Luminous-Lint - for collectors and connoisseurs of fine photography

Getting around


HomeWhat's NewContentsVisual IndexesOnline ExhibitionsPhotographersGalleries and DealersThemes
AbstractEroticaFashionLandscapeNaturePhotojournalismPhotomontagePictorialismPortraitScientificStill lifeStreetWar
CalendarsTimelinesTechniquesLibraryImages and WordsSupport 

HomeContentsThemes > Photojournalism

Curatorial and planning notes 
Social issues are discussed in the "Documentary" theme as "Photojournalism" is addressed here primarily as a means of media distribution.
The CPJ - Committee to Protect Journalists is a reliable source for detailed information and statistics on the threats to contemporary photojournalism.

6.01   Introduction to photojournalism
6.02   Journalists at war
6.03   The technologies that allowed photojournalism to flourish
Colour magazines
6.04   John Bulmer: Sunday Times Magazine tear sheets
Threats to photojournalism
6.05   The decline of the photo magazines
Painted press photographs and those with instructions
6.06   Press photographs with paint or instructions
Case studies
6.07   Paul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul (8 September 1886)
6.08   The execution of Ruth Synder (1929)
6.09   Erich Salomon on press photography
6.10   Teru Kuwayama: Photojournalism with a Holga
6.11   Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011)
6.12   iPhone news applications
Codes of conduct and ethics
6.13   NPPA (National Press Photographers Association): Code of Ethics
6.14   Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief (1994)
6.15   Changes in contemporary photojournalism
6.16   Image integrity in documentary photography and photojournalism
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
6.01   Photojournalism >  Introduction to photojournalism 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Arthur Rothstein,[1] noted for his photographs for the Farm Security Agency (FSA)[2] during the 1930s, published a book Photojournalism: Pictures for magazines and newspapers (1956)[3] and at that time the outlets were magazines and newspapers but today it is far from the case. Rothstein was dedicated to high standards in documentary photography and how the photographs were created, edited, sequenced and distributed through media channels - in fact all the steps involved in photojournalism. On the dust jacket of Photojournalism: Pictures for magazines and newspapers it says:
Here is the whole sweep of photojournalism - the working practice of the news photographer, the creation of a feature picture, the construction of a photo sequence, the principles of photographic narration. There are chapters on the function of the picture editor and the responsibilities of the art director, with pictures which illustrate the role each plays in photographic coverage and in creating the appearance and content of publications. There is a full account of photographic equipment and of laboratory practice for small and large newspapers and for picture magazines. Also included are explanations of legal restrictions on photography, releases and copyright, as well as a standard of ethics for the working photojournalist.[4]
What is apparent is how little the foundations of photojournalism have changed since 1956. Rothstein was writing during the heyday of the picture magazines such as LIFE in America, Picture Post in the UK, Paris Match in France, Drum in South Africa and many others. Printed magazines were read by millions and were the visual pulse of nations.  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
LIFE photographers were respected and some, such as Robert Capa, were famous. The media industry has gone through vast changes with the radio, television, computing, the Internet and mobile technologies. Each market change and technological innovation has altered photojournalism - for example the popular news magazines have largely gone or become part of media conglomerates. As advertising spend has ever-increasing numbers of media channels to select from so print has been squeezed. This with the rise of the ubiquitous camera and citizen journalist has allowed everybody to be a contributor to the news.
Early in the history of photography it was recognized that an image had immense propaganda value and its wider distribution could be used either to support or detract from an issue. Photography because of the commonly held, but mistaken, belief that the "camera doesn't lie" has the ability to provide an immediate and emotional response in a way that text can rarely achieve. Images of starving children and war shattered towns have become the mainstays of charity fundraising and picture editors.
This theme examines the history of photojournalism and includes multiple subjects and examples:  
6.02   Photojournalism >  Journalists at war 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
News correspondents increasingly accompanied armies and as photographers were kindred spirits in recording events we see occassional interplays between these two groups with Roger Fenton photographing William H. Russell correspondent for the Times of London during the Crimean War[10], Timothy O'Sullivan photographing the tent and wagon of the New York Herald during the American Civil War[11] and H. Ferdinand Gros the News of the Camp tent at the siege of Pretoria during the First Boer War (1880-1881).[12] 
6.03   Photojournalism >  The technologies that allowed photojournalism to flourish 
The picture magazines of the 1930's flourished in part because a number of technological innovations had come to maturity.
  • Light weight 35mm cameras with fast lenses
  • Fax - A means of transmitting photographs directly to newspapers
  • Halftone - A way of mass printing high quality photographs
Colour photography was also available but rarely used for mass publications.[13] The first news photograph in color was published in the French magazine L'Illustration in 1907. It was of the King and the Queen of Denmark and the article that accompanied the photograph indicated that it was a technical milestone - taking about ten days to produce the 92,000 copies of the magazine.  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Hand-held cameras were widely available from the 1890s but rarely used by serious photojournalists but by the time of the First World War (1914-1915) the situation was changing. Oskar Barnack at the Ernst Leitz Optische Werke in Germany was developing prototypes of a sophisticated compact camera using 35mm film stock. Camera manufacturers Ernox, Lunar, Leica and Contax all marketed compact cameras in the 1920s which had small negatives but lenses that were of such quality that larger prints could be made. This meant that they were increasingly suitable for photojournalists and war photographers. Interchangeable lenses[14] and rangefinders were part of the rapid progress made through the 1930s.[15]
As Tod Papageorge noted in his essay of "The Snapshot"[16] some of the seminal photographers of the twentieth century saw the advantages of high quality cameras using 35mm film. If we look at a passage by André Kertész:
After I bought the Leica in 1928 I went completely crazy. I could finally express all that had been dormant; with this machine I could photograph everything I wanted. (André Kertész, 8 March 1974)[17]
or Henri Cartier-Bresson:
I had just discovered the Leica. It became the extension of my eye, and I haver never been separated from it since I found it. I prowled the streets all day, feeling very strung-up and ready to pounce. (Henri Cartier-Bresson, Introduction to The Decisive Moment, 1952)[18]
we get a sense of the liberation that these cameras offered that would change photojournalism and documentary photography.  
In the 1948 film Call Northside 777 [19] P.J. McNeal, a reporter for the Chicago Times (played by Jimmy Stewart), clears an innocent man by getting a FAX copy of a photo from another city - in reality this had been possible over 40 years earlier. In 1907 Dr Arthur Korn[20] had a commercial system for sending picture facsimiles between London, Paris and Berlin, in 1921 Western Union began its wire photo service and in 1922 RCA provided the first transatlantic facsimile service that sent photos across the Atlantic in six minutes.[21] All the major telephone and telegraph companies (AT&T, RCA and Western Union) were actively developing "high-speed" fax systems. In 1922 Dr Arthur Korn's facsimile system was used to transmit, by radio, a photograph of Pope Pius XI from Rome to Maine, USA. The picture was published the same day in the New York World newspaper. Up to that moment trans-oceanic news pictures had to be carried by ship.  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
The development of halftone printing by Frederic Ives (1856-1937) allowed photographs to be printed effectively with an acceptable tonal range and at a reduced cost as engraving plates were no longer required. Developed in the late 19th century the halftone process spread rapidly. The New York Daily Graphic[22] published what is thought to be the first halftone with full tonal range in a newspaper on 4 March 1880 of a run down shantytown. National Geographic published its first halftone in 1903 of a woman in a rice field in the Philippines
Colour magazines 
6.04   Photojournalism >  John Bulmer: Sunday Times Magazine tear sheets 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Although the first colour photograph was published in the French magazine L'Illustration in 1907[23] and Autochromes appeared in National Geographic[24] in July 1914 it took quite some time for newspapers to accept the trend and photojournalists had their own stereotypes to address. As John Bulmer said in a 2010 interview:
"I was aware that, to photograph the north of England in colour then was a challenge, because up until then everyone had considered the north to be a gloomy black and white story. So I decided to do it in winter in fog and mist as much as I could because I thought that would make more beautiful pictures. I just did what made a good picture."[25]
In February 1962 the first issue Sunday Times Magazine was published as the first colour supplement for a British newspaper with full colour photo-essays.[26] It was a break with the black and white and a harbinger of rapidly changing print media that needed to adjust to changing attitudes as televisions became more popular.
Hard news had been predominantly in black and white and the tonal formality carried with it decades of associations with truth whilst colour was the format of Agfa and Kodacolor snapshots. In the 1960s colour photographs were not seen as fine art and whilst their use for hard news was innovative it was inline with the cultural rifts going on in Europe and North America.
"The other photographers in Britain didn’t regard colour as serious. Black and white photography was considered as art, and colour commercial. There was no reportage in colour; there were terrible problems with doing it. You have to think differently in colour, you can’t think in black and white and just change your film as a lot of photographers did in those days. You have to think about composition in a different way."[27]
The Sunday Times Magazine commissioned many of the leading photographers of the period including Don McCullin, David Bailey, Eve Arnold, Richard Avedon, Sam Taylor-Wood, Terry-O’Neill, Chris Floyd and Stuart Franklin
Threats to photojournalism 
6.05   Photojournalism >  The decline of the photo magazines 
LIFE[28]and the other illustrated magazines celebrated the human spirit during the Second World War (1939-1945) and when the war ended there was an optimistic period in the USA and Europe of unbridled consumerism and a general belief that things could only get better. The magazines celebrated humanism and the sense that anything was possible. Even if they showed poverty and hunger it was with an underlying message that by exposing it to public scrutiny things would improve.
During the sixties there was a growing realization that this view was naive and politically things were not necessarily going to get better. The menace of the Cold War had shown that in the Korean War (1950-1953) fighting could end in a stalemate but there was still a chance that good would overcome. The sense that America could change the world in a positive way was tarnished but still there. In the sixties and early seventies the Vietnam War (1961-1975) shook that ideal and the struggles for civil rights threw the nation into upheaval - the sense that there was going to be a better world was thrown into question and the photographic magazines found it difficult to exist as the world grew more cynical. Obtaining advertising revenue for the magazines became increasingly difficult as media trends shifted towards television and more positive lifestyle magazines - here pictures of famous people and domestic abundance could attract ad revenue. Picture Post[29] in the UK published its last issue on 1 June 1957 using the same cover image of two leaping ladies that it had when it started on 1 October 1938. LIFE in the USA hung on through the 1960‘s and published its final issue on 29 December 1972. 
Painted press photographs and those with instructions 
6.06   Photojournalism >  Press photographs with paint or instructions 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow (Be patient as this has 19 slides to load.) 
In the pre-digital newsroom when physical prints landed infront of picture editors they were marked up with instructions and the areas not required painted out with white paint prior to going to press. The approach varied with simple outlining and airbrushing of areas not required. [30] 
Case studies 
6.07   Photojournalism >  Paul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul (8 September 1886) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
On Sunday 8 September 1886 Le Journal illustré (Paris) printed an eight article "L'art de vivre cent ans. Trois entrtiens avec monsieur Chevreul photographiés a la veille de ca cent et unième année"[31] which included 13 halftone illustrations based on photographs by Nadar. The subject of this early photo-essay was an interview with the chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul:
Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786-1889), French chemist. Chevreul's scientific work covered a wide range, but he is best known for the classical researches he carried out on animal fats, published in 1823 (Recherches sur les corps gras d'origine animale). These enabled him to elucidate the true nature of soap; he was also able to discover the composition of stearin, a white substance found in the solid parts of most animal and vegetable fats, and olein, the liquid part of any fat, and to isolate stearic and oleic acids, the names of which he invented. This work led to important improvements in the processes of candle-manufacture.
He was professor at the Muséum national d'histoire naturell in Paris from 1830, and director at the same place 1864-79.
He also worked as director of the dyehouse works at the Gobelin manufacture 1824-1864. His studies on the contrast and harmony of colours was to influence the neoimpressionists. (See Wikipedia and Nationalencyclopedin).
Chevreul opened the interview with a cheerful remark: "I was an enemy of photography until my ninety-seventh year, but three years ago i capitulated".
Paul Nadar (1856-1939), son of photographer Felix Nadar, manager of his father's studio in 1874. The two of them collaborated with the interview.[32]
6.08   Photojournalism >  The execution of Ruth Synder (1929) 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Shortly after 11am on 12 January 1928 Ruth Synder was taken into the death chamber at Sing Sing prison where she was electrocuted with an electric chair for the murder of her husband.[33] Tom Howard, a photojournalist strapped a miniature camera[34] to his ankle concealed by his pants and by raising the bottom of his pants leg at the right moment he triggered the camera with a cable release going up his leg.
The cropped photograph of Ruth Synder was published on the front page of the New York Daily News under the headline "DEAD!" and it a sensation with the an additional 750,000 copies of the newspaper printed to meet the demand.[35] When the managing editor of the Daily News, Frank Hause, was criticized for using the photograph he said:
"Are we to have secret executions? Are Americans afraid of the facts?"[36]
It seems they are as no photographs have been allowed of executions in America. In a fictionalized version of the event James Cagney played the role of the photojournalist in the film Picture Snatcher (1933).[37] 
6.09   Photojournalism >  Erich Salomon on press photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Erich Salomon who was a pioneer of the candid portrait often using hidden cameras gave a description of how he saw photojournalism in the 1920s and 30s:
The work of a press photographer who aspires to be more than just a craftsman is a continuous struggle for his image. As the hunter is a captive of his passion to pursue his game, so the photographer is obsessed by the unique photograph that he wants to obtain. It is a continual battle against prejudices resulting from photographers who still work with flashes, against the administration, the employees, the police, the security guards, against poor lighting and the enormous problems of taking photographs of people in motion. They must be caught at the precise moment when they are not moving. Then there is the fight against time, for every newspaper has its deadline that must be met. Above all, a photojournalist must have infinite patience, must never become flustered. He must be on top of all events and know when and where they take place. If necessary, he must use all sorts of tricks, even if they do not always work.[38]
6.10   Photojournalism >  Teru Kuwayama: Photojournalism with a Holga 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Teru Kuwayama[39] is a photographer based in New York who has worked in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Kashmir. His acceptance of new technologies and the ways in which they impact traditional media has led him to found a number of Internet-based projects including Lightstalkers[40] a non-profit project to seek and give advice to those who travel and photograph. Teru Kuwayama received a grant from the Knight Foundation[41]for Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011) which used iPhones and other devices to record photographs, audio and video that were uploaded to social media and an interactive website.
The variety of devices available to photojournalists is now immense and experimentation with plastic cameras and alternative processes such as tintypes and daguerreotypes is now widespread. Although these can be gimmicks at times they demonstrate that there are low cost cameras that can serve perfectly well. Teru Kuwayama wrote:
it’s been said that there’s a small group of about 20 photographers who hop from one conflict to another, producing most of the images that the world sees – that’s not necessarily a good dynamic, and it’s one that’s breaking down as far as I can tell… the most powerful images of the Iraq war, for example, were made by Army reservists with point and shoot cameras.[42]
There has been a democratisation of photography and the images are being uploaded in billions to social media sites. This alters the way images are seen - on the positive it provides immediacy - on the negative it rarely has context and is from uncertain sources. 
6.11   Photojournalism >  Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011) 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow (Be patient as this has 19 slides to load.) 
Basetrack One-Eight was an independent, civilian media project, funded by a 2010 News Challenge Grant from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. It embedded journalists, including Balasz Gardi, with the 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, in the southern deserts of Afghanistan during 2010 and 2011. The project used iPhones and other devices to record photographs, audio and video that was posted on Facebook, Flickr and other social media websites.[43]
The project was closed down by the Marines when some of the postings made on the social media sites were inappropriate and potentially harmful. 
6.12   Photojournalism >  iPhone news applications 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Codes of conduct and ethics 
6.13   Photojournalism >  NPPA (National Press Photographers Association): Code of Ethics 

Visual journalists and those who manage visual news productions are accountable for upholding the following standards in their daily work:

  1. Be accurate and comprehensive in the representation of subjects.
  2. Resist being manipulated by staged photo opportunities.
  3. Be complete and provide context when photographing or recording subjects. Avoid stereotyping individuals and groups. Recognize and work to avoid presenting one's own biases in the work.
  4. Treat all subjects with respect and dignity. Give special consideration to vulnerable subjects and compassion to victims of crime or tragedy. Intrude on private moments of grief only when the public has an overriding and justifiable need to see.
  5. While photographing subjects do not intentionally contribute to, alter, or seek to alter or influence events.
  6. Editing should maintain the integrity of the photographic images' content and context. Do not manipulate images or add or alter sound in any way that can mislead viewers or misrepresent subjects.
  7. Do not pay sources or subjects or reward them materially for information or participation.
  8. Do not accept gifts, favors, or compensation from those who might seek to influence coverage.
  9. Do not intentionally sabotage the efforts of other journalists.

Ideally, visual journalists should:

  1. Strive to ensure that the public's business is conducted in public. Defend the rights of access for all journalists.
  2. Think proactively, as a student of psychology, sociology, politics and art to develop a unique vision and presentation. Work with a voracious appetite for current events and contemporary visual media.
  3. Strive for total and unrestricted access to subjects, recommend alternatives to shallow or rushed opportunities, seek a diversity of viewpoints, and work to show unpopular or unnoticed points of view.
  4. Avoid political, civic and business involvements or other employment that compromise or give the appearance of compromising one's own journalistic independence.
  5. Strive to be unobtrusive and humble in dealing with subjects.
  6. Respect the integrity of the photographic moment.
  7. Strive by example and influence to maintain the spirit and high standards expressed in this code. When confronted with situations in which the proper action is not clear, seek the counsel of those who exhibit the highest standards of the profession. Visual journalists should continuously study their craft and the ethics that guide it.

Source:NPPA Code of Ethics
(Accessed: 24 September 2012) 
6.14   Photojournalism >  Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief (1994) 
Point 10 of the Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief (1994) states:
In our information, publicity and advertising activities,we shall recognise disaster victims as dignified humans, not hopeless objects. Respect for the disaster victim as an equal partner in action should never be lost. In our public information we shall portray an objective image of the disaster situation where the capacities and aspirations of disaster victims are highlighted, and not just their vulnerabilities and fears. While we will cooperate with the media in order to enhance public response, we will not allow external or internal demands for publicity to take precedence over the principle of maximising overall relief assistance. We will avoid competing with other disaster response agencies for media coverage in situations where such coverage may be to the detriment of the service provided to the beneficiaries or to the security of our staff or the beneficiaries.
ICRC Resource Centre
(Accessed: 20 September 2012) 
6.15   Photojournalism >  Changes in contemporary photojournalism 
The growth of digital devices, the explosion of blogs and the rise of citizen journalists since around 2000 has fundamentally altered Photojournalism and threatened the traditional model.[44] Contemporary analysts of photographic trends, such as Fred Ritchin[45], have written on the changes and the opportunities that are taking place.
Changes include:
  • Changes in technology
    Within early journalism the message was supported by woodblock prints, engravings, artwork, and eventually, as the 761 became available in the late nineteenth century, reproductions of photographs. Colour photographs were added as reproductions from autochromes and the range of processes widened through the twentieth century. The rise of the Internet coincided with that of digital cameras, mobile phones with integrated cameras, and digital printers, The costs of non-film paths to the printed page declined rapidly as the costs of newsprint increased and subscriptions decreased along with associated advertising revenues. Multiple challenges have hit photojournalism within the last few decades.
  • Changes in who takes the photographs
    The age of the media funded adventure seeking photojournalist with an understanding photo-editor who could spend extended time on understanding a story and recording it as a photo-essay is gone. As a profession photojournalism is declining at the same time as the number of people with some form of camera is increasing. The ubiquity of the camera is killing the photo-essay but not in the most obvious way. Anybody with a camera can produce the semblance of a photo-essay but to create a great one requires talent and resources. So we have unlimited images which are immediately available at low or no cost and this has affected the media business allowing them to cut the budgets of true photojournalism which has declined. Photojournalism's traditional role has been to report what was seen and provide a witness to history if the only source is press-releases provided by NGOs or images from uncertain sources where is the foundation of truth and impartiality? There can be no doubt that "citizen journalists" have a role but it is not the same as a "photojournalist".
    As remotely operated and fully-autonomous cameras get smaller and the technologies to move them become cheaper so who takes the photographs becomes more complex. We've lived through aerial reconnaissance, satellite imaging, CCTV on the street corner and in the shopping mall but this is nothing compared to what will happen as these and drone-like and stealth technologies become widespread. Who takes the photographs as cameras become autonomous?
  • Changes in the purpose of the message
    In depth photo reportage is expensive and traditionally it required up-front financial commitment from the funder. The prospect for the first to cover an issue of significance had the potential to recoup the costs by rising the subscriptions to print copies. There has always been a balance between costs and the return to the organisation both in raised revenues and the more intangible reputation of being a serious news organisation. Rather than in-depth reporting most organisations can reduce costs by laying off permanent photo reporters, hiring freelancers, buying in from image libraries, syndicated news agencies or using freely available images. For traditional photo reporters schooled in a world where the Pulitzer Prizes for Photography (1942-1967), Spot News Photography (1968-1999), Feature Photography (1968-) and Breaking News Photography (2000-) was the ultimate accolade this is a radical change. Increasingly images are used as illustration of a story rather than in-depth photo reportage - this is a change which affects the purpose of the message.
  • Changes in funding
    There are certainly pieces in magazines that look like photo-essays but it does not take a great deal of research to establish that they were funded by a grant, an NGO or self-funded by a socially committed photographer. The distinction between photojournalism and propaganda has at times been blurred and USSR in Construction was a blatant example of the latter where as LIFE give an alternative approach. Underlying high quality photojournalism was a picture desk and editors who provided the captions and frameworks for the great photo-essays - as these frameworks vanish and the content is provided as press releases with attached images or straight from citizen journalists we have the immediacy but the cost is not financial but in the quality of the material and the perspective that goes with it - without the context it quickly becomes difficult to assess if it is only propaganda.
6.16   Photojournalism >  Image integrity in documentary photography and photojournalism 
The questioning of the integrity of still images has been an increasing significant research topic with a need to examine global perspective on how different practitioners - photographers, editors, picture desks and curators view the subject. In June 2014 David Campbell announced a research project for World Press Photo to examine the issues within documentary photography and photojournalism .[46] Using a qualitative research methodology the project was designed to interview relevant people around the world to better answer the following research questions:
  1. What forms of manipulation are relevant to the integrity of the image? In addition to post-processing of negatives, RAW files or unprocessed JPEGs, it could also includes the framing, cropping, selection, captioning and contextualisation of images, among other issues. Should these dimensions also be considered and, if so, how?
  2. Is manipulation generally a growing problem? If so, how and why?
  3. Is post-processing itself a problem, or is post-processing a problem only when certain levels of changes are made? If so, how are the legitimate levels known or identified?
  4. What ethical guidelines and protocols relevant to the integrity of the image are followed by media organisations in different countries?
  5. What ethical guidelines relevant to the integrity of the image are promoted by professional media associations in different countries?
  6. Are there national, regional and cultural differences in the ethical guidelines, accepted standards, and current practices relevant to the integrity of the image? Are there any points of consensus on manipulation regardless of geographical or cultural differences?
  7. Are there different norms with regard to manipulation in different image genres? Are the norms for news and documentary the same as those for nature, sports, and portraits (staged and observed), or are their differences?
  8. What are the most effective means for the detection of manipulation?
  9. What sanctions exist with the media industry after manipulation is detected?
  10. What rules exist within major international photo contests relating to the integrity of the image?
The research was necessitated by entries to the World Press Photo Awards that had been manipulated and were therefore ineligible for the competition but the awareness of the rising numbers of such images has implications for genres where photographic integrity is vital. If the viewer expects truth and it is not provided trust in the media delivering the images is brought into question. 

  1. Λ For books including Arthur Rothstein's photographs - Arthur Rothstein, 1978, The Depression Years as Photographed by Arthur Rothstein, (New York: Dover Publications); Arthur Rothstein, 1982, American West in the Thirties: 122 Photographs by Arthur Rothstein, (Dover Publications Inc.); Arthur Rothstein, 1984, Arthur Rothstein: Words & Pictures, (Focal Press); Arthur Rothstein, 1984, Arthur Rothstein’s America in Photographs, 1930–1980, (New York: Dover); George Packer & Amy Pastan, (ed.), 2011, Fields of Vision: Photographs of Arthur Rothstein: The Library of Congress, (Giles in association with the Library of Congress) 
  2. Λ The literature on the FSA is vast and almost all the photographers involved have monographs on their work.
    For general overviews - Pete Daniel et al., 1987, Official Images: New Deal Photography, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution); F. Jack Hurley, 1972, Portrait of a Decade: Roy Stryker and the Development of Documentary Photography in the Thirties, (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press); Françoise Poos (ed.), Jean Back, Gabriel Bauret & Antoinette Lorang, 2012, The Bitter Years: Edward Steichen and the Farm Security Administration Photographs, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers); William Stott, 1986, Documentary Expression and Thirties America, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press); Roy Stryker & Nancy Wood, 1975, In This Proud Land: America 1935–1943 as Seen in FSA Photographs, (Boston: New York Graphic Society); Alan Trachtenberg & Lawrence W, Levine, 1988, Documenting America, 1935–1943, (Berkeley: University of California Press) 
  3. Λ Arthur Rothstein, 1956, Photojournalism: Pictures for Magazines and Newspapers, (New York: Amphoto - American Photographic Book Publishing Co., Inc) 
  4. Λ Arthur Rothstein, 1956, Photojournalism: Pictures for Magazines and Newspapers, (New York: Amphoto - American Photographic Book Publishing Co., Inc), dust jacket 
  5. Λ George N. Barnard photographed the fires at Oswego Mills, New York (1853).
    For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
  6. Λ Alois Löcherer, 1998, Alois Löcherer. Photographien 1845 - 1855, (Schirmer /Mosel Verlag Gm) 
  7. Λ Roger Fenton is the best known of Crimean War photographers and there is a considerable amount written about him - Gordon Baldwin et al., 2004, All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852–1860, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); Helmut & Alison Gernsheim, 1954, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the Crimean War, (London: Secker & Warburg); John Hannavy, 1975, Fenton of Crimble Hall, (Boston: David R. Godine); Valerie Lloyd, 1988, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the 1850s, (London: South Bank Board); Richard Pare, 1987, Roger Fenton, (New York: Aperture).
    For a rephotographic study - David R. Jones, 2012, In the Footsteps of Roger Fenton, Crimean War Photographer, ( self-published) 
  8. Λ Victor Margolin, 1998, The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy-Nagy, 1917-1946, (University Of Chicago Press); El Lissitzky & B.M.Tal (ed.), 1935, Industriia Sotsializma [Socialist Industry], (Moscow: IZOGIZ) 
  9. Λ David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press); Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate) 
  10. Λ Roger Fenton, "William H. Russell, Esqr., the Times special correspondent", 1855, Salt paper print, 20 x 17 cm, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-9183 - PH - Fenton (R.), no. 67 (A size) [P&P] 
  11. Λ Timothy H. O'Sullivan, "Group at tent and wagon of the New York Herald, Bealton, VA", 1863, August, Albumen print, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Ref: 03915u 
  12. Λ H. Ferdinand Gros, "The publishing office and editor's quarters for News of the Camp, during siege of Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa", [First Boer War], 1880-1881, Albumen print, Cambridge University Library, Royal Commonwealth Society, © Cambridge University Library, RCS Y3055A/32 
  13. Λ In the 15 June 1907 issue of the French magazine L'Illustration the first color photo feature in the history of the press was published using Autochromes plates taken by Léon Gimpel, a pioneer of photo reportage, who had been initiated into the Autochrome process by the Lumière brothers. 
  14. Λ The Leica I Schraubgewinde camera in 1930 had a screw thread fitting for interchageable lenses. 
  15. Λ Leica Camera - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 23 January 2014)
    Leica - History - Innovations with Results
    (Accessed: 23 January 2014) 
  16. Λ Tod Papageorge, 2011, "The Snapshot" in Top Papageorge, 2011, Core Curriculum: Writings on Photography by Tod Papageorge, (Aperture), pp. 12-14. Originally published in 1974, The Snapshot, Aperture, vol. 19, no. 1 
  17. Λ André Kertész quoted in - Tod Papageorge, 2011, "The Snapshot" in Top Papageorge, 2011, Core Curriculum: Writings on Photography by Tod Papageorge, (Aperture), pp. 12-14. Originally published in 1974, The Snapshot, Aperture, vol. 19, no. 1 
  18. Λ Henri Cartier-Bresson quoted in - Tod Papageorge, 2011, "The Snapshot" in Top Papageorge, 2011, Core Curriculum: Writings on Photography by Tod Papageorge, (Aperture), pp. 12-14. Originally published in 1974, The Snapshot, Aperture, vol. 19, no. 1 
  19. Λ Call Northside 777 (1948) - IMDB
    (Accessed: 23 January 2014) 
  20. Λ Arthr Korn's publications included - Arthur Korn & B. Glatzel, 1911, Handbuch der Phototelegraphie und Telautographie, (Leipzig: Nemnich 
  21. Λ There were a number of inventors involved in the Fax before Dr Arthur Korn including - Scottish inventor Alexander Bain, Frederick Bakewell, Italian physicist Giovanni Caselli with his Pantelgraph and Shelford Bidwell. 
  22. Λ On 2 December 1873 The Daily Graphic published a poorer quality image of Steinway Hall in Manhattan. 
  23. Λ The first news photograph in color was published in the French magazine L'Illustration in 1907. It was of the King and the Queen of Denmark and the article that accompanied the photograph indicated that it was a technical milestone - taking about ten days to produce the 92,000 copies of the magazine. 
  24. Λ The first "color" to appear in the National Geographic Magazine was a 24 page series of hand-painted scenes taken in China and Korea. The hand tinting was the work of a Japanese artist. The series appeared in the November 1910 issue. 
  25. Λ The-Not-so-swinging-sixties, John Bulmer Interviewed - Professional Photographer (10.08.2010)
    (Accessed: 3 July 2014) 
  26. Λ The first edition of The Sunday Times Colour Section was published on 4 February 1962 and was topical with Mary Quant fashion photographed by David Bailey and a new James Bond story by Ian Fleming.
    Other British newspapers followed the model set by the Sunday Times such as The Daily Telegraph Magazine that was first published on Friday 25th September 1964. 
  27. Λ The-Not-so-swinging-sixties, John Bulmer Interviewed - Professional Photographer (10.08.2010)
    (Accessed: 3 July 2014) 
  28. Λ Stanley Rayfield, 1957, LIFE photographers: Their Careers and Favorite Pictures, (Doubleday); Maitland Edey, 1978, Great Photographic Essays from LIFE, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) 
  29. Λ Tom Hopkinson, 1970, Picture Post: 1938-50, (Penguin Books) 
  30. Λ Stanley Burns, 2008, Newsart: The Manipulated Photographs from the Burns Archive, (powerHouse Books / Burns Press) 
  31. Λ Dimanche 8 septembre 1886, "L'art de vivre cent ans. Trois entrtiens avec monsieur Chevreul photographiés a la veille de ca cent et unième année", Le Journal illustré (Paris)
    Folio (390x285). 8 pages numbered 281-288, 13 pictures in half-tone blocks by Nadar. 
  32. Λ Text courtesy of Stockholms Auktionsverk (Photographica, 4 April 2011, Lot: 4315) 
  33. Λ The Synder-Gray case where they murdered Ruth Synder's husband inspired James M. Cain to write his novel Double Indemnity (1935) which was made into the film classic "Double Indemnity" (1944) starring Fred MacMurray and Barbara Stanwyck. 
  34. Λ The ankle camera used by Tom Howard is in the colllection of the Smithsonian National Museum of American History (Object ID: PG*7107) 
  35. Λ Lot note for Swann Galleries (Auction, Oct 22, 2009, Photographs & Photographic Literature, Sale 2191 Lot 126) 
  36. Λ Quoted in - Sharon Shahid, 10 January 2008, "The Daily News's front-page photo of Ruth Snyder's execution (New York Daily News)", -
    (Online - accessed: 2 August 2013) 
  37. Λ Picture Snatcher (Dir: Lloyd Bacon, 1933). James Cagney plays the role of Danny a hood who becomes a legitimate photographer for a scandal sheet newspaper. 
  38. Λ Quoted in Gisele Freund, 1980, Photography & Society, (London: Gordon Frase), p. 122. Original source: Salomon, Erich, 1931, Berühmte Zeitgenossen in unbewachten Augenblicken, (Stuttgart: Engelhorns Nachf.) 
  39. Λ With strong interests in journalism Teru Kuwayama has been a a 2009–2010 Knight Fellow at Stanford University, a 2010 TED Global Fellow and a 2010 Ochberg Fellow at the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma. 
  40. Λ Lightstalkers
    (Accessed: 23 January 2014)
    What's Lightstalkers?
    We live and work in uncharted, unstable territory, navigating the grey areas of geography and technology. We travel in countries that are still in development or recently destroyed, using gear just barely out of R&D. Lightstalkers helps us to help each other—it's how we pool our knowledge and experience.
  41. Λ Knight Foundation - Informed and Engaged Communities
    (Accessed: 23 January 2014) 
  42. Λ A comment posted by Teru Kuwayama (2 September 2009)
    (Accessed: 23 January 2014) 
  43. Λ Amy Pereira, 2011, Basetrack One-Eight - 1st Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, Afghanistan deployment 2010-2011, (Blurb), about the project:
    Basetrack is an experimental media project, tracking the deployment of 1/8– 1st Battalion, Eighth Marines, during their deployment to southern Afghanistan. A small team of mobile media operators embedded with the battalion, transmitting their reports and reflections from Helmand province as they traveled across the battalion’s area of operations.
    Basetrack’s forward team is supported by a network of technologists,analysts, artists, and journalists, working around the clock, from around the world, to connect over a thousand Marines and Corpsmen to their families, and to connect a broader public to the longest war in US history.
    Basetrack is a non-profit initiative, operated by November Eleven, a US-based, 501(c)3 public charity. Basetrack takes an open-source approach to journalism, making its original content freely available for non-commercial use under Creative Commons licensing protocols, and employing open, ubiquitous social media platforms to distribute its reporting, and to engage public participation in the reporting process. 
  44. Λ Neil Burgess, 1 August 2010, “For God’s sake, somebody call it!”
    (Accessed: 2 August 2013) 
  45. Λ Fred Ritchin, 2013, Bending the Frame: Photojournalism, Documentary, and the Citizen, (Aperture), See also the interview of Fred Ritchin by Laurence Butet-Roch (dated: 2 August 2013) ofn the British Journal of Photography website.
    (Accessed: 2 August 2013) 
  46. Λ David Campbell, 6 June 2014, "The integrity of the image: Global practices and standards concerning the manipulation of photographs"
    (Accessed: 14 June 2014) 
Questions and issues 
6/1Histories of illustrated magazines need to be prepared so if you have an interest or expertise let me know.
6/2I'm interested in hearing about the finest contemporary photo-essays from any area of the world as I'm seeking to include a limited number here. In the first instance please send only links.


HomeContents > Further research

Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
General reading 
Alessandra Mauro & Tagliaventi, Alessia, 2014, ‘'You Can't Look Away': The Exhibition as Photojournalistic Essay. Salgado and Peress‘, in Alessandra Mauro (ed.), 2014, Photoshow: Landmark Exhibitions that Defined the History of Photography, (Contrasto), pp. 233-252 [Δ
Bendavid-Val, Leah, 1994, National Geographic: The Photographs, (Washington, National Geographic) [Δ
Bogre, Micelle, 2011, Photography as Activism: Images for Social Change, (Focal Press) isbn-10: 0240812751 isbn-13: 978-0240812755 [Δ
Buell, Hal & Saul, Pett, 1976, The Instant It Happened: Associated Press, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
Burns, Stanley, 2008, Newsart: The Manipulated Photographs from the Burns Archive, (Burns Press) isbn-13: 978-1576874646 [Δ
Capa, Cornell (ed.), 1968, The Concerned Photographer, (New York: Grossman Publishers in cooperation with The International Fund for Concerned Photography) [Δ
Capa, Cornell (ed.), 1972, The Concerned Photographer 2, (New York: Grossman Publishers in cooperation with The International Fund for Concerned Photography) [Δ
Coles, Robert, 1997, Doing Documentary Work, (Oxford University Press) isbn-10: 0195116291 isbn-13: 978-0195116298 [Δ
Dewitz, Bodo von, 2008, Kiosk: A History of Photojournalism, (Steidl) isbn-10: 388243791X isbn-13: 978-3882437911 [Bilingual edition] [Δ
Dinius, Mary J., 2012, The Camera and the Press: American visual and print culture in the age of the daguerreotype, (University of Pennsylvania Press) isbn-10: 0812244044 isbn-13: 978-0812244045 [Δ
Edey, Maitland, 1978, Great Photographic Essays from LIFE, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) isbn-10: 0821207423 isbn-13: 978-0821207420 [Δ
Edom, Clifton, 1980, Photojournalism: Principles and Practices, (Dubuque, Iowa: W. C. Brown) [Δ
Evans, Harold, 1978, Pictures on a Page, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) [Δ
Fowler, Will, 2000, Their War: German Combat Photographs From the Archives Of Signal Magazine, (Da Capo Press) isbn-10: 1580970400 isbn-13: 978-1580970402 [Δ
Fulton, Marianne, 1988, Eyes of Time: Photojournalism in America, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
Goldberg, Vicki, 1993, The Power of Photography: How Photographs Changed Our Lives, (London and New York: Abbeville Press) [Δ
Golden, Reuel, 2011, Photojournalism: 150 Years of Outstanding Press Photography, (Carlton Books) isbn-10: 1847326366 isbn-13: 978-1847326362 [Δ
Grant, Bernard, [1933], To the Four Corners: The Memoirs of a News Photographer, (London: Hutchinson) [Δ
Hallett, Michael, 1998, The Real Story of "Picture Post", (ARTicle Press) isbn-10: 1873352174 isbn-13: 978-1873352175 [Δ
Hallett, Michael, 2005, Stefan Lorant: Godfather of Photojournalism, (Scarecrow Press) isbn-10: 0810856824 isbn-13: 978-0810856820 [Δ
Heiferman, Marvin (ed.) & Foresta, Merry, 2012, Photography Changes Everything, (Aperture / Smithsonian) isbn-10: 1597111996 isbn-13: 978-1597111997 [Δ
Hoelscher, Steven (ed), 2013, Reading Magnum: A Visual Archive of the Modern World, (University of Texas Press) isbn-13: 978-0292748439 [Δ
Hopkinson, Tom, 1970, Picture Post, 1938-50, (Allen Lane) isbn-10: 0713901640 isbn-13: 978-0713901641 [Δ
Jacobson, Colin at al., 2002, Underexposed: Pictures of the 20th Century They Didn't Want You to See, (Vision On Publishing Ltd) isbn-10: 1903399211 isbn-13: 978-1903399217 [Δ
Kamber, Michael, 2013, Photojournalists on War: The Untold Stories from Iraq, (University of Texas Press) isbn-13: 978-0292744080 [Foreword by Dexter Filkins] [Δ
Kee, Robert, 1990, The Picture Post Album: A 50th Anniversary Collection, (Barrie & Jenkins) isbn-10: 071262063X isbn-13: 978-0712620635 [Δ
Kobre, Kenneth, 1996, Photojournalism, the Professional Approach, (Boston: Focal Press) [Δ
Leekley, Sheryle & Leekley, John, 1978, Moments: The Pulitzer Prize Photographs, (New York: Crown) [Δ
Li Zhensheng, 2003, Red-Color News Soldier, (Phaidon Press) isbn-10: 0714843083 isbn-13: 978-0714843087 [Δ
Light, Ken, 2010, Witness in Our Time: Working Lives of Documentary Photographers, (Smithsonian Books) isbn-10: 1588342980 isbn-13: 978-1588342980 [Second Edition] [Δ
Marinovich, Greg & Silva, Joao, 2000, The Bang Bang Club, (Basic Books) isbn-10: 0465044123 [Δ
Miller, Russell, 1997, Magnum; Fifty Years at the Front Line of History, (Grove Press Inc.) isbn-10: 0436203731 isbn-13: 978-0436203732 [Δ
Norback, Craig & Melvin, Gray (eds.), 1980, The World's Great News Photos 1840-1940, (New York: Crown) [Δ
Ritchin, Fred, 2013, What a Photograph Can Accomplish: Bending the Frame, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597111201 isbn-13: 978-1597111201 [Δ
Shaw, Irwin (ed.), 1981, Paris, Magnum Photographs 1835-1981, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
Shorter, Clement K., 1899, ‘Illustrated Journalism: Its Past and Its Future‘, Contemporary Review, vol. 75, pp. 480-494 [Δ
Sullivan, Constance, 1978, Great Photographic Essays from Life, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
Szarkowski, John, 1973, From The Picture Press, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
Yapp, Nick & Hopkinson, Amanda, 1995, 150 Years of Photo Journalism, (Köln: Könneman) [Δ
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
Gianni Berengo Gardin 
Berengo Gardin, Gianni, 1988, Gianni Berengo Gardin, Fotografo 1953–1988, (Udine) [Δ
Inge Bondi 
Bondi, Inge, 1996, Chim: The Photographs of David Seymour, (Trafalger Square) isbn-10: 023399016X isbn-13: 978-0233990163 [Δ
Bondi, Inge, 1996, Chim: The Photographs of David Seymour, (Bulfinch Press) isbn-10: 0821222295 isbn-13: 978-0821222294 [First edition] [Δ
Walter Bosshard 
Bosshard, Walter; Gottardi, L. & Bellentani, G., 2007, L'India al tempo di Gandhi, (Giunti GAMM) isbn-10: 8809058712 isbn-13: 978-8809058712 [Italian, English] [Δ
Pfrunder, Peter; Hurlimann, Annemarie; Munzer, Verena & Bosshard, Walter, 1997, Fernsicht: Walter Bosshard, Ein Pionier Des Modernen Photojournalismus, (Benteli) isbn-10: 3716510823 isbn-13: 978-3716510827 [Δ
Édouard Boubat 
Boubat, Édouard, 1997, It's a Wonderful Life, (Editions Assouline) isbn-10: 2843230128 isbn-13: 978-2843230127 [Δ
Boubat, Édouard, 2002, Édouard Boubat for Press Freedom, (Reporters Without Borders) isbn-10: 2908830736 isbn-13: 978-2908830736 [English, French] [Δ
Boubat, Édouard, 2004, Edouard Boubat: The Monograph, (Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810956101 isbn-13: 978-0810956100 [Δ
Margaret Bourke-White 
Callahan, Sean (ed.), 1975, The Photographs of Margaret Bourke-White, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
Goldberg, Vicki, 1986, Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography, (New York: Harper and Row) [Δ
Rubio, Oliva María & Quimby, Sean, 2013, Margaret Bourke-White: Moments in History, (Madrid: La Fábrica) isbn-13: 978-8415303961 [Δ
Cornell Capa 
Capa, Cornell, 1994, Cornell Capa: Photographer, (New York: The International Center of Photography) [Δ
Robert Capa 
Capa, Robert, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt) [Δ
Whelan, R., 2001, Robert Capa: The Definitive Collection, (New York: Phaidon Press) [Δ
Henri Cartier-Bresson 
Assouline, Pierre, 2013, Henri Cartier-Bresson, (Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 0500290520 isbn-13: 978-0500290521 [Δ
Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 1955, The People of Moscow, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ
John Chillingworth 
Chlllingworth, John, 2013, John Chillingworth: Picture Post Photographer, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) isbn-10: 1907893431 isbn-13: 978-1907893438 [Δ
Beck, Tom, 2006, David Seymour (Chim), (Phaidon Press) isbn-10: 0714842761 [Δ
Bondi, Inge, 1996, Chim: The Photographs of David Seymour, (Trafalger Square) isbn-10: 023399016X isbn-13: 978-0233990163 [Δ
Bondi, Inge, 1996, Chim: The Photographs of David Seymour, (Bulfinch Press) isbn-10: 0821222295 isbn-13: 978-0821222294 [First edition] [Δ
Young, Cynthia; Naggar, Carole & Cohen, Roger, 2013, We Went Back: Photographs from Europe 1933-1956 by Chim, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791352814 isbn-13: 978-3791352817 [Δ
Ernest Cole 
Cole, Ernest & Flaherty, Thomas, 1967, House of Bondage: A South African Black Man Exposes in His Own Pictures and Words the Bitter Life of His Homeland Today, (New York: Random House) isbn-10: 0394429354 isbn-13: 978-0394429359 [Δ
Rudolf Eickemeyer 
Panzer, Mary, 1986, In My Studio: Rudolf Eickemeyer, Jr., and the Art of the Camera, 1885-1930, (Yonkers, New York: Hudson River Museum) [Δ
Alfred Eisenstaedt 
Eisenstaedt, Alfred, 1980, Witness to Our Time, (New York: Viking) [Revised edition] [Δ
Eisenstaedt, Alfred, 1985, Eisenstaedt on Eisenstaedt: A Self-Portrait, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Introduction by Peter Adam] [Δ
Eisenstaedt, Alfred & O’Neil, Doris C. (ed.), 1990, Eisenstaedt: Remembrances, (Boston: Bulfinch) [Δ
Walker Evans 
Campany, David, 2012, Walker Evans: The Magazine Work, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869302593 isbn-13: 978-3869302591 [Δ
Stanley Greene 
Greene, Stanley & van der Heijden, Teun, 2009, Black Passport, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597111414 isbn-13: 978-1597111416 [Δ
Ernst Haas 
Haas, Ernst, 1953, 14 September, ‘Images of a Magic City, Part I‘, LIFE, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 108-120 [New York] [Δ
Haas, Ernst, 1953, 21 September, ‘Images of a Magic City, Part II‘, LIFE, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 116-126 [New York] [Δ
Haas, Ernst, 1953, 5 October, ‘Images of a Magic City‘, LIFE (International edition), vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 36-48 [New York] [Δ
Bert Hardy 
Hardy, Bert, 1985, Bert Hardy: My Life, (London: Gordon Fraser) [Δ
Tim Hetherington 
Huffman, Alan, 2013, Here I Am: The Story of Tim Hetherington, War Photographer, (Grove Press) isbn-10: 0802120903 isbn-13: 978-0802120908 [Δ
André Kertész 
Ducrot, Nicholas (ed.), 1972, André Kertész: Sixty Years of Photography, 1912–1972, (New York: Grossman Publishers) [Δ
Greenough, Sarah et al., 2005, André Kertész, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press) [Δ
Kertész, André, 1974, J’aime Paris: Photographs Since the Twenties, (New York: Grossman Publishers) [Δ
Phillips, Sandra S et al., 1985, André Kertész: Of Paris and New York, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago) [Δ
Josef Koudelka 
Koudelka, Josef, 1999, Chaos, (New York: Phaidon Press) [Δ
Stefan Lorant 
Hallett, Michael, 2006, Stefan Lorant - Godfather of Photojournalism, (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press) [Δ
Don McCullin 
McCullin, Don, 1981, Hearts of Darkness: Photographs by Don McCullin, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) [Introduction by John Le Carré] [Δ
McCullin, Don, 2005, Don McCullin in Africa, (London: Jonathan Cape) [Δ
Enrique Metinides 
Metinides, Enrique & Ziff, Trisha (ed.), 2012, 101 Tragedies of Enrique Metinides, (Aperture) isbn-13: 978-1597112116 [Δ
Lee Miller 
Burke, Carolyn, 2007, Lee Miller: A Life, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226080676 isbn-13: 978-0226080673 [Δ
Calvocoressi, Richard, 2002, Lee Miller: Portraits from a Life, (New York: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
Livingston, J., 1989, Lee Miller, Photographer, (New York: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
Penrose, Antony, 1985, The Lives of Lee Miller, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston) [Δ
Penrose, Antony (ed.), 1992, Lee Miller’s War: Photographer and Correspondent with the Allies in Europe 1944–1945, (Boston: Bulfinch Press) [Δ
Carl Mydans 
Mydans, Carl, 2002, Carl Mydans: Photojournalist, (Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810913232 isbn-13: 978-0810913233 [Δ
Gordon Parks 
Parks, Gordon, 2014, Gordon Parks: Segregation Story, (Steidl) isbn-13: 978-3869308012 [Foreword by Peter W. Kunhardt, Jr., Brett Abbott. Introduction by Charlayne Hunter-Gault. Text by Maurice Berger.] [Δ
Alexander Rodchenko 
Elliott, David (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
Khan-Magomedov, S.O., 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press) [Δ
Lavrentiev, Alexander, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press) [Δ
Noever, P. (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel) [Δ
Arthur Rothstein 
Rothstein, Arthur, 1956, Photojournalism: Pictures for Magazines and Newspapers, (New York: Amphoto - American Photographic Book Publishing Co., Inc) [Δ
Rothstein, Arthur, 1986, Documentary Photography, (Boston: Focal Press) [Δ
W. Eugene Smith 
Dieuzaide, Jean, 1984, W. Eugene Smith, (Toulouse: Galerie Municipale du Chateau d'Eau) [Δ
Johnson, William S., 1980, July, W. Eugene Smith: Early Work, (Center for Creative Photography) [Archive series no. 12] [Δ
Johnson, William S., 1983, W. Eugene Smith, (Milan: Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri) [Δ
Johnson, William S., 1987, William Eugene Smith, (Milan: Gruppo Editoriale Fabbri) [Δ
Maddow, B., 1985, Let Truth Be the Prejudice, W. Eugene Smith, His Life and Photographs, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
Mora, Gilles, 1998, W. Eugene Smith: Photographs 1934-1975, (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
Mora, Gilles & Hill, John T., 1998, W. Eugene Smith: Du côté de l'ombre, (Paris: Editions du Seuil) [Δ
Salvesen, Britt & Vigano, Enrica, 2008, W. Eugene Smith: Más real que la realidad, (Madrid: La Fabrica) [Δ
Smith, W. Eugene, 1962, Hitachi Reminder, (Tokyo: Hitachi) [Δ
Smith, W. Eugene, 1963, Japan . . . A Chapter of Image, (Tokyo: Hitachi) [Δ
Smith, W. Eugene, 1991, Minamata, (Paris: Centre National de la Photographie) [Δ
Smith, W. Eugene, 1996, Japan through the Eyes of W. Eugene Smith, (Tokyo: Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography) [Δ
Smith, W. Eugene, 2000, W. Eugene Smith: Photographic Poet, (Petaluma, California: Barry Singer Gallery) [Δ
Smith, W. Eugene, Berger, John et al., 2013, The Big Book: Volumes One and Two, (University of Texas Press) isbn-10: 029275468X isbn-13: 978-0292754683 [Δ
Trachtenberg, Alan & Stephenson, Sam (eds.), 2003, Dream Street: W. Eugene Smith’s Pittsburgh Project, (New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company) [Δ
David Turnley 
Turnley, David & Turnley, Peter, 1997, In Times of War and Peace, (Abbeville Press) isbn-10: 0789202999 isbn-13: 978-0789202994 [Δ
Peter Turnley 
Turnley, David & Turnley, Peter, 1997, In Times of War and Peace, (Abbeville Press) isbn-10: 0789202999 isbn-13: 978-0789202994 [Δ
Barth, Miles et al., 2000, Weegee’s World, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
Stettner, Louis (ed.), 1977, Weegee, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) [Δ
Weegee, 1946, Naked City, (New York: Essential Books) [Δ
Weegee, 1961, Weegee by Weegee, (New York: Ziff-Davis Pub. Co.) [First edition] [Δ
Weegee, 2000, Weegee’s New York: Photographs, 1935–1960, (Munich: Schirmer Art Books) [Δ
Weegee & Harris, Mel, 1953, Naked Hollywood, (New York: Pellegrini & Cudhay) [Δ
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - 
Martin Bernetti: Photojournalist ... 
W. Eugene Smith ... 
This is part of the excellent American Masters series of television programs broadcast by PBS in the USA. 
Ernesto Bazan ... 
This site is in Spanish, English and Italian. This Italian photographer has a fascinating site highlighting his reporting style in Cuba, Russia, India and Italy. 
Erwin E. Smith (1886-1947) Cowboy photographer in Texas between 1905-1912. ... 
Example photo essays from Time magazine. ... 
Christian Franck Lombardi - A French photojournalist living in Bolivia. ... 
This site has multiple galleries dealing with the narcotics business, portraits. 
The message of this fascinating site is: "At PixelPress our intent is to encourage documentary photographers, writers, filmmakers, artists, human rights workers and students to explore the world in ways that take advantage of the new possibilities provided by digital media. We seek a new paradigm of journalism, one that encourages an active dialogue between the author and reader and, also, the subject." 
Magnum Photos ... 
Probably the world‘s most famous photo agency for photojournalists. Use this site to access the portfolios, biographies of the many notable Magnum photographers. Where there are books by the photographers the website frequently includes the photographs used. 
FiftyCrows - An International Center for Documentary Photography - Working for Positive Social Change. ... 
Pedro Tzontémoc : Mexican photojournalist ... 
Robert Capa ... 
Based on research by and written by his biographer Richard Whelan it is a part of the excellent American Masters series of television programs broadcast by PBS in the USA. 

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

Abbas  (1944-) • Lucien Aigner  (1901-1999) • Harry Benson • Gianni Berengo Gardin  (1930-) • Werner Bischof  (1916-1954) • Walter Bosshard  (1892-1975) • Alexandra Boulat  (1962-2007) • Christina Broom  (1863-1939) • Jane Brown  (1925-2014) • John Bulmer • René Burri  (1933-2014) • Robert Capa  (1913-1954) • Henri Cartier-Bresson  (1908-2004) • Chim  (1911-1956) • Ernest Cole  (1940-1990) • Carl De Keyzer  (1958-) • Luc Delahaye  (1962-) • Bertrand Desprez  (1963-) • Alfred Eisenstaedt  (1898-1995) • Bill Eppridge  (1938-2013) • Walker Evans  (1903-1975) • Leonard Freed  (1929-2006) • Eduardo Gageiro  (1935-) • Ashley Gilbertson  (1978-) • Nan Goldin  (1953-) • Bob Gosani  (check) • Lauren Greenfield  (1966-) • Ara Güler  (1928-) • Bert Hardy  (1913-1995) • Ron Haviv • Tim Hetherington  (1970-2011) • Lewis W. Hine  (1874-1940) • Chris Hondros  (1970-2011) • Boris Ignatovich  (check) • Colin Jones • Gary Knight  (1964-) • Antonin Kratochvil  (1947-) • Teru Kuwayama • Joachim Ladefoged  (1970-) • Dorothea Lange  (1895-1965) • Li Zhensheng  (1940-) • Nacho Lopez  (1923-1986) • Mary Ellen Mark  (1940-) • Steve McCurry  (1950-) • Enrique Metinides  (1934-) • Hansel Mieth  (1909-1998) • Boris Mikhailov  (1938-) • Lee Miller  (1907-1977) • David Moore  (1927-2003) • Christopher Morris  (1958-) • Carl Mydans  (1907-2004) • James Nachtwey  (1948-) • T.S. Nagarajan  (1932-) • David Dare Parker • Eugene Richards  (1944-) • Jacob A. Riis  (1849-1914) • Milton Rogovin  (1909-2011) • Marissa Roth  (1957-) • Sebastião Salgado  (1944-) • Erich Salomon  (1886-1944) • Tazio Secchiaroli • W. Eugene Smith  (1918-1978) • Humphrey Spender  (1910-2005) • John Stanmeyer  (check) • Phil Stern  (1919-2014) • Nicolas Tikhomiroff  (1927-) • Pierre Toutain-Dorbec  (1951-) • Weegee  (1899-1968) • Dan Weiner  (1919-1959)
HomeThemes > Photojournalism 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Photojournalism

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailDavid Moore: 100 Photographs 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 2, 2009)
ThumbnailElliott Erwitt: A Survey 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 3, 2010)
ThumbnailJoe Schwartz: Folk Photography - Poems I've Never Written 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 12, 2006)
ThumbnailJohn Gutmann (1905-1998) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 30, 2006)
ThumbnailLucien Aigner: Photo/Story 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 19, 2011)
ThumbnailMagnum Founders, In Celebration of Sixty Years 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 5, 2008)
ThumbnailPhotojournalism - Rise of the Picture Magazine 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 1, 2012)

HomeVisual indexes > Photojournalism

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailAdrian J. Ebell: The Indian Massacres and the War of 1862 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBill Brandt: North 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailChusseau-Flaviens: The first French press agency 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailChusseau-Flaviens: Women of the harem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCornell Capa: The Concerned Photographer 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Bulmer: Sunday Times Magazine tear sheets 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Filo: Kent State shooting 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLucien Aigner: Le Club des Cent Kilos 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMargaret Bourke-White: Fort Peck Dam 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Capa: Second World War Wire Photos 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhotojournalism: Iconic images 
ThumbnailPhotojournalism: Press photographs with paint or instructions 
ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: Paris Match 
ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: VU 
ThumbnailExecution of Ruth Synder 
ThumbnailHindenburg disaster (6 May 1937) 
   Still thinking about these... 
ThumbnailIllustrated London News - First Issue (14 May 1842) 
ThumbnailThe end of Gen Arnulfo Gomez (1927) 
Refreshed: 31 January 2015, 01:10
 Facebook LuminousLint 
 Twitter @LuminousLint