applied with a brush. 
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  • Backgrounds that provide an illusion of the location and/or activities of the sitter. 
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  • Foregrounds scenes placed in front of the sitter where the head is visible above the scene or through a hole or window. 
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  • Multiple exposures that were taken, deliberately or by accident, inside the camera or during the development process. 
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  • Appropriation where original photographs have been used by a later photographer for a different purpose. This can be with or without the consent of the original photographer and can be done as a twisting of genres or a commentary on the nature of art and photography.  
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  • Solarization is the deliberate or accidental intrusion of light into the darkroom during the development process. 
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  • Alteration of the final print this may occur when the photographer deliberately defaces or cuts the print to alter the visual message. 
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  • Distorting mirrors and lenses have been used by photographers including André Kertész, Bill Brandt and Weegee to flex their photographic visions. 
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Composite and combination prints 
681.03   Process and product >  Composite and combination prints: Defined 
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Creating a Composite photograph (also called a combination print) means having one or more negatives that are then used to create a single print and the method for doing this was well known in the nineteenth century.[1] To accomplish a seamless whole requires careful planning and scrupulous attention to detail during the printing to get smooth transitions between the different parts of the image. Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884) used this technique for his seascapes so that both the sea and sky could be correctly exposed. Perhaps the most famous example of a composite photograph is the Two Ways of Life (1857) by the Swedish born photographer Oscar Rejlander who combined thirty negatives of figures and groups to create a single 16" x 31" image.
Photographers who made combination prints:
George N. Barnard[2]
Gustave Le Gray[3]
Oscar Rejlander[4]
Henry Peach Robinson[5]
The 1869 instructional classic by Henry Peach Robinson Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing includes a contemporary method for creating combination prints. 
681.04   Process and product >  C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
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This rare carte de visite series shows photographer C.W. Applegreen preparing a composite photograph along with the fruit of his labour. 
Composite portraits 
681.05   Process and product >  Composite and combination prints: Portraits 
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The use of composite photographs has been employed in portraiture to combine groups of multiple individuals into a single image intended to capture the characteristics of the group as a whole.
Francis Galton (1822-1922), a Victorian polymath and founder of eugenics, used composites and described them in his book Inquiries into Human Faculty (1883) as follows:
The accompanying woodcut is as fair a representation of one of the composites as is practicable in ordinary printing. It was photographically transferred to the wood, and the engraver has used his best endeavour to translate the shades into line engraving. This composite is made out of only three components, and its threefold origin is to be traced In the ears, and in the buttons to the vest. To the best of my judgment, the original photograph is a very exact average of its components; not one feature in it appears identical with that of any one of them, but it contains a resemblance to all, and is not more like to one of them than to another. However, the judgment of the wood engraver is different. His rendering of the composite has made it exactly like one of its components, which it must be borne in mind he had never seen. It is just as though an artist drawing a child had produced a portrait closely resembling its deceased father, having overlooked an equally strong likeness to its deceased mother, which was apparent to its relatives. This is to me a most striking proof that the composite is a true combination. [6]
Five years later a communication from Francis Galton was published in The Photographic News:
"I receive from time to time beautiful composite photographs made in America, and have not unfrequently received letters asking about possible or actual improvements in the process. In reply, I should like to be permitted the use of your columns to make a few remarks on the subject.
"A composite portrait is not the means of its components, but an aggregate of it, which is reduced in intensity of tint to that of one of the components. If it were a mean, its outlines would be sharp, but being an aggregate; they are not, only those shades or lines that are common to all the components are as intense, or as well defined, as they would be in an ordinary portrait, while ghosts and shades of other lines are distributed variously about. These ghosts are often too conspicuous. Those that affect the [natures?] are especially due either to differences in the relative breadth and width of the component faces, or to a want of symmetry in some of them which causes the straight line that passes as nearly as maybe along the eyebrows to be inclined to that which passes between the lips in the composites I have thus far made, I have merely attended to keeping the vertical distance between the eyes and the parting of the lips at exactly the same length in all cases, and to making the best fit of the remainder that each case severally admitted. It strikes me now that it would be well worth while to vary the whole procedure by attempting to approximate to a mean result, and in the following way. First, find by measuring the portraits about to be combined, the proportion that the distance between the pupils bears on the average of all of them to the vertical distance between the pupils of the eyes and the parting of the lips; then optically transform every component portrait into that same average proportion. Secondly, straighten every face that asymmetrical in the way above described, into a symmetrical one. Lastly, make the composite from the transformed portraits.
"I suspect that a pinhole camera would be found perfectly suitable for effecting these transformations, if the component portraits were not too small. A portrait of sufficient size could, by a single operation, be reduced by its means to any desired scale, both in breadth and in width, independently of each other, namely, by the ingenious device I saw lately in your columns, but cannot specify where, of replacing the pinhole by a vertical slit in one movable diaphragm, and an horizontal slit in another. The asymmetry could at the same time be remedied by so inclining the portrait to the optical axis of the camera as to foreshorten the side that was too long. Foreshortening is accompanied by no blur or image in a pinhole camera.
"The sliding adjustments of the camera would have to be graduated, and each portrait measured carefully by laying a glass scale upon it, and using a low power lens. After this had been done, a table calculated once for all for the camera would tell at what graduations of distance and of inclination the portrait should be set, in order to obtain the desired result.
"The transformations I propose are small in amount. They are always made, and we unconsciously witness them, whenever the person at whom we are looking holds his face a little inclined from full-face view. But, small as they are, I think they are worth making. I have not now got my photographic things in working order, and am busied in other ways, so I speak for the most part theoretically; but not wholly so, as I have made some optical experiments which corroborate, so far as they go, the feasibility and advantage of what has just been said."[7]
In Walter E. Woodbury's 1905 book Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera he includes a plate by Prof. Bowditch showing Twelve Boston Physicians and their Composite Portrait. The Composite in the Centre[8] illustrating a practical use of the process and at the same time the possibility for gentle amusement. Lewis Hine, well known for the child labour photographs he took for the NCLC (National Child Labor Committee)[9], also made composites of cotton mill children.[10]
Periodically this technique is "rediscovered" and examples can be seen in the work of Nancy Burson, Philippe Halsman and Ken Kitano. With digital processing it has become easier and now many thousands of portraits can be combined to create a single composite
Painting on photographs 
681.06   Process and product >  Introduction to painting on photographs 
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From the earliest days of photography with daguerreotypes and salt prints artists have used them either as the basis for works of art or have painted directly on them using a vast range of techniques and specialized equipment including air brushes and retouching, colouring and painting kits[11] 
681.07   Process and product >  Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
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From as early as the eighth century woodblock-printed works were seen in Japan. Although initially the technique was used for texts and religious works by the sixteenth century moveable type was being used. Gaining popularity with artists the technique expanded and individual prints became available. With the popularity for prints there became a need for artists who could paint them or had the skills to use multiple woodblocks for different colours. As photography became available within Japan, predominantly with foreign photographers such as Felice Beato[12] and Baron Raimund von Stillfried, most of the prints through the second half of the nineteenth century had the brownish tones of the albumen print. Their skills with woodblock prints were perfect for painting photographs and some of the finest photographs of this type came from Japan
681.08   Process and product >  John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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John Thomson in his travel volume Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented (1873-1874) gives an account of a Chinese artist who was highly skilled in painting on photographs and creating artwork of an enlarged size based on a photograph:
A Hong-Kong Artist
Lumqua was a Chinese pupil of Chinnery, a noted foreign artist, who died at Macao in 1852. Lumqua produced a number of excellent works in oil, which are still copied by the painters in Hong-Kong and Canton. Had he lived in any other country he would have been the founder of a school of painting. In China his followers have failed to grasp the spirit of his art. They drudge with imitative servile toil, copying Lumqua's or Chinnery's pieces, or anything, no matter what, just because it has been finished and paid for within a given time, and at so much a square foot. There are a number of painters established in Hong-Kong, but they all do the same class of work, and have about the same tariff of prices, regulated according to the dimensions of the canvas. The occupation of these limners consists mainly of making enlarged copies of photographs. Each house employs a touter, who scours the shipping in the harbour with samples of the work, and finds many ready customers among the foreign sailors. These bargain to have Mary or Susan painted on as large a scale and at as small a price as possible, the work to be delivered framed and ready for sea probably within twenty-four hours. The painters divide their labour on the following plan. The apprentice confines himself to bodies and hands, while the master executes the physiognomy, and thus the work is got through with wonderful speed. Attractive colours are freely used; so that Jack's fair ideal appears at times in a sky-blue dress, over which a massive gold chain and other articles of jewellery are liberally hung. These pictures would be fair works of art were the drawing good, and the brilliant colours properly arranged; but all the distortions of the badly taken photographs are faithfully reproduced on an enlarged scale. The best works these painters do are pictures of native and foreign ships, which are wonderfully drawn. To enlarge a picture they draw squares over their canvas corresponding to the smaller squares into which they divide the picture to be copied. The miniature painters in Hong-Kong and Canton do some work on ivory that is as fine as the best ivory painting to be found among the natives of India, and fit to bear comparison with the old miniature painting of our own country, which photography has, now-a-days, in great measure superseded.[13]
Exaggeration photo postcards 
681.09   Process and product >  Exaggeration postcards 
In the USA between 1905 and 1915 there was a popular craze for exaggeration, "tall-tale" or "freak" postcards[14] that used photomontage to highlight the wonders of the American West. William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas became the most popular of these photographers because of his wit and the wide variety of the subjects he chose to include. In his fictional world farmers sit astride corn cobs the size of buses, drive cars laden with vast onions and potatoes to market and chase rabbits the size of sedans.
Other photographers including H.M. Brown (Gilmer Valley, Washinton), Wolfe Photo (Burlington, Washington), O. T. Frasch (Seattle, Washington)[15], Henry M. Beach[16] (upstate New York), F.D. Conrad (Garden City, Kansas), Edward H. Mitchell, Alfred Stanley Johnson, Jr. and others made exaggeration photo postcards during their most popular era in the USA which was 1905-1920. 
681.10   Process and product >  William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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William H. 'Dad' Martin of Ottawa, Kansas (USA) was the creator of a number of exaggeration photo postcards[17] between 1908 and 1911 that showed the most extreme aspects of mid-western life. By the use of photomontage he juxtaposed agricultural products, objects and people to amuse the consumer. These cards are also called "tall-tale" or "freak" postcards.[18] 
681.11   Process and product >  Distortions: Defined 
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"Get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please."
Mark Twain (1835-1910)
–verb (used with object)
  1. to twist awry or out of shape; make crooked or deformed.
  2. to give a false, perverted, or disproportionate meaning to; misrepresent: to distort the facts.
   Abstraction distortions 
View exhibition 
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681.12   Process and product >  Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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681.13   Process and product >  Introduction to solarization 
The accidental rediscovery of solarization by Man Ray and his model and lover Lee Miller was a process that the Dadaists and Surrealists loved. They appreciated the fact that a new process could be found by the chance encounter of a foot with a mouse in the darkroom meaning light was urgently required and that the flash of light could convert the commonplace print into a new form of mysterious reality.
Solarization, the term Man Ray proposed, has nothing to do with the sun rather it is the 'Sabattier effect' (named after the French scientist Armand Sabattier who discovered it in 1862) that creates an image that is part negative and part positive and is created by exposing the print to light part way through the darkroom development process. The level of solarization is dependent upon the stage of development, the level of light the partially developed print is exposed to, and the amount of time it is exposed. 
681.14   Process and product >  Examples of solarization 
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Man Ray, Josef Ehm, Lloyd Ullberg and Tom Baril. Ilse Bing, Maurice Tabard, and proponents of the very active Czech avant-garde movement of the 1920's including Jaroslav Rössler (1902-1990) experimented with solarization
   Abstraction solarization 
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681.15   Process and product >  Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Edmund Teske (1911-1996) was born too late to be involved in the flowering of the avant-garde but through his interests in music and Vedanta, the study of the Hindu Vedas, he developed a philosophical framework that blended into his photography. The constructs of time and space and their malleability could be expressed through alterations in photographic processes. The use of composite prints, where multiple negatives are combined to create a single image, was the photographic equivalent of merging space and time. To this he added what has been referred to as 'duotone solarization' - where the final image has both black and white and brown and white solarized effects. His expertise in this process created images that subvert nature to create unnatural and yet beautiful photographs out of the mundane to empower them with emotional and almost sacred meanings. 
Photojournalism and painting on photographs 
681.16   Process and product >  Press photographs with paint or instructions 
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In the pre-digital newsroom when physical prints landed infront of picture editors they were marked up with instructions and the areas not required painted out with white paint prior to going to press. The approach varied with simple outlining and airbrushing of areas not required. [19] 
681.17   Process and product >  Ellen Carey: Pulls 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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A 2007 press release from the JHB Gallery provides a context for the worl of Ellen Carey:
Carey creates images that are one-of-a-kind using the Polaroid one-step, peel away process that develops in a mere 60 seconds. It produces a positive along with its negative, Carey shows both, making pictures that are simultaneously photographic and abstract. These artworks she calls "Pulls", her term since 1996 upon its discovery, echoes the physical activity of making these pictures,
The "Pulls" are boldly displayed as color positive prints. Carey’s signature conical looping shapes, reminiscent of moiré patterns, wood grain or photographic Newton rings are seen with their opposites, the negatives or "shadows". Both prints contain rich surfaces. The negatives dry and their patina results from this change. As photographic objects they serve as symbols of their former selves, a "memento mori". Carey signals Talbot’s paper negative (1834) at the dawn of photography and the negative/positive axis that is photography’s foundation. Equal status is given to both prints (the Polaroid negative is usually discarded) and the artist acknowledges this history, underscoring its importance by tacking the "Pulls" to the wall with pushpins. Her installations are visually rich, a visceral experience of synoptic clarity and "in situ" presentation direct from the artist’s hand and the Polaroid studio.[20]

  1. Λ Accounts of composite printing in the nineteenth and early twentieth century include:
    1869 - H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter)
    1870 - 1870, "Combination printing", The Popular Science Review (London), vol. IX, p. 326
    1879 - Described in a speech by John Bole O'Reilly - James Jeffrey Roche & Mary Murphy O'Reilly, 1891, Life of John Boyle O'Reilly ... Together with His Complete Poems and Speeches, (Cassell), pp. 195-196
    1883 - Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344
    1888 - April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237
    1905 - Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1
    There are no doubt numerous other sources and some of the most notable examples by Alexander Gardner and Camille Silvy were made before these texts were published. 
  2. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
  3. Λ Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884, (Paris, BnF / Gallimard) [Exhibition, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 19 March - 16 June 2002]; Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820–1884, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); Lisa Barro & Nora W. Kennedy, 2005, ‘Gustave Le Gray's Salted Paper Prints‘, in Pre-Prints of the 14th Triennial Meeting Amsterdam, ICOM Committee for Conservation, pp. 533–540; Eugenia Parry Janis, 1987, The Photography of Gustave Le Gray, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press) 
  4. Λ Peter C. Bunnell, 1979, The Photography of O. G. Rejlander: Two Selections, (New York: Arno); Edgar Yoxall Jones, 1973, Father of Art Photography: O. G. Rejlander, 1813-1875, (London: David and Charles); Stephanie Spencer, 1984, ‘O. G. Rejlander's Photographs of Street Urchins‘, Oxford Art Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 17-24; Stephanie Spencer, 1985, O. G. Rejlander: Photography as Art, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press) 
  5. Λ H.P. Robinson, 1869, Pictorial Effect in Photography: Being Hints on Composition and Chiaroscuro for Photographers. To which is added a chapter on Combination Printing, (London: Piper & Carter) [British editions: 1869, 1879, 1881, 1893.; American: 1881, 1892; French: 1885; German:1886. Reprinted with an introduction by Robert A. Sobieszek (Pawley: Helios, 1971) 
  6. Λ Francis Galton, 1883, Inquiries into Human Faculty, (London: Macmillan & Co.), p. 344 
  7. Λ April 27, 1888, "Composite portraiture: A communication from Francis Galton", The Photographic News, vol. 32, no. 1547, p. 237 
  8. Λ Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association), fig. 84, pl. 1 
  9. Λ For the context of Lewis Hine's work with the NCLC there are multiple studies including - Judith Mara Gutman, 1967, Lewis W. Hine and the American Social Conscience, (New York: Walker); Walter Rosenblum et al., 1977, America and Lewis Hine: Photographs, 1904–1940, (New York: Aperture); Daile Kaplan (ed.), 1992, Photo Story: Selected Letters and Photographs of Lewis Hine, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Alison Nordström & Elizabeth McCausland, 2012, Lewis Hine, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) 
  10. Λ For examples by Lewis Hine - "Composite photograph of child laborers made from cotton mill children" see the Library of Congress examples of his 1913 NCLC - National Child Labor Committee composites:
    Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02737 (color digital file from b&w original print) LC-USZ62-107782 (b&w film copy negative)
    Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02738 (color digital file from b&w original print) 
  11. Λ An indication of the commercial potential of tinting and painting early photographs is provided by the taking out of patents to ensure protection over the processes involved. Early examples include:
    "To Richard Beard, of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses and representations of nature, and of other objects, being a communication. [Sealed 10th March, 1842.]", The London Journal and Repository of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, Conjoined Series, no. CXXXII, Recent Patents, 1843, pp. 358-360.
    "22. For an Improvement in Coloring Daguerreotype Plates, by fixing the Colors thereon; Frederick Langenheim, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 30." American Patents, Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, and American Repository, February, 1847, p. 105. Patent was issued in January, 1846.
  12. Λ Felice Beato is one of the most interesting peripatetic photographers of the nineteenth century - Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); John Clark, John Fraser & Colin Osman, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) 
  13. Λ John Thomson, 1873-1874, Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented, 4 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston Low, and Searle, 1873 [vols. 1 and 2] and 1874 [vols. 3 and 4]) 
  14. Λ Clément Chéroux & Ute Eskildsen, 2008, The Stamp of Fantasy: The Visual Inventiveness of Photographic Postcards, (Steidl); Alain Weill, 2011, Tall-Tale Postcards: Early Twentieth Century American Photomontages of the Unexpected, (Gourcuff Gradenigo); Hal Morgan. 1981, Big Time: American Tall-Tale Postcards, (New York: St. Martin's Press); Cynthia Elyce Rubin and Morgan Williams, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915 (New York: Abbeville Press); Roger L. Welsch. 1976, Tall-Tale Postcards: A Pictorial History, (New York: A.S. Barnes and Company) 
  15. Λ E. Morgan Williams Collection of exaggerated postcards
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013) 
  16. Λ Robert Bogdan, 2003, Adirondack Vernacular: The Photography of Henry M. Beach, (Syracuse University Press) 
  17. Λ Clément Chéroux & Ute Eskildsen, 2008, The Stamp of Fantasy: The Visual Inventiveness of Photographic Postcards, (Steidl); Alain Weill, 2011, Tall-Tale Postcards: Early Twentieth Century American Photomontages of the Unexpected, (Gourcuff Gradenigo); Hal Morgan. 1981, Big Time: American Tall-Tale Postcards, (New York: St. Martin's Press); Cynthia Elyce Rubin and Morgan Williams, 1990, Larger Than Life: The American Tall-Tale Postcard, 1905-1915 (New York: Abbeville Press); Roger L. Welsch. 1976, Tall-Tale Postcards: A Pictorial History, (New York: A.S. Barnes and Company) 
  18. Λ "Tall Tale Postcards: Storytelloing through the mail - A virtual exhibit", Michigan State University Museum
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013) 
  19. Λ Stanley Burns, 2008, Newsart: The Manipulated Photographs from the Burns Archive, (powerHouse Books / Burns Press) 
  20. Λ Press release, 2007, "Ellen Carey: Polaroid Pulls & Shadows", JHB Gallery, New York.

HomeTechniquesProcess and product > Manipulated photography 

HomeVisual indexes > Manipulated photography

We need to build up Visual Indexes for:  
Manipulated photography 
So if you have, or know about, series that you feel would be appropriate let me know right away, thanks
Alan -

Refreshed: 10 April 2014, 02:15
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