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HomeContentsThemes > Peoples of the world

Contents

Introduction
537.01   People of the world
537.02   Enhanced reality and peoples of the world
Different formats
537.03   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic
537.04   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians
537.05   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese
537.06   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans
537.07   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish
537.08   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor
537.09   Acadians, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (1859)
537.10   Albumen prints: Ethnic and traditional costumes
537.11   Carte de visites: Ethnic and traditional costumes
537.12   Cabinet cards: Ethnic and traditional costumes
537.13   Japanese ambrotypes
537.14   Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872)
537.15   Carl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s)
Tipos
537.16   Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil)
537.17   François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico)
537.18   Merille: Tipos (Mexico)
537.19   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese
537.20   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China
537.21   Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor: The People of India (1868-1872)
537.22   Pascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873
537.23   Emilio Biel & Ca.: Album de Phototypico Vistas e Costumes do Norte de Portugal (ca. 1900)
537.24   Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian
537.25   Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin: The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954)
Documenting the world in colour
537.26   Albert Kahn: Archives of the Planet (1909-1931)
People of all Nations
537.27   Aborigines
537.28   King Billy - A scandal in Tasmania
537.29   Andamanese
537.30   Arabs
537.31   Argentinians
537.32   Brazilians
537.33   Cossacks
537.34   Dervishes
537.35   Ecuadorians
537.36   Inuit
537.37   Japanese
537.38   Jews
537.39   Mexicans
537.40   Peruvians
537.41   Samoans
537.42   Zulus
Stereotypes
537.43   Stereotypical portraits in nineteenth century Italy
The merging of races
537.44   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits
Socio-cultural studies
537.45   Icons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910)
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
537.01   Documentary >  People of the world 
  
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As soon as travel with a camera was viable photographers set off to record the sites and peoples of the world.[1] The ideology of this approach was closely linked to the documentation of species in biology where the visual evidence would construct typologies of ethnic groups and their different levels of "civilization" could be used as proof of social evolution. Studies have tended to see the historic record as anthropological portraits and picture postcards of ethnic types created with a colonialist viewpoint but this approach is increasingly seen as simplistic and more complex approaches to understanding the photographer and how the indigenous cultures saw, and used, photography are emerging.[2]
 
With the daguereotype most of the surviving portraits are one-off portraits of a single person or a small group rather than a social or anthropological study of an ethnic people. An exception to this would be the series London daguerreotypist Richard Beard took which were used as the basis for Henry Mayhew's book London Labour and the London Poor (1861-1862).[3][4]  
  
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As the century progressed photographers created sets of portraits of people in local costume for carte de visites and cabinet cards these were mostly taken in studios rather than outside as the backgrounds show. Certain events such as the visits by Native American delegations to Washington (USA) were photographed by Alexander Gardner, Mathew Brady and others.  
  
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Tipos (Types) were series of portraits done by a single photographer, such as Christiano Júnior in Brazil or François Aubert in Mexico, showing the people of a region or country and these can also be occupationals.  
  
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Each race or groupings has its own history of photographs whether it is Arabs, Dervishes, Native Americans or Japanese and for some there were detailed photographic surveys carried out such as The People of India (1868-1872)[5] or The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954).[6] Multi-volume encyclopaedias were published including the Peoples of All Nations: Their Life To-day and the Story of Their Past edited by Sir John Alexander Hammerton (1922).[7]  
  
Racism and the perception of the other 
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The creation of the image is dependent on who owns the camera. The photographers selects the subject, posing, framing and the moment the shutter is released. Any portrayal of peoples of the world carries with it how "the other" was perceived at the time the photograph was taken. The legacy in the all to few early images we have of people has influenced how those portrayed are still seen and that has all to real social and economic effects. 
  
537.02   Documentary >  Enhanced reality and peoples of the world 
  
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Whatever form of illustration was used for printed materials prior to photography it was an "artist's impression" of reality and never visual truth. A camera obscura could show a form of truth but not capture it. There was a relatively long gap between the announcement of the discovery of photography in 1839 and the ability to mass produce photographs through photo-mechanical processes on the page. Assuredly there were tipped-in photographs in books but this was expensive and most people would not have had access to them. This raises the question as to how photography influenced the Western public's understanding of peoples of the world in an age of intense colonialism and an increase in travel for an expanding middle class.
 
The following fashion plate from The Water-Cure Journal (1851) highlights the issue. The image on the left shows "The American Costume" and is engraved from a daguerreotype and the one on the right "The French Costume" and is by an engraver.[8]  
  
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The issue here is not the fashions themselves but the radical differences in engraving styles. The image on the right is a pre-photography style print illustration and the one on the left a photographic style. Even though both are engravings and published at the same time photography has influenced one and not the other.
 
It is this point we see through the nineteenth century as photography becomes available so the accuracy of illustration improves and the levels of shadow, shade, facial features and poses become more accurate. Just as it was through the photographs of Eadweard Muybridge that the actual movement of a horse[9] could be understood for the first time it was photography that gave the public more accurate images of peoples of the world.
 
This change is perhaps best shown in the rare occasions when both the original photograph and the illustrations made using it can be seen side-by-side.  
  
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A photograph is always a partial truth and needs to be treated with care but with that proviso it is clear that there was a considerable shift in illustrative style that was directly due to photography and prior to the widespread introduction of photo-mechanical printing technologies. 
  
Different formats 
  
537.03   Documentary >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic 
  
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537.04   Documentary >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians 
  
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537.05   Documentary >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese 
  
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537.06   Documentary >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans 
  
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537.07   Documentary >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish 
  
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537.08   Documentary >  Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1851 Henry Mayhew's book London Labour and London Poor[10] was published in three volumes collecting together his well researched articles published in the Morning Chronicle. The book was an attempt at educating the middle and upper classes in Victorian England to the appalling social conditions of London. The illustrations for the book were based on daguerreotypes that were taken under the supervision of Richard Beard that were converted to wood engravings for publication because of the inability to print photographs within books at the time. As Naomi Rosenblaum pointed out in her A World History of Photography[11] the result of using wood engraving is that the characters are removed from their original surroundings by the use of 'sketchily indicated' backgrounds and this separates the viewer from the subject.
 
Illustrations based on Beard daguerreotypes included:
The Coster-Girl
The Oyster Stall
The Irish Street-Seller
The Wallflower Girl
The Groundsel Man
The Baked Potato Man
The London Coffee-Stall
Orange Mart, Dukes Place
 
  
537.09   Documentary >  Acadians, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (1859) 
  
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The frontispiece to Frederic S. Cozzens' book Acadia; or, A Month with the Blue Noses (1859) gives an early account of making ambrotypes[12] of the Acadians of Nova Scotia:
 
From the Preface of the book:
A word in regard to the two Acadian portraits. These are literal ambrotypes, to which Sarony has added a few touches of his artistic crayon. It may interest the reader to know that these are the first, the only likenesses of the real Evangelines of Acadia. The women of Chezzetcook appear at daybreak in the city of Halifax, and as soon as the sun is up vanish like the dew. They have usually a basket of fresh eggs, a brace or two of worsted socks, a bottle of fir-balsam to sell. These comprise their simple commerce. When the market-bell rings you find them not. To catch such fleeting phantoms, and to transfer them to the frontispiece of a book published here, is like painting the burnished wings of a humming-bird. A friend, however, undertook the task. He rose before the sun, he bought eggs, worsted socks, and fir-balsam of the Acadians. By constant attentions he became acquainted with a pair of Acadian women, niece and aunt. Then he proposed the matter to them:
 
"I want you to go with me to the daguerreotype gallery."
 
"What for?"
 
"To have your portraits taken."
 
"What for?"
 
"To send to a friend in New York."
 
"What for?"
 
"To be put in a book."
 
"What for?"
 
"Never rnind ' what for,' will you go ?"
 
Aunt and niece both together in a breath "No."
 
So my friend, who was a wise man, wrote to the priest of the settlement of Chezzetcook, to explain the "what for," and the consequence was our portraits! But these women had a terrible time at the head of the first flight of stairs. Not an inch would these shy creatures budge beyond. At last, the wife of the operator induced them to rise to the high flight that led to the Halifax skylight, and there they were painted by the sun, as we see them now.
 
Nothing more! Ring the bell, prompter, and draw the curtain.[13]
Curatorial note: The Sarony mentioned was presumably Napoleon Sarony (1821-1896) 
  
537.10   Documentary >  Albumen prints: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
  
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537.11   Documentary >  Carte de visites: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
  
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537.12   Documentary >  Cabinet cards: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
  
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537.13   Documentary >  Japanese ambrotypes 
  
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These rare Ambrotypes rank as unique photographic treasures on a number of counts. It is important to note that the images you see before you were not intended for a Western audience. Rather, they are unique, one-of-a-kind images created by Japanese photographers exclusively for Japanese clients. Only in the last few years have they come to attention in the West.
 
Until now, the best-known images from Japan’s Meiji Period (1868-1912) were taken by Western photographers - Beato, Stillfried, Farsari, et al. They are paper prints (not unique glass, albumen works, as we see here), made by appreciative Western photographers for export to a Western public craving Japan’s exotic, cultural charm. Often the Japanese posed in them as paid sitters, garbed in outmoded forms of dress (a coat of multi-layered, medieval Samurai armour, for instance) or arranged in improbably artistic setups (a bare-chested lady at her toilette). They are exotic specimens of a time that had, or was soon to pass.
 
Once Westerners taught the Japanese the art of photography, the next wave of images that followed - by the Japanese - were also intended for Western eyes. Not so, here, however. Culled from villages and remote family collections, these photographs (small-scale images, encased in wood) were very private, personal, intended to be passed down as precious heirlooms. The "reformed Samurai" warrior, for instance, pictured here, may have sat for such a photo in order to give his family a record of his life, lest he die in battle. The woman whose traditional whiteface makeup is framed so perfectly by her black (Western) umbrella, would have seemed smartly Westernized to her contemporaries - despite her traditional "geta" wooden platform shoes. Such visual and cultural incongruities of East and West (now marvellous to our eyes) abounded for the Japanese as they found themselves, in the late 1800s, on the brink of huge political and cultural upheaval.
 
Note a few other formal points of interest: the way the Japanese photographers tend to craft their portraits in full-length pose - from head to feet; the slightly lowered, more respectful position of the camera angle (vs. to the more confrontational approach to portraiture of the West). Then, there is the Ambrotype medium itself, which creates one-of-a-kind images on glass, without a negative. Though the West had already begun to favour the Albumen paper-print process, Japanese photographers set about perfecting the soon-to-be retrograde Ambrotype process, teasing from it a greater tonal range. And finally, note the kiri-wood presentation cases, in which these photographs are housed: they are feather-light, perfectly hand-crafted to fit, just so, in your palm. Thanks to the wood’s natural drying properties, these ambrotypes have withstood the test of time (and humidity, quite prevalent in Japan) and have been preserved in amazing condition. The original owners of the photos have handled these cases, turned them over and over again - proof of their durability. On occasion, they personalized them with inscriptions. They are fascinating objects, in and of themselves. [14] 
  
   Portrait Japanese Ambrotypes 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
537.14   Documentary >  Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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There are very few known copies of this series by Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) and the number of albumen prints included seems to vary. The front cover of this volume is entitled simply Ogallalla Sioux.[15] However, a copy of the series came up for auction at Sotheby‘s Sale of "The Frank T. Siebert Library of the North American Indian and the American Frontier" collection in New York on October 28, 1999 which had the fuller title:
Photographs of Red Cloud and Principal Chiefs of Dacotah Indians Taken on Their Visit to Washington, D.C., May, 1872 (Washington D.C.: for Trustees of Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, England, [Gibson Brothers, Printers, 1872])
The volume has a rather intriguing history that is worthy of note. William Henry Blackmore was an English financier, philanthropist and founder of the Blackmore Museum in Salisbury (Wiltshire, UK). His commercial interests in the United States included mining ventures, railways and land speculation that brought him into contact with Native Americans. Blackmore developed a passionate interest in Native American cultures and realized the importance of documenting their societies.. Accordingly, he commissioned noted Civil War photographer, Alexander Gardner,[16] to photograph Native American delegations visiting Washington D.C. This portfolio, Ogallalla Sioux, records the delegation of Red Cloud (Mahpíya Lúta), who visited Washington, DC from May 25 to June 3, 1872. Gardner took this series and in one of the photographs (not included in this volume) Red Cloud is seated with a standing William Blackmore shaking his hand in respect and friendship.[17]
 
Soon afterwards Blackmore financed and then accompanied Ferdinand V. Hayden on his 1872 survey expedition of the Yellowstone region. Early in the summer of 1872, Mary Blackmore contracted pneumonia and died in Bozeman, Montana. Hayden named Mt. Blackmore in her honor.
 
The encroachments on Indian lands resulted in increasing hostilities, and only four years later General George Custer (1839-1876) would lead his forces into the Black Hills of Dakota to resounding defeat. Red Cloud was a well known chief but he did not join Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull in their ill-fated attempts to protect their rights.
 
List of plates in this copy of the portfolio
01 Red Cloud
01 Red Cloud b
02 Red Dog
02 Red Dog b
03 Lone Wolf
03 Lone Wolf b
04 Ear of Corn
05 Big Foot
05 Big Foot b
06 White Hawk
06 White Hawk b
07 One Afraid of the Eagle
07 One Afraid of the Eagle b
08 Blue Horse
09 Stabber
10 Dirt Face
11 Good Buffalo
11 Good Buffalo b
12 Poor Elk
12 Poor Elk b
13 Two Elks
13 Two Elks b
15 Cayote
16 Hard Heart
16 Hard Heart b
17 Slow Bull
17 Slow Bull b
[Courtesy of the Etherton Gallery] 
  
   Alexander  Gardner 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
537.15   Documentary >  Carl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s) 
  
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Carl Sofus Lumholtz (1851-1922)[18] was a Norwegian explorer noted for his ethnographic research in Australia[19] and Mexico.[20] Within the photographs housed in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History in New York there are nitrate negatives of his expeditions. With this collection there is a photograph taken by William Libbey of the Expedition tent with decorations, Christmas tree at entrance but the most interesting are the ethnographic portraits taken by Carl Lumholtz where the indigenous peoples were photographed face on and in profile with a measuring stick beside them. The physiological characteristics of peoples was an essential part of their classification and photographs were thought to provide supporting empirical evidence. 
  
Tipos 
  
537.16   Documentary >  Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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537.17   Documentary >  François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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537.18   Documentary >  Merille: Tipos (Mexico) 
  
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537.19   Documentary >  William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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British-born William Saunders opened his studio in Shanghai, China ca. 1863. Although he was a portrait photographer, his fascination with the Chinese people prompted him to photograph Chinese at all social levels from the food seller to the high ranking Mandarins. His catalog contained a large number of city views of Shanghai and the surrounding areas. Saunders photographs were sold by other photographers in China and are characteristic in his rectangular shape with rounded corners and oval vignettes. Many of his photographs were reproduced in ‘The Far East Magazine’. 
  
537.20   Documentary >  Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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537.21   Documentary >  Colonel Philip Meadows Taylor: The People of India (1868-1872) 
  
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The People of India (1868-1872)[21] documented the diverse races of India by means of photographs.
 
The preface to the work gave an incomplete list of the photographers included:
J. C. A. Dannenberg
Lieutenant R. H. De Montmorency
Reverend F. Godfrey
Lieutenant W. W. Hooper
Major Houghton
Captain H. C. McDonald
J. Mulheran
Captain Oakes
Reverend G. Richter
Shepherd and Robertson
Dr. B. Simpson
Dr. B. W. Switzer
Captain H. C. B. Tanner
Captain C. C. Taylor
Lieutenant J. Waterhouse
Other photographers including Hurrichund Chintamon who also provided photographs were not mentioned.
 
The multi-volume series had their origins in a personal project by Lord and Lady Canning that evolved into a typology of the peoples of India and the Preface to the series provides the context:
The preface
 :
During the administration of Lord Canning, from 1856 to 1863, the interest which had been created in Europe by the remarkable development of the photographic Art, communicated itself to India, and originated the desire to turn it to account in the illustration of topography, architecture, and ethnology of that country.
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There were none, perhaps, in whom this interest was awakened more strongly than in Lord and Lady Canning. It was their wish to carry home with them, at the end of their sojourn in India, a collection, obtained by private means, of photographic illustrations, which might recall to their memory the peculiarities of Indian life.
 :
The great convulsion of 1857-58, while it necessarily retarded for a time all scientific and artistic operations, imparted a new interest to the country which had been the scene of, and to the people who had been the actors in these remarkable events. When, therefore, the pacification of India had been accomplished, the officers of the Indian services, who had made themselves acquainted with the principles and practice of photography, encouraged and patronized by the Governor-General, went forth, and traversed the land in search of interesting subjects.
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In this way the design soon exceeded the dimensions of a mere private collection; but Lord Canning felt that its importance was sufficient to warrant official sanction and development, and, therefore, placed the matter in the hands of Mr. Clive Bayley, his home secretary. Some or the more important results appear in the present work.
 :
The photographs were produced without any definite plan, according to local and personal circumstances, by different officers; and copies of each plate were sent home to the Secretary of State for India council.
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After a time, it appeared that a sufficient number of illustrations had been received from various parts of India, fairly to represent the different varieties of the Indian races. The negatives remained in India; but from the plates sent home it was easy to produce fresh negatives, the prints of which might bee multiplied to any extent. The Secretary of State in council sanctioned this operation, and the work was executed by Mr. W. Griggs, at the India museum, under the superintendence of Dr. Forbes Watson.
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In many cases some descriptive account of the tribes represented accompanied the photographs sent from India. These varied greatly in amplitude and value. But on the whole it may be said that they were sufficient to constitute the basis of the sketches contributed by Mr. John R. Melville, Colonel Meadows Taylor, Mr Kaye, Dr Forbes Watson, and others. These sketches do not profess to be more than mere rough notes, suggestive rather than exhaustive, and they make no claim to aspire to scientific eminence, it is hoped that, in a ethnological point of view, it will not be without interest and value.[22]
 
  
537.22   Documentary >  Pascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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For the 1873 "Exposition Universelle de Vienne"[23] a three part illustrated volume Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 [The Costumes of Turkey in 1873][24] was produced. Each part was illustrated with studio portraits showing different costumes from the regions ruled by the Ottoman Empire. Both men and women are photographed and it covers, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and the regions around Mecca and Medina in what is now Saudi Arabia. Different ethnic groups are shown including Kurds, Armenians, Jews and Greeks along with their occupations as shepherds, merchants, guards, priests and members of the beaurocracy. Where appropriate for women examples of their domestic clothing along with their clothing for outside are shown. Where two or three standing figures are shown in a photograph each costume is described separately.
 
The photographer Pascal Sebah (1823-1886) was a noted Turkish studio photographer and it will be noted that each photograph has the same panelling behind indicating that they were all taken in the same studio. 
  
537.23   Documentary >  Emilio Biel & Ca.: Album de Phototypico Vistas e Costumes do Norte de Portugal (ca. 1900) 
  
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537.24   Documentary >  Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Edward S. Curtis The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska [25]
 
Portfolios 1-16 and text volumes 1-16 on Holland Van Gelder paper. The large-format sepia photogravures by John Andrew & Sons, each measuring 15½x11 inches and the reverse (39.3x 28 cm. and the reverse) with a printed title, plate number, copyright, and photographer‘s and publisher‘s credit on recto. Folio, ¼ gilt-impressed morocco; gilt-lettered bookplates. The small-format sepia photogravures by John Andrews & Son, with the accompanying vellum interleafing. Large 4tos, ¾ gilt-lettered morocco, top edge gilt; A realized edition of 272 copies. Cambridge & Norwood, Mass.: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26
Vol. 1: Apache, Jicarillas, Navaho.
Vol. 2: Pima, Papago, Qahatika, Mohave, Yuma, Maricopa, Walapi, Havasupai, Apache-Mohave.
Vol. 3: Teton Sioux, Yanktonai, Assiniboin.
Vol. 4: Apsaroke, Hidatsa.
Vol. 5: Mandan, Arikara, Atsina.
Vol. 6: Piegan, Cheyenne, Arapaho.
Vol. 7: Yakima, Klickitat, Interior Salish, Kutenai.
Vol. 8: Nez Percés, Walla Walla, Umatilla, Cayuse, Chinookan Tribes.
Vol. 9: Salishan Tribes of the Coast, Chimakum, Quilliute, Willapa.
Vol. 10: The Kwakiutl.
Vol. 11: Nootka, Haida.
Vol. 12: The Hopi.
Vol. 13: Hupa, Yurok, Karok, Wiyot, Tolowa, Tututni, Shasta, Achomawi, Klamath.
Vol. 14: Kato, Wailaki, Yuki, Pomo, Wintun, Maidu, Miwok, Yokuts.
Vol: 15: Southern California Shoshoneans, The Dieguenos, Plateau Shoshoneans, The Washo Mythology.
Vol. 16: The Tiwa, The Keres.
 
  
   Edward Sheriff  Curtis 
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537.25   Documentary >  Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin: The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin (1874-1954) worked as a security officer in one of the native compounds for De Beers Consolidated Mines in Kimberley, South Africa. His relationships with the migrant diamond miners led to an interest in the local populations and in 1919 he initiated a long term project to document them. He carried out numerous ethnographic expeditions to photograph the San and other groups around Kimberley financed by Kimberley's McGregor Museum, the Carnegie Foundation and the government.
 
His expeditions between 1919 and 1939:
1919 - Bushman - Tswana
1920 - Zulu
1922 - Bushmen
1923 - Ndebele - Shangaan - Venda
1925 - Bhaca - Mpondo
1926 - Sotho
1927 - Bushmen - Swazi - Tsonga
1928 - Mfengu - Xhosa
1929 - Pedi
1930 - Bomvana - Gcaleka - Ngqika - Sotho - Thembu
1932 - Bhaca - Hlubi - Mpondo - Mpondomise - Xesibe
1933 - Bushmen - Chopi - Ndebele - Swazi - Tsonga/Shangaan
1934 - Ndebele (Matabele) - Tswana - Sarwa
1935 - Tsonga - Zulu
1936 - Herero - Ila -Wambo
1937 - Bhaca - Ila - Nguni
1938 - Ila - Lozi - Lunda - Mbunda
1939 - Ndau - Shona
In 1925 he opened the "Duggan-Cronin Bantu Gallery" in his house, provided by De Beers, to show his Bantu portraits. His interest in the subject led to a four volume set of eleven sections The Bantu Tribes of South Africa: Reproductions of Photographic Studies by A.M. Duggan-Cronin (1928-1954) illustrated with 376 collotypes.
Vol. I, Section I, The Bavenda - Plates I-XX, G. P. Lestrade, M.A., 1928
 
Vol. II, Section I, Suto-Chuana Tribes / The Bechuana - Plates I-XXVI, G. P. Lestrade, M.A., 1929
 
Vol. II, Section II, Suto-Chuana Tribes / The Bapedi - Plates XXVII-LII, Werner Eiselen, M.A., Ph.D., 1931
 
Vol. II, Section III, Suto-Chuana Tribes / The Southern Basotho - Plates LIII-LXXVIII, G. P. Lestrade, M.A. / I. Schapera, M.A., Ph.D., 1933
 
Vol. III, Section I, The Nguni / The Ciskei and Souther Transkei Tribes (Xhosa and Thembu) - Plates I-XL, I. Schaphera and W.G. Bennie, 1939
 
Vol. III, Section II, The Nguni / The Mpondo and Mpondomise - Plates XLI-LXXX, Monica Wilson, M.A., Ph.D., 1949
 
Vol. III, Section III, The Nguni / The Zulu - Plates LXXXI-CXX, D. McK. Malcolm, BA., 1938
 
Vol. III, Section IV, The Nguni / The Swazi - Plates CXXI-CLII, Hilda Beemer, 1941
 
Vol. III, Section V, Baca, Hlubi, Xesibe - Plates CLIII-CXCVIII, W. D. Hammond-Tooke, M.A., Ph.D., 1954
 
Vol. IV, Section I, The Vathonga Thonga-Shangaan (The Thonga-Shangaan People) - Plates I-XL, Henri-Philippe Junod, B.A., B.D., 1935
 
Vol. IV, Section Il, The Vachopi of Portugese East Africa - Plates XLI-LXXX, Henri-Philippe Junod, B.A., B.D. 1936
The Duggan-Cronin Gallery, which is a satellite of the McGregor Museum in Kimberley, South Africa houses his collection of photographs and ethnographic artefacts. 
  
Documenting the world in colour 
  
537.26   Documentary >  Albert Kahn: Archives of the Planet (1909-1931) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Albert Kahn (1860-1940)[26] was a banker rather than a photographer but his role in using colour photography[27] and film to document the planet left a profound legacy. Following a visit to Japan with his chauffeur and photographer, Alfred Dutertre, in 1909 he funded a project using a variety of photographers[28] to document over 50 countries between 1909 and 1931 creating an archive of 72,000 colour photographs and 183,000 meters of film.[29] 
  
People of all Nations 
  
537.27   Documentary >  Aborigines 
  
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Aboriginal rights and the need for cultural permission for the display of Aboriginal photography is encouraging new approaches to the analysis of the visual historic record. The simplistic approaches of photographs being used only for colonialist purposes of "species documentation", tourist shots and picture postcards as interesting souvenirs is being reassessed. By working with descendents of those photographed and clan members it is possible for them to reclaim the photographic history and a more nuanced analysis is starting to appear with Aboriginal communities being the photographers and creators of their own images.[30] 
  
537.28   Documentary >  King Billy - A scandal in Tasmania 
  
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In Tasmania the aborigine numbers decreased rapidly after colonization and by 1847 only 46 individuals remained. Charles A. Woolley took a studio portrait of a Tasmanian woman called Trucanini in 1866 - here the portrait is interesting because it uses the format used by contemporary portrait photographers rather than the fully body shots that were preferred by anthropologists. The paper print, now in the collection of the Royal Anthropological Institution of Great Britain and Ireland, shows the head and shoulders with the upper body fading out in the lower part of the shot, a style commonly used in carte-de-visite.
 
In the medical journal The Lancet in 1869 there was an account of the scandalous treatment of the last remains of "King Billy":
THE LAST TASMANIAN.
 
The public mind of Hobart Town has been greatly disturbed by an unseemly squabble consequent on the death of "King Billy," the last aboriginal Tasmanian. It seems that none of the museums of the colony contain a complete male aboriginal skeleton; and hence King Billy's remains have been fought for in the deadhouse and in the graveyard, and have since been fought about, still more fiercely, in the columns of the local papers. Mr. Crowther, a surgeon of Hobart Town, and the recent recipient of a medal from the Royal College of Surgeons of England, wished to secure the precious skeleton for the museum in Lincoln's-inn-fields. The Government, on the other hand, was in favour of securing the skeleton for the museum of the (colonial) Royal Society; and Dr. Stokell, the house-surgeon to the hospital in which the death took place, received strict orders to preserve the remains from mutilation. Someone, however (and suspicion points to Mr. Crowther), succeeded in gaining access to the deadhouse, and removed the skull, sewing up within the soft parts another skull in place of it. Next, in the interests of the colonial museum, the hands and feet were removed; and, finally, the body, after a public funeral, was exhumed at night under the direction of Dr. Stokell. The skull is still missing, and Mr. Crowther, who is a member of the upper house of the Tasmanian legislature, has been suspended from his duties as surgeon to the hospital. The newspapers are full of letters of acrimonious recrimination, and the editors find in the subject a text for leaders in the largest type. We can only hope that the disjecta membra may in time be united in some fitting resting-place, and that the discreditable incidents of the contest may be speedily forgotten.[31]
 
  
537.29   Documentary >  Andamanese 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Maurice Vidal Portman went to the Andaman Islands[32] in 1879 and documented the languages and history of the region.[33] He carried out an ambitious, but never completed plan, to photograph the Andamanese aboriginals before their extinction due to colonial contact.[34] 
  
537.30   Documentary >  Arabs 
  
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537.31   Documentary >  Argentinians 
  
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537.32   Documentary >  Brazilians 
  
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537.33   Documentary >  Cossacks 
  
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537.34   Documentary >  Dervishes 
  
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537.35   Documentary >  Ecuadorians 
  
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537.36   Documentary >  Inuit 
  
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The term Eskimo ('eaters of raw flesh') was used by the Algonquians and became widely used by early expeditions. More recently the term Inuit ('the people'), which is how they refer to themselves, has come to be the accepted term.[35] In the rare photographs of Inuit taken in the nineteenth century they are normally posed on the deck of an expedition ship. It is a situation where the sitter has little or no control over the posing and they are generally recorded as "curiosities" though there are exceptions. The curatorial description of the photograph of Hans Hendrik 'the Esquimaux' with his daughter/wife[?] and son on the upper deck of 'Discovery' taken in 20 July 1875 during the British Arctic Expedition (1875-76) said:
 
  
Thomas Mitchell: Hans Henri, Esquimaux dog-driver, with his son and daughter, Proven, Greenland (1875) 
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Hans was employed on the expedition as one of the native dog-drivers on board Discovery. The Alert and Discovery spent three days at Proven, Greenland, between 19 and 21 July 1875 in order to collect the dog-drivers. The official report stated that 'All speak in the highest terms of Hans, the Esquimaux, who was untiring in his exertions with the dog-sledge, and in procuring game'. Indeed, he played an important role in helping to contain the outbreak of scurvy.[36]
Hans Hendrik had "Esquimaux' parents and was born in the German mission station at Kekertarsuatsiask where his parents assisted the missionaries.[37] His knowledge was well-respected by expeditions and he assisted several including those of Kane, Hayes, Hall and Nares.  
  
Unidentified photographer: Eskimo portraits 
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C.W. Mathers: Group of Esquimaux taken at Midnight (1901) 
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537.37   Documentary >  Japanese 
  
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The first portraits of the Japanese were the shipwrecked crew of the Eiriki-Maru who were brought to San Francisco in February 1851 where they stayed until March 1852 when they were taken to Hong Kong.[38] The crew was daguerreotyped by Baltimore Harvey R. Marks (1821-1902)[39] whilst they were on board the Polk and these photographs were used for woodblock illustrations that were published in the Illustrated News (22 January 1853).[40]  
  
The crew of the Eiriki-Maru (1853) 
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One of the crew of the Eiriki-Maru Simpatch (Sampachi or Sentaro) would gain a place in history as he accompanied Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s).[41] 
  
537.38   Documentary >  Jews 
  
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537.39   Documentary >  Mexicans 
  
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537.40   Documentary >  Peruvians 
  
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537.41   Documentary >  Samoans 
  
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537.42   Documentary >  Zulus 
  
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Stereotypes 
  
537.43   Documentary >  Stereotypical portraits in nineteenth century Italy 
  
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When portraits for tourists were taken in nineteenth century Italy local photographers such as Giorgio Sommer, Carlo Naya and Giacomo Brogi all took stereotypes of people being robbed while having their shoes cleaned and eating pasta in a dramatic manner. These photographs were often staged and some were taken inside photographic studios. 
  
The merging of races 
  
537.44   Documentary >  Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Augustus Francis Sherman (1865-1925) was a registry clerk at Ellis Island (NY)[42] and between 1904 and 1920 he took over 200 photographs of new arrivals.[43] 
  
   Augustus Francis  Sherman 
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Socio-cultural studies 
  
537.45   Documentary >  Icons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910) 
  
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“Exposed to the curious eyes of foreigners in all the showcases of the photographers, is a portrait of a woman of the south in a bizarre costume, with the impressive face of an idol from the old Orient […], the face of a bird of prey with eyes full of mystery …” So begins Le Portrait de l’Ouled Nail, written by Isabelle Eberhardt at the very beginning of the twentieth century. Classic iconographs of the Algerian south, the Ouled Nail never ceased to fascinate travellers and artists, from Fromentin to Gide and Robert Hitchens, who popularised the legend of these Bedouin women leaving the desert for Biskra and Bou Saada, well before the arrival of the first Europeans, to become dancers and prostitutes for long enough to build up a satisfactory dowry and return to marry a man of their own tribe.
 
The works in this exhibition is mostly made up of the oldest photographs - that is, those that circulated as cartes de visite between 1860 and 1870. In their particular style they already reveal the irrevocable perversion of a tradition. And, for the achievement of those - expressly proud - poses so favoured by the barrack-room (the client is always male) how many female bodies have been lasciviously abandoned, and at a rate that has been notably accelerated by colonisation! The formidable or striking views of the Ouled taken by Alary-Geiser or the tender fragility of those by Clavier-Richan tell their own story of this extremely threatened sense of pride.
 
For notably technical reasons, these first images remain distanced, and primarily show ‘bizarre costumes’, hair styled like the horns of a ram, and the finery of necklaces on which the Ouled Nail fastens coins earned in the secrecy of the alcove. This is definitely not to be confused with other Berber costumes of the women of the Aures or Kabylia, and even less with those of ‘belly dancers’ or, at least, of the most celebrated of them - the dance of the Ouled is hieratic, and not undulating.
 
By the 1860s the most important photographic studios of Algiers were already circulating their first images, but in this exhibition we have favoured two much less well-known studios, both with the name Photographie Saharienne. The first, active since 1865, distributes its cartes de visite with only its address inscribed – 1 rue Tourville. The second, which will later claim its date of creation as 1860, is none other than the first studio set up in Biskra by the photographer, Auguste Maure, now, at last, receiving recognition. Our own research, meticulously carried out by Gilles Dupont, a descendant of Maure, has restored the importance of these two studios, even if it has not yet established an iconographic link between them.
 
Paradoxically, it’s the moment when the tradition is definitively perverted, when the designation "Ouled Nail" is no more than a virtual tribe whose name signifies only ‘a local prostitute’ that the photographer gets closer and at times achieves real portraits. But if Rudolf Lehnert tried to emulate the art of the painter Etienne Dinet and reconstruct the legend of the Ouled, as Edward Sheriff Curtis would that of the American Indians, his French colleague, photographer Emile Fréchon, who was dubbed within French pictorialism as the equal of naturalist Peter Henry Emerson, was not taken in. For he was also a journalist.
 
When, in 1892, he compiles for Jules Gervais-Courtellemont a series of articles on Biskra, illustrated by his own plates, he explains that “the number [of Ouleds] who marry lawfully is immensely limited […] ’Ouled Nail’ does not denote a race, but a profession; one is an Ouled Nail as one is a purveyor of pancakes or doughnuts …”
 
Of these fallen idols, there remains today only the image, “exposed to the curious eyes”, and some first names, preserved by the captions of postcards, Myriam bent Ali , for example, who tried in vain to teach Andre Gide a thing or two but was the delight of Pierre Louÿs, inspiring his famous Chansons de Bilitis. Isabelle Eberhardt was also a journalist, but it‘s as novelist that she questioned her reader’s imagination - and perhaps ours too - when she wondered: "how many extraordinary flights of fancy, how much prescience - perhaps among some refined minds - of this bleak and magnificent South, were evoked by this portrait of the Ouled Nail in the onlookers who gazed at it …"
 
“Bleak and magnificent” is how the Ouled Nail, these icons of the South, continue to reveal themselves to us.
 
Michel Mégnin, Toulouse, December 2011
 
With my profound thanks to Gilles Dupont, great grandson of Auguste Maure; and to Bruno Tartarin, the Photo-Verdeau gallery, Paris.
 
Michel Mégnin is a historian of photography and a collector. He has written two reference works - Tunis 1900, Lehnert & Landrock photographes (2005), and La photo-carte de visite en Algérie au XIXème siècle (2007).
 
[Special thanks to Angela Martin for an attentive and sensitive translation from the original French.] 
  
   Portrait 19thc Algerian Ouled Nails 
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ K.S. Howe, 2004, First Seen. Portraits Of The World's Peoples 1840-1880 From The Wilson Centre For Photography, (London: Santa Barbara Museum of Art; Third Millennium Publishing) 
      
  2. Λ For an example of these new approaches I'd recommend the work of Professor Jane Lydon on Australian Aborigines - Jane Lydon, 2006, Eye Contact: Photographing Indigenous Australians, (Duke University Press); Jane Lydon (ed.), 2014, Calling the shots: Indigenous photographies, (Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press)
     
    For papers on related topics - Elizabeth Edwards (ed.), 1992, Anthropology and Photography: 1860-1920, (New Haven: Yale University Press) 
      
  3. Λ Henry Mayhew, 1861-62, London Labour and the London Poor, (London: Charles Griffin, and Company) [4 vols. The woodcuts are based upon daguerreotypes by Richard Beard] 
      
  4. Λ If you know the whereabouts of the Richard Beard daguerreotypes used to illustrate Henry Mayhew, 1861-62, London Labour and the London Poor, (London: Charles Griffin, and Company) I'd be most interested. - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  5. Λ Meadows Taylor, 1868-1872, The People of India. A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, (by Meadows Taylor,) originally prepared under the authority of the Government of India, and reproduced by order of the Secretary of State for India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) [Edited by J.F. Watson and J.W. Kaye. A fascimile reprint of the original 1867 eight volume edition was published in 1987 by B.R. Publishing, Delhi. Includes photographs by Hurrichund Chintamon] 
      
  6. Λ A.M. Duggan-Cronin, 1928-1954, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa, (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell) [Eleven volumes] 
      
  7. Λ Sir John Alexander Hammerton, 1922, Peoples of All Nations: Their Life To-day and the Story of Their Past, (Fleetway House) 
      
  8. Λ October 1851, "The American and French Fashions Contrasted", The Water-Cure Journal (New York), vol. XII, no. 4, p. 96.
     
    We herewith present our readers with engraved views of the prevailing European and [proposed] American Fashions.
     
    No. 1 represents Mrs. Amelia Bloomer, of Seneca Falls, N. Y. It was engraved from a Daguerreotype for the Cayuga Chief, an excellent newspaper published in Auburn, N. Y., and kindly loaned to us by Mr. Thurlow W. Brown, the gentlemanly proprietor.
     
    No. 2 was copied by our own Engraver, from the Illustrated London News, and is an exact copy of the original, without variation; and is a perfect representation of the French Fashions, as worn in July last. We submit the two styles side by side, for the consideration of American Women. 
      
  9. Λ J.D.B. Stillman , 1882, The Horse in Motion, As Shown by Instantaneous Photography, With a Study on Animal Mechanics, (Boston: James R. Osgood and Company). For this book Eadweard Muybridge had taken the photographs but was not credited ad this led to a law suit that he lost. 
      
  10. Λ The book London Labour and London Poor was evidently rare quite soon after it was published in 1851 as in The Atheneum, no. 1407, Oct. 14, 1854, p. 1223 there was the following advert:
    RARE WORK. A few Copies just ready of HENRY MATHEWS Celebrated and very Extraordinary Work, 'LONDON LABOUR AND THE LONDON POOR : a CycIopedia of Those that Work, Those that cannot Work, and Those that will not Work,' with Engravings of the Scenes and People described, copied from Daguerreotypes taken expressly for this Book by Beard. Prices [unclear on scan]. Each bound copy has at end the whole of the valuable "Answers to Correspondents arranged to be read uninterruptedly." EITHER DIVISION OF THE WORK SOLD SEPARATELY.
     
    A quantity of Odd Numbers for completion of sets to 63rd number -(pages 432 of vol. II. and 199 of vol. III.). The Answers to Correspondents prepared for binding, all Advertisements, &c. attached on publication being excluded. Copies bound in manner rendering them more complete than any ever supplied, except by
    G. Newbold, 8, Regent-street. Westminster.
    N.B. Numbers bought - full price given - lists requested by post.
     
      
  11. Λ Naomi Rosenblum, 1984, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press); Naomi Rosenblum, 2007, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press) [4th edition] 
      
  12. Λ The ambrotype on which the frontispiece for Frederic S. Cozzens Acadia; or, A Month with the Blue Noses (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1859) is now lost. 
      
  13. Λ Frederic S. Cozzens Acadia; or, A Month with the Blue Noses (New York: Derby & Jackson, 1859), pp. iv-v. 
      
  14. Λ Text courtesy of Charles Schwartz. 
      
  15. Λ See also - Alexander Gardner, 1872, Photographs of Red Cloud and Principal Chiefs of Dacotah Indians Taken on Their Visit to Washington, D.C., May, 1872, (Washington D.C.: for Trustees of Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, England, [Gibson Brothers, Printers]) 
      
  16. Λ For Alexander Gardner and the American Civil War - Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  17. Λ A copy of this work at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University [Zc16D1 +872ga] includes a photograph of a seated Red Cloud shaking hands with a standing William Henry Blackmore. 
      
  18. Λ Carl Lumholtz, 1921, My Life in Exploration 
      
  19. Λ Carl Lumholtz, 1889, Among Cannibals; an account of four years' travels in Australia and of camp life with the aborigines of Queensland, (New York : C. Scribner's). Republished in 1980 - Canberra: Australian National University Press. 
      
  20. Λ Carl Lumholtz, 1902, Unknown Mexico; a record of five years' exploration among the tribes of the western Sierra Madre; in the tierra caliente of Tepic and Jalisco; and among the Tarascos of Michoacan. (London: Macmillan and Co., Limited ). Republished in 1973 by Glorieta, N.M., Rio Grande Press, and 1987 by Dover. 
      
  21. Λ Meadows Taylor, 1868-1872, The People of India. A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, (by Meadows Taylor,) originally prepared under the authority of the Government of India, and reproduced by order of the Secretary of State for India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) [Edited by J.F. Watson and J.W. Kaye. A fascimile reprint of the original 1867 eight volume edition was published in 1987 by B.R. Publishing, Delhi.] 
      
  22. Λ $Meadows Taylor, 1868-1872, The People of India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) , Preface 
      
  23. Λ Vienna (Wien), Weltausstellung (1873) - One of the great World Fairs and Internnational Exhibitions of the nineteenth century. 
      
  24. Λ 1873, Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873: Ouvrage publie´ sous le patronage de la Commission impe´riale ottomane pour l'Exposition universelle de Vienne. Texte par Son Excellence Hamdy bey ... et Marie de Launay ... Phototypie de Se´bah., (Constantinople: Impr. du "Levant times & shipping gazette")
     
    The Library of Congress has a copy of this volume (GT1267 .H2).
     
    Online version - Open Library
    (Accessed: 21 December 2013)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7002055M/Les_costumes_populaires_de_la_Turquie_en_1873.
     
    With thanks to Theodoros Natsinas for bringing this volume to my attention. 
      
  25. Λ Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26). 
      
  26. Λ The BBC (UK) ran a television series on Albert Kahn with an accompanying book - David Okuefuna, 2008, The Wonderful World of Albert Kahn: Colour Photographs from a Lost Age, (BBC Books in association with the Musée Albert-Kahn, département des Hauts-de-Seine, France)
     
    The original BBC series shown in 2007 consisted of the following episodes:
     
    A Vision of the World
    1/5 Documentary about the world's first colour camera system from 1908.
    First broadcast: 19 Apr 2007
     
    Men of the World
    2/5 Kahn's global circumnavigation and Stephane Passet's 1913 journey to China and India.
    First broadcast: 26 Apr 2007
     
    Europe on the Brink
    3/5 When Auguste Leon visited Scandinavia in 1910, he found widespread deprivation and famine.
    First broadcast: 03 May 2007
     
    The Soldiers' Story
    4/5 During the First World War, Kahn dispatched his photographers to the French battlefields.
    First broadcast: 09 Sep 2008
     
    The Civilians' Story
    5/5 Tracing the work of Kahn's photographers throughout France during the Great War.
    First broadcast: 17 May 2007 
      
  27. Λ The colour process used by the photographers of Albert Kahn was the Autochrome. 
      
  28. Λ The photographers Albert Kahn commissioned included: Stéphane Passet, Roger Dumas, Alfred Dutertre, Frédéric Gadmer, Lucien Le Saint, Auguste Léon, Léon Busy, Paul Castelnau, Camille Sauvageot and Georges Chevalier. 
      
  29. Λ The Albert Kahn collection is archived at:
     
    albert-kahn.hauts-de-seine.net/english/
    Albert Kahn, museum and gardens
    10-14, rue du Port
    92100 Boulogne-Billancourt
    France
     
    Tel: (33) 1 55 19 28 00
    museealbertkahn@cg92.fr 
      
  30. Λ At the forefront of this work is Professor Jane Lydon - Jane Lydon, 2006, Eye Contact: Photographing Indigenous Australians, (Duke University Press); Jane Lydon (ed.), 2014, Calling the shots: Indigenous photographies, (Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press) 
      
  31. Λ June 26, 1869, "The Last Tasmanian", The Lancet, no. 2391, p. 882. 
      
  32. Λ Andaman Islands - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 17 May 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andaman_Islands 
      
  33. Λ M.V. Portman, 1899, A history of our relations with the Andamanese, (Calcutta: Office of the Government Printing), 2 volumes 
      
  34. Λ The Pitt Rivers Museum has about two dozen photographs by Maurice Vidal Portman (1860-1935) in its collection, the British Library has some and there is an extensive collection at the British Museum. 
      
  35. Λ The volume by Goodrich provides a surprisingly detailed description of the esquimaux, their physical bearing, clothing, material culture and beliefs - Charles Augustus Goodrich, 1836, The Universal Traveller: Designed to Introduce Readers at Home to an Acquaintance with the Arts, Customs, and Manners, of the Principal Modern Nations on the Globe, (Canfield & Robins) 
      
  36. Λ National Maritime Museum, Repro ID: P39584 ® National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London 
      
  37. Λ Hans Hendrick, 1878, Memoirs of Hans Hendrik: The Arctic Traveller Serving Under Kane, Hayes, Hall and Nares, 1853-1876, (Trübner & Company), edited by George Stephens 
      
  38. Λ PhotoHistory 1646-1867 - Philbert Ono
    (Accessed: 10 June 2014)
    photoguide.jp/txt/PhotoHistory_1646-1867 
      
  39. Λ Daguerreotype plates of the crew of the are in the collections of Kawasaki City Museum and Yokohama Museum of Art. 
      
  40. Λ The significance of the daguerreotype plates was revealed by Izakura Naomi in June 1996. For an account of "The Sentaro Daguerrotype - First Japanese to be Photographed" by Terry Bennett
    (Accessed: 10 June 2014)
    www.old-japan.co.uk/article_daguerreotype.html 
      
  41. Λ George Feifer, 2006, Breaking Open Japan: Commodore Perry, Lord Abe, and American Imperialism in 1853, (Smithsonian) 
      
  42. Λ Barbara Benton, 1987, Ellis Island: A Pictorial History, (Facts on File) 
      
  43. Λ Augustus F. Sherman & Peter Mesenhöller, 2005, Augustus F. Sherman: Ellis Island Portraits 1905–1920, (Aperure) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
1873, Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873, (Constantinople: Impr. du "Levant times & shipping gazette") [Ouvrage publie´ sous le patronage de la Commission impe´riale ottomane pour l'Exposition universelle de Vienne. Texte par Son Excellence Hamdy bey ... et Marie de Launay ... Phototypie de Se´bah. Library of Congress: GT1267 .H2] [Δ
  
Amad, Paula, 2010, Counter-Archive: Film, the Everyday, and Albert Kahn's Archives de la Planète, (Columbia University Press) isbn-10: 0231135017 isbn-13: 978-0231135016 [Δ
  
Dammann, Carl, 1872-1874, Anthropologisches-Ethnologisches Album in Photographien [Δ
  
Dammann, Carl & Dammann, Frederick [Friedrich] W., 1875, Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men, (London: Trubner) [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth, 1990, ‘Photographic 'Types': The Pursuit of a Method‘, Visual Anthropology, vol. 3, no. 2-3, pp. 241-247 [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth (ed.), 1992, Anthropology and Photography: 1860-1920, (New Haven: Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Escard, F., 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot) [Δ
  
Falconer, John, 1984, ‘Ethnographical Photography in India 1850-1900‘, Photographic Collector, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 16-46 [Δ
  
Fleming, Paula Richardson & Luskey, Judith Lynn, 1996, Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography, (London: L. King) [Δ
  
Garb, Tamar (ed.), 2013, African Photography from the Walther Collection: Distance and Desire - Encounters with the African Archive, (Steidl) isbn-13: 978-3869306513 [Δ
  
Goodyear, Frank, 2003, Red Cloud: Photographs of a Lakota Chief, (University of Nebraska Press) [Δ
  
Howe, K.S., 2004, First Seen. Portraits Of The World's Peoples 1840-1880 From The Wilson Centre For Photography, (London: Santa Barbara Museum of Art; Third Millennium Publishing) [Δ
  
Kahn, Albert, 1978, Les Archives de la planete: La France, ( J. Cuenot) isbn-10: 2863480022 isbn-13: 978-2863480021 [French] [Δ
  
Kahn, Albert, 1986, L'Italia negli Archivi del Pianeta: Le campagne fotografiche de Albert Kahn 1910-1929, (Electa) isbn-10: 8843512838 isbn-13: 978-8843512836 [Italian] [Δ
  
Lydon, Jane, 2006, Eye Contact: Photographing Indigenous Australians, (Duke University Press) isbn-10: 0822387255 isbn-13: 978-0822387251 [Δ
  
Lydon, Jane (ed.), 2014, Calling the shots: Aboriginal photographies, (Canberra: A.C.T. Aboriginal Studies Press) isbn-10: 1922059595 isbn-13: 978-1922059598 [pdf, epub, Kindle] [Δ
  
Maxwell, A., 1999, Colonial Photography and Exhibitions: Representations of the “Native” and the Making of European Identities, (London: Leicester University Press) [Δ
  
Maxwell, Anne, 2008, Picture Imperfect: Photography and Eugenics, 1870-1940, (Sussex Academic Press) isbn-10: 1845194152 isbn-13: 978-1845194154 [Δ
  
Mofokeng, Santu, 2012, The Black Photo Album / Look at Me: 1890-1950, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869303107 isbn-13: 978-3869303109 [Δ
  
Okuefuna, David, 2008, Albert Kahn: Le monde en couleurs Autochromes 1908-1931, (Chne) isbn-10: 2842779274 isbn-13: 978-2842779276 [French] [Δ
  
Okuefuna, David, 2008, The Wonderful World of Albert Kahn: Colour Photographs from a Lost Age, (BBC Books) isbn-10: 1846074584 isbn-13: 978-1846074585 [Δ
  
Pieterse J N, 1992, White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture, (New Haven: Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Taylor, Meadows, 1868-1872, The People of India. A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, (by Meadows Taylor,) originally prepared under the authority of the Government of India, and reproduced by order of the Secretary of State for India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) [Edited by J.F. Watson and J.W. Kaye. A fascimile reprint of the original 1867 eight volume edition was published in 1987 by B.R. Publishing, Delhi. Includes photographs by Hurrichund Chintamon] [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Gary Auerbach 
  
Auerbach, Gary, 2005, We Walk in Beauty: Native American Photographs & Words, (G. Auerbach) isbn-10: 0977306208 isbn-13: 978-0977306206 [Δ
  
Edward S. Curtis 
  
Boesen, Victor & Graybill, Florence Curtis, 1977, Edward S. Curtis: Photographer of the North American Indian, (Dodd Mead) [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., n.d.As it Was [Unpublished memoir, University of Washington Library, Special Collections] [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Northwest Plains‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 657-671 [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Southwest‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 513-529 [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1909, ‘Village Tribes of the Desert Land‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 274-287 [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1914, Indian Days of the Long Ago, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company) [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1915, In the Land of the Head-Hunters, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company) [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1992, Native Nations: First Americans as Seen by Edward Curtis, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
Curtis, Edward S., 1997, The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolio, (New York: Köln: Taschen) [Δ
  
Davis, Barbara A., 1985, Edward S. Curtis: The Life and Times of a Shadow Catcher, (San Francisco: Chronicle Books) [Δ
  
Edwards, Ralph W., 1962, Curtis's Western Indians, (Bonanza Books) [Δ
  
Gidley, Mick, 1998, Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indian, Incorporated, (Cambridge University Press) [Δ
  
Gidley, Mick, 2003, Edward S. Curtis and the North Amerrican Indian Project in the Field, (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press) [Δ
  
Hausman, Gerald (ed.), 1995, Prayer to the Great Mystery: The Uncollected Writings and Photography of Edward S. Curtis, (New York: St. Martin's Press) [Δ
  
Lyman, Christopher M., 1982, The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of Indians by Edward S. Curtis, (New York: Pantheon Books; Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press) [Δ
  
Makepeace, Anne, 2000, Coming to Light: Edward S. Curtis and the North American Indians, (Anne Makepeace Productions, Inc.,) [Δ
  
Makepeace, Anne, 2001, Edward S. Curtis: Coming to Light, (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society) [Δ
  
Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin 
  
Duggan-Cronin, A.M., 1928-1954, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa, (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell) [Eleven volumes] [Δ
  
Godby, Michael, 2010, ‘Alfred Martin Duggan-Cronin's photographs for the Bantu tribes of South Africa (1928-1954): the construction of an ambiguous idyll‘, Kronos (Bellville), vol. 36, no. 1 [Δ
  
Gustav Fritsch 
  
Fritsch, Gustav, 1868, Drei Jahre in Südafrika: Reiseskizzen nach Notizen des Tagebuchs zusammengestellt, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Three years in South Africa: Travelogues arranged after notes of the diary] [Δ
  
Fritsch, Gustav, 1872, Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Ethnographic and anatomic research in South Africa] [Δ
  
Alexander Gardner 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 1872, Photographs of Red Cloud and Principal Chiefs of Dacotah Indians Taken on Their Visit to Washington, D.C., May, 1872, (Washington D.C.: for Trustees of Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, England, [Gibson Brothers, Printers]) [Δ
  
Laura Gilpin 
  
Gilpin, Laura, 1968, The Enduring Navajo, (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press) [Δ
  
Sandweiss, M. A., 1986, Laura Gilpin, An Enduring Grace, (Ft. Worth, TX: Amon Carter Museum) [Δ
  
Gertrude Käsebier 
  
Delaney, Michelle, 2007, Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Warriors: A Photographic History by Gertrude Käsebier, (Smithsonian National Museum of American History) isbn-10: 0061129771 isbn-13: 978-0061129773 [Δ
  
Josef Koudelka 
  
Koudelka, Josef, 1975, Koudelka: Gypsies, (New York: Aperture Book) [Δ
  
Augustus Francis Sherman 
  
Sherman, Augustus F. & Mesenhöller, Peter, 2005, Augustus F. Sherman: Ellis Island Portraits 1905–1920, (Aperure) isbn-10: 193178860X isbn-13: 978-1931788601 [Δ
  
Adam Clark Vroman 
  
Webb, William & Weinstein, Robert A., 1987, Dwellers at the Source: Southwestern Indian Photographs of A. C. Vroman, 1895–1904, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
William Coupon  (1952-) • Edward S. Curtis  (1868-1952) • Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin  (1874-1954) • Gustav Fritsch  (1838-1927) • Robert Gardner  (1925-) • Albert Kahn  (1860-1940) • Irving Penn  (1917-2009) • Leni Riefenstahl  (1902-2003) • August Sander  (1876-1964) • Augustus Francis Sherman • Charles A. Woolley  (1834-1922)
HomeThemesDocumentary > Peoples of the world 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Anthropology and ethnology 
Ethnic and traditional costumes 
Ethnographic nudity 
Tipos 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Peoples of the world

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
Thumbnail20th Century Augustus Francis Sherman and Ellis Island (1905-1920) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 6, 2011)
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 5, 2007)
ThumbnailAnnu Palakunnathu Matthew: An Indian from India 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 19, 2006)
ThumbnailAugust Sander: People of the 20th Century: Portraits of German Citizens 1910-1940 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 27, 2007)
ThumbnailBarnabás Bosshart: Canela-Apanyekra, Maranhão, Brazil 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 23, 2007) To coincide with his exhibition at Fotostiftung Schweiz (June 1 - October 14)
ThumbnailEdward Sheriff Curtis - The North American Indian 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 3, 2007)
ThumbnailEdward Sheriff Curtis - The North American Indian - Portfolio IX (1967) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 16, 2006)
ThumbnailGalerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace (Strasbourg, 1865) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 17, 2006)
ThumbnailGary Auerbach: We Walk in Beauty 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 15, 2008)
ThumbnailIcons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 15, 2012)
ThumbnailJapanese Ambrotypes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 5, 2007)
ThumbnailNative Americans 1840-1920 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 20, 2012)
ThumbnailPortraits: Ethnic 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 4, 2006)
ThumbnailPrince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 17, 2006)
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: Borroro male beauty 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 7, 2008)
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: The Borroro - Gerewol and Yaki 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 16, 2008)
ThumbnailSamer Mohdad: The Arabs 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 8, 2007)
ThumbnailSarah Hoskins: The Homeplace 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 30, 2007)
ThumbnailSusan Ressler: At Owner's Risk - My Journey Among The Algonquian 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 12, 2007)
ThumbnailThe People of India 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 12, 2007)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Peoples of the world

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA. Frank Randall: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAdam Clark Vroman: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAdolphe Braun: Traditional costume 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: People of the 20th Century 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBaldi & Würthle: Girl in folk costume 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBenjamin West Kilburn: 15998. Savage man-eaters of New Guinea in their war paint. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBronislaw Pilsudski: The Ainu 
ThumbnailC. & F.W. Dammann: Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men (1875) 
ThumbnailChristiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDe Lancey W. Gill: Native Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: Orotones 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEmile Gsell: Mnong warriors, Vietnam 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrançois Aubert: Flower seller 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrançois Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederic Bonney: Views of the Colonies of Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland including Momba Station and the township of Bourke 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHippolyte Arnoux: Egypt: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailIgnacy Krieger: Polish folk costumes 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Chinese woman - Miss Pwan Ye Koo 
ThumbnailMarc Ferrez: Brazilian Indians 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaurice Vidal Portman: Andamanese 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaurice Vidal Portman: Female Andamanese - Ilech 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaurice Vidal Portman: Male Andamanese - Balia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMerille: Print seller 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMerille: Tipos 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Gardner: Borroro male beauty - SX-70 prints 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWoodbury and Page: Portraits from Southeast Asia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWoodbury and Page: Ruling families of Southeast Asia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailScientific: Anthropology: Tipos 
ThumbnailThe Last Tasmanians 
 
  
   Ethnic groups and races 
  
ThumbnailAborigines 
ThumbnailAcadians 
ThumbnailAfghans 
ThumbnailAfrican Americans 
ThumbnailAlgerians 
ThumbnailAndaman islanders 
ThumbnailAnnamites 
ThumbnailArabs 
ThumbnailArgentinians 
ThumbnailArmenians 
ThumbnailBedouins 
ThumbnailBhutanese 
ThumbnailBolivians 
ThumbnailBrazilians 
ThumbnailBurmese 
ThumbnailChileans 
ThumbnailChinese 
ThumbnailCossacks 
ThumbnailDervishes 
ThumbnailDruze 
ThumbnailEgyptians 
ThumbnailFijians 
ThumbnailGeorgians 
ThumbnailGreeks 
ThumbnailGuatemalans 
ThumbnailGypsies (includes a number of nomadic groups) 
ThumbnailHawaiians 
ThumbnailIndians 
ThumbnailInuit 
ThumbnailItalians 
ThumbnailJamaicans 
ThumbnailJapanese 
ThumbnailJapanese: Ainu 
ThumbnailJews 
ThumbnailKoreans 
ThumbnailKurds 
ThumbnailLapps (Sami or Saami) 
ThumbnailLepchas 
ThumbnailMaoris 
ThumbnailMexicans 
ThumbnailNative Americans 
ThumbnailNepalese 
ThumbnailNew Guinea 
ThumbnailNew Hebrides 
ThumbnailPalestinians 
ThumbnailParsees 
ThumbnailPersians 
ThumbnailPeruvians 
ThumbnailRussians 
ThumbnailSamoans 
ThumbnailSiamese 
ThumbnailSolomon Islanders 
ThumbnailSpaniards 
ThumbnailSudanese 
ThumbnailSyrians 
ThumbnailTahitians 
ThumbnailTamils 
ThumbnailTamils and Singhalese (Ceylon, Sri Lanka) 
ThumbnailTibetans 
ThumbnailTurks 
ThumbnailVietnamese 
ThumbnailZulus 
 
  
    
  
ThumbnailEcuadorians 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAlbum de Phototypico Vistas e Costumes do Norte de Portugal 
ThumbnailCarl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s) 
ThumbnailLantern slides of Ellis Island (NY) 
ThumbnailStereotypes: Italy 
 
  
Refreshed: 16 July 2014, 21:42
 
  
 
  
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