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HomeContentsThemes > Anthropology and ethnology

Contents

Introduction
662.01   Anthropology
Daguerreotypes and the conception of race
662.02   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic
662.03   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians
662.04   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese
662.05   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans
662.06   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish
Peoples of the world
662.07   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves
662.08   Lorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies
662.09   Lallemand and Hart: Galerie Universelle des Peuples - Alsace (1865)
662.10   Philippe Potteau: Ethnographic portraits
662.11   J. Monstein: Russian types
662.12   William Carrick: Russian occupationals
662.13   Paul-Émile Miot: Mik'maq (Micmac)
662.14   William Johnson & William Henderson: The Oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay (published 1863-1866)
662.15   Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor: The People of India (1868-1872)
662.16   Albert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871)
662.17   Prince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884)
662.18   Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872)
662.19   Gustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872)
662.20   C. Nieuwenhuis: Sumatra
662.21   Daniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879)
662.22   William Henry Jackson: Portraits of American Indians (1876)
662.23   Elias A. Bonine: Native Americans
662.24   Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)
662.25   Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian
662.26   Edward S. Curtis: Orotones
662.27   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese
662.28   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China
662.29   Charles Kroehle: Campa-Indians, Rio Chuchuras, East Peru (1880s)
662.30   Charles-Albert Arnoux Bertall: Ethnological studies
662.31   Maurice Vidal Portman: Andamanese
662.32   Maurice Vidal Portman: Male Andamanese - Balia
662.33   Maurice Vidal Portman: Female Andamanese - Ilech
662.34   Carl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s)
662.35   Tanner Brothers: Maori Studies
662.36   Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin: The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954)
Tipos
662.37   Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil)
662.38   Courret Hermanos: Tipos (Bolivia)
662.39   François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico)
Compilations of ethographic portraits
662.40   C. & F.W. Dammann: Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men (1875)
Scandal
662.41   King Billy - A scandal in Tasmania
Ethnographic nudity
662.42   Ethnographic nudity
662.43   U.S. Navy Flight School: Pilots
Merging of populations through immigration
662.44   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits
The continuation of tipos?
662.45   August Sander (1876-1964)
662.46   Irving Penn: People of the world
662.47   William Coupon: People of the world
662.48   Phyllis Galembo: West African Masquerade
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
662.01   Scientific >  Anthropology 
  
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Anthropology (from the Greek anthropos, "man", and -logia, "discourse" or "study“) is the study of humanity.
 
Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning "people, nation, race") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.
 
Interest in classification of botanical[1] and zoological species was initiated in the middle of the eighteenth century by Carl Linnaeus and well established by the time photography was announced in 1839. The first widespread public discussion of evolutionary biology was published in 1859 with Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species.[2] The foundation of these rationalist approaches was that scientific measurement could be applied to anything and would reveal knowledge. With physical anthropology and criminology the measurement of cranial capacity and skull shape was widely used as an indicator of intelligence and inner aspects of personality such as a predisposition to crime. It led to pseudo-sciences such as phrenology and would be used to support racial stereotypes and eugenics.[3]  
  
Phrenology 
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Anthropology was not immune to the desire to measure humanity and there are many traces of it within the photographic record - front on and profile portraits, subjects with numbers that would link to measurements, backgrounds with sized squares to assist in measurement, measuring sticks beside subjects and researchers with callipers and measuring instruments. Photography was used to create typologies of "the other" and prove the superiority of those taking the measurements.[4] The tipos photographs showing the range of occupations of a populace and the photographs bought back from expeditions had little standardization and as such they were of limited use to anthropologists and ethnographers - whilst they were useful as curiosities their scientific use was limited. Thomas Huxley proposed a series of "photometric instructions" to take photographs and collect measurements in a standard form to encourage comparisons.
The Ethnological Society, under the presidency of Professor Huxley, is making arrangements to take photographs of specimens of all races of men in all parts of the globe. Such photographs should be taken before a background, ruled off by plainly visible lines into spaces six inches square, so that all the pictures shall show the dimensions of the individual photographed, and be directly comparable. The "sitter" should stand upright, and be in contact with the background.[5]
Huxley proposed that the Colonial Office of the British Empire should be involved in the collection of such information from natives around the Empire.[6] Photographing natives in the nude for the benefit of science was objectionable for multiple reasons, firstly it might be culturally inappropriate to those being photographed, and secondly in an age of Victorian prudery to request nudity was morally suspect.[7]  
  
Measuring humanity 
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The sensitivities and standards of collecting and research have improved considerably since the nineteenth century and collectors are no longer photographed in front of trophy collections of tattooed Maori heads as Major General Horatio Gordon Robley was in 1895.[8] 
  
Daguerreotypes and the conception of race 
  
662.02   Scientific >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic 
  
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662.03   Scientific >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians 
  
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662.04   Scientific >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese 
  
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662.05   Scientific >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans 
  
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662.06   Scientific >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish 
  
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Peoples of the world 
  
662.07   Scientific >  J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Joseph T. Zealy was a daguerreotypist and photographer in South Carolina who took a number of daguerreotypes of slaves for Dr. Robert Wilson Gibbes who was having them taken for Louis Agassiz.[9][10] 
  
662.08   Scientific >  Lorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies 
  
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662.09   Scientific >  Lallemand and Hart: Galerie Universelle des Peuples - Alsace (1865) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The 1865 publication Galerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace by Lallemand and Hart contains a 23-page description of Alsace's regions followed by 12 illustrative albumen prints of Alsatian types, each mounted on a separate board bearing letterpress title and attribution. 
  
662.10   Scientific >  Philippe Potteau: Ethnographic portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Philippe Potteau took a series of high quality ethnographic portraits from the 1860s for the Museum national d‘Histoire naturelle[11] (Paris, France). 
  
662.11   Scientific >  J. Monstein: Russian types 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Little is known of J. Monstein of Moscow. His name suggests that he might have been German, and indeed, all the inscriptions pencilled on the back of his carte de visites – at least, the ones in this collection - are written in German, in the Gothic alphabet then still in use. 
  
662.12   Scientific >  William Carrick: Russian occupationals 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William Carrick was a Scottish-born photographer whose family were in the Russian timber business. In 1857 he studied photography in Edinburgh with James Good Tunny and then returned to St. Petersburg where he set up a studio with John MacGregor.[12] Carrick, like J. Monstein, made and extensive series of carte de visite occupational portraits of Russian types.
 
An illustration A Few Russian Photographs, published in Good Words on 1st October 1870, used photographs by William Carrick as we can see from surviving carte de visites.[13]  
  
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662.13   Scientific >  Paul-Émile Miot: Mik'maq (Micmac) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The Mi'kmaq are an indigenous first nations people of the Maritime provinces of eastern Canada.[14] In 1857 to 1859 Paul-Émile Miot took some of the earliest portraits of the Mi'kmaq including four portraits of which two were taken on the French vessel Sésostris. He also took a rare photograph showing Four Mi'kmaq women sitting in front of their wigwams which was taken at Sydney, Cape Breton in Nova Scotia.[15] 
  
662.14   Scientific >  William Johnson & William Henderson: The Oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay (published 1863-1866) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Photographs by William Johnson & William Henderson showing the ethnic diversity the population of Bombay (now: Mumbai) in India were included in The oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay (1863-1864).[16]
'Photographic delineations of the numerous Peoples and Tribes frequenting -
'(This) Bombay's wealthy isle and harbour fam'd;
Supine beneath the shade of cocoa groves' -
have long been desiderata both among the students of Geography and Ethnography, and the lovers of Art, notwithstanding partial attempts to supply them made by various local amateurs. The present endeavour to meet the wants of the public in this matter will, it is hoped, meet with indulgence and acceptance. The collection of Negatives procured for the present work was made with great labour, and in many instances with no little persuasion addressed to the scrupulous personages, whose effigies have been successfully delineated by the solar ray.'[17]
This work has been overshadowed by the eight volume People of India edited by Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor (1868-1872). 
  
662.15   Scientific >  Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor: The People of India (1868-1872) 
  
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The People of India (1868-1872)[18] documented the diverse races of India by means of photographs.
 
The preface to the work gave an incomplete list of the photographers included:
J. C. A. Dannenberg
Lieutenant R. H. De Montmorency
Reverend F. Godfrey
Lieutenant W. W. Hooper
Major Houghton
Captain H. C. McDonald
J. Mulheran
Captain Oakes
Reverend G. Richter
Shepherd and Robertson
Dr. B. Simpson
Dr. B. W. Switzer
Captain H. C. B. Tanner
Captain C. C. Taylor
Lieutenant J. Waterhouse
Other photographers including Hurrichund Chintamon who also provided photographs were not mentioned.
 
The multi-volume series had their origins in a personal project by Lord and Lady Canning that evolved into a typology of the peoples of India and the Preface to the series provides the context:
The preface
 :
During the administration of Lord Canning, from 1856 to 1863, the interest which had been created in Europe by the remarkable development of the photographic Art, communicated itself to India, and originated the desire to turn it to account in the illustration of topography, architecture, and ethnology of that country.
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There were none, perhaps, in whom this interest was awakened more strongly than in Lord and Lady Canning. It was their wish to carry home with them, at the end of their sojourn in India, a collection, obtained by private means, of photographic illustrations, which might recall to their memory the peculiarities of Indian life.
 :
The great convulsion of 1857-58, while it necessarily retarded for a time all scientific and artistic operations, imparted a new interest to the country which had been the scene of, and to the people who had been the actors in these remarkable events. When, therefore, the pacification of India had been accomplished, the officers of the Indian services, who had made themselves acquainted with the principles and practice of photography, encouraged and patronized by the Governor-General, went forth, and traversed the land in search of interesting subjects.
 :
In this way the design soon exceeded the dimensions of a mere private collection; but Lord Canning felt that its importance was sufficient to warrant official sanction and development, and, therefore, placed the matter in the hands of Mr. Clive Bayley, his home secretary. Some or the more important results appear in the present work.
 :
The photographs were produced without any definite plan, according to local and personal circumstances, by different officers; and copies of each plate were sent home to the Secretary of State for India council.
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After a time, it appeared that a sufficient number of illustrations had been received from various parts of India, fairly to represent the different varieties of the Indian races. The negatives remained in India; but from the plates sent home it was easy to produce fresh negatives, the prints of which might bee multiplied to any extent. The Secretary of State in council sanctioned this operation, and the work was executed by Mr. W. Griggs, at the India museum, under the superintendence of Dr. Forbes Watson.
 :
In many cases some descriptive account of the tribes represented accompanied the photographs sent from India. These varied greatly in amplitude and value. But on the whole it may be said that they were sufficient to constitute the basis of the sketches contributed by Mr. John R. Melville, Colonel Meadows Taylor, Mr Kaye, Dr Forbes Watson, and others. These sketches do not profess to be more than mere rough notes, suggestive rather than exhaustive, and they make no claim to aspire to scientific eminence, it is hoped that, in a ethnological point of view, it will not be without interest and value.[19]
 
  
662.16   Scientific >  Albert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Albert Frisch was a German photographer who was hired in around 1865 by Georges Leuzinger (1813-1892) to document the Amazon region of Brazil taking early photographs of Indians, local trees, wildife and genre scenes of life along the river.[20] 
  
662.17   Scientific >  Prince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
  
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An aristocratic relation of Napoleon, Prince Roland Bonaparte (1858-1924)[21] took a 19th century gentleman‘s interest in the sciences and in particular, during the earlier part of his life, in the study of anthropology. Like others of the period, he looked on photography as a scientific tool for preserving data from his expeditions, and used it to document the Amerindians, Surinames, Hottentots and other unusual peoples brought to European exhibitions.
 
In 1884 Bonaparte organized an ethnographic expedition to Lapland, an artic region in northern Europe, which described by F. Escard in an 1886 monograph Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie.[22] A portfolio of collotypes Lapons (Laplanders) was also issued from the negatives taken during the trip by "the Prince‘s usual photographer"[23]. The collotype plates, which are quite uncommon, document each sitter in paired frontal / profile views reminiscent of modern criminal mugshots. The images measure 6 x 4.5 inches (15x12 cm), printed on sheets 12 x 17 inches (30x44 cm).
 
Bonaparte‘s work is grounded in the anthropology of his time, which focussed on the documentation of physical characteristics, and in particular on shape and dimensions of the skull as a means of establishing relations between the human races. This tack had been given to European anthropology by its pioneers earlier in the century, notably Paul Broca, whose thinking was informed by the discovery of the first fragments of early man and whose standard field guide for anthropologists involved a complex series of physical measurements. The hard scientific results of Bonaparte‘s expedition were thus conclusions of the sort that Laplanders were "brachycephalic," had little facial hair, and possessed a "mean nasal index of 74.59 for the men, 73.64 for the women".[24] This attitude is clear in Bonaparte‘s images, yet paradoxically the sitters role as human specimens, accentuated further by the numbered cards held next to each on a short stick, allows them a status and often a dignity which would be lacking in more commonplace photography.[25] 
  
   Scientific Ethnographic Lapps 
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662.18   Scientific >  Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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There are very few known copies of this series by Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) and the number of albumen prints included seems to vary. The front cover of this volume is entitled simply Ogallalla Sioux.[26] However, a copy of the series came up for auction at Sotheby‘s Sale of "The Frank T. Siebert Library of the North American Indian and the American Frontier" collection in New York on October 28, 1999 which had the fuller title:
Photographs of Red Cloud and Principal Chiefs of Dacotah Indians Taken on Their Visit to Washington, D.C., May, 1872 (Washington D.C.: for Trustees of Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, England, [Gibson Brothers, Printers, 1872])
The volume has a rather intriguing history that is worthy of note. William Henry Blackmore was an English financier, philanthropist and founder of the Blackmore Museum in Salisbury (Wiltshire, UK). His commercial interests in the United States included mining ventures, railways and land speculation that brought him into contact with Native Americans. Blackmore developed a passionate interest in Native American cultures and realized the importance of documenting their societies.. Accordingly, he commissioned noted Civil War photographer, Alexander Gardner,[27] to photograph Native American delegations visiting Washington D.C. This portfolio, Ogallalla Sioux, records the delegation of Red Cloud (Mahpíya Lúta), who visited Washington, DC from May 25 to June 3, 1872. Gardner took this series and in one of the photographs (not included in this volume) Red Cloud is seated with a standing William Blackmore shaking his hand in respect and friendship.[28]
 
Soon afterwards Blackmore financed and then accompanied Ferdinand V. Hayden on his 1872 survey expedition of the Yellowstone region. Early in the summer of 1872, Mary Blackmore contracted pneumonia and died in Bozeman, Montana. Hayden named Mt. Blackmore in her honor.
 
The encroachments on Indian lands resulted in increasing hostilities, and only four years later General George Custer (1839-1876) would lead his forces into the Black Hills of Dakota to resounding defeat. Red Cloud was a well known chief but he did not join Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull in their ill-fated attempts to protect their rights.
 
List of plates in this copy of the portfolio
01 Red Cloud
01 Red Cloud b
02 Red Dog
02 Red Dog b
03 Lone Wolf
03 Lone Wolf b
04 Ear of Corn
05 Big Foot
05 Big Foot b
06 White Hawk
06 White Hawk b
07 One Afraid of the Eagle
07 One Afraid of the Eagle b
08 Blue Horse
09 Stabber
10 Dirt Face
11 Good Buffalo
11 Good Buffalo b
12 Poor Elk
12 Poor Elk b
13 Two Elks
13 Two Elks b
15 Cayote
16 Hard Heart
16 Hard Heart b
17 Slow Bull
17 Slow Bull b
[Courtesy of the Etherton Gallery] 
  
   Alexander  Gardner 
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662.19   Scientific >  Gustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Gustav Fritsch was a German anatomist and ethnologist with wide-ranging interests in neurophysiology, archaeology, photography and astronomy[29]. From 1863 to 1866 he was in southern Africa[30] travelling through Orange Free State, Basutoland, Natal and Bechuanaland in what is now South Africa and Botswana carrying out ethnological research during which he photographed the different races and this was published as Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872).[31] 
  
662.20   Scientific >  C. Nieuwenhuis: Sumatra 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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662.21   Scientific >  Daniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The German auction house Bassenge puts this series of photographs by Daniel David Veth taken in Central Sumatra, now part of Indonesia, in context:
Between 1877- 79 the Royal Netherlands Geographical Society (Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrrjkskundig Genootschap) organized a scientific expedition to Central Sumatra (Dutch East Indies) led by Lieutenant Johannes Schouw Santvoort (Royal Dutch Navy), with members Daniel David Veth (geographer and photographer), Arend Ludolf van Hasselt (ethnographer) and Johannes Francois Snelleman (zoologist). Son of the geographer and ethnographer Pieter Johannes Veth (1814-1895), who supervised the publication of the present album, Daniel David Veth was educated in Dutch schools and attended technical colleges in Hanover and Stuttgart to learn engineering. In 1877 he was summoned to join the Central Sumatra expedition. The expedition's objective was to map the Hari River basin and to study the people and the natural environment of Central Sumatra. Veth was responsible for the photographs and mapping. He died an early death from dysentery after the gruelling conditions of an expedition in Africa led to his illness.[32]
 
  
662.22   Scientific >  William Henry Jackson: Portraits of American Indians (1876) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William Henry Jackson[33] was one of the great expedition and railroad photographers of the American West. He was the photographer for U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869), more generally known as the Hayden Survey, he took series of railroads in America and Mexico and is one of the few photographers who left an autobiography.[34]
 
Jackson also took a large number of studies of Native Americans and in Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library there is an 1876 album entitled Portraits of American Indians - selected from the collection in the possession of the U.S. Geological survey of the territories Prof. F.V. Hayden in charge. Representing 70 different tribes with a splendid collection of 616 albumen prints.[35] 
  
662.23   Scientific >  Elias A. Bonine: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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662.24   Scientific >  Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1899 railroad trycoon Edward Harriman financed a two month scientific expedition to Alaska.[36] For health reasons he planned the trip but never one to do things in a small way he took with him a remarkable group of botanists, biologists, zoologists, geologists, geographers, experts on the Arctic, writers, artists and last but not least photographers. The photographer included was Edward Sheriff Curtis and his assistant D. J. Inverarity.[37] During the expedition Curtis established a friendship with George Bird Grinnell who was an expert in Native American Culture and this changed his future career. Curtis went on to becoming the driving force behind The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska (1907-1926) the most significant photographic work on Native Americans.[38][39] 
  
662.25   Scientific >  Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Edward S. Curtis The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska [40]
 
Portfolios 1-16 and text volumes 1-16 on Holland Van Gelder paper. The large-format sepia photogravures by John Andrew & Sons, each measuring 15½x11 inches and the reverse (39.3x 28 cm. and the reverse) with a printed title, plate number, copyright, and photographer‘s and publisher‘s credit on recto. Folio, ¼ gilt-impressed morocco; gilt-lettered bookplates. The small-format sepia photogravures by John Andrews & Son, with the accompanying vellum interleafing. Large 4tos, ¾ gilt-lettered morocco, top edge gilt; A realized edition of 272 copies. Cambridge & Norwood, Mass.: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26
Vol. 1: Apache, Jicarillas, Navaho.
Vol. 2: Pima, Papago, Qahatika, Mohave, Yuma, Maricopa, Walapi, Havasupai, Apache-Mohave.
Vol. 3: Teton Sioux, Yanktonai, Assiniboin.
Vol. 4: Apsaroke, Hidatsa.
Vol. 5: Mandan, Arikara, Atsina.
Vol. 6: Piegan, Cheyenne, Arapaho.
Vol. 7: Yakima, Klickitat, Interior Salish, Kutenai.
Vol. 8: Nez Percés, Walla Walla, Umatilla, Cayuse, Chinookan Tribes.
Vol. 9: Salishan Tribes of the Coast, Chimakum, Quilliute, Willapa.
Vol. 10: The Kwakiutl.
Vol. 11: Nootka, Haida.
Vol. 12: The Hopi.
Vol. 13: Hupa, Yurok, Karok, Wiyot, Tolowa, Tututni, Shasta, Achomawi, Klamath.
Vol. 14: Kato, Wailaki, Yuki, Pomo, Wintun, Maidu, Miwok, Yokuts.
Vol: 15: Southern California Shoshoneans, The Dieguenos, Plateau Shoshoneans, The Washo Mythology.
Vol. 16: The Tiwa, The Keres.
 
  
   Edward Sheriff  Curtis 
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662.26   Scientific >  Edward S. Curtis: Orotones 
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Noted photographer of Native Americans Edward S. Curtis used the somewhat unusual orotone process[41] to give a rich lustre to his portraits and genre scenes of Indian life. The orotone is sometimes called goldtone and Curtis, who is considered the master of the process, named them "Curt-Tones" (or "Curtones") after himself.
 
He described and endorsed them saying:
"The ordinary photographic print, however good, lacks depth and transparency, or more strictly speaking, translucency. We all know how beautiful are the stones and pebbles in the limpid brook of the forest where the water absorbs the blue of the sky and the green of the foliage, yet when we take the same iridescent pebbles from the water and dry them they are dull and lifeless, so it is with the ordinary photographic print, but in the Curt-Tones all the transparency is retained and they are as full of life and sparkle as an opal."[42]
Curt-Tones were a prestige item and this is reflected in the fact that in an early Curtis catalogue they could only be purchased in elaborate frames. 
  
662.27   Scientific >  William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
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British-born William Saunders opened his studio in Shanghai, China ca. 1863. Although he was a portrait photographer, his fascination with the Chinese people prompted him to photograph Chinese at all social levels from the food seller to the high ranking Mandarins. His catalog contained a large number of city views of Shanghai and the surrounding areas. Saunders photographs were sold by other photographers in China and are characteristic in his rectangular shape with rounded corners and oval vignettes. Many of his photographs were reproduced in ‘The Far East Magazine’. 
  
662.28   Scientific >  Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China 
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662.29   Scientific >  Charles Kroehle: Campa-Indians, Rio Chuchuras, East Peru (1880s) 
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662.30   Scientific >  Charles-Albert Arnoux Bertall: Ethnological studies 
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Charles-Albert Arnoux Bertall (1820-1882) was a caricaturist, illustrator, writer and a portrait photographer. He took commissioned cyanotype portraits for the Société d’Ethnographie, a club of amateur ethnographers, for their publication Collection Anthropologique. This series of three photographs of a "Turkish Woman, 18 Years Old, Born in Pitesci (Romania)" is unusual as the blurring on the photographs, use of the cyanotype process and their domestic setting takes them out of a scientific setting.[43] 
  
662.31   Scientific >  Maurice Vidal Portman: Andamanese 
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Maurice Vidal Portman went to the Andaman Islands[44] in 1879 and documented the languages and history of the region.[45] He carried out an ambitious but never completed plan to photograph the Andamanese aboriginals before their extinction due to colonial contact.[46] 
  
662.32   Scientific >  Maurice Vidal Portman: Male Andamanese - Balia 
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662.33   Scientific >  Maurice Vidal Portman: Female Andamanese - Ilech 
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662.34   Scientific >  Carl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s) 
  
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Carl Sofus Lumholtz (1851-1922)[47] was a Norwegian explorer noted for his ethnographic research in Australia[48] and Mexico.[49] Within the photographs housed in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History in New York there are nitrate negatives of his expeditions. With this collection there is a photograph taken by William Libbey of the Expedition tent with decorations, Christmas tree at entrance but the most interesting are the ethnographic portraits taken by Carl Lumholtz where the indigenous peoples were photographed face on and in profile with a measuring stick beside them. The physiological characteristics of peoples was an essential part of their classification and photographs were thought to provide supporting empirical evidence. 
  
662.35   Scientific >  Tanner Brothers: Maori Studies 
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The Tanner Brothers were known for their picture postcards of New Zealand made from about 1904.[50] 
  
662.36   Scientific >  Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin: The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954) 
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Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin (1874-1954) worked as a security officer in one of the native compounds for De Beers Consolidated Mines in Kimberley, South Africa. His relationships with the migrant diamond miners led to an interest in the local populations and in 1919 he initiated a long term project to document them. He carried out numerous ethnographic expeditions to photograph the San and other groups around Kimberley financed by Kimberley's McGregor Museum, the Carnegie Foundation and the government.
 
His expeditions between 1919 and 1939:
1919 - Bushman - Tswana
1920 - Zulu
1922 - Bushmen
1923 - Ndebele - Shangaan - Venda
1925 - Bhaca - Mpondo
1926 - Sotho
1927 - Bushmen - Swazi - Tsonga
1928 - Mfengu - Xhosa
1929 - Pedi
1930 - Bomvana - Gcaleka - Ngqika - Sotho - Thembu
1932 - Bhaca - Hlubi - Mpondo - Mpondomise - Xesibe
1933 - Bushmen - Chopi - Ndebele - Swazi - Tsonga/Shangaan
1934 - Ndebele (Matabele) - Tswana - Sarwa
1935 - Tsonga - Zulu
1936 - Herero - Ila -Wambo
1937 - Bhaca - Ila - Nguni
1938 - Ila - Lozi - Lunda - Mbunda
1939 - Ndau - Shona
In 1925 he opened the "Duggan-Cronin Bantu Gallery" in his house, provided by De Beers, to show his Bantu portraits. His interest in the subject led to a four volume set of eleven sections The Bantu Tribes of South Africa: Reproductions of Photographic Studies by A.M. Duggan-Cronin (1928-1954) illustrated with 376 collotypes.
Vol. I, Section I, The Bavenda - Plates I-XX, G. P. Lestrade, M.A., 1928
 
Vol. II, Section I, Suto-Chuana Tribes / The Bechuana - Plates I-XXVI, G. P. Lestrade, M.A., 1929
 
Vol. II, Section II, Suto-Chuana Tribes / The Bapedi - Plates XXVII-LII, Werner Eiselen, M.A., Ph.D., 1931
 
Vol. II, Section III, Suto-Chuana Tribes / The Southern Basotho - Plates LIII-LXXVIII, G. P. Lestrade, M.A. / I. Schapera, M.A., Ph.D., 1933
 
Vol. III, Section I, The Nguni / The Ciskei and Souther Transkei Tribes (Xhosa and Thembu) - Plates I-XL, I. Schaphera and W.G. Bennie, 1939
 
Vol. III, Section II, The Nguni / The Mpondo and Mpondomise - Plates XLI-LXXX, Monica Wilson, M.A., Ph.D., 1949
 
Vol. III, Section III, The Nguni / The Zulu - Plates LXXXI-CXX, D. McK. Malcolm, BA., 1938
 
Vol. III, Section IV, The Nguni / The Swazi - Plates CXXI-CLII, Hilda Beemer, 1941
 
Vol. III, Section V, Baca, Hlubi, Xesibe - Plates CLIII-CXCVIII, W. D. Hammond-Tooke, M.A., Ph.D., 1954
 
Vol. IV, Section I, The Vathonga Thonga-Shangaan (The Thonga-Shangaan People) - Plates I-XL, Henri-Philippe Junod, B.A., B.D., 1935
 
Vol. IV, Section Il, The Vachopi of Portugese East Africa - Plates XLI-LXXX, Henri-Philippe Junod, B.A., B.D. 1936
The Duggan-Cronin Gallery, which is a satellite of the McGregor Museum in Kimberley, South Africa houses his collection of photographs and ethnographic artefacts. 
  
Tipos 
  
662.37   Scientific >  Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil) 
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662.38   Scientific >  Courret Hermanos: Tipos (Bolivia) 
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662.39   Scientific >  François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
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Compilations of ethographic portraits 
  
662.40   Scientific >  C. & F.W. Dammann: Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men (1875) 
  
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Carl Dammann collected together portraits from around the world to construct a visual typology of humanity. Working first on copying photographs for the Godefroy Museum[51] in Hamburg, Germany he later published Anthropologisches-Ethnologisches Album in Photographien (1872-1874). When Carl Dammann died in 1874 his brother Friedrich Dammann, a music and language teaching living in Hudderfield, Yorkshire (UK) continued on. The resulting book Ethnological photographic gallery of the various races of men included the following sections:
I. Germanic types
II. Romanic types
III. Slavonians, Finns
IV. Types of the Balkan Peninsula
V. Arabia, Persia
VI. India, Western part
VII. India, Eastern part
VIII. Sunda Islands
IX. Philippine Islands
X. China
XI. Japan
XII. North of Asia
XIII. Mediterranean Africa
XIV. Niger District
XV. Congo
XVI. Zanzibar Coast
XVII. Cape Colony
XVIII. N. America, Northern part
XIX. N. America, Southern part
XX. S. America, Eastern part
XXI. Amazon District
XXII. Cordillera District
XXIII. Continent of Australia
XXIV. Polynesia, Oceania
In an age of rapid classification of the natural world due to the pioneering work on botany by Carl Linneaus[52] everything from the animal kingdom to humanity was deemed worthy of typological analysis. It was felt that the evolutionary work of Charles Darwin[53] that applied to the natural world could also be applied to human societies in which case the Europeans would be the most civilized and the aborogines the least and the ordering of the sections in Ethnological photographic gallery of the various races of men is a confirmation of this view. With hindsight it is a simplistic racist narrative of human societies but to be more charitable they were attempting to create a foundation for the study of race where there was none. 
  
Scandal 
  
662.41   Scientific >  King Billy - A scandal in Tasmania 
  
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In Tasmania the aborigine numbers decreased rapidly after colonization and by 1847 only 46 individuals remained. Charles A. Woolley took a studio portrait of a Tasmanian woman called Trucanini in 1866 - here the portrait is interesting because it uses the format used by contemporary portrait photographers rather than the fully body shots that were preferred by anthropologists. The paper print, now in the collection of the Royal Anthropological Institution of Great Britain and Ireland, shows the head and shoulders with the upper body fading out in the lower part of the shot, a style commonly used in carte-de-visite.
 
In the medical journal The Lancet in 1869 there was an account of the scandalous treatment of the last remains of "King Billy":
THE LAST TASMANIAN.
 
The public mind of Hobart Town has been greatly disturbed by an unseemly squabble consequent on the death of "King Billy," the last aboriginal Tasmanian. It seems that none of the museums of the colony contain a complete male aboriginal skeleton; and hence King Billy's remains have been fought for in the deadhouse and in the graveyard, and have since been fought about, still more fiercely, in the columns of the local papers. Mr. Crowther, a surgeon of Hobart Town, and the recent recipient of a medal from the Royal College of Surgeons of England, wished to secure the precious skeleton for the museum in Lincoln's-inn-fields. The Government, on the other hand, was in favour of securing the skeleton for the museum of the (colonial) Royal Society; and Dr. Stokell, the house-surgeon to the hospital in which the death took place, received strict orders to preserve the remains from mutilation. Someone, however (and suspicion points to Mr. Crowther), succeeded in gaining access to the deadhouse, and removed the skull, sewing up within the soft parts another skull in place of it. Next, in the interests of the colonial museum, the hands and feet were removed; and, finally, the body, after a public funeral, was exhumed at night under the direction of Dr. Stokell. The skull is still missing, and Mr. Crowther, who is a member of the upper house of the Tasmanian legislature, has been suspended from his duties as surgeon to the hospital. The newspapers are full of letters of acrimonious recrimination, and the editors find in the subject a text for leaders in the largest type. We can only hope that the disjecta membra may in time be united in some fitting resting-place, and that the discreditable incidents of the contest may be speedily forgotten.[54]
 
  
Ethnographic nudity 
  
662.42   Scientific >  Ethnographic nudity 
  
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Motivations and desires can be difficult to determine without evidence and our preconceptions of exploitation of the subject are not necessarily correct.[55] If we understand the background of the photographer and how a photograph was taken, disseminated and the context within which it was displayed we have a partial framework, however incomplete, to place it. Blunt statements such as "all photographs are exploitative" or "photographs of ethnic nudity display a power relationship between the photographer and the subject within which the subject has little control" do not address the complex nuances. Ethnographic photography has at times been used to support theories of racial differences and Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)[56] was a proponent of that approach but it would be naive to say that all ethnographers have similar motivations.
 
The photographs anthropologist G.E. Dobson took of a photograph of the naked Maia Biala, the chief of Rutland Island and his wife whom was of a man he, and others, admired.[57]  
  
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With the anthropological photographs of Maurice Vidal Portman[58] the use of the scaled backgrounds required for scientific measurement removes ambiguity but doesn't get around ethnic exploitation.  
  
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Some photographs have the appearance of erotica or even pornography and the taboos associated with those in western society were partially reduced by the sense of the exotic. Other portraits were taken for sale to the tourist trade and the bare-breasted North African ladies in the Lehnert & Landrock[59] were exotic images in the Orientalist style where the motivation was presumably pecuniary.  
  
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Photographs change their meaning and usage over time and anthropologists purchased commercial photographs and postcards to construct racial typologies. 
  
662.43   Scientific >  U.S. Navy Flight School: Pilots 
  
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Merging of populations through immigration 
  
662.44   Scientific >  Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
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Augustus Francis Sherman (1865-1925) was a registry clerk at Ellis Island (NY)[60] and between 1904 and 1920 he took over 200 photographs of new arrivals.[61] 
  
   Augustus Francis  Sherman 
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The continuation of tipos? 
  
662.45   Scientific >  August Sander (1876-1964) 
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August Sander is known for his monumental work Citizens of the Twentieth Century (Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts)[62] which consists of face-on portraits of all classes of German society during the first half of the nineteenth century. The portraits are highly detailed and show people in their working or everyday clothes sometimes accompanied by the tools or symbols of their trade. In 1909 in an advertising brochure he wrote:
I am not concerned with providing commonplace photographs like those made in the finer large-scale studios of the city, but simple, natural portraits that show the subjects in an environment corresponding to their own individuality, portraits that claim the right to be evaluated as works of art and to be used as wall adornments.[63]
In 1929 sixty of his portraits were published in the book Antlitz der Zeit (Face of our Time)[64] but the veracity of the portraits was at odds with the propaganda myths of the Aryan super race that the Nazi party was seeking to promote. In November 1936 the Reich Chamber of Visual Arts banned the book, seized any copies they could and destroyed the printing plates. This was a difficult period for Sander as his son, Erich, was imprisoned for left-wing sympathies and the production of pamphlets, and as the Nazi party gained influence his work on cataloguing the German peoples was out of step with the times and so he concentrated on landscapes[65] and the architecture of Cologne.[66]
 
Sander attempted at various times to create classifications of archetypes and there were far from consistent and flexed over time but even with the difficulties of groupings the work of August Sander is now regarded as one of the key projects in photographic portrait history and his style has been widely copied. 
  
   August  Sander 
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662.46   Scientific >  Irving Penn: People of the world 
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662.47   Scientific >  William Coupon: People of the world 
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662.48   Scientific >  Phyllis Galembo: West African Masquerade 
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Since 1997 Phyllis Galembo has been photographing masked revelers in ritual performances. Galembo has made over twenty trips to sites of ritual masquerade in Africa and the Caribbean. She has repeatedly photographed Carnaval in Jacmel, Haiti before and during the Aristide debacle, capturing annual performances with a subterranean political edge. She has traveled repeatedly to West Africa to witness annual rituals that involve extraordinarily creative masking and costuming.
 
Galembo brings her lights and cameras to scenes of public display. She chooses existing local background: a wall of a home, a tree. She coaxes poses from her subjects as they proceed with their ritual business. She reveals creativities of fashion and performance that combine traditional and modern materials, symbol, and gestures. Her subjects may spend a year gathering materials and sewing elaborate costumes worn a single day. Or they spontaneously paint their jeans and bodies and join posses of play and protest.
 
Galembo works in the tradition of the staged portraits of Edward Sheriff Curtis and the world-in-a-small-room ethnic fashion studies of Irving Penn. But Galembo does not carefully arrange her subjects in a studio setting. She looks for timelessness, elegance, and dignity. But she is also attuned to a moment’s collision of past, present and future, attuned to a riot of contradictory forms and colors, messages and silences, hopes and desperations.
 
Galembo’s portraiture illuminates the transformative power of costume and ritual. Her images capture the raw and often frightening aspect of ceremonial garb. She highlights the creativity of the individuals morphing into a fantastical representation of themselves. The subjects have cobbled together materials gathered from the immediate environment to idealize their vision of mythical figures. While still pronounced in their personal identity, the subject’s intentions are rooted in the larger dynamics of religious, political and cultural affiliation. Establishing these connections is a hallmark of Galembo‘s work.[67] 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Carl Linnaeus, 1753, Species Plantarum, (Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius) 
      
  2. Λ Charles Darwin, 1859, On the Origin of Species, (London: John Murray) 
      
  3. Λ Frank Spencer, "Anthropometry", IN Frank Spencer (ed.), 1997, History of Physical Anthropology: An Ancycloped, (Taylor & Francis), vol. 1, pp.80-90 
      
  4. Λ For anthropology in general examine - John Collier, 1967, Visual Anthropology: Photography As a Research Method, (Holt, Rinehart and Winston); Elizabeth Edwards (ed.), 1992, Anthropology and Photography: 1860-1920, (New Haven: Yale University Press) 
      
  5. Λ 22 October 1869,"Photographic Notes", The Illustrated Photographer: Scientific and Art Journal, vol. 2, p. 483 
      
  6. Λ Thomas Henry Huxley, 1871, Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals, (London: Churchill), pp. 414-420 
      
  7. Λ For an Australian context - Marguerita Stephens, 2010, White Without Soap: Philanthropy, Caste and Exclusion in Colonial Victoria 1835-1888 : a Political Economy of Race, (UoM Custom Book Centre) Reprint, pp. 167-168 
      
  8. Λ The photograph of "Major General Horatio Gordon Robley with his collection of tattooed Maori heads" (1895) in the Wellcome Images (L0032965) collection is disturbing. In E. G. Allingham, 1924, A romance of the rostrum, being the business life of Henry Stevens together with some account of famous sales, pp. 204-205 an account is provided:
    The most gruesome offerings [auctoned by Henry Stevens] were shrunken human heads, sold by Stevens on several occasions, the most remarkable being, in 1902, the collection of thirty-three tattooed Maori heads, the property of General Robley, who, it is said, decorated his bedroom wall with these relics and 'when unable to sleep at night would rise and comb his Maoris' hair, and felt himself soothed'
    The Wellcome Library says - "The accuracy of Allingham's account is questionable" but does not provide the reason for doubt. 
      
  9. Λ For a biography on Louis Agassiz - Christoph Irmscher, 2013, Louis Agassiz: Creator of American Science, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)
     
    For the daguerreotypes of slaves that were taken for him - Elinor Reichlin, 1977, Summer, ‘Faces of Slavery‘, American Heritage, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4-11; Brian Wallis, 1995, Summer, ‘Black Bodies, White Science: Louis Agassiz's Slave Daguerreotypes‘, American Art, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 38-61  
      
  10. Λ A number of the Joseph T. Zealy daguerreotypes of Renty, Drana and Delia are in the collections at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 
      
  11. Λ Juli Sheptytsky-Zäll, 2009, Collection anthropologique du Muséum de Paris: Ethnographic portraits by Jacques-Philippe Potteau (Ryerson University, Thesis - Master of Arts (MA), Photographic Preservation and Collections Management), Theses and dissertations. Paper 515. 
      
  12. Λ Felicity Ashbee, 1978, ‘William Carrick: A Scots Photographer in St. Petersburg (1827-1878)‘, History of Photography, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 207-222 
      
  13. Λ W.R.S. Ralston, 1 October 1870, "A Few Russian Photographs", Good Words, pp. 667-673. Includes an interested article on the subject. 
      
  14. Λ Daniel N. Paul, 2000, We were not the savages: a Mi'kmaq perspective on the collision between European and native American civilizations, (Fernwood) 
      
  15. Λ Michael Wilkshire & Gerard Penney, Spring 1991, ‘Five Micmac Photographs‘, Newfoundland Quarterly, vol. LXXXVI, no. 3, pp. 12-16 [Includes five photographs of Mi'kmaqs taken by Paul-Émile Miot and kept in the Musée de l'Homme, Paris]
     
    Albumen prints of photographs by Paul-Émile Miot are also in the collection of Library and Archives Canada:
     
    Mik'maq (Micmac) woman [Newfoundland], Accession: 1996-097, Reproduction no: PA-195499
    Mi'kmaq (Micmac) man [Newfoundland], Accession: 1996-097, Reproduction no: PA-195497
    Mi'kmaq woman on board the Sésostris [Newfoundland], Accession: 1994-303, Reproduction no: PA-188214
    Mi'kmaq woman on board the French aviso Sésostris, Accession: 1994-303, Reproduction no: PA-188213
    Four Mi'kmaq women sitting in front of their wigwams [Sydney, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia], Accession: 1995-084, Reproduction no: PA-194632 
      
  16. Λ William Johnson, 1863-66, The oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay, (London: W.J. Johnson)
    Vol. 1. Gujarât, Kutch, and Kâthiawâr
     
    The copy at the British Library, India Office, shelfmark Photo 964/1 lists the plates as:
    (1) Owdich Brahmins [Bombay]
    (2) Nagur Brahmins [Bombay]
    (3) Nagar Brahman Women [Bombay]
    (4) Vallabhacharya Maharajas [Bombay]
    (5) Rajpoots [Bombay]
    (6) Bhats [Bombay]
    (7) Khuwas and Golas [Bombay]
    (8) Banians of Surat, Gogo, and Ahmedabad [at Bombay]
    (9) Banians of Porebunder [at Bombay]
    (10) Banians and Sonees of Damnuggur [at Bombay]
    (11) Banian Women [Bombay]
    (12) Ghur-Baree (house-holding) Gosaees [Bombay]
    (13) Bhatias [Bombay]
    (14) Lowana Women [Bombay]
    (15) Sadhoos [Bombay]
    (16) Khumbars of Kutch [Bombay]
    (17) Kharavas [Bombay]
    (18) The Dheds of Gujarat [at Bombay]
    (19) Waghurees [Bombay]
    (20) Parsis [Bombay]
    (21) Parsee Women [Bombay]
    (22) Mehmans [Bombay]
    (23) Mehman Women [Bombay]
    (24) Khojas [Bombay]
    (25) Muhammadan Women of Surat [at Bombay]
    (26) Bohoras [Bombay]
    Vol. 2. Mahârâshtra, or Maráthá Country
     
    The copy at the British Library, India Office, shelfmark Photo 964/2 lists the plates as:
    (1) Brahmans of the Dakhan and Konkan [at Bombay]
    (2) Marathi Brahman Women [Bombay]
    (3) Brahman Laides of the Dakhan [at Bombay]
    . (4) Karnatika Brahmans [at Bombay]
    (5) Vairagis, or Bairagis [Bombay]
    (6) Gosavanis [Bombay]
    (7) Parbhus, Sonars, and Somavansha-Kshatriyas [at Bombay]
    (8) Parbhu Women of Bombaybr> (9) Marathas of the Dakhan [at Bombay]
    (10) Marathi Women of Bombay
    (11) Kamathis [at Bombay]
    (12) Kamathi Women [at Bombay]
    (13) The Kulis of the West of India [at Bombay]
    (14) Fishwomen of Bombay
    (15) The Agari Kulis of the Konkan [at Bombay]
    (16) Chambhars [at Bombay]
    (17) Mahars [at Bombay]
    (18) Mangs [at Bombay]
    (19) Muhammadans of the Dakhan and Konkan [ at Bombay]
    (20) Muhammadan Women of the Konkan [at Bombay]
    (21) Muhammadan Women of the Dakhan [at Bombay]
    (22) Bene-Israel of Bombay
    (23) Goanese Christians [at Bombay]
    (24) Coonbies (Roman Catholics of Salsette) [at Bombay]
    (25) Roman Catholic Women of Salsette [Bombay]
     
      
  17. Λ Photographs Album details for shelfmark Photo 964/1 - British Library, India Office
    William Johnson, 1863, The Oriental Races and Tribes, Residents and Visitors of Bombay. A series of Photographs, with letter-press descriptions...Vol. I. - Gujarat, Kutch, and Kathiawar' (London, W.J. Johnson).
    (Accessed: 16 August 2013)
    www.bl.uk/catalogues/indiaofficeselect/PhotoShowDescs.asp?CollID=1745 
      
  18. Λ Meadows Taylor, 1868-1872, The People of India. A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, (by Meadows Taylor,) originally prepared under the authority of the Government of India, and reproduced by order of the Secretary of State for India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) [Edited by J.F. Watson and J.W. Kaye. A fascimile reprint of the original 1867 eight volume edition was published in 1987 by B.R. Publishing, Delhi.] 
      
  19. Λ $Meadows Taylor, 1868-1872, The People of India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) , Preface 
      
  20. Λ There is a useful collection of photographs by Albert Frisch in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, and there is an album "Views in the Amazon Valley" in Brown University Library (Call number: 1-SIZE yxG V67). The photographs are attributed to Albert Frisch.
     
    With thanks to Karl-Georg Scheffer for bringing this material to my attention (pers. email: Karl-Georg Scheffer to Alan Griffiths, 19 November 2013). 
      
  21. Λ Benoit Coutancier, 1992, Peaux-Rouges : autour de la collection anthropologique du prince Roland Bonaparte, (Thonon-les-Bains, Haute-Savoie: Editions de l'Albaron; [Paris]: Phototheque du Musee de l'homme) 
      
  22. Λ F. Escard, 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot) 
      
  23. Λ F. Escard, 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot), p. viii 
      
  24. Λ F. Escard, 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot), p. xiii 
      
  25. Λ Text © Christopher Wahren (2006) - Used with permission 
      
  26. Λ See also - Alexander Gardner, 1872, Photographs of Red Cloud and Principal Chiefs of Dacotah Indians Taken on Their Visit to Washington, D.C., May, 1872, (Washington D.C.: for Trustees of Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, England, [Gibson Brothers, Printers]) 
      
  27. Λ For Alexander Gardner and the American Civil War - Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  28. Λ A copy of this work at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University [Zc16D1 +872ga] includes a photograph of a seated Red Cloud shaking hands with a standing William Henry Blackmore. 
      
  29. Λ In 1868 Gustav Fritsch took part in an expedition to Aden to observe the solar eclipse of 18 August. In 1874 he went to Isfahan in Iran to observe the Transit of Venus. 
      
  30. Λ Gustav Fritsch, 1868, Drei Jahre in Südafrika: Reiseskizzen nach Notizen des Tagebuchs zusammengestellt, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Three years in South Africa: Travelogues arranged after notes of the diary] 
      
  31. Λ Gustav Fritsch, 1872, Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Ethnographic and anatomic research in South Africa] 
      
  32. Λ Bassenge, auction, Photography of the 19th to 21st Century, 4 December 2013, lot: 4055. 
      
  33. Λ For a personal account see Jackson's autobiography: William Henry Jackson, 1986, Time Exposure: The Autobiography of William Henry Jackson, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Useful material included also in William C. Jones, 1992, William Henry Jackson's Colorado, (Colorado Railroad Museum); Peter B. Hales, 1988, William Henry Jackson and the Transformation of the American Landscape, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press) 
      
  34. Λ William Henry Jackson, 1986, Time Exposure: The Autobiography of William Henry Jackson, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) 
      
  35. Λ William Henry Jackson, 1876, Photographs of Indians selected from the collection in the possession of the U.S. Geological survey of the territories Prof. F.V. Hayden in charge. Representing 70 different tribes. Album with 616 prints - Yale Collection of Western Americana, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Call number: WA Photos Folio 54, Image ID Number: 1072976 
      
  36. Λ W.H. Goetzmann & K. Sloan, 1982, Looking Far North: The Harriman expedition to Alaska, 1899, (New York: The Viking Press) 
      
  37. Λ An album compiled by George F. Nelson, 1899, Alaska, 1899: The Harriman Alaska Expedition, Chronicles and Souvenirs - May to August 1899 with photographs by Edward S.Curtis, Edward H. Harriman and others is included and discussed in - Verna Posever Curtis, 2011, Photographic Memory: The Album in the Age of Photography, (Aperture / Library of Congress), pp. 16-27 
      
  38. Λ Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26) 
      
  39. Λ The bibliography on Edward S. Curtis is considerable. For his unpublished memoir - Edward S. Curtis, n.d., As it Was [Unpublished memoir, University of Washington Library, Special Collections]
     
    For publications by Curtis - Edward S. Curtis, 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Northwest Plains‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 657-671; Edward S. Curtis, 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Southwest‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 513-529; Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26); Edward S. Curtis, 1909, ‘Village Tribes of the Desert Land‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 274-287; Edward S. Curtis, 1914, Indian Days of the Long Ago, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1915, In the Land of the Head-Hunters, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1992, Native Nations: First Americans as Seen by Edward Curtis, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1997, The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolio, (New York: Köln: Taschen)
     
    There are innumerable other reprints and studies on Curtis. 
      
  40. Λ Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26). 
      
  41. Λ For an Orotone the negative was used to create a positive glass plate that is backed with a gold coloured substance created from banana oils and bronze powder. This was spread on the back of the emulsion and had similarities to the way ambrotypes were created much earlier. Although called "orotones" or "goldtones" no gold was used in the process. 
      
  42. Λ The Rainbow Man - Orotone / Goldtone Process
    (Accessed: 20 November 2013)
    www.therainbowman.com/goldtone.htm 
      
  43. Λ This series was included in the exhibition Naked before the Camera at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (March 27–September 9, 2012). 
      
  44. Λ Most of the islands are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India, while a small number in the north of the archipelago belong to Burma including the Coco Islands. 
      
  45. Λ M.V. Portman, 1899, A history of our relations with the Andamanese, (Calcutta: Office of the Government Printing) [2 volumes] 
      
  46. Λ The Pitt Rivers Museum has about two dozen photographs by Maurice Vidal Portman in its collection, the British Library has some and there is an extensive collection at the British Museum. 
      
  47. Λ Carl Lumholtz, 1921, My Life in Exploration 
      
  48. Λ Carl Lumholtz, 1889, Among Cannibals; an account of four years' travels in Australia and of camp life with the aborigines of Queensland, (New York : C. Scribner's). Republished in 1980 - Canberra: Australian National University Press. 
      
  49. Λ Carl Lumholtz, 1902, Unknown Mexico; a record of five years' exploration among the tribes of the western Sierra Madre; in the tierra caliente of Tepic and Jalisco; and among the Tarascos of Michoacan. (London: Macmillan and Co., Limited ). Republished in 1973 by Glorieta, N.M., Rio Grande Press, and 1987 by Dover. 
      
  50. Λ Alan Jackson, August 1996, "Victor Joseph Tanner", The Postcard Pillar
    (Accessed: 20 November 2013)
    www.postcard.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/Tanner-Alan-Jackson.pdf
    The brothers were Edwin Arthur Tanner and Victor Joseph Tanner and their father may have been Frank Nicholass Tanner. 
      
  51. Λ The Godefroy Museum was based on the collection of shipping tycoon Johann Cesar VI. Godeffroy and ran from 1861-1885.
    Museum Godeffroy - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 6 May 2014)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Museum_Godeffroy 
      
  52. Λ Carl Linnaeus, 1753, Species Plantarum, (Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius) 
      
  53. Λ Charles Darwin, 1859, On the Origin of Species, (London: John Murray) 
      
  54. Λ June 26, 1869, "The Last Tasmanian", The Lancet, no. 2391, p. 882. 
      
  55. Λ For examining sexuality in a colonial context - Malek Alloula, 1986, The Colonial Harem, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press); Raymond Corbey, 1988, "Alterity: The Colonial Nude", Critique of Anthropology, vol. 8, pp. 75-92; Kelly Dennis, 1994, ‘Ethnopornography: Veiling the Dark Continent‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-28; Thomas Hendriks, 2013, "Erotics of Sin: Promiscuity, Polygamy and Homo-Erotics in Missionary Photography from the Congolese Rainforest", Visual Anthropology, Special Issue: Records of the Subaltern in Colonial and Imperial Societies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 355-382 
      
  56. Λ Christoph Irmscher, 2013, Louis Agassiz: Creator of American Science, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt) 
      
  57. Λ G.E. Dobson, 1875, "On the Andamans and Andamanese", The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, vol. IV, plate xxxi; See also - Sita Venkateswa, 2004, Development and Ethnocide: Colonial Practices in the Andaman Islands, (IWGIA), p. 108
     
    Note that the genitalia of Maia Biala have been scratched out on one of these versions - presumably a prudish defacing. In the versions at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, PRM. B30. Misc.Ic; RAI 5758 and in the private collection collection of Jan Weijers the genitalia are shown.  
      
  58. Λ M.V. Portman, 1899, A history of our relations with the Andamanese, (Calcutta: Office of the Government Printing) [2 volumes] 
      
  59. Λ Michel Mégnin, 2005, La Tunisie de Lehnert et Landrock, (Paris: Méditerranée & Tunis: Apollonia) 
      
  60. Λ Barbara Benton, 1987, Ellis Island: A Pictorial History, (Facts on File) 
      
  61. Λ Augustus F. Sherman & Peter Mesenhöller, 2005, Augustus F. Sherman: Ellis Island Portraits 1905–1920, (Aperure) 
      
  62. Λ August Sander, 1986, August Sander: Citizens of the Twentieth Century: Portrait Photographs 1892–1952, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Edited by Gunther Sander]; August Sander, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer]; Manfred Heiting (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) 
      
  63. Λ Cited in: George Steeves, 2013, August Sander: Objective Romantic, (Halifax, NS, Canada: Mount St. Vincent Art Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, September 7 - October 20, 2013], p. 11 
      
  64. Λ August Sander, 1929, Antlitz der Zeit, (Munich: Transmare and Kurt Wolff). The preface Faces, Images, and Their Truth was written by Alfred Döblin whose novel Berlin Alexanderplatz was published the same year. 
      
  65. Λ August Sander, 2004, August Sander: Photographs of the German Landscape, (Washingon: The Phillips Collection) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  66. Λ August Sander created sixteen portfolios of photographs of the city of Cologne which were purchased by the city administration for 25,000 marks. George Steeves, 2013, August Sander: Objective Romantic, (Halifax, NS, Canada: Mount St. Vincent Art Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, September 7 - October 20, 2013], p. 15.
     
    The work of August Sander on Cologne would later be published in 1952 as Cologne: As It Was which has been republished as Kölnisches Stadtmuseum (ed.), 1995, August Sander: Köln wie es war, (Cologne) 
      
  67. Λ Text courtesy of Phyllis Galembo and Stephen Kasher Gallery. 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Alloula, Malek, 1986, The Colonial Harem, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) isbn-10: 0816613842 isbn-13: 978-0816613847 [Δ
  
Banta, Melissa & Hinsley, Curtis M., 1986, From Site to Sight: Anthropology, Photography, and the Power of Imagery, (Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum Press) [Δ
  
Birk, Lukas & Foley, Sean, 2013, Afghan Box Camera, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) isbn-13: 978-1907893360 [Δ
  
Blanchard, Pascal; Boëtsch, Gilles & Snoep, Nanette Jacomijn (eds), 2012, Human Zoos: The Invention of the Savage, (Actes Sud) isbn-10: 2330002610 isbn-13: 978-2330002619 [Exhibition catalogue, Quai Branly Museum in Paris (6 March 2012 –13 May 2012)] [Δ
  
Bush, Alfred L. & Mitchell, Lee Clark, 1994, The Photograph and the American Indian, (Princeton University Press) isbn-10: 0691034893 isbn-13: 978-0691034898 [Δ
  
Butler, Shelley, 2007, Contested Representations: Revisiting ‘Into the Heart of Africa’, (University of Toronto Press) isbn-10: 1551117770 isbn-13: 978-1551117775 [Δ
  
Collier, John, 1967, Visual Anthropology: Photography As a Research Method, (Holt, Rinehart and Winston) [Δ
  
Comaroff, John L. ; Comaroff, Jean & James, Deborah, 2007, Picturing a Colonial Past: The African Photographs of Isaac Schapera, (University of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226114120 isbn-13: 978-0226114125 [Δ
  
Corbey, Raymond, 1988, ‘Alterity: The Colonial Nude‘, Critique of Anthropology, vol. 8, pp. 75-92 [Δ
  
Dalton, Edward, 1872, Descriptive ethnology of Bengal, (Calcutta) [Includes photographs by Benjamin Simpson] [Δ
  
Dammann, Carl, 1872-1874, Anthropologisches-Ethnologisches Album in Photographien [Δ
  
Dammann, Carl & Dammann, Frederick [Friedrich] W., 1875, Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men, (London: Trubner) [Δ
  
Dennis, Kelly, 1994, ‘Ethnopornography: Veiling the Dark Continent‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-28 [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth, 1990, ‘Photographic 'Types': The Pursuit of a Method‘, Visual Anthropology, vol. 3, no. 2-3, pp. 241-247 [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth, 2001, Raw Histories: Photographs, Anthropology and Museums, (Berg Publishers) isbn-10: 1859734979 isbn-13: 978-1859734971 [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth & Hart, Janice (eds.), 2004, Photographs Objects Histories: On the Materiality of Images, (London: Routledge) isbn-10: 0415254426 isbn-13: 978-0415254427 [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth (ed.), 1992, Anthropology and Photography: 1860-1920, (New Haven: Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Escard, F., 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot) [Δ
  
Falconer, John, 1984, ‘Ethnographical Photography in India 1850-1900‘, Photographic Collector, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 16-46 [Δ
  
Fleming, Paula Richardson, 2003, Native American Photography at the Smithsonian: The Shindler Catalogue, (Smithsonian Books) isbn-10: 1588341216 isbn-13: 978-1588341211 [Δ
  
Garb, Tamar (ed.), 2013, African Photography from the Walther Collection: Distance and Desire - Encounters with the African Archive, (Steidl) isbn-13: 978-3869306513 [Δ
  
Geary, Christraud M. & Webb, Virginia-Lee (eds.), 1998, Delivering Views: Distant Cultures in Early Postcards, (Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press) isbn-10: 1560987596 isbn-13: 978-1560987598 [Δ
  
Geismar, Haidy, 2006, ‘Malakula: A Photographic Collection‘, Society for Comparative Study of Society and History, vol. 6, pp. 520-563 [Δ
  
Gmelch, Sharon Bohn, 2008, The Tlingit Encounter with Photography, (University of Pennsylvania Museum Publication) isbn-10: 1934536105 isbn-13:  978-1934536100 [Δ
  
Howe, K.S., 2004, First Seen. Portraits Of The World's Peoples 1840-1880 From The Wilson Centre For Photography, (London: Santa Barbara Museum of Art; Third Millennium Publishing) [Δ
  
Im Thurn, E.F., 1893, ‘Anthropological Uses of the Camera‘, Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vol. 22, pp. 184-203 [Δ
  
Jehel, Pierre-Jérôme, 1995, Photographie et anthropologie en France au XIXe siècle, (Mémoire de DEA "Esthétique, sciences et technologie des arts" UFR "Arts, Philosophie et esthétique" Université Paris VIII. Saint-Denis) [Δ
  
Kan, Sergei, 2013, A Russian American Photographer in Tlingit Country: Vincent Soboleff in Alaska, (University of Oklahoma Press) isbn-10: 0806142901 isbn-13: 978-0806142906 [Δ
  
Lallemand and Hart, 1865, Galerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace [Δ
  
Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert, 1904, La Coleccion Boggiani de Tipos indigenas de Sudamerica Central, (Buenos Aires: Casa Editora de R. Rosauer, Rivadavia) [Includes 100 photographs by ethnologist Guido Boggiani with a further 14 in a supplement published the same year.] [Δ
  
Lydon, Jane, 2006, Eye Contact: Photographing Indigenous Australians, (Duke University Press) isbn-10: 0822387255 isbn-13: 978-0822387251 [Δ
  
Lydon, Jane (ed.), 2014, Calling the shots: Aboriginal photographies, (Canberra: A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press) isbn-10: 1922059595 isbn-13: 978-1922059598 [pdf, epub, Kindle] [Δ
  
Maxwell, A., 1999, Colonial Photography and Exhibitions: Representations of the “Native” and the Making of European Identities, (London: Leicester University Press) [Δ
  
Maxwell, Anne, 2008, Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics, 1870-1940, (Sussex Academic Press) isbn-10: 1845194152 isbn-13: 978-1845194154 [Δ
  
Nugent, Stephen, 2007, Scoping the Amazon: Image, Icon and Ethnography, (Left Coast Press) isbn-10: 1598741772 isbn-13: 978-1598741773 [Δ
  
Pieterse J N, 1992, White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture, (New Haven: Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Pinney, Christopher, 2011, Photography and Anthropology, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 1861898045 isbn-13: 978-1861898043 [Δ
  
Street, Brian, 1992, ‘British Popular Anthropology: Exhibiting and Photographing the Other‘, in Elizabeth Edwards (ed.), Anthropology and Photography 1860-1920, pp. 122-131 [Δ
  
Taylor, Meadows, 1868-1872, The People of India. A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, (by Meadows Taylor,) originally prepared under the authority of the Government of India, and reproduced by order of the Secretary of State for India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) [Edited by J.F. Watson and J.W. Kaye. A fascimile reprint of the original 1867 eight volume edition was published in 1987 by B.R. Publishing, Delhi. Includes photographs by Hurrichund Chintamon] [Δ
  
Theye, T., 1989, Der Geraubte Schatten. Eine Weltreise im Spiegel der Ethnographischen Photographie, (Munich & Lucerne: Bucher) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Carol Beckwith 
  
Beckwith, Carol & Fisher, Angela, 2012, Painted Bodies: African Body Painting, Tattoos, and Scarification, (Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847834050 isbn-13: 978-0847834051 [Δ
  
Beckwith & Fisher 
  
Beckwith, Carol & Fisher, Angela, 2012, Painted Bodies: African Body Painting, Tattoos, and Scarification, (Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847834050 isbn-13: 978-0847834051 [Δ
  
Hugo Bernatzik 
  
Byer, D., 1999, Der Fall H. A. Bernatzik. Ein Leben zwischen Ethnologie und Öffentlichkeit 1897-1953, (Cologne: Böhlau) isbn-10: 3412083992 [German] [Δ
  
N.J. Caire 
  
Pitkethly, Anne & Pitkethly, Don, 1988, N.J. Caire, Landscape Photographer, (Rosanna, VIC) [Δ
  
Désiré Charnay 
  
Zitte, Wilhiam & Fuma, Sudel, 1994, Chambre noire, chants obscurs: photographies anthropométriques de Désiré Charnay: types de la Réunion, (Saint-Denis: Conseil général) isbn-10: 2910592022 isbn-13: 978-2910592028 [Δ
  
Edward S. Curtis 
  
Adam, Hans Christian, 2008, Native Americans: Edward S. Curtis, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836507919 isbn-13: 978-3836507912 [Δ
  
Adam, Hans Christian, 2012, Edward S. Curtis, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836539284 isbn-13: 978-3836539289 [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26) [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1997, The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolio, (New York: Köln: Taschen) [Δ
  
Egan, Timothy, 2012, Short Nights of the Shadow Catcher: The Epic Life and Immortal Photographs of Edward Curtis, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt) [Δ
  
Gidley, Mick, 1994, ‘Pictorialist Elements in Edward S. Curtis's Photographic Representation of American Indians‘, The Yearbook of English Studies - Ethnicity and Representation in American Literature [Δ
  
Gustaf Dalman 
  
Dalman, Gustaf, 1937, Arbeit und Sitte in Palastina [Work and custom in Palestine], (Gu¨tersloh: Bertelsmann) [Reprinted 1964 and in 2001 including photographs by Gustaf Dalman (Walter de Gruyter, ISBN: 3110166070, 9783110166071)] [Δ
  
Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin 
  
Duggan-Cronin, A.M., 1928-1954, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa, (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell) [Eleven volumes] [Δ
  
Godby, Michael, 2010, ‘Alfred Martin Duggan-Cronin's photographs for the Bantu tribes of South Africa (1928-1954): the construction of an ambiguous idyll‘, Kronos (Bellville), vol. 36, no. 1 [Δ
  
Angela Fisher 
  
Beckwith, Carol & Fisher, Angela, 2012, Painted Bodies: African Body Painting, Tattoos, and Scarification, (Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847834050 isbn-13: 978-0847834051 [Δ
  
Gustav Fritsch 
  
Fritsch, Gustav, 1868, Drei Jahre in Südafrika: Reiseskizzen nach Notizen des Tagebuchs zusammengestellt, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Three years in South Africa: Travelogues arranged after notes of the diary] [Δ
  
Fritsch, Gustav, 1872, Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Ethnographic and anatomic research in South Africa] [Δ
  
Alexander Gardner 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 1872, Photographs of Red Cloud and Principal Chiefs of Dacotah Indians Taken on Their Visit to Washington, D.C., May, 1872, (Washington D.C.: for Trustees of Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, England, [Gibson Brothers, Printers]) [Δ
  
Graciela Iturbide 
  
Medina, C., 2001, Graciela Iturbide, (New York: Phaidon Press) [Δ
  
William J. Johnson 
  
Johnson, William, 1863-1866, The Oriental Races and Tribes, Residents and Visitors of Bombay: a series of photographs with letter-press descriptions, (London: W.J. Johnson) [2 volumes, with 51 mounted photographic prints, Vol. 1. Gujarât, Kutch, and Kâthiawâr, Vol. 2. Mahârâshtra, or Maráthá Country] [Δ
  
Gertrude Käsebier 
  
Delaney, Michelle, 2007, Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Warriors: A Photographic History by Gertrude Käsebier, (Smithsonian National Museum of American History) isbn-10: 0061129771 isbn-13: 978-0061129773 [Δ
  
Adolph F. Muhr 
  
Ortiz, Simon J, 2005, Beyond the Reach of Time and Change: Native American Reflections on the Frank A. Rinehart Photograph Collection, (University of Arizona Press) isbn-10: 0816523592 isbn-13: 978-0816523597 [Δ
  
Sutton, Royal K., 1972, The Face of Courage: The Indian Photographs of Frank A. Rinehart, (Ft. Collins, OC: Old Army Press) [Δ
  
Maurice Vidal Portman 
  
Portman, M.V., 1899, A history of our relations with the Andamanese, (Calcutta: Office of the Government Printing) [2 volumes] [Δ
  
Erich Retzlaff 
  
Retzlaff, Erich, 1930, Das Antlitz Des Alters [The Face of Age], (Düsseldorf: Pädagogischer Verlag GmbH) [German] [Δ
  
Retzlaff, Erich, 1931, Die von der Scholle [Those who till the soil], (Göttingen, Verlag der Deuerlichschen Buchhandlung o.J.) [German. Part 1 of the Deutschen Menschen series] [Δ
  
Retzlaff, Erich, 1931, Menschen am Werk: Sechsundfünfzig photographische Bildnisse aus deutschen Industriestädten [People at Work], (Deuerlich) [German. Part 2 of the Deutschen Menschen series] [Δ
  
Retzlaff, Erich, 1933, Wegbereiter und Vorkämpfer für das neue Deutschland [Pioneers and Champions of the new Germany], (Munich: J.F.Lehmanns Verlag) [German] [Δ
  
Frank Rinehart 
  
Ortiz, Simon J, 2005, Beyond the Reach of Time and Change: Native American Reflections on the Frank A. Rinehart Photograph Collection, (University of Arizona Press) isbn-10: 0816523592 isbn-13: 978-0816523597 [Δ
  
Sutton, Royal K., 1972, The Face of Courage: The Indian Photographs of Frank A. Rinehart, (Ft. Collins, OC: Old Army Press) [Δ
  
August Sander 
  
Heiting, Manfred (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) [Δ
  
Sander, August, 1973, Men Without Masks: Faces of Germany, 1910–1938, (Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
  
Sander, August, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer] [Δ
  
Sander, August, 2003, Antlitz der Zeit, (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
F.E. Williams 
  
Young, M. W. & Clark, J., 2002, Anthropologist in Papua: The Photography of F.E. Williams, (C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd) isbn-10: 1850656053 isbn-13: 978-1850656050 [Δ
  
Casimir Zagourski 
  
Loos, Pierre & Bassani, Ezio, 2001, Zagourski: Lost Africa, (Skira Editore) isbn-10: 8884910080 isbn-13: 978-8884910080 [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Photographic Collections of the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (University of Cambridge) 
http://museum-server.archanth.cam.ac.uk ... 
Has 19th century photographs from around the world resulting from the expeditions of early anthropologists. A published guide to the collections is available:
 
Collected Sights (the Museum's photographic collections) by R. Boast, S. Guha & A. Herle, 2001; 44 pp, b/w plates 
  
Ethnographical Photography in India 1850-1900 - John Falconer 
http://www.andaman.org ... 
Reproduced with permission from John Falconer, now at the Oriental and India Office Collections of the British Library, London.
 
Originally published 1984 in Photographic Collector 5(1):16-46. 
  
Beyond the Reach of Time and Change: The Photographs of Frank Rinehart and Adolph Muhr American Indian Portraits 1898-1900. 
http://www.haskell.edu ... 
This display of newly printed platinum photographs document the Trans-Mississippi Exposition and Indian Congress in Omaha, NE, in 1898. While Rinehart made photographs of the World’s Fair events and buildings, Muhr photographed the people who attended the Indian Congress from over 35 different nations. 
  
Plains Indians 
http://www.loc.gov ... 
In 1885, Frank A. Rinehart (1862-1928) opened a photographic studio in Omaha, Nebraska. Thirteen years later he became the official photographer for the 1898 Trans-Mississippi International Exposition held in Omaha. Adolph Muhr, a Rinehart employee, took studio portraits of the Plains Indians in the firm's fair studio. The five-month fair was intended to showcase the developed West from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Coast. The Library holds more than sixty portraits of Sioux, Assiniboine, Kiowa, Tonkawa, Arapaho, Pueblo, Sac and Fox, and Blackfeet tribal delegates. The photographs displayed here were attached to Rinehart's original copyright submission form and were rediscovered in the Copyright Office last summer during Library's Junior Fellows Project. 
  
Trans-Mississippi Exposition (1898) 
http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us ... 
Includes Native American portraits by Frank A. Rinehart and Adolph F. Muhr. There is also background material and sources for The Indian Congress onf 1898. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Claudia Andujar  (1931-) • Hugo Bernatzik  (1897-1953) • Charles-Albert Arnoux Bertall  (1820-1882) • Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel Bleek  (1827-1875) • Barnabás Bosshart  (1947-) • Richard Buchta  (1845-1894) • William Coupon  (1952-) • Edward S. Curtis  (1868-1952) • Gustaf Dalman  (1855-1941) • Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin  (1874-1954) • Albert Frisch  (check) • Gustav Fritsch  (1838-1927) • Phyllis Galembo • Robert Gardner  (1925-) • Milton Guran • Ludovico Wolfgang Hart • Graciela Iturbide  (1942-) • William J. Johnson • Johnson & Henderson • Douglas T. Kilburn  (1813-1871) • Lucy Catherine Lloyd  (1834-1914) • Annu Palakunnathu Matthew  (1964-) • A.B. Meyer • Carl Moon  (1879-1948) • Adolph F. Muhr  (check) • C. Nieuwenhuis  (1863-1922) • Irving Penn  (1917-2009) • Maurice Vidal Portman  (1860-1935) • Philippe Potteau  (1807-1876) • Erich Retzlaff  (1899-1993) • Frank Rinehart  (1861-1928) • August Sander  (1876-1964) • F.E. Williams  (1893-1943) • Charles A. Woolley  (1834-1922)
HomeThemesScientific > Anthropology and ethnology 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
African Americans 
Ethnic and traditional costumes 
Ethnographic nudity 
Native Americans 
Occupational 
Peoples of the world 
Racial issues 
Tipos 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Anthropology and ethnology

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 5, 2007)
ThumbnailAnnu Palakunnathu Matthew: An Indian from India 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 19, 2006)
ThumbnailBarnabás Bosshart: Canela-Apanyekra, Maranhão, Brazil 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 23, 2007) To coincide with his exhibition at Fotostiftung Schweiz (June 1 - October 14)
ThumbnailBoys and girls - Photos d’identité - in colonial French Algeria 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 22, 2008)
ThumbnailGalerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace (Strasbourg, 1865) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 17, 2006)
ThumbnailIcons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 15, 2012)
ThumbnailImages of Ceylon: 19th Century Photographs of Ceylon (The Palinda Stephen de Silva Collection) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 3, 2007)
ThumbnailJapanese Ambrotypes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 5, 2007)
ThumbnailJohn P. Nicholas 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailLalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 23, 2008)
ThumbnailMichael Rockefeller: In the Highlands of West Papua 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 5, 2008)
ThumbnailNative Americans 1840-1920 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 20, 2012)
ThumbnailPeter Engblom 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 18, 2008)
ThumbnailPhyllis Galembo: West African Masquerade 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 9, 2008)
ThumbnailPortraits: Ethnic 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 4, 2006)
ThumbnailPrince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 17, 2006)
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: Borroro male beauty 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 7, 2008)
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: The Borroro - Gerewol and Yaki 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 16, 2008)
ThumbnailTanner Brothers: Maori Studies 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 11, 2007)
ThumbnailThe People of India 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 12, 2007)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Anthropology and ethnology

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailTanner Brothers: Maori Studies 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAdam Clark Vroman: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAntoine Fauchery & Richard Daintree: Australia - Aborigines 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBenjamin West Kilburn: 15998. Savage man-eaters of New Guinea in their war paint. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailC. & F.W. Dammann: Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men (1875) 
ThumbnailC. Nieuwenhuis: Sumatra 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles-Albert Arnoux Bertall: Ethnological studies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDaniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: Orotones 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: Pictorialism 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: The North American Indian: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: The North American Indian: Plates 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: The North American Indian: Plates: An Oasis in the Badlands 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: The North American Indian: Plates: At the Old Well at Acoma 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: The North American Indian: Plates: Lummi Type 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: The North American Indian: Plates: Material culture 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: The North American Indian: Plates: The Vanishing Race 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElias A. Bonine: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEmile Gsell: Mnong warriors, Vietnam 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailF.A.R. Krabs: Romanian Wedding Couple 
ThumbnailG.E. Dobson: Maia Biala, the chief of Rutland Island and his wife 
ThumbnailGertrude Käsebier: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailIgnacy Krieger: Polish folk costumes 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: Delia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: Drana 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: Renty 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJan Yoors: Gypsies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLallemand & Hart: Galerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Chinese man - Soo-Chune aka Le-Kaw-Hin 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Chinese woman - Miss Pwan Ye Koo 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Hindu man 
ThumbnailMaurice Vidal Portman: Andamanese 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaurice Vidal Portman: Female Andamanese - Ilech 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaurice Vidal Portman: Male Andamanese - Balia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNestor Heck: Girl In Moldavian Folk Costume 
ThumbnailPaul-Émile Miot: Mik'maq (Micmac) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhilippe Potteau: Ethnographic portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhillipe Potteau and Louis Pierre Rousseau: Ethnographic portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhillipe Potteau: Portraits of Moustafa ben Ouarga 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Bari woman 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Ethnographic expedition to Southern Sudan (1877-1879) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Shilluk girl 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Zande 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: Borroro male beauty - SX-70 prints 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Skeleton of Man and of the Male Gorilla 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW. & F. Langenheim: African youth 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailDocumentary: Racial issues 
ThumbnailSaädang-Toradja's (Celebes, Dutch Indies) 
ThumbnailScientific: Anthropology 
ThumbnailScientific: Anthropology: Tipos 
ThumbnailThe Last Tasmanians 
ThumbnailThe relationships between science and the World Fairs and International Exhibitions 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Ethnic 
ThumbnailTintypes: Themes: Ethnic 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAfrican youth - Dudu Unquay 
ThumbnailCarl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s) 
ThumbnailCultural intersections 
ThumbnailPostcards: Themes: Ethnic 
 
  
Refreshed: 28 July 2014, 16:40
 
  
 
  
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