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HomeContentsThemes > Expeditions and exploration

Contents

Introduction
434.01   Introduction to nineteenth century scientific expeditions
434.02   Expeditionary Art: An Appraisal
434.03   Surveying
Canada
434.04   Humphrey Lloyd Hime: Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition (1857-1858)
434.05   Joseph Burr Tyrrell: Expedition to the barren lands (1893)
USA
434.06   Landscape surveys of the American West
434.07   Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Clarence King (1867-1869)
434.08   Timothy O'Sullivan: The sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev.
434.09   U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869)
434.10   Survey west of the 100th Parallel - George Montague Wheeler (1869-1879)
434.11   Timothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874)
434.12   River explorations - John Wesley Powell (1869-1872)
434.13   Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899)
Mexico
434.14   John L. Stephens: Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (1843)
434.15   Désiré Charnay: Cités et Ruines Americaines. Atlas (1863)
434.16   Dr. Augustus and Alice Le Plongeon: Archaeological research in Mexico (1870s)
434.17   Alfred Percival Maudslay: Mexico: Chiapas: Palenque
Panama
434.18   John Moran: Darien Expedition (1871)
South America
434.19   HMS Topaze and Easter Island, Chile (1868)
434.20   Albert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871)
434.21   Jean Chaffanjon: The Venezuelan Amazon
Asia
434.22   Eliphant Brown: Daguerreotypist on Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s)
434.23   Luigi Montabone: Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana 1862
434.24   Daniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879)
Oceania
434.25   Bruno L. Hamel: An Album of Photographic Views (1859)
Middle East
434.26   Palestine Exploration Fund
434.27   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem
434.28   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai
434.29   American Palestine Exploration Society
434.30   Louis de Clercq: Voyage en Orient (1860)
434.31   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862)
434.32   Duc de Luynes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain (1868-74)
Nubia (South Egypt / Northern Sudan)
434.33   The Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907)
434.34   Photographing in the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel (1906)
434.35   Photographing the Temple of Amun and Amunhotep III at Soleb (1907)
Africa
434.36   Expeditions within Africa
434.37   Royal Geographical Society Expedition: Nyassa
Europe
434.38   Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s)
Arctic
434.39   Richard Beard: British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848)
434.40   Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin
434.41   Captain Edward Augustus Inglefield: Inglefield Expedition (1850s)
434.42   William Bradford, John Dunmore and George Critcherson: The Arctic Regions (1873)
434.43   Thomas Mitchell: The British Arctic Expedition (1875-1876)
434.44   The Greely Arctic Exploring Expedition (1881-1884)
434.45   Prince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884)
434.46   Fridtjof Nansen: First crossing of Greenland (1888)
434.47   Nils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897)
Antarctica
434.48   Letter from John Herschel to Daguerre (1 August 1939)
434.49   Roald Amundsen: Amundsen's South Pole expedition (1910-1912)
434.50   Herbert Ponting: British Antarctic Expedition - Scott - Terra Nova (1910-1913)
434.51   Frank Hurley: Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1913)
434.52   Frank Hurley: Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917)
Pack animals
434.53   Pack animals - mules, donkeys, burros and horses
434.54   L.A. Huffman: The Rage of Huffman and the Calmness of Nig (1883)
Dark tents and dark boxes
434.55   Contemporary accounts of nineteenth century dark tents
434.56   Dark tents and dark boxes
434.57   Carleton Watkins: #925 Spring Valley Water Works
434.58   William Henry Jackson: Photographing in High Places
434.59   John Burke: Fixing the Negative
National Geographic
434.60   National Geographic photographers on assignment
Field note books
434.61   Smithsonian Field Book Project
Around the world
434.62   The travels of Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia (1871-1872)
Fiction and the reality of travel
434.63   Jules Verne: Around the World in Eighty Days - What would Phileas Fogg and Passepartout have seen in 1872?
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
434.01   Scientific >  Introduction to nineteenth century scientific expeditions 
  
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The motivations for expeditions have varied from exploration and the lure of travel for the wealthy through to scientific research addressing previously unsolved mysteries such as the sources and courses of great rivers such as the Nile, the Amazon and the Colorado. Generalist expeditions included geologists, zoologists, botanists and anthropologists and other expeditions concentrated on specific themes such as archaeology, the amassing of cultural artefacts, the physical analysis of ethnic types. Some expeditions were supported by governments to plot trade routes, seek out mineral and natural resources, plan military interventions in an age of rampant colonialism. Others were supported by societies seeking to improve geographical understanding of previously unmapped regions. Diplomatic missions went to distant lands to establish relations and encourage trade and mutual understanding and the photographers accompanying them took some of the earliest photographs of the cities and monuments they visited. Photographer Luigi Montabone was part of the Italian mission to Persia (1862) and documented Tiflis (now Tbilisi) in Georgia, churches in Armenia, and public buildings and palaces in, what is now, Iran.[1]
 
This was an age when the popular fiction of Rudyard Kipling, Jules Verne, Rider Haggard was widely read and the protagonists Kim, Phileas Fogg and Allan Quartermain were involved in "feats of derring-do" as they traversed regions under colonial control or full of foreigners whose motivations and actions were difficult to determine. The best of these writers had cultural awareness that was not as simplistic as they might at first appear and there are well-rounded characters as well as stereotypes.[2]
 
Literature reflected the explorers of the time and David Livingstone (1813-1873), Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), Richard F. Burton (1821-1890) and Jean Chaffanjon (1854-1913) were role models of their time. The Wild West Shows of Buffalo Bill toured America and Europe for 30 years (1883–1913) and influenced subsequent generations on how the "West" is viewed - a perspective that was continued by the movie industry.
 
From around 1850 most scientific expeditions would be accompanied by a photographer or include somebody who could at least take photographs. The first people to visit a location with a camera such as Auguste Bisson's ascent of Mt Blanc (1860s) or visit the Arctic or Antarctica were followed in the popular press and those involved were feted as national heroes. The photographs were the evidence of provable achievement in the same way the photographs taken on 20 July 1969 of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the lunar surface were. Photographs documented the archaeological remains of Yucatan in Mexico[3], the manatee of the River Amazon[4], the Inuit of the northern regions[5], the natural wonders of Yellowstone[6] and the Yosemite Valley.[7]
 
This theme makes no claim to being comprehensive given the vast number of expeditions that were carried out during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[8] The intention is rather to stimulate interest in this area for more a complete survey of the subjects. Within this exhibition there are images that will be new to most visitors.
 
Future additions to this theme[9] will include:
  • Heinrich Barth (1821-1865) and his work with the Central African Mission (1849-1855)[10]
     
  • John Hanning Speke and the search for the source of the Nile (1857-1863)[11]
     
  • Robert O'Hara Burke and his crossing of Australia (1860-1861)[12]
     
  • Francis Garnier (1839-1873) and Commander Doudart de Lagrée on the Mekong River Expedition (1866-1868) illustrated by Louis Delaporte (1842-1925).[13] The expeditions of Henri Mouhot (1826-1861) who was one of the first Westerners to visit Angkor.
     
  • Gerhard Rohlf explored the littoral regions of Libya and Emil Salingré took photographs in the 1860s.[14]
     
  • Nikolai Przhevalsky, remembered for the wild horses named after him, whose expeditions led to a far greater understanding of Central Asia (1871-1888)[15]
     
  • Charles Doughty and his memorable travels in Arabia Deserta (1876-1878)[16]
     
  • The Swedish explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld and the North East Passage (1878-1879)
     
  • Francis Younghusband (1863-1942) and his work in Tibet - John Claude White took a notable set of photographs of this expedition.[17]
     
  • Mary Kingsley and her explorations in West Africa (1893-1895)[18]
     
  • Gertrude Bell and her explorations and cartography in Asia Minor left an extensive photographic archive of albums covering her travels between 1905 and 1918.[19]
     
  • Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) undertook plant hunting expeditions for the English nursery firm Veitch and Sons and later for the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University. Travelling widely between 1899 and 1922 in China, Japan and Korea he brought back 2,488 glass plates showing botanical studies and landscapes.[20]
These hardly touch the surface of Expeditions and exploration photography and the balloon photography of Eduard Spelterini and the ill-fated Arctic balloon expedition (1897) are all part of this story. Aviators such as Alfred G. Buckham, Elly Beinhorn (1907-2007) and Bradford Washburn explored the world from above. Since its earliest days the documenting of travel has been, and remains, one of the primary motivations of photography. 
  
   Scientific Expeditions 
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434.02   Scientific >  Expeditionary Art: An Appraisal 
  
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The following table has been reproduced from Roger Balm’s essay, "Expeditionary Art: An Appraisal"[21] and is included here to provide a starting point for the analysis of the objectives of pictorial recording for expeditionary artists in the nineteenth century.
 
Expeditionary Fields of Inquiry Objectives, Artists’ Subjects and Pictorial Information
 
Physical environmentCultural environment
Expeditionary objectives
Mapping and navigation
 
Resource inventory and exploitation
 
Territorial acquisition
 
Surveillance
 
Military deployment
 
Documentation, collection and classification of specimens
Contact and communication
 
Territorial acquisition
 
Surveillance
 
Military deployment
 
Survey of the cultural landscape
 
Documentation, collection and classification of specimens
Artists' studies
Inland and coastal topography and landmarks
 
Marine conditions
 
Climatic conditions
 
Water sources and waterways
 
Geological outcroppings
 
Vegetation
 
Fossil remains of flora, fauna and invertebrates
People
 
Buildings
 
Patterns of resource use
 
Artefacts, including archaeological remains and antiquities
Pictorial information
Record of physical environmental features
 
Reference point of assessing change in the physical landscape
 
Taxonomic record
 
Expedition modus operandi and record of reaction to conditions
Record of cultural environmental features
 
Record of sequent occupancy
 
Record of skills and practices
 
Pictorial reconstruction
 
Reference point of assessing change in the cultural landscape
 
Expedition modus operandi
 
  
   Scientific Expeditions 
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434.03   Scientific >  Surveying 
  
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The measurement of the land, the naming of features, and the establishment of boundaries has been a fundamental part of non-nomadic societies. The building of roads, canals and railways has necessitated survey expeditions to plan routes and the civil engineering necessary to accomplish the tasks. Standards became necessary as urban centres grew or expeditions were necessary to explore new territories. The reasons for the surveys were numerous - scientific, archaeological, military, natural resources and the common factor was mapmaking and surveying. Photography was a supplement to these and provided the visual evidence.
 
The importance of photographers is preserved in the nomenclature of the landscape features with mountains named after them - examples include Mount Watkins[22] in Yosemite which was named after Carleton Watkins in 1865, Masa Knob[23] in Great Smoky Mountains National Park after George Masa in 1961 and Mount Ansel Adams[24] after Ansel Adams in the Sierra Nevada of California named in 1984. 
  
Canada 
  
434.04   Scientific >  Humphrey Lloyd Hime: Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition (1857-1858) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Humphrey Lloyd Hime was an Irish-born Canadian photographer who was the official photographer on the "Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition" (1857) and the "Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Expedition to Red River" (1858) led by Henry Youle Hind.[25] In Appendix XIV of the official account there is a list of the photographs taken.[26] Later in life Hime became the President of the Toronto Stock Exchange. 
  
434.05   Scientific >  Joseph Burr Tyrrell: Expedition to the barren lands (1893) 
  
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Joseph Burr Tyrrell in his Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers, the north-west coast of Hudson Bay, and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg (1897) wrote:
"I beg to present a report on the geology and general resources of the region explored in 1893 and 1894, embraced in an area of about 200,000 square miles, lying north of the 59th parallel of latitude, and west of Hudson Bay. The explorations include the examination and survey of Telzoa or Doobaunt, Kazan, Ferguson, Chipman and Cochrane Rivers, Chesterfield Inlet, and the east coast of Hudson Bay from Chesterfield Inlet to Churchill, and two overland routes, traveled in winter with dog-teams and sledges, between Churchill and Nelson Rivers"[27]
 
  
USA 
  
434.06   Scientific >  Landscape surveys of the American West 
  
The early mapping of the American West had fallen to pathfinders and explorers such as the Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806), the Zebulon Montgomery Pike expedition (1806-1807) and the work of the California Geological Survey (1860-1874) headed by Josiah Whitney with the field botanists William H. Brewer and Henry N. Bolander.
 
The American Civil War (1861-1865) had put pressures upon natural resources and Congress appreciated that there had to be topographical surveys and an analysis of the geological resources of country. There were four key surveys from 1867 onwards and each of them was accompanied by one or more photographers who recorded, often for the first time, the varied landscapes.
Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Clarence King (1867-1869)
Photographer: Timothy H. O’Sullivan [28]
 
U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869)
Photographer: William Henry Jackson [29]
 
Survey west of the 100th Parallel - George Montague Wheeler (1869-1879)
Photographers: William H. Bell, Timothy H. O’Sullivan
 
River explorations - John Wesley Powell (1869-1872)
Photographers: Elias Olcott Beaman, James Fennemore, John K. Hillers [30]
 
  
434.07   Scientific >  Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Clarence King (1867-1869) 
  
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On 2 March 1867 Congress authorized funds for a geological survey along the fortieth parallel that was the projected route for the trancontinental railway. The twenty five year old geologist Clarence King (1842-1901)[31] was put in charge and he appointed Timothy H. O’Sullivan as the expedition's photographer [32]. The King Survey is also known as the "Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel" or the "Fortieth Parallel Survey" and he spent six years exploring the geological formations and landscapes from Wyoming to California
  
434.08   Scientific >  Timothy O'Sullivan: The sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Timothy O'Sullivan, who had taken photographs during the American Civil War, was a part of the Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Clarence King (1867-1869)[33] and the Survey west of the 100th Parallel - George Montague Wheeler (1869-1879).[34] These surveys, like the earlier work of Lewis and Clark, have been a foundation of exploration in the American West and have influenced how it was viewed. Here were the vast open spaces that separated the coasts that were being settled in ever-increasing numbers of immigrants. Wagon trains, stage coaches and railways would cross these lands but when the King Survey passed through they were largely unexplored.
 
The Carson Desert in Nevada with its average precipitation of 5 inches a year is not an inviting place except around the Carson Sink where there was drinkable surface water. In March 1860 the Pony Express built an adobe enclosure with a frame house which Sir Richard Burton visited in October the same year.
17th October 1860
 
"Sink Station looked well from without; there was a frame house inside an adobe enclosure, and a pile of wood and a stout haystack promised fuel and fodder. The inmates however, were asleep, and it was ominously long before a door was opened. At last appeared a surly cripple, who presently disappeared to arm himself with his revolver. The judge asked civilly for a cup of water, he was told to fetch it from the lake which was not more than a mile off, though as the road was full of quagmires it would be hard to travel at night. Wood the churl would not part with; we offered to buy it, to borrow it, to replace it in the morning; he told us to go for it ourselves, and that after about two miles and a half we might chance to gather some. Certainly our party was a law-abiding and a self-governing; never did I see men so tamely bullied; they threw back the fellow's sticks, and cold, hungry, and thirsty simply began to sulk. An Indian standing by asked $20 to herd the stock for a single night. At last George, the Cordon Blue, took courage, so he went for water while others broke up a wagon plank, and supper after a fashion was concocted.[35]
The well known and widely reproduced photograph of Timothy O'Sullivan's ambulance wagon and portable darkroom used during the King Survey rolls across the sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev.[36] with the seal of the Corps of Engineers, U.S. Army, War Department, and at bottom "Geological exploration of the fortieth parallel; Clarence King, geologist in charge; T.H. O'Sullivan, phot." is an official photograph of a barren place. Within the landscape is the wagon used by Timothy O'Sullivan as his photographic wagon. The photograph can there be read at many levels, as a landscape, as a documentation of exploration, as white settlers in places previously occupied by Native Americans and as photographica. In 1869 an illustration based on the photograph was published in Harper's New Monthly Magazine.[37]
Our photographer, becoming tired of too much High Rocky, took advantage of an opportunity that offered to visit the great mounds of shifting sand which are located in an arid waste nearly a hundred miles to the south of the Carson Sink. For this trip an ambulance drawn by a team of four mules was used instead of the pack mule; a change in the means of locomotion that enhanced the comfort of the artist, and enabled him to transport a sufficient quantity of water to make the variety of views that he purposed to add to his already magnificent and valuable collection.
 
Arriving in the vicinity of the sand-mounds, the first impression conveyed by them was that of immense snow-drifts, for in the sunlight the white sand sparkled like a hard frozen crust of snow. The contour of the mounds was undulating and very graceful, it being continually broken into the sharp edges left by the falling away of some portions of the mound, which had been undermined by the keen winds that spring up during the last hours of daylight and continue throughout the night.
 
Frequently, while traversing this waste, a light breeze would catch the sand, loosened by a footstep, and carry the sparkling crystals up the mound in the form of a whirlwind. This circling cloud of sand appeared each moment to increase in size and strength until the crest of the mound was attained, when, as if ambitions of continuing its flight, the dancing sand took one whirl more, then broke, and its dismembered fragments were added to the other side of the mound. It is by the whirlwinds that these great mounds of sand—some of them reaching to the height of 500 feet—are shifted from place to place.[38]
 
  
434.09   Scientific >  U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869) 
  
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On 2 March 1867 Congress authorized the General Land Office to carry out a survey of the geological resources and topographical features of Nebraska. Ferdinand V. Hayden was placed in charge and had considerable experience from previous expeditions.[39] In 1868 and 1869 his work was extended to include Wyoming and Colorado and it evolved into the Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories under the control of the Department of the Interior.
 
Photographer: William Henry Jackson[40] 
  
434.10   Scientific >  Survey west of the 100th Parallel - George Montague Wheeler (1869-1879) 
  
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In 1869 a further exploration was led by the army engineer Lieutenant George Wheeler to create military maps of the areas as far west as the head of navigation on the Colorado river. In 1871 he mapped the areas of eastern Nevada and Arizona and there was an appreciation that stand alone route maps were insufficient and it would be preferable to map complete areas - on 10 June 1872 Congress allocated funds to complete his survey.
 
Photographers: William H. Bell, Timothy H. O’Sullivan
 
First Lieutenant (later Captain) George Montague Wheeler supervised a series of geographical expeditions between 1869 and 1879 west of the US 100th meridian.[41] The area to be covered was south of the Central Pacific Railroad with the intention of preparing maps and collecting accurate topographical information. Beyond the map making he was to collect information on Indian tribes and the resources of the vast areas covered which now includes the states of New Mexico, California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Wyoming, and Texas. This is an area of 1,443,360 square miles.
 
The expeditions were accompanied by Timothy O'Sullivan (1840-1882) who took the photographs that were a significant part of the undertaking. He recorded the landscapes, the activities of the teams and significant findings such as the carved inscriptions of 17th century Spanish travelers who had passed through what is now the El Morro National Monument (New Mexico).
 
The other photographer on the expeditions was William Bell (1830 - 1910) and in addition to albumen prints from wet collodion negatives they took stereographic views and portraits of the Indian tribes including the Zuni, Mojave, Navajo, Apache, and Ute. 
  
434.11   Scientific >  Timothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) 
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Timothy H. O’Sullivan was one of the official photographers on the Survey west of the 100th Parallel also known as the "Wheeler Survey" as it was headed by George Montague Wheeler. [42] O’Sullivan took a stereo camera and recorded activities of the expedition on plates that were used to create sets of stereocards. The backs of the stereocards are printed in red with "War Department, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. - Geographical - Exploration and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian" and any explanatory notes.[43] 
  
   Timothy H  Osullivan 
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434.12   Scientific >  River explorations - John Wesley Powell (1869-1872) 
  
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On 14 May 1869, John Wesley Powell, Professor of Geology at Illinois State Normal University, led a party of nine on a privately funded river expedition out of Green River in Wyoming to explore the west.[44] Although the team was reduced by many hardships they passed through the Grand Canyon on 13 August 1869. In later years he was awarded funds by Congress to complete his expeditions. There was no photographer on the first expedition but this lack was remedied on the second and it was one of the oarsmen John K. Hillers who showed an interest in photography and became one of the most respected photographers of the American west.[45]
 
Photographers: Elias Olcott Beaman, James Fennemore, John K. Hillers  
  
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The photograph shows the First Camp of the Second Powell Expedition at Green River, Wyoming (4 May 1871).
 
Shown from left to right are: Professor Almon Harris Thompson, Andrew Hattan, S.V. Jones, John F. Steward, W.C. Powell, Frank C.A. Richardson, Frederick Dellenbaugh, and F.M. Bishop. Green River, Wyoming. May 4, 1871. 
  
434.13   Scientific >  Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
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In 1899 railroad trycoon Edward Harriman financed a two month scientific expedition to Alaska.[46] For health reasons he planned the trip but never one to do things in a small way he took with him a remarkable group of botanists, biologists, zoologists, geologists, geographers, experts on the Arctic, writers, artists and last but not least photographers. The photographer included was Edward Sheriff Curtis and his assistant D. J. Inverarity.[47] During the expedition Curtis established a friendship with George Bird Grinnell who was an expert in Native American Culture and this changed his future career. Curtis went on to becoming the driving force behind The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska (1907-1926) the most significant photographic work on Native Americans.[48][49] 
  
Mexico 
  
434.14   Scientific >  John L. Stephens: Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (1843) 
  
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John Lloyd Stevens (1805-1852) [50] with his traveling companion, artist and illustrator Frederick Catherwood (1799-1854) were two of the great explorers of the mesoamerican archaeological sites of Yucatan in Mexico. In 1841 his two volume book Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatán was published and this was at a time of increasing interest in photography. For his next project he took daguerreotype equipment with him to assist in documenting the archaeological remains and he describes this in his next book Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (1843):
... We had with us a Daguerreotype apparatus, the best that could be procured in New-York, with which, immediately on our arrival at Uxmal, Mr. Catherwood began taking views; but the results were not sufficiently perfect to suit his ideas. At times the projecting cornices and ornaments threw parts of the subject in shade, while others were in broad sunshine; so that, while parts were brought out well, other parts required pencil drawings to supply their defects. They gave a general idea of the character of the buildings, but would not do to put into the hands of the engraver without copying the views on paper, and introducing the defective parts, which would require more labour than that of making at once complete original drawings. He therefore completed everything with his pencil and camera lucida, while Doctor Cabot and myself took up the Daguerreotype; and, in order to ensure the utmost accuracy, the Daguerreotype views were placed with the drawings in the hands of the engravers for their guidance.[51]
A contemporary book review of Incidents of Travel in Yucatan in The Ladies' Repository, and Gatherings of the West (May 1843) mentions how daguerreotypes had been used to assist in the preparation of the engravings illustrating the volumes:
Incidents of Travel In Yucatan. By John L. Stephens, author of "Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petra, and the Holy Land," "Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan," etc. Illustrated by 120 Engravings. Two vols., 8vo. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1843. We are indebted to the publishers at New York for a copy of this work. Its form is much like that of the ''Incidents of Travel in Central America." The author, with Mr. Catherwood, proceeded to his second examination of the ruins of Yucatan well prepared lo explore, examine, and prepare full and accurate reports of American antiquities. In accordance with this preparation, Mr. Stephens visited forty-four ruined cities; some of them were almost unknown to the citizens of the capital, and had probably never been visited by the white inhabitants. The engravings in these volumes are the finest of their kind. They are from Daguerreotype views, and of course are accurate, and must render all the aid that could possibly be derived from pictorial representations of the objects described. They add inconceivably to the interest, as well as to the value of the work. Probably no traveler of modern times excels Mr. Stephens in accuracy of observation, or in the felicity of his descriptions. His journals have all the interest of the most exciting novels. He can clothe the most common incidents of a journey in a garb which renders them romantically, humorously, or instructively entertaining. Those who have read his former ''Incidents of Travel," in the east and in the west, will need no recommendation of this new work.[52]
 
  
434.15   Scientific >  Désiré Charnay: Cités et Ruines Americaines. Atlas (1863) 
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Désiré Charnay[53] was a French traveler and archaeologist who was active in Mexico during three periods (1857-1861, 1880-1883 and 1886). He is best known for his photographic documentation of archaeological sites including Mitla, Palenqué, Izamal, Chichen-Itza and Uxmal. Between 1862-1863 he published Cités et ruines américaines[54] based upon his 1857 expedition. His work along with that of John Lloyd Stevens[55] and Frederick Catherwood helped to establish interest in the archaeological sites of Central America. 
  
434.16   Scientific >  Dr. Augustus and Alice Le Plongeon: Archaeological research in Mexico (1870s) 
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Husband and wife team, Augustus[56] and Alice D. Le Plongeon (formerly Alice Dixon), were archaeologists who worked in Mexico in the 1870s uncovering many of the key Mayan sites.[57] Archaeological theories have changed over time and during a period of intense colonial expansion hypotheses based on the diffusion of peoples and technologies were common rather than more socio-cultural evolutionary approaches. History has not been kind to Augustus Le Plongeon and his discoveries have been overshadowed by his theories that included connections between Ancient Egypt, the Maya and Masonic rites.[58]
 
Interestingly Augustus Le Plongeon also wrote Manuel de Fotografia[59] a Spanish language manual on photography that was published in 1873. 
  
434.17   Scientific >  Alfred Percival Maudslay: Mexico: Chiapas: Palenque 
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Alfred Percival Maudslay (1850-1931)[60] was a diplomat who on retirement carried out eight self-financed expeditions between 1881 and 1894 to locate and research the Mayan archaeological sites of Copán, Quirigua, Menche (Yaxchilán), Chichen Itza and Palenque in Mexico and Central America. Percival Maudslay and his assistants photographed the monuments and made paper and plaster casts of sculptures and inscriptions.[61] Some of his texts and photographs were published as archaeological appendices to the Biologia Centrali-Americana, or Contributions to the Knowledge of the Flora and Fauna of Mexico and Central America (1899-1902) by Ducane Godman and Osbert Salvin. 
  
Panama 
  
434.18   Scientific >  John Moran: Darien Expedition (1871) 
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John Moran[62] took photographs during the 1871 U.S. naval expedition to the Isthmus of Darien in Panama led by Thomas Oliver Selfridge - (The Darien Expedition).[63] 
  
South America 
  
434.19   Scientific >  HMS Topaze and Easter Island, Chile (1868) 
  
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The moai or stone statues of Easter Islands (Rapu Nui) in Polynesia were known to Western expeditions through the oil painting of William Hodges who was the artist on Captain Cook's visit to the island on a survey mission in 1774.
 
In 1868 the English ship HMS Topaze commanded by Richard Ashmore Powell collected the four ton statue Hoa Hakananai'a (thought to mean 'stolen or hidden friend') and took it out on a raft to the ship. In Valparaiso in Chile Paul-Émile Miot photographed the statue on the deck of HMS Topaze enroute to Great Britain where it is now in the British Museum.[64][65] 
  
434.20   Scientific >  Albert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
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Albert Frisch was a German photographer who was hired in around 1865 by Georges Leuzinger (1813-1892) to document the Amazon region of Brazil taking early photographs of Indians, local trees, wildife and genre scenes of life along the river.[66] 
  
434.21   Scientific >  Jean Chaffanjon: The Venezuelan Amazon 
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Jean Chaffanjon was a French explorer and anthropologist who led a French expedition to research the geography and peoples of the Venezuelan Amazon. His book L'Orénoque et le Caura, relation de voyages exécutés en 1886 et 1887 (1889)[67] was very popular in France. Jules Verne's 45th volume of the 54 Extraordinary Voyages series is entitled Superb Orénoque[68] and is based upon the work of Chaffanjon
  
Asia 
  
434.22   Scientific >  Eliphant Brown: Daguerreotypist on Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s) 
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Eliphalet Brown Jr., who had previously been a lithographer, was the daguerreotypist on the voyage of Commodore M. C. Perry (U. S. Navy) to the China Seas and Japan (1852-1854). He took, according to a report to Congress, over 400 pictures[69] but was underpaid for his services an issue that was not resolved for years.
IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES
March 14, 1860 - Order to be printed
Mr. Hale made the following
REPORT.
[To accompany Bill S. 286.]
 
The Committee on Naval Affairs, to whom was referred the petition of Eliphalet Brown, jr., asking for compensation for services rendered as an artist in the Japan expedition, have had the same under consideration, and ask leave to submit the following report:
 
The authority to employ artists for the Japan expedition was not directly conferred by Congress on the department having charge of it. As the employment of artists was so very essential to the success of an expedition like that in charge of Commodore Perry, the failure on the part of Congress to confer the authority may be safely charged to inadvertence rather than design. Commodore Perry foresaw what he supposed must be the evil results of this inadvertency, and engaged artists to join the expedition. They were enlisted as master's mates, with the understanding and expectation that they would seek a suitable compensation from Congress after the return of the expedition.
 
It appears from the rolls on file in the Treasury Department, that Mr. Brown served as master's mate on board the several vessels of the Japan expedition from the 24th of March, 1852, to the 15th of December, 1854, two years, eight months, and twenty-two days, for the insufficient sum of $300 per annum. He was the daguerreotypist of the expedition, as well as draughtsman, &c., and to him the country is undoubtedly largely indebted for much of the accurate delineations of the inhabitants, costumes, buildings, landscapes, &c., of that remarkable and heretofore almost unknown people and country.
 
Besides being employed in various ways on shipboard and on shore, in different artistic employment, he provided himself with all the apparatus necessary to the daguerreotypist, and took over four hundred pictures, all of which became the property of the government, and many of which were used in illustrating Commodore Perry's work on the expedition.
 
Commodore Perry, in a letter dated February 19, 1857, says: "I take pleasure in stating that Mr. E. Brown was employed as one of the artists of the naval expedition to Japan, and executed his work with talent and skill, and to my entire satisfaction."
 
As Mr. Brown left a profitable business, and joined the expedition on invitation of those having charge thereof, trusting to the equity of his country for only a just remuneration, your committee report a bill granting him a compensation at the rate of $1,500 per annum, for his entire services as artist and master's mate while attached to and engaged in the expedition.[70]
 
  
434.23   Scientific >  Luigi Montabone: Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana 1862 
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In 1862 an Italian Mission visited the Persian Court of Nasir al-Din. Photographer Luigi Montabone was on the expedition and recorded the churches, mosques, palaces and cities along the way along with notable personalities. Multiple copies of his Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana 1862 have survived and provide a rare glimpse of nineteenth century Persia.[71] 
  
434.24   Scientific >  Daniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879) 
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The German auction house Bassenge puts this series of photographs by Daniel David Veth taken in Central Sumatra, now part of Indonesia, in context:
Between 1877- 79 the Royal Netherlands Geographical Society (Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrrjkskundig Genootschap) organized a scientific expedition to Central Sumatra (Dutch East Indies) led by Lieutenant Johannes Schouw Santvoort (Royal Dutch Navy), with members Daniel David Veth (geographer and photographer), Arend Ludolf van Hasselt (ethnographer) and Johannes Francois Snelleman (zoologist). Son of the geographer and ethnographer Pieter Johannes Veth (1814-1895), who supervised the publication of the present album, Daniel David Veth was educated in Dutch schools and attended technical colleges in Hanover and Stuttgart to learn engineering. In 1877 he was summoned to join the Central Sumatra expedition. The expedition's objective was to map the Hari River basin and to study the people and the natural environment of Central Sumatra. Veth was responsible for the photographs and mapping. He died an early death from dysentery after the gruelling conditions of an expedition in Africa led to his illness.[72]
 
  
Oceania 
  
434.25   Scientific >  Bruno L. Hamel: An Album of Photographic Views (1859) 
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Bruno L. Hamel accompanied the Government Scientific Exploring Expedition conducted by Dr. Ferdinand Hochstetter, Geologist, of the Imperial Austrian Expedition, of the Province of Auckland in New Zealand in 1859.[73] 
  
Middle East 
  
434.26   Scientific >  Palestine Exploration Fund 
  
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The Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) was founded in 1865 under the royal patronage of Queen Victoria with the mission to "to promote research into the archaeology and history, manners and customs and culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of biblical Palestine and the Levant."[74] Through a program of expeditions during which cartographic surveys[75] were carried out and archaeological excavations undertaken the PEF has made a considerable contribution to our knowledge of the region.
 
The Karl Baedeker guidebook for Palestine and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (1876) provided a description of the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Lastly we must mention the valuable services rendered to science by the society of the 'Palestine Exploration Fund', whose labours have extended over nearly ten years, but which unfortunately has not received pecuniary support commensurate with the importance of its objects. (Subscriptions are received by the Secretary, Walter Besant, Esq., 9 Pall Mall East, London.) The object of the society is the 'accurate and systematic exploration of the topography, geology, natural history, and ethnology of the Holy Land, particularly with a view to the interpretation of the Bible'. The society publishes ' Quarterly Statements', sent gratis to every subscriber, the substance of which down to the end of 1872 is comprised in two very interesting works. The larger of these is the 'Recovery of Jerusalem' by Major Wilson and Capt. Warren, edited by W. Morrison (London, 1871), and the smaller, which is to a great extent abridged from the other, 'Our Work in Palestine' (London, 1873). The Society first sent out Major Wilson, R.E., and Captain Anderson, R.E., to report on the best method of proceeding. These officers made a reconnaissance in Galilee and along the watershed to Nabulus; they took a great number of photographs and discovered several of the Galilean synagogues. The Fund next turned its attention to the archaeology of Jerusalem. In 1867 Capt. Warren, R.E., was sent out. His work was continued till 1870, and consisted mainly in making excavations. He, however, also made reconnaissances in Philistia, the Jordan Valley, and Moab. The results of the Jerusalem work are extremely valuable to scholars, especially in fixing the character and dimensions of the great Temple platform and the original rock surface of the Temple hill.
 
In 1871 the Society sent out Professor Palmer, accompanied by Mi. Tyrwhitt Drake. These gentlemen made an adventurous journey through the Negeb and an expedition into Moab.
 
In 1872 the most important undertaking of the Fund was started, being the topographical survey of Western Palestine to the scale of 1-inch to the mile. The party was commanded by Captain Stewart, R.E., and included Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. Captain Stewart fell ill at the commencement of the work and was succeeded by Lieut. Conder, R.E., who is still in command. At the present date the survey of the whole country from Beersheba to Safed in Galilee, 4600 sq. miles in area, is complete, while 1400 sq. miles remain to be surveyed in upper Galilee. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake died at his work from fever in June 1874. On 11th July, 1875, the survey party was attacked by a fanatical armed mob at Safed. Lieut. Conder was wounded, as well as Lieut. Kitchener, R.E., the second in command, and nearly every other member of the party. In consequence of this attack, and of the spread of cholera, the party was withdrawn for the winter. It is hoped that the survey will be completed in 1876, and published about a year later.
 
This work will probably prove the most important yet done in Palestine. The Biblical discoveries have been numerous and important; the number of sites explored and names collected is six or seven times greater than that on any published map; careful observations of natural history, geology, architecture, etc., have been made, and large scale plans of important towns, ruins, or buildings, have been drawn. Between 30 and 40 new churches have been found in various parts of Palestine, and some 200 of the rock-cut tombs have been planned.
 
The map will be published in ten large sheets, each accompanied by a memoir with plans and lists of names in English and Arabic. An endeavour will be made to give a description of every ruined site in the whole country from Dan to Beersheba. Numerous photographs have also been taken by the party, which are now being published.
 
In 1874 the Fund also sent out M. Clermont-Ganneau to Jerusalem. His work was principally epigraphic, and his most valuable discovery was that of a fine Hebrew inscription defining the limits of the city of Gezer, which he had already identified from independent considerations.[76]
On the expeditions Sergeant Henry Phillips of the Royal Engineers and Sergeant James McDonald both took photographs during the surveys of The Holy Land
  
434.27   Scientific >  Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
  
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Photographic work by Sergeant Henry Phillips, under the command of Sir Charles Warren, of the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF)[77] was undertaken in Jerusalem, The Holy Land (1867-1870). Some of the photographs were exhibited in London in 1869.
The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund have opened the Dudley Gallery, Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, for an exhibition of great interest, which may form the nucleus of the desired Biblical Museum.

The centre piece of the Gallery is a large Ordnance Survey Plan of Jerusalem and its environs, telling very forcibly to the eye the nature of the country, with its well-known historic hills and sacred sites. The walls of the Gallery are hung with nearly 350 admirable photographic views of scenes in Palestine and Syria, taken by Sergeant Phillips under the orders of Captain Wilson and Lieutenant Warren. These pictures are a study in themselves. After looking at them we seem to be familiar with landscapes, now desolate and ruin bestrewn, once so rich and fertile, "with milk and honey blest," that land, "Over whose acres trod those blessed feet."[78]
 
  
434.28   Scientific >  Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
  
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The Ordnance Survey of the Sinai (1868-1869) was undertaken by the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF)[79] and led by Captains Charles W. Wilson and H.S. Palmer. Sergeant James McDonald took photographs of the survey team and the topographical and archaeological features.[80] 
  
434.29   Scientific >  American Palestine Exploration Society 
  
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The American Palestine Exploration Society was founded in New York in 1870 as a privately funded society for archaeological and geographic exploration of the Holy Land. A forerunner of the American Schools of Oriental Research, the organization conducted its second expedition to the Holy Land in 1875 and hired French photographer Tancrede Dumas, who owned a studio in Beirut, to accompany the expedition.
 
Boston Univerversity houses the American Palestine Exploration Society (APES) Photograph Collection. 
  
434.30   Scientific >  Louis de Clercq: Voyage en Orient (1860) 
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Louis de Clercq (1836-1901) was a French photographer who accompanied the 1858-59 government-sponsored expedition of the historian Emmanuel-Guillaume Rey[81] to study archaeological sites, especially the Crusader castles, in Syria and Asia Minor. de Clercq published 222 calotypes in his six volume work Voyage en Orient 1859-1860, villes, monuments et vues pittoresques (1860).[82] 
  
434.31   Scientific >  Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
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The Royal Collection in the UK includes The Prince of Wales's diary which contains insights into his 1862 Tour[83] accompanied by photographer Francis Bedford.[84]
 
4 March 1862
We then proceeded on the dromedaries (not at all an unpleasant mode of conveyance) to the celebrated Pyramids of Ghizeh - They quite exceeded my expectations, & are certainly wonderful mementoes of our forefathers. We visited the Sphinx just before sunset, which is also very curious and interesting. We had a charming little encampment just below the Pyramids where we slept for the night'
13 March 1862
"....The ruins of Philae are beautiful and most interesting and Mr. Bedford the photographer, who came from England with me and our party took some very good views...."
14 March 1862
"....Mr. Bedford (the photographer who accompanied us from England) took some very successful views of the temple (at Edfoo)".
21 April 1862
".... We lunched under a figtree at 12 o'clock on the site of where once the city of Capernaum is said to have stood, + Mr. Bedford photographed us 'en groupe'."
4 May 1862
"At about 10 we left our camp to lionize thoroughly the fine temple (at Baalbec) + we were much pleased with what we saw. We remained about two hours going over it; Mr. Bedford took some excellent views of it, which will be a great addition to his collection of photographs...."
 
  
   Francis  Bedford Tour 
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434.32   Scientific >  Duc de Luynes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain (1868-74) 
  
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Le Duc de Luynes [Honoré Paul Joseph d'Albert] was an archaeologist, numistologist and art collector who made expeditions to Lebanon, Syria and Palestine in 1864 accompanied by the archaeologist and architectChristophe Edouard Mauss and two photographers Louis Vignes and Henri Sauvaire.[85][86] The photographers took calotypes that were used as the basis for illustrations published in the volumes on the expedition Voyage d'exploration à la mer Morte, à Petra, et sur la rive gauche du Jourdain (1868-1874)[87]
 
The photographers and some of the locations they photographed are:
Louis Vignes: Petra (Jordan), Djebel-mousa, Djerash, Palmyra (Syria), Karak, Manfoumieh, Mkaur.
 
Henri Sauvaire: Hebron (Israel and Palestine), Chaubak (Syria), Zat-rass
 
  
Nubia (South Egypt / Northern Sudan) 
  
434.33   Scientific >  The Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907) 
  
James Henry Breasted[88] led two expeditions (1905-1906 and 1906-1907) for the University of Chicago to record the archaeological monuments of Nubia which was an ancient land along the Nile now part of southern Egypt and northern Sudan between the First and Sixth Cataracts of the Nile.[89]
 
The official photographers on the expedition were Friedrich Koch in the first season (1905-1906) covering Lower Nubia taking glass plate negatives and Horst Schliephack for the second season in Upper Nubia (1906-1907). Horst Schliephack was fired after he was found to have carved "H. Schliephack 1906" into the walls of the temples at Naga and Musauwarat. In the second season both glass plate negatives and roll film were used; the latter for candid photography and ethnographic documentation. Other members of the expedition including the American engineer Victor Smith Persons and the expedition leader James Henry Breasted also took photographs.[90] 
  
434.34   Scientific >  Photographing in the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel (1906) 
  
James Henry Breasted
The 1905–07 Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan - First Season - Field Diary
The Oriental Institute - University of Chicago

Monday, February 12, 1906

"With some interruptions it took about two weeks to facsimile the big marriage stela. Meantime Persons had been drawing off his plan of the Halfa temple, and Koch was making negatives in the great hall of the temple. Persons was constantly called on to leave his plans and build scaffolds for Koch. We have twelve ladders with us, which we had made in Cairo. These with a supply of timbers, planks and boxes, furnish us with all necessary material for such scaffold-building. As soon as I was free from the big marriage stela, I took Koch's prints and collated all inscriptions from ladders. This work I finished on the two long walls yesterday. We have now secured facsimile records of all the historical documents in the temple, the first ever made ... .
 
The work of securing our negatives has continually involved a host of problems, many of them difficult. The great hall was only conquered after many experiments. As it is hewn into the mountain we were obliged to use artificial illumination. The placing of the both camera and light was interfered with by the huge pillars, and it was constantly necessary to place the light directly in range of the objective so that it was sometimes necessary to veil the light when 25 feet from the floor. All focusing had to be done by means of lighted candles placed one at each corner and one in the middle of the section of wall to be photographed. All this on lofty scaffolds or on ladders many feet from the floor was slow and often experimental. These and other difficulties by way of proper exposure, once overcome, the dark room also proved a fruitful source of obstacles. The Nile carries so much sand that the water must be filtered before it can be used for washing plates, and the frequent sand-storms often leave our dried plates with a gelatin surface like sand-paper. Nevertheless the negatives of the great hall are clear, beautiful, and in spite of enforced positions in focusing, are not distorted. We shall be able to make a superb volume of this matchless temple."[91]
 
  
434.35   Scientific >  Photographing the Temple of Amun and Amunhotep III at Soleb (1907) 
  
James Henry Breasted
The 1905–07 Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan - Second Season - Field Diary
The Oriental Institute - University of Chicago

Monday, February 9, 1907 - Sedeinga

"We had a hard ten days at Soleb. The wind rose again and made work so difficult as to be well nigh impossible. But the place amply repaid our labor. I found two important new monuments the. First the entire pylon front of which only the north tower is partially preserved, bears reliefs of Ikhnaton, made before he changed his name and overthrew Amon worship... . The second monument is two series of reliefs representing elaborate ceremonies in the celebration of the king's (Amunhotep III's) Thirty Years' Jubilee. These walls are high and I had been unable to bring our large ladders on this long journey. It seemed impossible to reach them. I finally secured four palm trunks from the natives, and, with our two gangplanks, and sole poles and oars from the boats we contrived a tall scaffolding from which, by erecting our ladders upon it, we reached the top of the lofty wall, and photographed all the way down, section by section to the base - over 30 large negatives. The difficulty was much increased by the high wind which at one time almost blew down our scaffold. In such a wind it is impossible to use artificial illumination, as the draft quite dissipates the flame and hence also the light of the magnesium. The highest wall never received any sunlight at all, and as artificial light was impossible, I built a large mirror of new sheet tin, and by standing at one projecting end of the scaffold I could illuminate a small section of the wall with sunlight from the tin mirror while Schliephack worked at the camera. This was trying work, as the mirror exposed a large surface to the wind, and it often in the midst of an exposure threatened to carry off the scaffold. But I could not entrust it to any one else, as the mirror required constant movement within a given surface in order to illuminate all parts uniformly and to secure a uniform impression on the plate. The other wall fortunately received the sunlight at a good angle for an hour each day, and we slowly accumulated all the negatives by rapid work during that hour each day."[92]
 
  
Africa 
  
434.36   Scientific >  Expeditions within Africa 
  
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There have been a significant number of expeditions to, and within, Africa as Colonialist impulses from Western Europe strove to establish dominance over land and hence the raw resources of the continent.[93] The expeditions can be divided into a series of distinct but interrelated groups and what follows is a highly selective sampling.
  • Scientific research
     
    John Hanning Speke[94], Richard Francis Burton[95] and the search for the source of the Nile[96] (1857-1863)
    James Chapman and artist Thomas Baines on the Zambezi (1861-1862)[97] during which Chapman took photographs of Victoria Falls.
    Joseph Thomson on his Royal Geographical Society expeditions in East Africa (1878-1880, 1883-1884)[98]
    Mary Kingsley and her explorations in West Africa (1893-1895)[99]
    Gustav Fritsch from 1863 to 1866 travelled through Orange Free State, Basutoland, Natal and Bechuanaland in what is now South Africa and Botswana carrying out ethnological research.[100]
    The Cudahy-Massee Expedition (1928-29)
    Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin between 1919 and 1939 carried out numerous expeditions to photograph the San and other groups around Kimberley in South Africa.[101]
     
  • Military intervention and control
     
    There were innumerable wars between indigenous peoples and with colonizing forces in Africa in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Some of these wars have surviving photographs including the Anglo-Zulu War (1879), Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) photographed by Luigi Fiorillo and the Relief Expedition sent to Khartoum (1884-1885)[102], photographed by Felice Beato, to relieve General Gordon but which arrived too late to prevent his defeat and death at the hands of the forces led by the Mahdi, the forty minute Anglo-Zanzibar War (1896), First Italo–Ethiopian War (1895–1896), and the Boer War (1899-1902).
     
  • Missionary work
     
    The photography undertaken by missionaries is now being examined[103] and the accounts of Rev. William Ellis in Madagascar[104] and Rev. Daniel West in The Gambia[105] provide insights but further research is necessary.
     
    Heinrich Barth and his work with the Central African Mission (1849-1855)
    This includes the important work of the Basel Mission with their important photographic archives.[106]
A large part of the way Africa is viewed in the Western World is based on how the Victorian world perceived the explorations of John Hanning Speke (1827-1864), Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890), Richard Dorsey Mohun (1865-1915), Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza (1852-1905), David Livingstone (1813-1873), Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904) and Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902). They were celebrated as heroes who took civilization to the "Dark Continent"[107] through dangerous expeditions. Certain parts of the expeditions were undoubtedly hazardous with natural barriers, animals and the confrontations with indigenous peoples but the tales of exploration have influenced Western attitudes to the whole of Africa.
 
As civil engineering projects, particularly railways, were built so they were documented by photographers such as P.F. Gomes in Uganda and William D. Young who was the official photographer for the construction of the Mombasa-Kampala line.
 
Within photo-history only North Africa and Southern Africa were studied in any detail until recently. Since the 1990s there has been increasingly interest in the history of African photography with monographs, articles and exhibitions. In the future our examinations will be based of scholarship rather than cultural preconceptions. If we view Africa only through western media there would appear to be no middle class, no shopping malls or industry and this is obviously ridiculous. 
  
434.37   Scientific >  Royal Geographical Society Expedition: Nyassa 
  
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Malawi was once known as Nyasaland and Lake Malawi was Lake Nyassa. The R.G.S. East African Expedition to Lakes Nyassa & Tanganyika took place in 1878-80 with the purpose of finding a feasible route from Dar-es-Salaam to the Central African Lakes.[108] 
  
Europe 
  
434.38   Scientific >  Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s) 
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The article Scientific Intelligence: A Photographic Ascent of Mont Blanc in the The London Review (1876) gave an account of the climb:
M. Auguste Bisson, the well-known Alpine photographer, has recently put into execution a project which has occupied his thoughts for some years past. This is no less than the ascent of Mont Blanc with all the paraphernalia necessary to the obtaining large photographic views from the summit; but, in spite of the well-known energy and talent of this operator, and the experience he has gained during his many photographic excursions at lower elevations, so formidable an enterprise occasioned many of M. Bisson's friends to have serious misgivings as to the success of the attempt. He started from Chamonix with the guide, Auguste Balmat, and twenty-five porters; for in order to carry the large amount of apparatus to such an altitude it was necessary that it should be well distributed. When they reached the Petits Mulets they encountered a terrible storm of wind, accompanied with avalanches falling on every side, whioh compelled the party to beat a retreat to the Grands Mulets. Arriving there, some of the bearers were too ill to proceed, and had to be sent back, while the party waited until seven hardier porters could be sent up to them from below. Upon these arriving the ascent was recommenced, and at length the summit was reached. There, almost all the party were so overcome by sleep or exhausted by fatigue and suffering as to be unable to move, leaving Balmat and Bisson, whose photographic ardour sustained his strength, the only ones capable of thinking of the reproduction of that magnificent panorama which lay stretched out beneath them. The photographer and his brave companion set up the tent and arranged the materials, but when they attempted to melt the snow in order to supply themselves with water, the fuel which they had brought with them for this purpose refused to light on account of the rarity of the atmosphere. In spite of all these difficulties three pictures were obtained, of which two are said to be very satisfactory. The time occupied on the summit of the mountain did not exceed two hours and a half.[109]
 
  
Arctic 
  
434.39   Scientific >  Richard Beard: British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848) 
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The 1845 a series of daguerreotype were taken by Richard Beard of the officers participating in the ill-fated British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848) commanded by Sir John Franklin.[110][111][112] There are known to be surviving daguerreotype of fourteen of the officers and in some cases there is evidence that two portraits were taken of some of them with differing poses.[113] 
  
434.40   Scientific >  Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
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The 1845 daguerreotype three-quarter length portrait of Sir John Franklin seated and holding a telescope was taken prior to his departure on H.M.S. Erebus on the ill-fated British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848).[114] The daguerreotype was taken before photographs could be printed in publications and therefore had to be copied on to a woodcut or engraving prior to print. This series of images show how quality was lost as the portrait was copied. 
  
434.41   Scientific >  Captain Edward Augustus Inglefield: Inglefield Expedition (1850s) 
  
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With the dissappearance for Sir John Franklin[115] and his "bold crew"[116] on their search for the Northwest passage Edward Augustus Inglefield (1820-1894)[117] was one of those involved in the search. Inglefield undertook three voyages to the Arctic the first from 10 July to 4 November 1852 and a further two to connect with Sir Edward Belcher’s 1852-1854 expedition.[118] 
  
434.42   Scientific >  William Bradford, John Dunmore and George Critcherson: The Arctic Regions (1873) 
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William Bradford was a popular artist, traveler and Arctic explorer. His book The Arctic Regions, Illustrated with Photographs Taken on an Art Expedition to Greenland[119] is one of a classic work of photographic history and arctic exploration. The photographs in his book are usually credited to John Dunmore and George Crichterson but it is now believed that Bradford took many of the photographs himself.
 
The context for the book was given in a lot description by Swann Galleries:
William Bradford, a popular American artist, was a traveler and adventurer fascinated with the Arctic landscape. His magnificent volume, "The Arctic Regions," the result of six expeditions to the area, is considered a landmark in the history of the photographically illustrated book. Sumptuously bound and profusely illustrated with original photographs, the text combined sober scientific observation with romantic hyperbole. It features 141 spectacular albumen photographs, including a 2-part panorama, which set it apart from other accounts that were illustrated with engravings. The Art Journal of London hailed the publication as "the most instructive work on the frozen seas that has ever appeared."
 
Working under Bradford''s supervision were John Dunmore and George Crichterson, photographers associated with the prominent firm, James Wallace Black Studio, in Boston. Although these men are credited with the photographs it is now believed that Bradford himself may have taken many of the pictures, which feature remarkable scenes of icebergs and ice floes in addition to pictures of indigenous people ("Eskimaux") and moored ships.
 
A source of great interest throughout the nineteenth century, the Arctic blossomed in the public imagination, manifesting itself through a widespread desire for images, stories, and interpretations of the seemingly desolate area. The images in "The Arctic Region" depict views of an alien, frozen land and its exotic inhabitants.
 
Recounting his voyage, Bradford described working under adverse conditions. The harsh weather often caused major setbacks and annoyances among the ship''s crew. Dunmore also described a dangerous instance in which both their equipment and lives were at stake: "We sailed about sixty miles to the mouth of a glacier, where the icebergs break off, to take some views. Just as we were landing a large berg broke off which sent the water up twenty feet all over us, and washed away collodion, developing glass, green baize, etc., and came very near taking is along with them." Yet, despite these challenges, they produced remarkable photographs of a stunning, and now endangered, landscape. The volume is a tribute to Bradford''s heroic vision and the photographers who skillfully worked in the most difficult of circumstances.[120]
 
  
434.43   Scientific >  Thomas Mitchell: The British Arctic Expedition (1875-1876) 
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Thomas Mitchell was the artist and photographer for the British Arctic Expedition (1875-1876) with Captain George S. Nares.[121] Some of the photographs were taken by Thomas Mitchell assistant paymaster on the HMS Discover and others by George White who was assistant engineer on HMS Alert and this makes attribution more difficult.[122][123]
 
Others on the expedition also took photographs. Sub-Lieut. George Le C. Egerton, H.M.S. Alert who was commanding a sledge party in May 1876 wrote in his official entry for May 7th and 8th:
Among other things taken over by H.M. Sledge "Alert " to Greenland, was a photographic apparatus, which I was taking with the intention of getting some photographs of Polaris and Newman Bays, but now the programme having been altered, I am taking it back to the ship. Never having taken a photograph in my life before, and having only had five minutes' instruction in the art, I was rather anxious to see what the result would turn out, so persuaded May and the crew to stand while I took a photograph of the camp, dogs, and crew. I was some time getting ready, focussing, &c., and got very cold. When all was ready I took the cap off, out watch, and took the time—two minutes—May getting impatient—three minutes—1 burst into a fit of laughter, as I suddenly remembered I had not drawn the slide off the plate. May was furious. After a great deal of persuasion I got them to stand again, and this time everything went off satisfactorily, except that I could not find the cap to put over the lens for some few moments.[124]
Lieut. William H. May in his report referred to the same event:
Whilst camping, Mr. Egerton, who had the photographic apparatus with him, wished to take a photograph of the camp, so after we had stood still for five minutes, which is not pleasant in a temperature below zero, he found out that he had forgotten to take the glass out. After a good deal of persuasion he got us to stand again, and then after five minutes' exposure, could not find the cap to put on the end of the apparatus ; he kept us so long fumbling about for it with his cold fingers, that we all burst out laughing.[125]
 
  
434.44   Scientific >  The Greely Arctic Exploring Expedition (1881-1884) 
  
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An scientific expedition of twenty-five men led by Adolphus Greely on 26th August 1881 set out from Lady Franklin Bay on the whaling ship Proteus to explore the high Arctic.[126] Only six of the twenty-five returned in 1884 after being forced to abandoned their ship in the ice and were driven by starvation to cannibalism.[127] They had reached Farthest North and carried out scientific research but their reputations were tainted by the lurid scandal. 
  
434.45   Scientific >  Prince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
  
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An aristocratic relation of Napoleon, Prince Roland Bonaparte (1858-1924)[128] took a 19th century gentleman‘s interest in the sciences and in particular, during the earlier part of his life, in the study of anthropology. Like others of the period, he looked on photography as a scientific tool for preserving data from his expeditions, and used it to document the Amerindians, Surinames, Hottentots and other unusual peoples brought to European exhibitions.
 
In 1884 Bonaparte organized an ethnographic expedition to Lapland, an artic region in northern Europe, which described by F. Escard in an 1886 monograph Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie.[129] A portfolio of collotypes Lapons (Laplanders) was also issued from the negatives taken during the trip by "the Prince‘s usual photographer"[130]. The collotype plates, which are quite uncommon, document each sitter in paired frontal / profile views reminiscent of modern criminal mugshots. The images measure 6 x 4.5 inches (15x12 cm), printed on sheets 12 x 17 inches (30x44 cm).
 
Bonaparte‘s work is grounded in the anthropology of his time, which focussed on the documentation of physical characteristics, and in particular on shape and dimensions of the skull as a means of establishing relations between the human races. This tack had been given to European anthropology by its pioneers earlier in the century, notably Paul Broca, whose thinking was informed by the discovery of the first fragments of early man and whose standard field guide for anthropologists involved a complex series of physical measurements. The hard scientific results of Bonaparte‘s expedition were thus conclusions of the sort that Laplanders were "brachycephalic," had little facial hair, and possessed a "mean nasal index of 74.59 for the men, 73.64 for the women".[131] This attitude is clear in Bonaparte‘s images, yet paradoxically the sitters role as human specimens, accentuated further by the numbered cards held next to each on a short stick, allows them a status and often a dignity which would be lacking in more commonplace photography.[132] 
  
   Scientific Ethnographic Lapps 
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434.46   Scientific >  Fridtjof Nansen: First crossing of Greenland (1888) 
  
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In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen made the first crossing of Greenland. Dropped off by the sealer Jason in small boats near they Sermilik Fjord it took them 12 days to get to shore at Umivik and they eventually arrived at Godthaab on the 3rd October.[133] Norwegian painter and illustrator Andreas Bloch (1860-1917)[134] made book illustrations from instantaneous photographs made during the expedition. 
  
434.47   Scientific >  Nils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897) 
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Nils Strindberg was a participant in Salomon August Andrée's ill-fated Arctic balloon expedition of 1897 that attempted to reach to the North Pole using a balloon.[135] Strindberg was tasked with making a photographic record and he documented the early stages of the preparations, the flight and the tragic attempts to survive as the ill-equipped party strove unsuccessfully to gain safety. The remains of the expedition were discovered by the Bratvaag Expedition in 1930 along with five rolls of film and 93 of the photographs were saved.[136] 
  
Antarctica 
  
434.48   Scientific >  Letter from John Herschel to Daguerre (1 August 1939) 
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Between the first public announcement of the invention of the daguerreotype by Dominique François Jean Arago in Paris on the 7th January 1839 and the description of the process on 19th August 1839 the public and the scientific community was in a state of expectation.
 
In England there was a pressing scientific need for the equipment as an expedition to Antarctica was in the final stages of preparation and it was felt that daguerreotype apparatus would be "invaluable". A letter from John Herschel to Daguerre a few weeks before the public announcement of the process highlights the pressing need:
[Addressed to] A Monsr
Monsr. Daguerre, 17 Boulevard St Martin, Paris
 
[Addressed from] Royal Society, Somerset House, London
August 1, 1839.
 
Dear Sir,
As I see by the public papers that your beautiful process for the photographic representation of objects is speedily about to be made public in consequence of the vote of the Chamber of Deputies equally honorable to that body and to yourself permit me to apply to you in the name of the Council of the Royal Society for the purpose of procuring, if possible, an apparatus with the proper Camera Obscura and 100 plates properly prepared to receive impressions, and with instructions for its use and for executing the singular and extraordinary process by which you have been able to effect such wonders — If the request appears to you extraordinary, the circumstances of the case will explain it. — Captain Ross (the discoverer of the Northern Magnetic Pole) is about to proceed on a Voyage of Discovery and circumnavigation of the Antarctic Pole, in command of two Ships, the Terror and Erebus, admirably equipped and every way furnished with instruments of Science and Art. Now the Council of the Royal Society are earnestly desirous that the Expedition should sail provided with the invaluable resources furnished by the Daguerrotype process — for depicting the scenes they may visit — and as it will be yet 3 weeks before the sailing of the Ships, and it has been stated that within that time your process will probably be divulged — they consider that the importance of the occasion justifies this direct application to you.
 
I shall hope for your early reply, and that it will be such as to enable me to announce to the Council that the apparatus and instructions will be forwarded in time (ie to arrive before the 20th August, inst.) Should you wish that the instructions should yet remain for some time secret you may send them sealed and may rely on them not being opened till the Ships shall have passed the Cape of Good Hope — In that case you will have the goodness expressly to write to that effect.
 
I have the honor to be
Sir, Your very obedient
J. F. W. Herschel.
 
PS. I would beg leave to refer to M. Arago for any explanations should you think them needed —
In case of your reply being in the affirmative, I would request you to state the probable cost of the apparatus[137]
No known photographs have survived from Ross' expedition but there is evidence that Dr. Hooker, who accompanied the voyage, may have had access to equipment for making both daguerreotypes and calototypes.[138] 
  
434.49   Scientific >  Roald Amundsen: Amundsen's South Pole expedition (1910-1912) 
  
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Roald Amundsen[139] and his party were the first to reach the South Pole to be followed by Robert Falcon Scott and his team. Amundsen took photographs[140] during his expedition. 
  
434.50   Scientific >  Herbert Ponting: British Antarctic Expedition - Scott - Terra Nova (1910-1913) 
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Herbert Ponting (1870-1935)[141] was expedition photographer and cinematographer on the British Antarctic Expedition[142] led by the iconic Robert Falcon Scott[143] on the Terra Nova (1910-1913). Ponting used flash photography and glass plates even though film had been available long before the exhibition. Being older Ponting did not go with the doomed party to the Pole and stayed at the winter camp at Cape Evans, Ross Island which he documented. He took a over 1,700 photographic plates along with movie footage. [144]
 
After reaching the South Pole and discovering that Amundsen had beaten them the team had a doomed return trip that was never completed. Scott left a "Message to the Public" that was a plea for understanding:
We took risks, we knew we took them; things have come out against us, and therefore we have no cause for complaint, but bow to the will of Providence, determined still to do our best to the last ... Had we lived, I should have had a tale to tell of the hardihood, endurance, and courage of my companions which would have stirred the heart of every Englishman. These rough notes and our dead bodies must tell the tale, but surely, surely, a great rich country like ours will see that those who are dependent on us are properly provided for.[145]
 
  
434.51   Scientific >  Frank Hurley: Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1913) 
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In 1911 under the leadership of Dr. Douglas Mawson the Australasian Antarctic Expedition set out for Macquarie Island and as yet unexplored parts of Antarctica. The official expedition photographer was Frank Hurley (1885-1962) but information Mawson gave on the negatives indicates the photographs were taken by at least 20 people.[146] 
  
434.52   Scientific >  Frank Hurley: Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917) 
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Frank Hurley[147] was an Australian photographer and cinematographer who accompanied many notable expeditions including that the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of Sir Ernest Shackleton (1914-1915). Hurley took glass plates and far rarer Paget colour plates. Forced to abandon their expedition ship the Endurance Hurley had choices forced upon him.
After they abandoned the debilitated Endurance, Shackleton ordered the crew members to pare their personal possessions down to two pounds each. Hurley had to leave his precious cameras behind, but Shackleton allowed him to keep a selection of photographs and motion-picture footage. Stripped to the waist, Hurley dove into the icy waters to retrieve his treasured images from the sinking wreck of the ship. Together, Shackleton and Hurley chose 120 glass plates to keep and smashed about 400; Shackleton feared that Hurley would endanger himself to return for them later. Hurley sealed the plates in metal tins with improvised solder, along with prints he had developed on board the ship. Hurley documented the remainder of their odyssey with only a handheld Vest Pocket Kodak camera and three rolls of film. [148]
He was also a notable war photographer during both the First and Second World Wars
  
Pack animals 
  
434.53   Scientific >  Pack animals - mules, donkeys, burros and horses 
  
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Early photographers were weighed down with equipment and when wet plate collodion became popular from the 1850s with heavy glass plates and chemicals. To transport this load over long distances or in difficult terrain pack animals or wagons were advisable. Images of photographers with their mules, donkeys and horses have survived and their are nineteenth accounts of difficult animals such as the one between L.A. Huffman[149] and his mule Nig.[150] Author Mark Twain claimed that he could have taken "an elegant picture if his donkey had not interfered."[151] The risks of having large animals of an unpredictable nature near breakable cameras and glass plates was an ever-present issue as Sergeant Harold of the Royal Engineers who was Chief Photographer on the British Army Abyssinian Expedition described in his letter to The Photographic Journal that was published in 1868:
Two of our mules had a regular dance round the camp one day, with a couple of boxes dragging behind them. One of them rolled over on his back three times whilst carrying two of our plate-boxes, and afterwards fell down a place called the Devil's Staircase. I am surprised the equipment has stood so well as it has, and I think Mr. Meagher deserves great credit for the substantial manner in which he fitted it up; for it has been exposed to all weathers, merely covered with some tarpaulins.[152]
Accounts of using mules remain in nineteenth century accounts such as that of C. Ray Woods taking photo-astronomy plates in Switzerland in the 1880s:
As soon as bad weather set in again, I telegraphed to Zermatt for men and mules, and ere long only a pile of spoiled plates and broken glass were left to mark the spot where my work had been done.
 
I cannot refrain, here, from raising a tribute of admiration to the business-like capacity of one of the muleteers. Four mules had arrived, and this man said that five were required. 1 told him to get another one, then. Instead of doing this, however, he put the things on the four mules, and took them to Zermatt, then calmly came and demanded the money for the other mule which I ought to have had. What is more, he said that though I paid M. Seiler for the four mules, I must pay him for the fifth one, which I had not seen. Unfortunately for him, I had a little business capacity also, and declined to encourage his endeavour to trade on no capital.[153]
When using English military pack saddles on mules in the Andes in the 1890s the result was not a happy one in one account:
The mules were accustomed to loads of this sort, but they quite failed to understand the new English equipment. Being chafed by the cruppers and halters, and frightened by the jogging of the panniers, which, instead of being bound on, were merely slung on hooks, they began to rub against one another, then to kick, and finally they stampeded. Off the whole herd galloped amongst the rocks and boulders, loaded and unloaded animals together. The panniers, heavy with photographic plates, many of them unhooked at one corner, were bucked into the air, or hurled amongst the rocks. It was a sickening sight for anyone who knew every detail of the contents of the panniers, and we were powerless to put an immediate stop to it. However, the most turbulent soon parted with their loads, and the rest were caught. No irreparable damage was done, but it taught us a lesson. Never load a mule too lightly ; he is an animal who shows no gratitude.[154]
William James Stillman, American photographer, painter, journalist, art critic and husband of the pre-Raphaelite painter Marie Stillman (née Spartali), in 1874 published The Amateur's Photographic Guide Book in which he described loading a pack animal:
My dark box will contain all these things and a plate-box with a dozen and a-half 8 x 10 plates, the water-bag serving as a cushion to prevent shaking or breaking. In the most difficult countries it will go in a packing-case on one side of your horse's or donkey's pack saddle, while the camera and extras make a balance on the other, and your assistant rides between and makes no more comical figure than the majority of Eastern travellers at that. The only point in the arrangement important to be understood is that one donkey will carry all that is needful for a photographic trip of several days in the sandiest and most desiccated country in creation, and that you may work with less annoyance from dust or heat than the dwellers or workers in tents can appreciate.[155]
A donkey can carry around 200 pounds and a mule around 300 if the load is evenly distributed so working with pack animals was a perilous necessity for a photographer. 
  
434.54   Scientific >  L.A. Huffman: The Rage of Huffman and the Calmness of Nig (1883) 
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In G.O. Shields' 1883 book Rustlings in the Rockies: Hunting and Fishing by Mountain and Stream there is an amusing account of his obstreperous mule Nig driving western photographer L.A. Huffman[156] to distraction:
And this recalls to my mind an incident of the trip that must not be overlooked. Soon after leaving the forks of the stream, we reached a point where it became necessary to cross it in order to avoid a long detour around a bend. We therefore selected the most favorable point we could find a place where the banks were low and the water not more than two feet deep and started in with Huffman in the lead. I followed him with Blinkie, my white pony, and the pack mules followed me, Jack remaining for the time in the rear to drive them across. Chicken, one of the pack mules, crossed and climbed the bank all right, when Nig, a large black mule, who was always disposed to be willful and contrary, and who was never willing to follow his file leader when he saw an opportunity of making an annoying "break," walked down the first bank into the water, then turned and waded slowly and deliberately down the stream toward a deep hole that lay a few yards below the crossing. His load consisted principally of Huffman's photographic outfit, camera, dry plates, dark tent, etc.; and when Huffman saw that they were placed in jeopardy that the dry plates were in imminent danger of being transformed into wet plates by a process that would render them utterly worthless to him that the camera was liable to be soaked with water and ruined he became frantic.
 
He dismounted and rushed madly down the bank of the stream, yelling, throwing clubs, trying in every possible way to head Nig off; but the ugly brute would not head worth a cent. He looked mildly at the woe-begone artist out of his left eye, stopped and drank a few swallows of water, took a step or two, and looked again, first at Huffman and then at Jack, who was on the opposite side of the river, shouting, and throwing clubs, rocks and other debris at the long-eared vandal.
 
"Jack!" shouted the artist, "drive that cantankerous brute out of that deep water, quick, or he'll drown my photograph gallery! Jump in and catch him quick! Blank blank that blanked long-eared son-of-a-gun to blankety blank!"
 
"Jump in yourself," said Jack, "I don't want to get my feet wet."
 
And still the mule moved slowly down the stream, every step taking him into deeper water, bringing his precious load, valued at three hundred dollars, nearer and nearer to the destroying element, while an artist to the mountains bound cries, " Conley, do not tarry and I'll give thee a silver dollar to drive that doggoned mule o'er the ferry."
 
"Now, who be ye would cross Big Horn, this deep and muddy water?"
 
"Oh, I'm the artist from Miles City, and this my precious plunder. And fast upon these saddle mules three days we've rode together, and should he wet them in the creek they wouldn't be worth a feather."
 
Outspoke the hardy Emerald Wight, "I'll go, my chief, I'm ready. It is not for your dollar bright, but for some pretty pictures; and by my word, that cussed mule in the water shall not tarry, so though the waves are raging white, I'll drive him over the ferry or break his blanked neck! G'lang, Nig, git out of there, you son-of-a-gun!" But still, as wilder blew the wind, and as the artist grew madder, adown the stream walked that pesky mule where the water still was deeper.
 
"Oh, haste thee, haste!" the artist cries. "Though tempests round us gather, I'll meet the raging of the water, but if I lose that outfit I'll walk home to-night."
 
The mule has left a sultry land, a cool bath is before him, when' oh! too strong for human hands, he don't care how many clubs come o'er him. And still they howled amidst the roar of waters fast prevailing, the artist reached that fatal shore, his wrath was changed to wailing. For sore dismayed through storm and shade his mule he did discover, one lovely hand he stretched for the bridle but, oh, he couldn't reach it.
 
'' Come back, come back,'' he cried in grief across this muddy river, "and I'll forgive the wayward cuss, my donkey, oh, my donkey." 'Twas vain; the loud waves lashed his sides, return or aid suggesting, the waters wild kind o' frightened him, and he turned and came out on the bank o. k.
 
We took his load off, opened it, and found that though the lower corners of both boxes were wet, the moisture had not reached their contents. We congratulated Huffman on the fact that his dry goods were still dry that his stock had not been watered, so to speak and went'on our way rejoicing.[157]
 
  
Dark tents and dark boxes 
  
434.55   Scientific >  Contemporary accounts of nineteenth century dark tents 
  
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Ninetenth century accounts of using dark tents and dark boxes have survived:
  • D.L. Mundy (1874)
     
    My usual plan of proceeding was to erect an ordinary digger's tent, supported upon a couple of forked poles and well fastened down with guy-ropes; then, from the ridge of the structure, suspending a square photographic tent made of mackintosh material, with black calico skirts resting on the ground and kept securely fixed with stones. In fine weather this supplementary operating-tent was erected outside the ordinary dwelling; but at other times better protection was afforded by suspending it within the larger tent. A square window of yellow oiled silk, measuring about 18 inches in both dimensions, admitted enough light to work by, and was of course proof against fracture during my journeys. A packhorse carried a couple of strong leather trunks slung from the saddle, in one of which the chemicals were packed, while the apparatus was placed in the other.[158]
     
  • Samuel Bourne (1860)
     
    Or, if we wish to make sure of our pictures on the spot, and lug about a huge tent and a score or two of bottles, in addition to what is required for a dry process, the thing absolutely becomes the work of a slave. Great as is my liking for photography, I confess that were I always compelled to adopt the latter expedient when I wanted to take a picture far away from home, my journeys abroad for that purpose would be something like angels' visits—" few and far between." How many photographers could relate pleasing narratives of certain not over-pleasing incidents connected with their pictorial wanderings!—how, being mistaken for a pedlar, they have been told, when about to plant their camera to take a view of some curious old farm-house or uninhabited ruin, that they need not unpack their traps, as there was "nothing wanted;"—how many limes they have had to mourn over an upset bath of nitrate of silver, or a collodion bottle from which an ejected stopper has allowed all the precious fluid to escape;— how the perspiration has streamed from them as with lightning rapidity they popped in and out of the suffocating tent;—how some curious bull, anxious to know the contents of the suspicious-looking camera, has playfully employed his horns to lift it up for that purpose; and how they have stood looking on in silent and pensive amazement, while a gust of wind has sent tent, bottles, and camera on a rolling expedition down the mountain's side. Such are a specimen of what every photographer may expect to meet with and undergo, in the ardent pursuit of his favourite study.[159]
     
  • Color Sargeant D.G. Crotty (1874)
     
    In the afternoon, while busy cleaning our guns, a thundering noise is heard. Looking in the direction of the sound, a monster shell is observed approaching. We all drop a courtesy, a la Japanese, by getting on our knees. It passes over and thuds into the ground behind the photographic tent of Fred H___, who runs out, white as a sheet, to learn the cause of the noise, and observes behind his tent, a hole large enough to bury a mule in, caused by the shell. He immediately packed up his pictures, vamoosed the camp, and it is said, never stopped until he was safe in his own valley city, in Michigan, nor did he take any more pictures on the sacred soil.[160]
     
  • Paul D. Du Chaillu (1871)
     
    My photographic apparatus, or at least what remained of it, was much admired by friend Mayolo. He was the most inquisitive man of his tribe, none of whom were wanting in curiosity, and he was never weary of asking me questions and inspecting my wonderful stores. When I first took out the photographic tent from its box, he was amazed, after seeing it fixed, to discover what a bulky affair could come out of so small a box. After fixing the tent I withdrew the slide and exposed the orange-coloured glass, and invited the mystified chief to look through it at the prairie. At first he was afraid and declined to come into the tent; but on my telling him that he knew I should never do anything to harm him, he consented. He could not comprehend it. He looked at me, at my hands, then at the glass, and believed there was witchcraft at the bottom of it. After Mayolo had come out of the tent unharmed, the rest of the negroes took courage, and my tent was made a peep-show for the remainder of the day.[161]
 
  
434.56   Scientific >  Dark tents and dark boxes 
  
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434.57   Scientific >  Carleton Watkins: #925 Spring Valley Water Works 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The following comments by Will Dunniway and Robert Szabo, two contemporary wet-plate collodion photographers, explain the significance of this rare yellow-mount stereoview "#925 Spring Valley Water Works" by Carleton E. Watkins:
 
The items inside the tent:
  1. The spigot for his water supply. It is not possible to see what the container was made of, but most likely it would have been copper or brass for weight considerations.
     
  2. Three of the four visible bottles appear to be leather wrapped. This is to prevent the glass from breaking from a rough wagon ride between shoots.
     
  3. There is an open wooden box and it is uncertain what it would have been used for. It was most likely to have been used for transporting chemicals and photographic paraphernalia.
The items outside the tent:
  1. As can be seen here Carleton Watkins used a vertical bath to process his mammoth plates. It has been suggested that he used a tray as his bath to sensitize his plates but this is conclusive. There is a further point about this bath tank. He is said to have NOT used a glass liner to contain his bath. Instead it was believed he asphalt painted the inside, or something along this line. In this image, it appears that there is not a glass liner. To seal this bath for traveling, usually the glass tank will extend above the wooden rim.
     
  2. A mammoth plate storage box.
     
  3. These boxes appear to be the 5x8 inch plate storage boxes for making stereo images. They are about the right size for two rows of plates, with a divider in the middle. They are on top the large mammoth plate boxes not being used at this moment of exposure, thus, these 5x8 plate boxes are sequentially in order.
     
  4. A glass plate cleaning vise.
     
  5. The lid clamp to a silver bath tank. The metal clamp with thumb screws was used for the sealing off this bath tank when traveling. The wooden lid for this huge mammoth plate silver bath tank appears to be with this clamp.
The tent itself:
 
The dark tent is lined with what I think is yellow, or a very warm colored material. As you know, collodion is a blue sensitive emulsion (it is called 'Ordinary'). This being what this is, the blue will NOT be seen, where as the yellow (red or warm tones) would be seen as dark. The outer material seems to be plain white canvas duck. The white outer shell is so the interior of this dark tent would not heat up in direct sun. This color choice was a must on warm days. After about 90oF outside, the inside of the tent would elevate the silver bath to above 80o F in no time at all. At this temperature, silver bath starts to act up, and will produce flawed plates.
 
It is not certain that the person on the left is Carleton E. Watkins and this remains to be confirmed. 
  
   Carleton Eugene  Watkins Spring Valley Water Works 
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434.58   Scientific >  William Henry Jackson: Photographing in High Places 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Nathaniel Langford in his 1873 article "The Ascent of Mount Hayden: A New Chapter of Western Discovery" published in Scribner's Monthly mentioned William Henry Jackson [162]:
Mr. Jackson, our persevering photographic artist, took a great number of views of the scenery in this vicinity including many of the cascades in the Canon, and the Tetons from all points of the compass. He is an indefatigable worker, and as often camps alone in some of the wild glens as with the company. Give him fine scenery, and he forgets danger and difficulty in the effort to "get a negative."[163]
Nathaniel Pitt Langford was a prominent member of the Washburn Expedition[164] of 1870, a lobbyist for making Yellowstone the first national park, and the first park superintendent. Mt. Langford in eastern Yellowstone is named after him. 
  
434.59   Scientific >  John Burke: Fixing the Negative 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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An engraving of a sketch by Frederic Villiers [1851-1922] that was published in The Graphic, July 12, 1879
'Mr. J. Burke the photographic artist attached to our Indian Army to illustrate the advance of the troops and the grand scenery of Afghanistan, was permitted by the Ameer of Cabul (sic) to take a series of pictures of himself and his suite at the camp at Gandamak. One of my sketches illustrates the process of 'posing' the Ameer, who indulged in a quiet smoke during the preparation of the photographic plates. After Mr. Burke had taken him in his gorgeous uniform of white and gold, the Ameer showed great anxiety to see the results, and Major Cavagnari explained to him the process of photography.'[165]
 
  
National Geographic 
  
434.60   Scientific >  National Geographic photographers on assignment 
  
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The National Geographic Society was founded on the 27th January 1988 as "a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge." To achieve this the society has funded over 10,000 scientific research, conservation, expedition and exploration projects. These projects have included oceanic research, archaeology, palaeontology, polar exploration and anthropology.
 
In 1980 the Alexander Graham Bell Medal of the National Geographic Society was awarded to mountain and aerial photographer Bradford Washburn and his wife Barbara Washburn for their seven years mapping the Grand Canyon. 
  
Field note books 
  
434.61   Scientific >  Smithsonian Field Book Project 
  
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The Smithsonian Field Book Project (FBP) commenced in 2010 to put online the thousands of field books and research notes created by scientists. Although this registary has commenced with the material held within the numerous Smithsonian collections the intention is to extend it to include field books from around the USA. The photographic richness within these collections has yet to be explored.[166] 
  
Around the world 
  
434.62   Scientific >  The travels of Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia (1871-1872) 
  
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Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia (1850-1908) was the fifth child of Tzar Alexander II and had a memorable naval career and was instrumental the modernisation of the Russian navy. He served as a lieutenant aboard the Svetlana during the 1871 voyage to the United States, a brief trip to Canada, Cuba, Brazil, Cape Town (South Africa), Batavia (Indonesia), Singapore, Hong Kong, China and Japan.[167] This adventurous voyage included a buffalo hunt and was widely reported in the press and photographs were taken by local photographers as the royal visit progressed.[168] 
  
Fiction and the reality of travel 
  
434.63   Scientific >  Jules Verne: Around the World in Eighty Days - What would Phileas Fogg and Passepartout have seen in 1872? 
  
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The world as it was when Phileas Fogg and his valet Passepartout passed through on their fictional voyage around the world in 1872.
Great Britain
Egypt
India
Hong Kong Japan
America
Ireland
Great Britain
What would the dashing pair have witnessed along the way during their intrepid travels?
 
When Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days[169] was published in 1873 the world was at a stage of rapid industrial development.
 
Only a few years earlier the Suez Canal had been opened greatly reducing the time required to travel from Western Europe to India and the Far East. On 10 May 1869 the rails were joined at Promontary Summit for the Transcontinental railway in the United States. The railway station in Yokohama opened in 1872 symbolizing the immense changes in Japan which had been largely closed to foreigners until the Black Ships of Admiral Perry arrived in 1853. Emmigration and immigration during this period was enormous and ships such as the S/S Manhattan of the Guion Line crossed from Liverpool to New York six times between 1870-1872 and companies like the Pacific Mail Steamship company plied the routes between San Francisco, Panama, Yokohama, Hong Kong and Singapore.
 
The times were far from tranquil: Lieutenant Camus had been killed in Japan in 1868 by Samurai who objected to the presence of foreigners; San Francisco had an earthquake also in 1868, and between 1870 and 1871 there were the Orange Riots in New York. The bison mentioned in the novel were being exterminated in the US and the Battle of the Little Bighorn would happen only a few years later in 1876 changing the ways of the Plains Indians forever.
 
The setting for this online exhibition is the two and a half months from 2nd October 1872 until 21st December 1872 as the fictional Phileas Fogg and his valet Passepartout circumnavigate the globe to win a wager of £40,000. This exhibition follows the approximate route they took and shows the places as they were when the fictional pair passed through. The exact route has not been slavishly followed, nor have the exact dates, but rather they are explored through the visual remains of a long gone world.
 
Following the popularity of Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne the adventurous journalist Nellie Bly set out in 1889 to prove that the journey was viable. Supported by her newspaper, the New York World she completed the trip within 72 days and her book, Around the World in Seventy-Two Days,[170] was also a best seller. 
  
   Around The World in Eighty Days 
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ For the context of Italian photographers in Persia - Maria Francesca Bonetti & Alberto Prandi, 2010, La Persia Qajar: fotografi italiani in Iran, 1848-1864, ([Roma] : Peliti associati, cop.); Maria Francesca Bonetti & Alberto Prandi, 2013, ‘Italian Photographers in Iran 1848–64‘, History of Photography, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 14-31
     
    The Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana in Venice (N. inv.: 87266; segn.: 138.C.88) has a copy of Luigi Montabone's Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana 1862 with a book plate of archaeologist and traveller Sir Austen Henry Layard. Early travellers from the West often collected significant albums and they eventually have found their ways into public institutions. Another example of this would be the 1850s album containing early photographs of Persia by Luigi Pesce that was in the collection of Sir Alfred Rawlinson and is now in the Getty Research Institute (2012.R.18). 
      
  2. Λ Harrison Ford in the Indiana Jones series of films is a continuation of the stereotypical explorer battling with jackbooted Nazis, corrupt archaeologists and nefarious villains who are normally untrustworthy foreigners. 
      
  3. Λ For publications on Charnay - Keith F. Davis, 1981, Désiré Charnay: Expeditionary Photographer, (University of New Mexico Press); Christine Barthe, 2007, Le Yucatan est ailleurs: Expéditions photographiques (1857-1886) de Désiré Charnay, ([Paris]: Musée du quai Branly/Actes Sud)
     
    For works by Charnay - Désiré Charnay, 1863, Cités et ruines Américaines: Mitla, Palenqué, Izamal, Chichen-Itza, Uxmal, (Paris: Gide, Editeur, A. Morel et Cie.) 
      
  4. Λ Albert Frisch photographed a manatee during his work along the Amazon - "Peixe boi, (Manatus americanus, Desm.), dans sa position naturelle dans l´eau, 9 pieds de long", 1867-1871, Albumen print, 19 x 24 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, Inv VF_26139_35 
      
  5. Λ Inuit were often photographed on the desks of expedition vessels for example by Captain Edward Augustus Inglefield during the Inglefield Expedition (1850s) 
      
  6. Λ Yellowstone, now one of the most beautiful National Parks in America, was photographed during the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869). The Hayden Valley in Yellowstone takes its name from the leader of the expedition. 
      
  7. Λ Yosemite is full of vistas, valleys, geological formations, waterfalls, giant sequias and wildlife that have made it a highlight for photographers since its discovery by trappers and loggers. Photographers including Carleton E. Watkins, Eadweard Muybridge, Walker & Fagersteen, Ansel Adams and a great many others have documented the locality in all seasons. 
      
  8. Λ The literature on expeditions and explorations is vast with overviews: J. Keay (ed.), 1991, The Royal Geographical Society History of World Exploration (Bdd Promotional Book Co); Robin Hanbury-Tenison (Editor), 2006, The Seventy Great Journeys in History, (Thames & Hudson); Robin Hanbury-Tenison (Editor), 2010, The Great Explorers, (Thames & Hudson); J.C.H. King & Henrietta Lidchi (eds.), 1998, Imaging the Arctic (University of Washington Press).
     
    There are also personal accounts and examinations of expeditions by later historians and popular writers: Francis Younghusband, 1908, Tibet and Lhasa (Johnston and Hoffman) - includes the photogravures of John Claude White; Herbert Ponting, 1921, The Great White South (Duckworth); Wilfred Thesiger, 1987, Visions of a Nomad (HarperCollins); Frank Hurley, 2001, South with Endurance: Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition 1914-1917 - The Photographs of Frank Hurley (Simon & Schuster) 
      
  9. Λ If you have a series of photographs on these, or any other scientific expeditions, I'd be fascinated to learn about it - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  10. Λ Heinrich Barth, 1857-1858, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa: Being a Journal of an Expedition Undertaken under the Auspices of H.B.M.’s Government in the Years 1849-1855, (London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts), 5 volumes 
      
  11. Λ Alexander Mailand, 1971, Speke, (London: Constable); Christopher Ondaatje, 2006, Journey to the Source of the Nile, (The Long Riders' Guild Press) 
      
  12. Λ Robert O'Hara Burke (1821–1861) - Australian Dictionary of Biography
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    adb.anu.edu.au/biography/burke-robert-ohara-3116 
      
  13. Λ For Francis Garnier - Keat Gin Ooi (ed.), Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, (ABC-CLIO), vol. 1, pp. 538-540
     
    Francis Garnier, 1873, Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine: effectué pendant les années 1866, 1867 et 1868 par une commission française présidée par M. le Capitaine de frégate, Doudart de Lagrée et publié par les ordres du Ministre de la marine sous la direction de M. le Lieutenant de vaisseau, Francis Garnier, avec le concours de M. Delaporte, Lieutenant de vaisseau et de MM. Joubert et Thorel, médecins de la marine, membres de la commission, (Paris: Librairie Hachette et Cie), 2 volumes, Illustrated by Louis Delaporte. 
      
  14. Λ Gerhard Rohlf created a portfolio Afrika-Reise 1869 (Berlin) in 1870 that included photographs taken by Emil Salingré. A copy of this portfolio is in the collection of the British Library. 
      
  15. Λ Nikolay Przhevalsky - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolay_Przhevalsky 
      
  16. Λ Charles Montagu Doughty (August 19, 1843 - January 20, 1926) - D.G. Hogarth, 1928, The Life Of Charles M. Doughty, (Oxford University Press); Charles Doughty, 1888, Travels in Arabia Deserta, (Cambridge University Press) 
      
  17. Λ For books by John Claude White - J.C. White, 1907-1908, Tibet and Lhasa: Photographs by J.C. White Esq., C.I.E., (Calcutta: Johnson & Hoffman); John Claude White, 1909, Sikhim & Bhutan: Twenty-One Years On the North-East Frontier, 1887-1908, (London: E. Arnold)
     
    For a more recent volume - Kurt Meyer, 2006, In the Shadow of the Himalayas: Tibet - Bhutan - Nepal - Sikkim A Photographic Record by John Claude White 1883-1908, (Mapin Publishing Gp Pty Ltd) 
      
  18. Λ For the writings of Mary Kingsley - Mary H. Kingsley, 1897, Travels in West Africa. Congo Francais, Corisco and Cameroons, (London: Macmillan); Mary H. Kingsley, 1899, West African Studies, (London: Macmillan) 
      
  19. Λ The albums of Gertrude Bell are held in the Gertrude Bell Archive at Newcastle University Library.
    (Accessed: 24 October 2014)
    www.gerty.ncl.ac.uk/photos.php 
      
  20. Λ Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) - The Arnold Arboteum of Harvard University
    (Accessed: 31 March 2014)
    arboretum.harvard.edu/library/image-collection/botanical-and-cultural-images-of-eastern-asia/ernest-henry-wilson/ 
      
  21. Λ Roger Balm, October 2000, "Expeditionary Art: An Appraisal", Geographical Review, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 127-146 
      
  22. Λ Mount Watkins, Yosemite, California, United States, North America
    Lat/Lon: 37.78299°N / 119.51735°W 
      
  23. Λ Masa Knob, North Carolina/Tennessee
    Lat/Lon: 35.634708°N / 83.377939°W 
      
  24. Λ Mount Ansel Adams, California, United States, North America
    Lat/Lon: 37.69798°N / 119.2817°W 
      
  25. Λ Henry Youle Hind, 1860, Narrative of The Canadian Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857 and the Assinniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858, (London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts) [Two volumes, Appendix XIV, pp. 434-436 lists the photographs taken.] 
      
  26. Λ Richard J. Huyda, 1975, Camera in the Interior: 1858, H.L. Hime, Photographer, (Coach House Press) 
      
  27. Λ J.B. Tyrrell, 1897, Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers, the north-west coast of Hudson Bay, and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg, (Ottawa: S. E. Dawson), 11/2 
      
  28. Λ Keith F. Davis & Jane L. Aspinwall, 2011, Timothy H. O'Sullivan: The King Survey Photographs, (Nelson Atkins Museum) 
      
  29. Λ For a personal account see Jackson's autobiography: William Henry Jackson, 1986, Time Exposure: The Autobiography of William Henry Jackson, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Useful material included also in William C. Jones, 1992, William Henry Jackson's Colorado, (Colorado Railroad Museum); Peter B. Hales, 1988, William Henry Jackson and the Transformation of the American Landscape, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press) 
      
  30. Λ William Culp Darrah, 1949, ‘Beaman, Fennemore, Hillers, Dellenbaugh, Johnson, and Hattan‘, Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 1-4, pp. 491–503; Don D. Fowler, 1972, Photographed All the Best Scenery': Jack Hillers' Diary of the Powell Expeditions, 1871–1875, (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press); Don D. Fowler, 1989, The Western Photographs of John K. Hillers: 'Myself in the Water', (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Don D. Fowler, 2012, Cleaving an Unknown World: The Powell Expeditions and the Scientific Exploration of the Colorado Plateau, (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press) 
      
  31. Λ Clarence King, 1902), Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada, (New York: C. Scribner’s sons), "Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada" first appeared, in part, in The Atlantic Monthly, starting with the May 1871 issue (vol. 27, issue 163), and ending with the Dec. 1871 issue (chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, and 9, respectively); full text: www.yosemite.ca.us/library/mountaineering_in_the_sierra_nevada/; Thurman Wilkins and Caroline Lawson Hinkley, 1988, Clarence King: A Biography, (University of New Mexico Press), [revised edition] 
      
  32. Λ Keith F. Davis & Jane L. Aspinwall, 2011, Timothy H. O'Sullivan: The King Survey Photographs, (Nelson Atkins Museum) 
      
  33. Λ Keith F. Davis & Jane L. Aspinwall, 2011, Timothy H. O'Sullivan: The King Survey Photographs, (Nelson Atkins Museum) 
      
  34. Λ The original field notebooks are held by the Special Collections Department of the University of Nevada at Reno - Wheeler Survey - Field Notebooks Of The U.S. Geographical Survey West Of The 100th Meridian - Collection no. NC319. 
      
  35. Λ Sir Richard Burton, 1861, The city of the saints, and across the Rocky mountains to California, quoted in - Nevada Bureau of Land Management, 1976, The Pony Express in Nevada 
      
  36. Λ Timothy H. O'Sullivan, "Timothy O'Sullivan's ambulance wagon and portable darkroom used during the King Survey rolls across the sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev.", 1867, Albumen print, National Archives and Records Administration, Call Number: LOT 7096, no. 107 
      
  37. Λ John Samson, September 1869, "Photographs from the High Rockies", Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. XXXIX, no. CCXXXII, p. 465-475. Illustration on p. 474. In the article Timothy O'Sullivan is not mentioned by name. 
      
  38. Λ John Samson, September 1869, "Photographs from the High Rockies", Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. XXXIX, no. CCXXXII, p. 474-475 
      
  39. Λ Mike Foster, 1994, Strange Genius: The Life of Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (Roberts Rinehart Pub); James G. Cassidy, 2000, Ferdinand V. Hayden: Entrepreneur of Science (University of Nebraska Press) 
      
  40. Λ William Henry Jackson, 1986, Time Exposure: The Autobiography of William Henry Jackson, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press); William Henry Jackson & William M. Holmes, 1981, Mesa Verde and the Four Corners: Hayden Survey, 1874-1876, (Bear Creek Publishing Co.) 
      
  41. Λ The original field notebooks are held by the Special Collections Department of the University of Nevada at Reno - Wheeler Survey - Field Notebooks Of The U.S. Geographical Survey West Of The 100th Meridian - Collection no. NC319. 
      
  42. Λ The original field notebooks are held by the Special Collections Department of the University of Nevada at Reno - Wheeler Survey - Field Notebooks Of The U.S. Geographical Survey West Of The 100th Meridian - Collection no. NC319. 
      
  43. Λ The first card in the stereocard series "War Department, Corps. of Engineers, U.S.A., Geographical, Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian" has a photograph with four boats with oars raised and a group of onlookers on the back the printed note is:
    "1. The start from Camp Mojave, Arizona, September 13, 1871. Boat expedition under Lieutenant Wheeler, the first and only one to ascend the Colorado through the Grand Canon to mouth of Diamond Creek. Distance traveled, 260 miles in 31 days, the boats often having to be portaged around rapids and drawn over rocks."
     
      
  44. Λ Wallace Stegner, 1992 , Beyond the Hundredth Meridian: John Wesley Powell and the Second Opening of the West, (Penguin books); Edward Dolnick, 2002, Down The Great Unknown: John Wesley Powell's 1869 Journey of Discovery and Tragedy Through the Grand Canyon, (Harper Perennial) 
      
  45. Λ William Culp Darrah, 1949, ‘Beaman, Fennemore, Hillers, Dellenbaugh, Johnson, and Hattan‘, Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 1-4, pp. 491–503; Don D. Fowler, 1972, Photographed All the Best Scenery': Jack Hillers' Diary of the Powell Expeditions, 1871–1875, (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press); Don D. Fowler, 1989, The Western Photographs of John K. Hillers: 'Myself in the Water', (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Don D. Fowler, 2012, Cleaving an Unknown World: The Powell Expeditions and the Scientific Exploration of the Colorado Plateau, (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press) 
      
  46. Λ W.H. Goetzmann & K. Sloan, 1982, Looking Far North: The Harriman expedition to Alaska, 1899, (New York: The Viking Press) 
      
  47. Λ An album compiled by George F. Nelson, 1899, Alaska, 1899: The Harriman Alaska Expedition, Chronicles and Souvenirs - May to August 1899 with photographs by Edward S.Curtis, Edward H. Harriman and others is included and discussed in - Verna Posever Curtis, 2011, Photographic Memory: The Album in the Age of Photography, (Aperture / Library of Congress), pp. 16-27 
      
  48. Λ Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26) 
      
  49. Λ The bibliography on Edward S. Curtis is considerable. For his unpublished memoir - Edward S. Curtis, n.d., As it Was [Unpublished memoir, University of Washington Library, Special Collections]
     
    For publications by Curtis - Edward S. Curtis, 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Northwest Plains‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 657-671; Edward S. Curtis, 1906, ‘Vanishing Indian Types: The Tribes of the Southwest‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 513-529; Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26); Edward S. Curtis, 1909, ‘Village Tribes of the Desert Land‘, Scribner's Magazine, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 274-287; Edward S. Curtis, 1914, Indian Days of the Long Ago, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1915, In the Land of the Head-Hunters, (Yonkers-on-Hudson, NY: World Book Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1992, Native Nations: First Americans as Seen by Edward Curtis, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company); Edward S. Curtis, 1997, The North American Indian: The Complete Portfolio, (New York: Köln: Taschen)
     
    There are innumerable other reprints and studies on Curtis. 
      
  50. Λ Victor W. von Hagen, 1990, Maya Explorer: John Lloyd Stevens and the Lost Cities of Central America and Yucatan, (Chronicle Books); Peter Harris, Summer 2006, "Cities of Stone: Stephens & Catherwood in Yucatan, 1839-1842". Co-Incidents of Travel in Yucatan. Photoarts Journal
     
    Archives: Finding Aid to the John Lloyd Stephens Papers, 1795-1882, University of California at Berkeley: Bancroft Library, BANC MSS Z-Z 116
    (Accessed: 25 July 2013)
    www.oac.cdlib.org/findaid/ark:/13030/tf7q2nb2xg/ 
      
  51. Λ John Lloyd Stevens, 1843, Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, (New York, Harper & Brothers), [Two volumes], vol. 1, p. 175 
      
  52. Λ Book review of John Lloyd Stevens, 1843, Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, (New York, Harper & Brothers) IN The Ladies' Repository, and Gatherings of the West (Cincinnati), Volume 3, May, 1843, p. 160. 
      
  53. Λ For publications on Charnay - Keith F. Davis, 1981, Désiré Charnay: Expeditionary Photographer, (University of New Mexico Press); Christine Barthe, 2007, Le Yucatan est ailleurs: Expéditions photographiques (1857-1886) de Désiré Charnay, ([Paris]: Musée du quai Branly/Actes Sud) 
      
  54. Λ Désiré Charnay, 1863, Cités et ruines Américaines: Mitla, Palenqué, Izamal, Chichen-Itza, Uxmal, (Paris: Gide, Editeur, A. Morel et Cie.) 
      
  55. Λ John Lloyd Stevens, 1843, Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, (New York, Harper & Brothers), [Two volumes]; Victor W. von Hagen, 1990, Maya Explorer: John Lloyd Stevens and the Lost Cities of Central America and Yucatan, (Chronicle Books); Peter Harris, Summer 2006, "Cities of Stone: Stephens & Catherwood in Yucatan, 1839-1842". Co-Incidents of Travel in Yucatan. Photoarts Journal 
      
  56. Λ Augustus Le Plongeon, 1881, Vestiges of the Mayas, or facts tending to prove that communications must have existed, in very remote times, between the inhabitants of Mayab and those of Asia and Africa, (New York: J. Polhemus); Augustus Le Plongeon, 1886, Sacred Mysteries among the Mayas and the Quiches, 11,500 years ago: Free Masonry in times anterior to the Temple of Solomon, (New York: R. Macoy) 
      
  57. Λ The Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles has a significant collection of Le Plongeon photographs. 
      
  58. Λ Lawrence G. Desmond, 1999, "Augustus Le Plongeon: A fall from archaeological grace" in Alice B. Kehoe and Mary Beth Emmerichs, Eds., Assembling the Past: Studies in the Professionalization of Archaeology, (University of New Mexico University Press), pp. 81-90.
    (Accessed: 25 July 2013)
    maya.csueastbay.edu/archaeoplanet/LgdPage/LepKehoe.htm 
      
  59. Λ Le Plongeon, Augustus, 1873, Manuel de Fotografia, (New York: Scovill Manufacturing Co.) [Spanish] 
      
  60. Λ Ian Graham, 2002, Alfred Maudslay and the Maya: A Biography, (University of Oklahoma Press) 
      
  61. Λ Alfred P. Maudslay (1850-1931) - The British Museum
    (Accessed: 24 October 2013)
    www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/a/alfred_p_maudslay_1850-1931.aspx
     
    The Maudslay Collection, now in the Department of Ethnography, consists of over 400 plaster casts, paper and plaster moulds, glass negatives and journals written during his expeditions. It also includes nine stone sculptures from Copán (Honduras) and eight lintels from Yaxchilán (now Mexico). 
      
  62. Λ Bernard F. Reilly Jr., 1979, Jan, ‘The Early Work of John Moran, Landscape Photographer‘, American Art Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 65-75 
      
  63. Λ Photographs from the survey expedition to the Isthmus of Darien = Library of Congress
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.loc.gov/pictures/item/00651896/
    Photographs were taken during a U.S. naval expedition to the Isthmus of Darien (Panama) led by Thomas Oliver Selfridge. The purpose of the expedition was to determine a canal route at this location. Timothy O'Sullivan was hired in 1870 as official photographer for the first expedition. A return trip to the Isthmus was made in 1871; the official photographer for that expedition was John Moran. Prints in the LOT do not bear photographer credits.
     
      
  64. Λ British Museum - Hoa Hakananai'a From Orongo, Easter Island (Rapa Nui), Polynesia, around AD 1000
    (Accessed: 4 April 2013)
    www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aoa/h/hoa_hakananaia.aspx 
      
  65. Λ For the study of archaeological remains on Easter Island - The Easter Island Statue Project
    (Accessed: 5 May 2014)
    www.eisp.org 
      
  66. Λ There is a useful collection of photographs by Albert Frisch in the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna, and there is an album "Views in the Amazon Valley" in Brown University Library (Call number: 1-SIZE yxG V67). The photographs are attributed to Albert Frisch.
     
    With thanks to Karl-Georg Scheffer for bringing this material to my attention (pers. email: Karl-Georg Scheffer to Alan Griffiths, 19 November 2013). 
      
  67. Λ J. Chaffanjon, 1889, L'Orénoque et le Caura, relation de voyages exécutés en 1886 et 1887, (Hachette) 
      
  68. Λ Jules Verne, 1898, Superb Orénoque, (Collection Hetzel) 
      
  69. Λ Published in "Reports of Committee: 36th Congress, 1st Session, Rep. Com. no. 144", pp. 1-2 
      
  70. Λ Five surviving daguerreotypes from the over four hundred taken by Eliphalet Brown are known to exist. The is one of Gohachiro Namura in the Visual Collections of the Bishop Museum, Honolulu. Four others are in Japan. Bruce T. Erickson, "Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr., An Early Expedition Photographer", The Daguerreian Annual 1990, Official Yearbook of the Daguerreian Society, pp. 145-156.
     
    Although some of the daguerreotypes by Eliphalet Brown were destroyed in a Philadelphia print shop fire it is unclear what happened to the rest. If you have further information let me know - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  71. Λ For the context of Italian photographers in Persia - Maria Francesca Bonetti & Alberto Prandi, 2010, La Persia Qajar: fotografi italiani in Iran, 1848-1864, ([Roma] : Peliti associati, cop.); Maria Francesca Bonetti & Alberto Prandi, 2013, ‘Italian Photographers in Iran 1848–64‘, History of Photography, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 14-31 
      
  72. Λ Bassenge, auction, Photography of the 19th to 21st Century, 4 December 2013, lot: 4055. 
      
  73. Λ For the work of Bruno L. Hamel - Bruno L. Hamel, 1859, An Album of Photographic Views, Taken during the Government Scientific Exploring Expedition (Auckland, New Zealand). Auckland War Memorial Museum, Album 80 
      
  74. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  75. Λ Major early surveys of the Palestine Exploration Fund included:
     
    Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem
    Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
      
  76. Λ Karl Baedeker (firm), 1876, Palestine and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1876), pp.125-126. 
      
  77. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  78. Λ anon., July 1, 1869, January, "Relics and Photographs from the Holy Land", The Scattered Nation, vols. 3-4, pp. 194 
      
  79. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  80. Λ Ordnance Survey, 1869, Ordnance survey of the peninsula of Sinai. / Made with the sanction of the Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, bart., secretary of state for war, by Captains C.W. Wilson and H.S. Palmer, under the direction of Colonel Sir Henry James...director-general of the Ordnance survey. Pub. by authority of the lords commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, (Southampton, Ordnance survey office [London, H.M. Stationery off., G.E. Eyre and W.S. Spottiswoode, printers])
     
    Library of Congress, Call Number: DS110.5 .G7 (Case Y) [P&P] Copy 1
    www.loc.gov/pictures/item/20010340/ 
      
  81. Λ Emmanuel-Guillaume Rey wrote on military fortifications and architecture with his books including - E.G. Rey, 1871, Etude sur les monuments de l'architecture militaire des croise´s en Syrie et dans l'i^le de Chypre, (Paris: Impr. nationale) 
      
  82. Λ Louis de Clerq, 1860, Voyage en Orient 1859-1860, villes, monuments et vues pittoresques [Six volumes with 222 calotypes] 
      
  83. Λ Quotations are taken from - Bill Jay "Royal Command - Francis Bedford's photographs of the educational tour of the Middle East by the Prince of Wales, 1862"
    (Accessed: 11 November 2013)
    www.billjayonphotography.com/Royal%20Command-%20Francis%20Bedford.pdf 
      
  84. Λ Francis Bedford, 1863, Photographic Pictures Made By Mr. Francis Bedford During the Tour in the East in which, by command, he accompanied His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, (London: Day & Son)
     
    W.M. Thompson & Francis Bedford, 1860s, The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens: a series of forty-eight photographs, (London: Day) [Text and introduction by W.M. Thompson, photographs by Francis Bedford]
     
    See also - Badr El-Hage & Sophie Gordon, 2012, The Middle East in early photographs: Francis Bedford's royal tour of 1862, (London: Royal Collection); Sophie Gordon; John McCarthy & Badr El-Hage, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) 
      
  85. Λ The name of Henri Sauvaire varies between sources and can be given as Henri Joseph Sauvaire, Henry Joseph Sauvaire or Henri Sauvaire. 
      
  86. Λ For an account of the expeditions - Foliot, Philippe, 1993, July-Sept, "Louis Vignes et Henry Sauvaire Photographers of the Expeditions of the Duc de Luynes", History of Photography, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 233-250 
      
  87. Λ Le Duc de Luynes [Honoré Paul Joseph d'Albert], 1868-1874, Voyage d'exploration à la mer Morte, à Petra, et sur la rive gauche du Jourdain, (Paris: Arthus Bertrand) [French - œuvre posthume publiée par ses petits-fils sous la direction de M. le comte de Vogüé. Atlas includes 64 hand-pulled black-and-white photogravures by Charles Nègre from wet-collodion negatives by Louis Vignes and Jardin and 18 toned lithographs by Eugène Ciceri, 14 after photographs of Louis Vignes and Henri Joseph Sauvaire.]
     
    Copies are available at the Getty Research Institute and the New York Public Library and both organisations have put them online. 
      
  88. Λ Charles Breasted, (1977), Pioneer to the Past: The Story of James Henry Breasted, Archaeologist (University of Chicago Press) 
      
  89. Λ James Henry Breasted, "The 1905–07 Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan - First Season - Field Diary" (The Oriental Institute - University of Chicago) 
      
  90. Λ Almost 1,200 photographs were taken from these expedition seasons and they are at The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. During the expedition blueprints were made from the photographs of inscriptions which could be checked on-site with the originals. 
      
  91. Λ John A. Larson, 2006, Lost Nubia. A Centennial Exhibit of Photographs from the 1905-1907 Egyptian Expedition of the University of Chicago (Oriental Institute Museum Publications no. 24. The University of Chicago), p. 37 
      
  92. Λ John A. Larson, 2006, Lost Nubia. A Centennial Exhibit of Photographs from the 1905-1907 Egyptian Expedition of the University of Chicago (Oriental Institute Museum Publications no. 24. The University of Chicago), p. 47 
      
  93. Λ Frank McLynn, 1993, Hearts of Darkness: European Exploration of Africa, (Pimlico); Dane Kennedy, 2013, The Last Blank Spaces: Exploring Africa and Australia, (Harvard University Press) 
      
  94. Λ Alexander Mailand, 1971, Speke, (London: Constable) 
      
  95. Λ Edward Rice, 2001, Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: A Biography, (Da Capo Press) 
      
  96. Λ Christopher Ondaatje, 2006, Journey to the Source of the Nile, (The Long Riders' Guild Press) 
      
  97. Λ Both James Chapman and Thomas Baines wrote books on the Zambezi expedition - James Chapman, 1868, Travels in the interior of South Africa, comprising fifteen years' hunting and trading; with journeys across the continent from Natal to Walvis Bay, and visits to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls, (London, Bell & Daldy); Thomas Baines, 1864, Explorations in South-West Africa: being an account of a journey in the years 1861 and 1862 from Walvisch Bay, on the Western Coast to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green) 
      
  98. Λ Biography of Joseph Thomson - J.B. Thomson, 1896, Joseph Thomson: African Explorer; A Biography by his Brother, (London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company), Robert I. Rotberg, 1971, Joseph Thomson and the exploration of Africa, (Chatto & Windus)
     
    1878-80 Royal Geographical Society Lake Tanganyika expedition (The leader of the expedition, Keith Johnston, died of dysentery and 20 year old Joseph Thomson had to take charge.)
    1883-84 Royal Geographical Society expedition to Mount Kenia and Lake Nyanza 
      
  99. Λ Mary Kingsley's books - Mary H. Kingsley, 1897, Travels in West Africa. Congo Francais, Corisco and Cameroons, (London: Macmillan); Mary H. Kingsley, 1899, West African Studies, (London: Macmillan), [Second, expanded ed.] 
      
  100. Λ Gustav Fritsch, 1868, Drei Jahre in Südafrika: Reiseskizzen nach Notizen des Tagebuchs zusammengestellt, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Three years in South Africa: Travelogues arranged after notes of the diary]
     
    Gustav Fritsch, 1872, Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Ethnographic and anatomic research in South Africa] 
      
  101. Λ For the major work of A.M. Duggan-Cronin, 1928-1954, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa, (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell) [Eleven volumes]
     
    See also - Michael Godby, 2010, ‘Alfred Martin Duggan-Cronin's photographs for the Bantu tribes of South Africa (1928-1954): the construction of an ambiguous idyll‘, Kronos (Bellville), vol. 36, no. 1 
      
  102. Λ A collection of the Felice Beato photographs of the Khartoum Relief Expedition (884-1885) is held in the National Archives UK (catalogue reference: COPY 1/373/ - check contents) 
      
  103. Λ T. Jack Thompson, 2012, Light on Darkness?: Missionary Photography of Africa in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing); Thomas Hendriks, 2013, "Erotics of Sin: Promiscuity, Polygamy and Homo-Erotics in Missionary Photography from the Congolese Rainforest", Visual Anthropology, Special Issue: Records of the Subaltern in Colonial and Imperial Societies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 355-382; Paul Jenkins, 1994, "The earliest generation of missionary photographers in West Africa: The portrayal of indigenous people and culture", Visual Anthropology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 115-145 
      
  104. Λ William Ellis, 1858, Three visits to Madagascar during the years 1853-1854-1856: including a journey to the capital: with notices of the natural history of the country and of the present civilization of the people, (London: John Murray) [The illustrations in the book are based upon his photographs.]
     
    Simon Peers, 1995, William Ellis: Photography in Madagascar 1853-1865 / Ny Fakan-Tsary Teto Madagasikara 1853-1865, (The British Council); Simon Peers, 1997, Spring, ‘William Ellis: Photography in Madagascar, 1853-65‘, History of Photography, vol. 21, pp. 23-31 
      
  105. Λ Rev. Daniel West, 1857, The Life and Journals of the Rev. Daniel West. Wesleyan Minister on Deputation to the Wesleyan Missions Stations on the Gold Coast, Western Africa, (London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.). 
      
  106. Λ Basel Mission Image Archive
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013)
    bmpix.usc.edu/bmpix/controller/index.htm 
      
  107. Λ The use of the phrase "Dark continent" appears from the late eighteenth century but is best known from Henry Morton Stanley's 1878 book Through the Dark Continent: Or, The Sources of the Nile Around the Great Lakes of Equatorial Africa, and Down the Livingstone River to the Atlantic Ocean, (Harper & Brothers) 
      
  108. Λ Map of the Route of the R.G.S. East African Expedition to Lakes Nyassa & Tanganyika, 1880, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. 2; after p. 784.
     
    Royal Geographical Society Expedition to East Africa 1878-80 (and the search for the Grave of Scottish Cartographer, Keith Johnston)
    (Accessed: 9 January 2014)
    web2.ges.gla.ac.uk/~mshand/kjohnston/kjhome.htm 
      
  109. Λ August 24, 1861, "Scientific Intelligence: A Photographic Ascent of Mont Blanc", The London Review, no. 60, vol. III, p. 236 
      
  110. Λ Owen Beattie & John Geiger, 2004, Frozen in Time: The Fate of the Franklin Expedition, (Greystone Books); Martin W. Sandler, 2006, Resolute: The Epic Search for the Northwest Passage and John Franklin, and the Discovery of the Queen's Ghost Ship, (Sterling) 
      
  111. Λ The daguerreotypes are in the collection of the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, UK. 
      
  112. Λ Research on the original series of the portraits by Richard Beard was intensive in 2009 and involved a considerable mount of detective work by William Battersby, Russell Potter and others. For a detailed discussion on this series of Daguerreotypes:
     
    hidden-tracks-book.blogspot.com/2009/06/lost-daguerreotypes.html
    hidden-tracks-book.blogspot.com/2009/06/more-on-franklin-expedition.html
    hidden-tracks-book.blogspot.com/2009/10/new-franklin-expedition-daguerreotype.html 
      
  113. Λ hidden-tracks-book.blogspot.com/2009/10/new-franklin-expedition-daguerreotype.html 
      
  114. Λ Owen Beattie & John Geiger, 2004, Frozen in Time: The Fate of the Franklin Expedition, (Greystone Books); Martin W. Sandler, 2006, Resolute: The Epic Search for the Northwest Passage and John Franklin, and the Discovery of the Queen's Ghost Ship, (Sterling) 
      
  115. Λ The contemporary press was fascinated by the dissappearance of Sir John Franklin and lengthy detailed accounts were given in magazines - 1854, "The Search for Sir John Franklin", Chamber's repository of instructive and amusing tracts, vol. 3, no. 45, pp. 1-32 
      
  116. Λ Folksong / Broadside ballard - Lady Franklin's Lament (The Sailor's Dream)
    (Accessed: 2 September 2013)
    www.fresnostate.edu/folklore/ballads/LK09.html 
      
  117. Λ Edward Augustus Inglefield, 1853, A Summer Search for Sir John Franklin; with a Peep into the Polar Basin, (London: Thomas Hanison)
     
    Edward Augustus Inglefield (1820-1894) - Arctic Profiles
    (Accessed: 2 September 2013)
    (a href="http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic40-1-80.pdf">pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic40-1-80.pdf 
      
  118. Λ A collection of photographs by Captain Edward Augustus Inglefield is held at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. 
      
  119. Λ William Bradford, 1873, The Arctic Regions, Illustrated with Photographs Taken on an Art Expedition to Greenland, (London: Chiswick Press for Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle) 
      
  120. Λ This text was used in an auction catalogue for Swann Galleries - New York. The text was probably prepared by Daile Kaplan. 
      
  121. Λ 1876, Arctic Expedition: Papers and Correspondence Relating to the Equipment and Fitting Out of the Arctic Expedition of 1875, Including Report of the Admiralty Arctic Committee , (George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode). Available via Google Books. 
      
  122. Λ Michael Bell, September 1972, "Thomas Mitchell, Photographer and Artist in the High Arctic", Image, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 12-21
     
    George Strong Nares, George White (assistant engineer of the "Alert") & Thomas Mitchell, Arctic Expedition: List of Photographs Taken in the Polar Regions Under the Direction of Captain Sir George Nares, (London Stereoscopic and Photograph Company) 
      
  123. Λ Photographs by Thomas Mitchell and George White are in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London and in Public Archives or Canada. 
      
  124. Λ 1876, Arctic Expedition: Papers and Correspondence Relating to the Equipment and Fitting Out of the Arctic Expedition of 1875, Including Report of the Admiralty Arctic Committee , (George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode), p. 285
     
    The May referred to is Lieut. William H. May. 
      
  125. Λ 1876, Arctic Expedition: Papers and Correspondence Relating to the Equipment and Fitting Out of the Arctic Expedition of 1875, Including Report of the Admiralty Arctic Committee , (George Edward Eyre and William Spottiswoode), p. 306 
      
  126. Λ Wm. A. McGinley, 1884, Greely Relief Expedition: Reception of Lieut. A.W. Greely, U.S.A., and His Comrades, and of the Arctic Relief Expedition, at Portsmouth, N.H., on August 1 and 4, 1884, (U.S. Government Printing Office, US Navy Dept.)
     
    Alden L. Todd, 2011, Abandoned: The Story of the Greely Arctic Expedition, 1881-1884, (Literary Licensing, LLC)
     
    "The Greely Expedition", American Experience, PBS documentary
    (Accessed: 2 September 2013)
    www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/greely/ 
      
  127. Λ Jan Marcin Weslawski & Joanna Legezynska, December 2002, "Chances for Arctic Survival: Greely’s Expedition Revisited", Arctic, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 373-379. [The article concludes that without resorting to cannibalism it seems unlikely that anyone could have survived.] 
      
  128. Λ Benoit Coutancier, 1992, Peaux-Rouges : autour de la collection anthropologique du prince Roland Bonaparte, (Thonon-les-Bains, Haute-Savoie: Editions de l'Albaron; [Paris]: Phototheque du Musee de l'homme) 
      
  129. Λ F. Escard, 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot) 
      
  130. Λ F. Escard, 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot), p. viii 
      
  131. Λ F. Escard, 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot), p. xiii 
      
  132. Λ Text © Christopher Wahren (2006) - Used with permission 
      
  133. Λ Fridtjof Nansen, 1890, The First Crossing of Greenland, (Longmans, Green, and Company) 
      
  134. Λ Andreas Bloch did illustrations for Fridtjof Nansen's books Paa ski over Grønland (on his first crossing of Greenland expedition) and Fram over Polhavet (on Nansen's Fram expedition). 
      
  135. Λ Alec Wilkinson, 2013, The Ice Balloon: S. A. Andrée and the Heroic Age of Arctic Exploration, (Vintage) 
      
  136. Λ Tyrone Martinsson, 2004, ‘Recovering the visual history of the Andrée expedition: A case study in photographic research‘, Research Issues in Art Design and Media, vol. 6 
      
  137. Λ Herschel’s Letter to Daguerre
    (Accessed: 1 September 2013)
    www.midley.co.uk/daguerreotype/dpatent_addenda.htm
     
    R. Derek Wood published the letter as Appendum 1 to his article - R. Derek Wood, January 1980, "The daguerreotype patent, the British Government, and the Royal Society", History of Photography, vol. 4, pp. 53-59.
     
    On the webite he provided the context of the letter:
    The first item is a letter now in the Autograph Letter Collection of the Wellcome Institute of the History of Medicine, London. It was purchased in Paris in June 1930. This letter to L. J. M. Daguerre was written on 1 August 1839 by Sir John Herschel on behalf of the Royal Society. Daguerre's discovery had been publicized since January of that year and Daguerre had displayed daguerreotypes to many people in Paris. Herschel himself had been shown some during a visit to Paris in May. But until Daguerre obtained a pension from the French Government, no details of the technique were released until 19th August 1839. No reply from Daguerre is known.
     
      
  138. Λ Glenn M. Stein, 2007-2012, "Photography Comes to the Polar Regions—Almost", unpublished article [pers. email: Glenn M. Stein to Alan Griffiths, 31 August 2013] 
      
  139. Λ Roald Amundsen, Thorvald Nilsen & Kristian, 1912, The South Pole: An Account of the Norwegian expedition in the Fram, 1910–12, (London: John Murray), [Two volumes] 
      
  140. Λ Roland Huntford, 1987, The Amundsen Photographs, (Atlantic Monthly Press)
     
    Some of Amundsen's photographs are an the National Library of Norway in Oslo. 
      
  141. Λ Herbert G. Ponting, 1921, The Great White South, or, With Scott in the Antarctic being an account of experiences with Captain Scott's South Pole Expedition and of the nature life of the Antarctic, with an introduction by Lady Scott, (London: Duckworth)
     
    Herbert Ponting, 2004, With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition, 1910-1913, (Bloomsbury Publishing PLC); Herbert Ponting & Frank Hurley, 1979, Antarctic Photographs, 1910-1916: Scott, Mawson and Shackleton Expeditions, (Pan Macmillan)
     
    In 2009 a portfolio of platinum prints titled Captain Scott's Antarctic Expedition 1910-1913: The Photographs of Herbert Ponting was published by Salto Ulbeek in association with the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge.
    (Accessed: 1 September 2013)
    www.ponting-portfolio.com/ 
      
  142. Λ The name of the expedition varies with "British Antarctic Expedition", "Terra Nova Expedition", "Terra Nova Expedition to the Ross Sea and South Pole" all being used. 
      
  143. Λ The literature on Robert Falcon Scott is vast - Leonard Huxley (ed.), 1913, Scott's Last Expedition, Volume I: Being the Journals of Captain R.F. Scott, R.N., C.V.O., (London: Smith, Elder); Leonard Huxley (ed.), 1913, Scott's Last Expedition, Volume II: Being the reports of the journeys and the scientific work undertaken by Dr. E.A. Wilson and the surviving members of the expedition, (London: Smith, Elder & Co.)
     
    More recent volumes - Max Jones, 2003, The Last Great Quest: Captain Scott's Antarctic Sacrifice, (Oxford: Oxford University Press); Ranulph Fiennes, 2003, Captain Scott, (London: Hodder & Stoughton); Susan Solomon, 2001, The Coldest March: Scott's Fatal Antarctic Expedition, (London: Yale University Press); David Crane, (2005). Scott of the Antarctic: A Life of Courage, and Tragedy in the Extreme South, (London: HarperCollins) 
      
  144. Λ The Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge purchased the Herbert Ponting Collection in 2004 for £533,000.
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Ponting 
      
  145. Λ Leonard Huxley (ed.), 1913, Scott's Last Expedition, Volume I: Being the Journals of Captain R.F. Scott, R.N., C.V.O., (London: Smith, Elder), pp. 605-607 
      
  146. Λ Photographs of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-14, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, Australia
    (Accessed: 4 December 2013)
    www.acmssearch.sl.nsw.gov.au/search/itemDetailPaged.cgi?itemID=41153 
      
  147. Λ Helen Ennis, 2010, Frank Hurley's Antarctica, (National Library of Australia); David Hempleman-Adams, Emma Stuart Sophie Gordon, 2009, The Heart of the Great Alone: Scott, Shackleton, and Antarctic Photography, (Bloomsbury USA); Herbert Ponting & Frank Hurley, 1979, Antarctic Photographs, 1910-1916: Scott, Mawson and Shackleton Expeditions, (Pan Macmillan) 
      
  148. Λ Sir Ernest Shackleton and the Endurance Expedition: Frank Hurley, Expedition photographer and cinematographer - WGBH
    (Accessed: 2 September 2013)
    main.wgbh.org/imax/shackleton/sirernest-two.html 
      
  149. Λ Mark H. Brown, W.R. Felton & L.A. Huffman, 1956, Before Barbed Wire: L.A. Huffman, Photographer on Horseback, (Henry Holt and Company); Larry L. Peterson & L.A. Huffman, 2013, L. A. Huffman: Photographer of the American West, (Mountain Press Publishing Company) 
      
  150. Λ G.O. Shields, 1883, Rustlings in the Rockies: Hunting and Fishing by Mountain and Stream, (Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Co.), Chapter X, "Through the Canyon of the Little Big Horn", pp. 82-86 
      
  151. Λ Mark Twain, 1880, A Tramp Abroad, Third edition, (London: Chatto & Windus), vol. II, p. 100 
      
  152. Λ 16 May 1868, "Photography and the Abyssinian Expedition", The Photographic Journal, vil. XIII, no. 193, p. 58 
      
  153. Λ C. Ray Woods, 5 December 1884, "Photo-astronomy at the Riffel", The Photographic News, pp. 771-772 
      
  154. Λ E.A. Fitz Gerald, 1899, The highest Andes A record of the first ascent of Aconcagua and Tupungato in Argentina, and the exploration of the surrounding valleys, (London: Methuen & Co.), p. 46 
      
  155. Λ W.[illiam] J.[ames] Stillman, 1874, The Amateur's Photographic Guide Book, being a Complete Resume of the most useful Dry and Wet Collodion Processes especially for the use of Amateurs, (London: M.P. Tench) p. 81 
      
  156. Λ Mark H. Brown, W.R. Felton & L.A. Huffman, 1956, Before Barbed Wire: L.A. Huffman, Photographer on Horseback, (Henry Holt and Company); Larry L. Peterson & L.A. Huffman, 2013, L. A. Huffman: Photographer of the American West, (Mountain Press Publishing Company) 
      
  157. Λ G.O. Shields, 1883, Rustlings in the Rockies: Hunting and Fishing by Mountain and Stream, (Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Co.), Chapter X, "Through the Canyon of the Little Big Horn", pp. 82-86 
      
  158. Λ D.L. Mundy, "Photographic Experiences in New Zealand.", The Photographic Journal, No.254, Dec 11, 1874, p.87. 
      
  159. Λ Samuel Bourne, "On Some of the Requisites Necessary for the Production of a Good Photograph" read before the Nottingham Photographic Society, Jan 31, 1860 and published in The Photographic News, Feb 24, 1860, p.297. This article has been reprinted in Hugh Raynor (ed.) Photographic Journeys in the Himalayas - Samuel Bourne (Bath: Pagoda Tree Press, 2001). 
      
  160. Λ Color Sargeant D.G. Crotty, Third Michigan Volunteer Infantry, Four Years Campaigning in the Army of the Potomac (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Dygert Bros. & Co., 1874), p.41. 
      
  161. Λ Paul D. Du Chaillu, A Journey to Ashango-Land, and Further Penetration into Equatorial Africa, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1871), Chapter IX, p.194. There is a very similar account of this event in his later book The Country of the Dwarfs (New York: Harper & Brothers), p.176. The illustrations in his books were questioned by his contemporaries - see for example "Art. VI Equatorial Africa, and its Inhabitants" in The Westminster Review, No.CXLIX, July 1861, p.75 onwards where one of his illustrations looks very similar to a photograph of a gorilla taken by Roger Fenton in the collections of the British Museum. 
      
  162. Λ For a personal account see Jackson's autobiography: William Henry Jackson, 1986, Time Exposure: The Autobiography of William Henry Jackson, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press). Useful material included also in William C. Jones, 1992, William Henry Jackson's Colorado, (Colorado Railroad Museum); Peter B. Hales, 1988, William Henry Jackson and the Transformation of the American Landscape, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press) 
      
  163. Λ Nathaniel Langford, June, 1873, "The Ascent of Mount Hayden: A New Chapter of Western Discovery", Scribner's Monthly, vol. VI, no. 2, pp. 129-157 
      
  164. Λ Nathaniel Pitt Langford, 1905, The Discovery of Yellowstone Park: Journal of the Washburn Expedition to the Yellowstone and Firehole Rivers in the Year 1870. Reprinted in 1972 with a foreword by Aubrey L. Haines (Bison Books).
    (Accessed: 19 July 2013)
    www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/11145 
      
  165. Λ July 12, 1879, The Graphic.
     
    This illustration has been reprinted in Omar Khan, 2002, From Kashmir to Kabul: The Photographs of Burke and Baker, (Prestel Verlag/Mapin Publishing, 2002). 
      
  166. Λ The Smithsonian Field Book Project (FBP)
    (Accessed: 30 October 2013)
    The Field Book Project 
      
  167. Λ Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia - Wikipedia - Useful for contemporary sources.
    (Accessed: 15 February 2014))
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duke_Alexei_Alexandrovich_of_Russia 
      
  168. Λ I would imagine that there are accounts in Russian of the travels of Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich and presumably photograph albums. If anybody knows the source of such material I would be most grateful - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  169. Λ First edition - Jules Verne, 1873, Around the World in Eighty Days, (Paris: Pierre-Jules Hetzel & Cie) 
      
  170. Λ Nelly Bly, 2009, Around the World in Seventy-Two Days, (Wildside Press) [Reprint] 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
1843, May, ‘Incidents of Travel In Yucatan. By John L. Stephens‘, The Ladies' Repository, and Gatherings of the West (Cincinnati), vol. 3, p. 160 [Book review] [Δ
  
Baines, Thomas, 1864, Explorations in South-West Africa: being an account of a journey in the years 1861 and 1862 from Walvisch Bay, on the Western Coast to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls, (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green) [Δ
  
Barr, William & Wamsley, Douglas, 1996, ‘Early Photographers of the Arctic‘, The Polar Record, vol. 32, no. 183, pp. 295-316 [Δ
  
Bell, Michael, 1972, September, ‘Thomas Mitchell, Photographer and Artist in the High Arctic‘, Image, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 12-21 [Δ
  
Boisjoly, François & Badot, Jean-Christophe, 2014, Répertoire des photographes français d'outre-mer du XIXe siècle, (Paris: Héritage Architectural) isbn-13: 978-2915096156 [Δ
  
Bonetti, Maria Francesca & Prandi, Alberto, 2010, La Persia Qajar: fotografi italiani in Iran, 1848-1864, ([Roma] : Peliti associati, cop.) isbn-10: 8889412429 isbn-13: 978-8889412428 [Exhibition catalogue - Roma, Calcografia, 11 February-5 April 2010, Modena, Fotomuseo Giuseppe Panini, 11 December 2010-13 March 2011] [Δ
  
Bonetti, Maria Francesca & Prandi, Alberto, 2013, ‘Italian Photographers in Iran 1848–64‘, History of Photography, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 14-31 [Translated by Christina Cawthra] [Δ
  
Condon, Richard G., 1989, ‘The History and Development of Arctic Photography‘, Arctic Anthropology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 46-87 [Δ
  
Escard, F., 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot) [Δ
  
Fogg, G.E., 2005, A History of Antarctic Science, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [Δ
  
Gannett, Henry; Chester, C. M. & Tittmann, O. H., 1910, 5 May, ‘Commander Peary's Expedition to the North Pole‘, Nature, vol. 83, no. 2114, pp. 283-286 [Δ
  
Hanbury-Tenison, Robin, 2006, The Seventy Great Journeys in History, (Thames & Hudson) [Δ
  
Howe, K.S., 2004, First Seen. Portraits Of The World's Peoples 1840-1880 From The Wilson Centre For Photography, (London: Santa Barbara Museum of Art; Third Millennium Publishing) [Δ
  
Huntford, Roland, 1987, The Amundsen Photographs, (Atlantic Monthly Press) isbn-10: 0871131714 isbn-13: 978-0871131713 [First US edition] [Δ
  
Kelsey, Robin, 2007, Archive Style: Photographs and Illustrations for U.S. Surveys, 1850-1890, (University of California Press - An Ahmanson-Murphy Fine Arts Book) isbn-13: 978-0520249356 [Δ
  
Larson, John A., 2006, Lost Nubia. A Centennial Exhibit of Photographs from the 1905-1907 Egyptian Expedition of the University of Chicago, (Oriental Institute Museum Publications No.24. The University of Chicago) isbn-10: 1885923457 [Δ
  
Le Duc de Luynes [Honoré Paul Joseph d'Albert], 1868-1874, Voyage d'exploration à la mer Morte, à Petra, et sur la rive gauche du Jourdain, (Paris: Arthus Bertrand) [French - œuvre posthume publiée par ses petits-fils sous la direction de M. le comte de Vogüé. Atlas includes 64 hand-pulled black-and-white photogravures by Charles Nègre from wet-collodion negatives by Louis Vignes and Jardin and 18 toned lithographs by Eugène Ciceri, 14 after photographs of Louis Vignes and Henri Joseph Sauvaire.] [Δ
  
Mautz, Carl, 1997, Biographies of Western Photographers. A Reference Guide to Photographers Working in the 19th Century American West, (Nevada City: Carl Mautz Publishing) [Δ
  
Naef, Weston J. & Wood, James N., 1975, Era of Exploration: The Rise of Landscape Photography in the American West, 1860–1885, (Buffalo: Albright-Knox Art Gallery; New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Δ
  
Palmquist, Peter E. & Kailbourn, Thomas R., 2000, Pioneer Photographers of the Far West: A Biographical Dictionary, 1840–1865, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press) [Δ
  
Palmquist, Peter E. & Kailbourn, Thomas R., 2005, Pioneer Photographers from the Mississippi to the Continental Divide: A Biographical Dictionary, 1839–1865, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press) [Δ
  
Peary, Robert, 1898, Northward Over the Great Ice, (London: Methuen And Company) [Δ
  
Perkins, John, 1981, To the Ends of the Earth with the American Museum of Natural History: Four Expeditions to the Arctic. the Congo, the Gobi, and Siberia, (New York: Pantheon Books) [Δ
  
Ryan, James R., 2013, Photography and Exploration, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 1780231008 isbn-13: 978-1780231006 [Δ
  
Shields, G.O., 1883, Rustlings in the Rockies: Hunting and Fishing by Mountain and Stream, (Chicago: Belford, Clarke & Co.) [Includes the description of photographer L.A. Huffman and his trials with Nig, a difficult mule.] [Δ
  
Stevens, John Lloyd, 1843, Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, (New York, Harper & Brothers) [Δ
  
Theye, T., 1989, Der Geraubte Schatten. Eine Weltreise im Spiegel der Ethnographischen Photographie, (Munich & Lucerne: Bucher) [Δ
  
Tyrrell, J. Burr, 1897, Report on the Doobaunt, Kazan and Ferguson Rivers, the north-west coast of Hudson Bay, and on two overland routes from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg, (Ottawa: S. E. Dawson) [Δ
  
Wallis, J.P.R., 1976, Thomas Baines, his life and explorations in South Africa, Rhodesia and Australia, 1820-1875, (Cape Town: A.A. Balkema) [Δ
  
Wilson, David M., 2011, The Lost Photographs of Captain Scott: Unseen Images from the Legendary Antarctic Expedition, (Little, Brown and Company) isbn-10: 0316178500 isbn-13: 978-0316178501 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
E.O. Beaman 
  
Darrah, William Culp, 1949, ‘Beaman, Fennemore, Hillers, Dellenbaugh, Johnson, and Hattan‘, Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 1-4, p. 491–503 [Δ
  
Francis Bedford 
  
Gordon, Sophie; McCarthy, John & El-Hage, Badr, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) isbn-10: 1905686188 isbn-13: 978-1905686186 [Δ
  
Elly Beinhorn 
  
Beinhorn, Elly, 1935, Flying Girl, (London: Geoffrey Bles) [Δ
  
Beinhorn, Elly, 2007, Elly Beinhorn - Alleinflug: Mein Leben, (Herbig, F A) isbn-10: 3776625228 isbn-13: 978-3776625226 [German] [Δ
  
Gertrude Bell 
  
Hogarth, David G., 1926, ‘Obituary: Gertrude Lowthian Bell‘, The Geographical Journal, vol. 68, no. 4, p. 363–368 [Δ
  
Hugo Bernatzik 
  
Byer, D., 1999, Der Fall H. A. Bernatzik. Ein Leben zwischen Ethnologie und Öffentlichkeit 1897-1953, (Cologne: Böhlau) isbn-10: 3412083992 [German] [Δ
  
Auguste Rosalie Bisson 
  
1861, 24 August, ‘Scientific Intellience: A Photographic Ascent of Mont Blanc‘, The London Review, vol. 3, no. 60, p. 236 [Auguste Rosalie Bisson] [Δ
  
Samuel Bourne 
  
Rayner, Hugh (ed.), 2009, Photographic Journeys in the Himalayas 1863-1866 Samuel Bourne, (Pagoda Press) isbn-13: 978-1904289647 [Δ
  
William Bradford 
  
Bradford, William, 1873, The Arctic Regions, Illustrated with Photographs Taken on an Art Expedition to Greenland, (London: Chiswick Press for Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle) [The photographs were taken by John Dunmore, George Critcherson and William Bradford] [Δ
  
Eliphalet Brown 
  
Erickson, Bruce T., 1990, ‘Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr., An Early Expedition Photographer‘, The Daguerreian Annual 1990, Official Yearbook of the Daguerreian Society, pp. 145-156 [Δ
  
Richard Buchta 
  
Buchta, Richard, 1881, Die Oberen Nil-Länder: Volkstypen und Landschaften. Dargestellt in 160 Photographien, nach der Natur aufgenommen von Richard Buchta, (Berlin: Verlag Von J. F. Stiehm) [Δ
  
Thomas, H.B., 1960, ‘Richard Buchta and Early Photography in Uganda‘, Uganda Journal, vol. 25, no. 1 [Δ
  
Solomon Nunes Carvalho 
  
Berman, Elizabeth, 1989, Solomon Nunes Carvalho: Painter, Photographer, and Prophet in Nineteenth Century America, (Baltimore: Jewish Historical Society of Maryland) [Δ
  
Jean Chaffanjon 
  
Chaffanjon, J., 1889, L'Orénoque et le Caura, relation de voyages exécutés en 1886 et 1887, (Hachette) [Δ
  
James Chapman 
  
Chapman, James, 1868, Travels in the Interior of South Africa, comprising fifteen years' hunting and trading; with journeys across the continent from Natal to Walvis Bay, and visits to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls, (London, Bell & Daldy) [Δ
  
Thomas Joshua Cooper 
  
Jurovics, Toby, 2010, Shoshone Falls: Thomas Joshua Cooper & Timothy O'Sullivan, (Radius Books) isbn-10: 1934435252 isbn-13: 978-1934435250 [Δ
  
George P. Critcherson 
  
Bradford, William, 1873, The Arctic Regions, Illustrated with Photographs Taken on an Art Expedition to Greenland, (London: Chiswick Press for Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle) [The photographs were taken by John Dunmore, George Critcherson and William Bradford] [Δ
  
Louis de Clercq 
  
de Clerq, Louis, 1860, Voyage en Orient 1859-1860, villes, monuments et vues pittoresques [Six volumes with 222 calotypes] [Δ
  
Maxime Du Camp 
  
Bonanome, Daniela, 2007, Fotografia e appunti di viaggio: l’Egitto di Maxime Du Camp e Gustave Flaubert, (Rome: Casa Editrice Nuova Cultura) isbn-10: 8861341187 isbn-13: 9788861341180 [Δ
  
Tancrède Dumas 
  
Cobbing, Felicity J., 2005, April, ‘The American Palestine Exploration Society and the Survey of Eastern Palestine‘, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 9-21 [Δ
  
Hallote, Rachel; Cobbing, Felicity & Spurr, Jeffrey B., 2012, The Photographs of the American Palestine Exploration Society, (Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research) isbn-10: 0897570987 isbn-13: 978-0897570985 [Volume 66] [Δ
  
Palestine Exploration Society, 1876, Catalogue of photographs: taken expressly for the American Palestine Exploration Society, during a reconnaissance east of the Jordan in the Autumn of 1875, (New York) [Photographs taken by Tancrède Dumas] [Δ
  
John L. Dunmore 
  
Bradford, William, 1873, The Arctic Regions, Illustrated with Photographs Taken on an Art Expedition to Greenland, (London: Chiswick Press for Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle) [The photographs were taken by John Dunmore, George Critcherson and William Bradford] [Δ
  
Dunmore & Critcherson 
  
Bradford, William, 1873, The Arctic Regions, Illustrated with Photographs Taken on an Art Expedition to Greenland, (London: Chiswick Press for Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle) [The photographs were taken by John Dunmore, George Critcherson and William Bradford] [Δ
  
John K. Hillers 
  
Darrah, William Culp, 1949, ‘Beaman, Fennemore, Hillers, Dellenbaugh, Johnson, and Hattan‘, Utah Historical Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 1-4, p. 491–503 [Δ
  
Fowler, Don D., 1972, Photographed All the Best Scenery': Jack Hillers' Diary of the Powell Expeditions, 1871–1875, (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press) [Δ
  
Fowler, Don D., 1989, The Western Photographs of John K. Hillers: 'Myself in the Water', (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press) isbn-10: 0874744415 [Δ
  
Fowler, Don D., 2012, Cleaving an Unknown World: The Powell Expeditions and the Scientific Exploration of the Colorado Plateau, (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press) isbn-13: 978-1607811466 [Updated publication containing Hillers' diary and photography] [Δ
  
Humphrey Lloyd Hime 
  
Huyda, Richard J., 1975, Camera in the Interior: 1858, H.L. Hime, Photographer - The Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition, (Toronto: Coach House Press) [Δ
  
Frank Hurley 
  
Ennis, Helen, 2010, Frank Hurley's Antarctica, (National Library of Australia) isbn-10: 0642276986 isbn-13: 978-0642276988 [Δ
  
Hempleman-Adams, David, Stuart, Emma & Gordon, Sophie, 2009, The Heart of the Great Alone: Scott, Shackleton, and Antarctic Photography, (Bloomsbury USA) isbn-10: 1608190072 isbn-13: 978-1608190072 [Δ
  
McGregor, Frank, 2004, Frank Hurley: A Photographer's Life, (Viking) isbn-10: 0670888958 isbn-13: 978-0670888955 [Δ
  
Ponting, Herbert & Hurley, Frank, 1979, Antarctic Photographs, 1910-1916: Scott, Mawson and Shackleton Expeditions, (Pan Macmillan) isbn-10: 0333275454 isbn-13: 978-0333275450 [Δ
  
William Henry Jackson 
  
Hales, Peter B., 1988, William Henry Jackson and the Transformation of the American Landscape, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press) [Δ
  
Harrell, Thomas H., 1995, William Henry Jackson: An Annotated Bibliography {1862 to 1995}, (Carl Mautz Pub) isbn-10: 1887694021 isbn-13: 978-1887694025 [Δ
  
Jackson, Clarence S., 1947, Picture Maker of the Old West: William Henry Jackson, (New York: Charles Scribners & Sons) [Δ
  
Jackson, William Henry, 1986, Time Exposure: The Autobiography of William Henry Jackson, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Introduction by Ferenc M. Szasz] [Δ
  
Jackson, William Henry & Blair, Bob (ed.), 2005, William Henry Jackson's "The Pioneer Photographer", (Museum of New Mexico Press) isbn-10: 0890134359 isbn-13: 978-0890134351 [Δ
  
Jackson, William Henry & Holmes, William M., 1981, Mesa Verde and the Four Corners: Hayden Survey, 1874-1876, (Bear Creek Publishing Co.) [Δ
  
Jones, William C., 1992, William Henry Jackson's Colorado, (Colorado Railroad Museum) isbn-10: 0918654475 isbn-13: 978-0918654472 [Δ
  
Lawlor, Laurie, 1999, Window on the West: The Frontier Photography of William Henry Jackson, (Holiday House) isbn-10: 0823413802 isbn-13: 978-0823413805 [Δ
  
Waitley, Douglas, 1999, William Henry Jackson: Framing the Frontier, (Mountain Press) isbn-10: 0878423818 isbn-13: 978-0878423811 [Δ
  
John Kirk 
  
Foskett, Reginald (ed.), 1965, The Zambesi Journal and Letters of Dr. John Kirk, 1858 – 63 (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd [John Kirk, pp. 50-51] [Δ
  
Albert Londe 
  
Londe, Albert, 1893, La photographie dans les voyages d'exploration et les missions scientifique, ([Paris?: Association Pour L'Avancement des Sciences?]) [Δ
  
Alfred Percival Maudslay 
  
Graham, Ian, 2002, Alfred Maudslay and the Maya: A Biography, (University of Oklahoma Press) [Δ
  
Joyce, T.A., 1932, ‘Alfred Percival Maudslay (obituary)‘, Man, vol. 32, pp. 123-125 [Δ
  
Tozzer, Alfred M., 1931, ‘Alfred Percival Maudslay (obituary)‘, American Anthropologist, vol. 33, New Series, no. 3, pp. 403-412 [Δ
  
Paul-Émile Miot 
  
Chomette, Michèle & Richard, Pierre-Marc, 1995, Paul-Émile Miot (1827-1900), un marin photographe 1857-1870, (Paris: Éditions Galerie Michèle Chomette) [A series of four booklets with the following titles: I. Terre-Neuve 1857-1859; II. Amérique du Sud 1868-1870; III. Océanie 1869-1870 et Sénégal 1871; IV. La croisade de l'Astrée 1868-1871 avec Félix Auguste Leclerc 1838-1899] [Δ
  
Luigi Montabone 
  
Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorn, Ferydoun et al,, 2004, The Montabone Album. Ricordi del Viaggio in Persia della Missione Italiana 1862, (Rotterdam-Gronsveld-Santa Barbara-Tehran: Barjesteh van Waalwijk van Doorns & Co’s Uitgeversmaatschappij) [Δ
  
Montabone, Luigi, n.d.Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana del 1862 [Album] [Δ
  
Piemontese, Angelo Michele, 1972, Sept-Dec, ‘The Photograph Album of the Italian Diplomatic Mission to Persia (Summer 1862),‘, East and West, vol. 22 New Series, no. 3-4, pp. 249-271 [Δ
  
Timothy H. O'Sullivan 
  
Davis, Keith F. & Aspinwall, Jane L., 2011, Timothy H. O'Sullivan: The King Survey Photographs, (Nelson Atkins Museum) isbn-10: 0300179847 isbn-13: 978-0300179842 [Δ
  
Jurovics, Toby, 2010, Shoshone Falls: Thomas Joshua Cooper & Timothy O'Sullivan, (Radius Books) isbn-10: 1934435252 isbn-13: 978-1934435250 [Δ
  
Jurovics, Toby; Johnson, Carol; Stapp, William F. & Willumson, Glenn, 2010, Framing the West: The Survey Photographs of Timothy O'Sullivan, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300158912 isbn-13: 978-0300158915 [Δ
  
Kelsey, Robin, 2000, Photography in the Field: Timothy O’Sullivan’s Photographs for the Wheeler Survey, 1871-74, (Ph.D dissertation: Harvard University, Department of History of Art and Architecture) [Δ
  
Kelsey, Robin, 2004, January, ‘Les espaces historiographiques de Timothy O'Sullivan‘, Etudes Photographiques, no. 14, pp. 4-33 [Δ
  
Kelsey, Robin E., 2004, December, ‘Viewing the Archive: Timothy O'Sullivan’s Photographs for the Wheeler Survey, 1871-74‘, The Art Bulletin, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 702-723 [Δ
  
Newhall, Beaumont & Newhall, Nancy, 1966, T.H. O'Sullivan, Photographer, (Rochester, N.Y.: George Eastman House) [Δ
  
Samson, John [pseud. ?], 1869, September, Photographs from the High Rockies [Timothy O'Sullivan is not mentioned by name] [Δ
  
Samson, John [pseud.?], 1869, September, ‘Photographs from the HIgh Rockies‘, Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. 39, p. 232 [Δ
  
Snyder, Joel, 1981, American Frontiers: The Photographs of Timothy H. O’Sullivan, 1867–1874, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Wilson, Richard B., 1979, American Vision and Landscape: The Western IMages of Clarence KIng and Timothy O'Sullivan, (Ph.D dissertation: University of New Mexico) [Δ
  
Herbert G. Ponting 
  
Hempleman-Adams, David, Stuart, Emma & Gordon, Sophie, 2009, The Heart of the Great Alone: Scott, Shackleton, and Antarctic Photography, (Bloomsbury USA) isbn-10: 1608190072 isbn-13: 978-1608190072 [Δ
  
Ponting, Herbert, 2004, With Scott to the Pole: The Terra Nova Expedition, 1910-1913, (Bloomsbury Publishing PLC) isbn-10: 0747569681 isbn-13: 978-0747569688 [Δ
  
Ponting, Herbert & Hurley, Frank, 1979, Antarctic Photographs, 1910-1916: Scott, Mawson and Shackleton Expeditions, (Pan Macmillan) isbn-10: 0333275454 isbn-13: 978-0333275450 [Δ
  
Ponting, Herbert G., 1921, The Great White South, or, With Scott in the Antarctic being an account of experiences with Captain Scott's South Pole Expedition and of the nature life of the Antarctic, with an introduction by Lady Scott, (London: Duckworth) [Δ
  
Wilson, David M., 2011, The Lost Photographs of Captain Scott: Unseen Images from the Legendary Antarctic Expedition, (Little, Brown and Company) isbn-10: 0316178500 isbn-13: 978-0316178501 [Δ
  
Nils Strindberg 
  
Wilkinson, Alec, 2013, The Ice Balloon: S. A. Andrée and the Heroic Age of Arctic Exploration, (Vintage) isbn-10: 0307741869 isbn-13: 978-0307741868 [Δ
  
Bradford Washburn 
  
Roberts, David, 2009, The Last of his Kind: The Life and Adventures of Bradford Washburn, America's Boldest Mountaineer, (William Morrow & Co.) [Δ
  
Washburn, Bradford & Decaneas, Antony (ed.), 2000, Mountain Photography, (Mountaineers Books) [Δ
  
Washburn, Bradford & Smith, Donald, 2002, On High: The Adventures of Legendary Mountaineer, Photographer, and Scientist Brad Washburn, (National Geographic) [Δ
  
Carleton E. Watkins 
  
Nickel, Douglas R.; Hambourg, Maria Morris & Palmquist, Peter E., 1999, Carleton Watkins: The Art of Perception, (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Palmquist, Peter E. & Sandweiss, Martha A., 1983, Carleton E. Watkins: Photographer of the American West, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
Rule, Amy (ed.), 1993, Carleton Watkins: Selected Texts and Bibliography, (Boston: G.K. Hall) [Δ
  
Watkins, Carleton E., 1989, Carleton E. Watkins, Photographs, 1861–1874, (San Francisco: Bedford Arts Publishers) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) - Botanical explorer in China, Japan &Korea 
http://arboretum.harvard.edu ... 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Gertrude Bell  (1868-1926) • Auguste Rosalie Bisson  (1826-1900) • Charles Bodmer  (1809-1893) • Eliphalet Brown • Richard Buchta  (1845-1894) • Solomon Nunes Carvalho  (1815-1897) • Jean Chaffanjon  (1854-1913) • James Chapman  (1831-1872) • Désiré Charnay  (1828-1915) • George P. Critcherson  (1823-1892) • Edward S. Curtis  (1868-1952) • Louis de Clercq  (1836-1901) • William Thomas Domville  (1822-1879) • Tancrède Dumas  (1830-1905) • John L. Dunmore • Dunmore & Critcherson • Bruno L. Hamel • Heinrich Harrer  (1912-2006) • Humphrey Lloyd Hime  (1833-1903) • Frank Hurley  (1885-1962) • Thomas Henry Huxley  (1825-1895) • William Henry Jackson  (1843-1942) • John Kirk  (1832-1922) • Alice D. Le Plongeon • Augustus Le Plongeon  (1826-1908) • Augustus & Alice D. Le Plongeon • John William Lindt  (1845-1926) • A.P. Low  (1861-1942) • Alfred Percival Maudslay  (1850-1931) • James McDonald  (check) • Paul-Émile Miot  (1827-1900) • Thomas Mitchell • John Moran  (check) • Eadweard Muybridge  (1830-1904) • Timothy H. O'Sullivan  (1840-1882) • H. Phillips • Herbert G. Ponting  (check) • Michael Rockefeller  (1938-1961) • Vittorio Sella  (1859-1943) • Nils Strindberg  (1872-1897) • Josef Székely  (check) • Wilfred Thesiger  (1910-2003) • Bradford Washburn  (1910-2007) • George White • Ernest Henry Wilson  (1876-1930)
HomeThemesScientific > Expeditions and exploration 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Antarctica 
Arctic 
Dark tents and dark boxes 
Landscapes of North America 
Pack animals - mules, donkeys, burros and horses 
Travel 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Expeditions and exploration

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAntarctica - Le Grand Blanc 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 21, 2010)
ThumbnailBisson frères - Mt. Blanc 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 4, 2010)
ThumbnailCarleton Watkins - Spring Valley Water Works 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 29, 2011)
ThumbnailMichael Rockefeller: In the Highlands of West Papua 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 5, 2008)
ThumbnailPrince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 17, 2006)
ThumbnailScientific: 19th Century Expeditions 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 19, 2010) Suggestions for additional expeditions that utilized photography are most welcome.
ThumbnailTimothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 23, 2008)
  
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Expeditions and exploration

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailCharles Darwin 
ThumbnailHenry Morton Stanley 
ThumbnailLouis Agassiz 
ThumbnailRobert Falcon Scott 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlbert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBisson frères: Mt. Blanc 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBruno L. Hamel: An Album of Photographic Views (1859) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCaptain Edward Augustus Inglefield: Inglefield Expedition (1850s) 
ThumbnailCharles Lewis Gazin: Field note books 
ThumbnailCharles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDaniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDr. Augustus Le Plongeon: Excavations and photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Chapin: Field note books 
ThumbnailEdward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFélix Teynard: Paper negatives of Egypt 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Hurley: Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1913) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Hurley: Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry N. Sweet: Thompson-Peabody Museum expedition to Uxmal, Kabah, Sayil, and Labná (1888-1891) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHerbert Ponting: British Antarctic Expedition - Scott - Terra Nova (1910-1913) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHumphrey Lloyd Hime: Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition (1857-1858) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailImperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917) 
ThumbnailJean Chaffanjon: The Venezuelan Amazon 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Moran: Darien Expedition (1871) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Moran: Limon Bay 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoseph Burr Tyrell: Expedition to the barren lands - Geological Survey (1893) 
ThumbnailLouis de Clercq: Voyage en Orient 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLuigi Montabone: Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana 1862 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Beard: British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Bari woman 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Ethnographic expedition to Southern Sudan (1877-1879) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Shilluk girl 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Zande 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Mitchell: The British Arctic Expedition (1875–76) 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: 104. Rocks near Platte Canyon 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: Hayden Survey 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: Holy Cross 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: La Veta Pass, Colorado (July 1877) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: Pack animals 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: Photographing in High Places 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailTimothy H. O'Sullivan - Charles Lewis Gazin 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson - A.J. Russell 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: American Palestine Exploration Society 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Palestine Exploration Fund 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Transit of Venus 
ThumbnailScientific: Expeditions: British Antarctic Expedition - Shackleton - Nimrod (1907-1909) 
ThumbnailScientific: Expeditions: Greeley 
ThumbnailScientific: Expeditions: The 19th century American surveys 
ThumbnailScientific: Expeditions: Wheeler Survey (1871-1874) 
ThumbnailSmithsonian Institution: Field Book Project 
ThumbnailThe relationships between science and the World Fairs and International Exhibitions 
ThumbnailTransportation: Pack animals - mules, donkeys, burros and horses 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailAntarctica 
ThumbnailArctic 
 
  
Refreshed: 10 August 2014, 03:09
 
  
 
  
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