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398.01   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor
398.02   John Thomson: The Crawlers
398.03   Thomas Barnardo: Children Reclaimed for LIfe
New York
398.04   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives
398.05   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers
The Depression
398.06   Dorothea Lange: The Migrant Mother
398.07   Dorothea Lange: White Angel Breadline, San Francisco
Industrial wastelands
398.08   Carl Uytterhaegen: Cité3
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
398.01   Documentary >  Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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In 1851 Henry Mayhew's book London Labour and London Poor[1] was published in three volumes collecting together his well researched articles published in the Morning Chronicle. The book was an attempt at educating the middle and upper classes in Victorian England to the appalling social conditions of London. The illustrations for the book were based on daguerreotypes that were taken under the supervision of Richard Beard that were converted to wood engravings for publication because of the inability to print photographs within books at the time. As Naomi Rosenblaum pointed out in her A World History of Photography[2] the result of using wood engraving is that the characters are removed from their original surroundings by the use of 'sketchily indicated' backgrounds and this separates the viewer from the subject.
Illustrations based on Beard daguerreotypes included:
The Coster-Girl
The Oyster Stall
The Irish Street-Seller
The Wallflower Girl
The Groundsel Man
The Baked Potato Man
The London Coffee-Stall
Orange Mart, Dukes Place
398.02   Documentary >  John Thomson: The Crawlers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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In the book Street Life in London by John Thomson & Adolphe Smith ([1877]) the "crawlers" were described:
"Some of these crawlers are not, however, so devoid of energy as we might at first be led to infer. A few days' good lodging and good food might operate a marvellous transformation. The abject misery into which they are plunged is not always self sought and merited; but is, as often, the result of unfortunate circumstances and accident. The crawler, for instance, whose portrait is now before the reader, is the widow of a tailor who died some ten years ago. She had been living with her son-in-law, a marble stone-polisher by trade, who is now in difficulties through ill-health. It appears, however, that, at best, "he never cared much for his work," and innumerable quarrels ensued between him, his wife, his mother-in-law, and his brother-in-law, a youth of fifteen. At last, after many years of wrangling, the mother, finding that her presence aggravated her daughter's troubles, left this uncomfortable home, and with her young son descended penniless into the street. From that day she fell lower and lower, and now takes her seat among the crawlers of the district."[3]
398.03   Documentary >  Thomas Barnardo: Children Reclaimed for LIfe 
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Thomas Barnardo (1845-1905) is remembered as one of the most influential philanthropists of Victorian Britain.[4] After founding the first "Dr Barnardo’s Homes" in 1870 at 18 Stepney Causeway, London to take in homeless waifs and strays his organisation spread rapidly through the country and by the time of his death in 1905 there were 112 district homes. Children in their teens were trained, feed and cared for whilst their aptitudes for future employment were assessed. In 1874 Dr. Barnardo opened a Photographic Department and each child was photographed on arrival and again several months later to show their improvement. Studio photographer Thomas John Barnes was employed to take these 'before and after' photographs of children.[5] Dr. Barnardo used photography as a means to showing how children improved by the gainful use of their time and proper care. Pairs of images such as No. 27, Once a Little Vagrant, and No. 28, Now a Little Workman showed a child's progress with proper care. Sets of these "before" and "after" cards were sold in sets to promote his charitable work and raise funds for it to continue.[6] Deeply held religious views provided a foundation for the social work and the children frequently emigrated to the British colonies especially Canada.
An 1875 account by Godfrey Holden Pike in Children Reclaimed for Life, Dr. Barnardo's Work in London explains these photographs:
The series of striking photographs published by Dr. Barnardo enable those who choose to procure them to understand the nature of the work in progress far better than mere verbal descriptions. The past and the present condition of the lads is forcibly portrayed by the photographer's art, and the result is a series of transformation scenes both unique and affecting. The same subjects are placed before us under different circumstances. In the one we see a boy' sleeping out' on the stones; in the counterpart the same person appears as he is in the Home, ' tucked up for the night.' Here sits one in the street ' Please sir, I've got no work to do;' and there he is again in a comfortable uniform and happy face ' But I'm in work now, you know.' There is a group as they appeared when ' on the streets,' and there they are as they look at present. The series includes sixty of these instructive and entertaining scenes, which all persons who are interested in the good work should procure. Present hope contrasts with former despair, and present comfort with former indigence, in a very striking manner.[7]
The photograph sets are a form of fund raising propaganda that presented an easily understood narrative of social uplift through charitable work underpinned with religious foundations. 
New York 
398.04   Documentary >  Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Slideshow (Be patient as this has 32 slides to load.) 
To publicize the social ills that would be described in his book How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (1890) Jacob A. Riis[8] gave lectures using lantern slides of his photographs and here is an account of one he gave on 25th January 1888 in New York:
Lantern Exhibition.
The regular monthly lantern exhibition was given at the rooms of the Society. 123 West 30th Street, on Wednesday evening, January 25th, and was very largely attended.
The subject was, "The Other Half How it lives and dies in New York," and was explained in an informal way by Mr. Jacob A. Riis, who for ten years past has been the police reporter of the New York Press. The object of the exhibition was to picture to the audience the exact condition of the lowest phases of life as it at present exists in New York City. Many of the pictures were obtained by the aid of flash magnesium light.
The exhibition opened with a view of a well-known alley in Cherry Street, around which, it was said, 1,000 persons lived.
Other views included the "Bandit's Alley," near Mott and Hester Streets, where murderers and thieves congregate and enjoy life in what is known as the "stale beer dives."
"Bottle Alley," near Baxter Street, contained many children. A capital picture was that of an old tramp and thief in front of his broken-down shanty. About this Mr. Riis said he obtained the consent of the tramp to stand for ten cents, but he put his pipe in his pocket. So the tramp struck for higher pay, and on giving him five cents more he posed with his pipe as Mr. Riis desired. Another excellent picture illustrated how young boys first practice picking pockets.
The object of attack was a drunken man lying down in a stupor. The two boys were on each side overhauling the pockets with decided energy. They term the pickings their winnings, never call it stealing. At a place called "Hell's Kitchen," near Eleventh Avenue on Thirty-ninth Street, they experienced considerable difficulty, were attacked by some of the women with brickbats, which broke one of the plate-holders. The Italian rag-pickers' alley in South Fifth Avenue was shown; the women at work were suddenly dispersed by one word from the Italian proprietor before their pictures could be caught. An Italian tea-kettle was shown, somewhat large in size, stuffed with dirty linen. In the morning the kettle was used as boiler for boiling the clothes; at night it was employed for making tea.
A typical group of New York toughs called "The Growlers," was exhibited, hidden away under one of the dump docks on the East Side. They were factory hands, and got young boys to go after beer which they would drink in these places. A single picture of a young lad eight years old carrying a large pail of beer was quite effective. Other views of the back of tenement-houses showing the multiplicity of clothes-lines; of Baxter Street, crowded with humanity; of Mott and Pell Streets, showing Chinese life; the interior of a Chinese opium den, with the Chinamen laying off in their bunks under its influence: of the Chinese altar in the Joss-house, some of the latter being taken by aid of flash-light, were extremely interesting. Also pictures of the interior of the cheap lodging-houses, the Tombs, the Five Points House of Industry, the Catholic Protectory, with children playing around and Sister Irene in the foreground, who is said to have saved 13,003 children; also the exterior and interior of an uptown branch of the Boys' Lodging House of the Children's Aid Society, established through the beneficence of the late Mrs. Robert L. Stuart. All of the above were exceedingly interesting as showing the beneficent power which these institutions exert in this city.
Portraits of children side by side, of how they looked when taken from their hovels, and cruel and wretched parents, and after they were cleaned and cared for by Mr. E. Gerry's "Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children," illustrated more forcibly than any word picture the necessity and usefulness of that institution.
Several interesting portraits of noted thiefs and forgers, both male and female, taken from the Rogues' Gallery, were shown; Ex-Governor Moses, of South Carolina, had the handsomest looking face.
A fine picture, showing four or five detectives holding a refractory thief while he was having his photograph taken, was quite comical.
A good interior of a police office, showing the sergeant recording the facts, with the policeman standing near the rail, holding a foundling wrapped up in a black shawl, and messenger and others looking on, was quite effective and well lighted.
Several views of the Arabs in their hovels in Washington Street were exhibited. The women lay around on the floor without any bedding, and were completely embedded and begrimed with dirt. These were secured by aid of the flash-light. There were also two or three excellent interiors of the School for Blind Children.
The exhibition terminated with several excellent views of the New York Morgue, interior of Bellevue Hospital, exterior and interior of the Penitentiary on Blackwell's Island, of the Lunatic Asylum on Ward's Island, and of the burying ground on Hart's Island.
Mr. Riis related many interesting episodes and facts. It was hard to realize the enormity of the degradation and poverty constantly present in the great city. He remarked that four thousand children were barred out from the public schools, because there was not room enough to accommodate all who could attend.
At 10 o'clock the entertainment terminated.[9]
   Documentary 19thc Jacob Riis 
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398.05   Documentary >  Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
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Towards the end of the nineteenth century in the United States Jacob Riis (1849-1914) and Lewis Hine (1874-1940) were committed to social change. When Jacob Riis published his first book, How the Other Half Lives on the overcrowded New York slums in 1890 it was a damning statement on societal ills.[10] The book included seventeen halftone illustrations from photographs and a further nineteen hand drawings.
The journalist and novelist Stephen Crane (1871-1900) published Maggie: A Girl of the Streets[11] in 1893 and the following year he wrote the article Experiment in Misery when he dressed as a bum and spent a night in a flophouse.[12] 
   Documentary 19thc Jacob Riis 
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The Depression 
398.06   Documentary >  Dorothea Lange: The Migrant Mother 
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Dorothea Lange's photograph The Migrant Mother (1936) has come to symbolize poverty, resolution and forbearance during the Great Depression.[13] The RA/FSA caption for this series by Dorothea Lange read:
“Migrant agricultural worker’s family. Seven hungry children. Mother, age thirty-two. Father is native Californian. Destitute in pea pickers’ camp, Nipomo, California, because of the failure of the early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Of the 2,500 people in this camp, most of them were destitute.”[14]
When Lange recalled the scene later she said:
"It was raining, the camera bags were packed, and I had on the seat beside me in the car the results of my long trip, the box containing all those rolls and packs of exposed film ready to mail back to Washington. It was a time of relief. Sixty-five miles an hour for seven hours would get me home to my family that night, and my eyes were glued to the wet and gleaming highway that stretched out ahead. I felt freed, for I could lift my mind off my job and think of home.
I was on my way and barely saw a crude sign with pointing arrow which flashed by at the side of the road, saying PEA-PICKERS CAMP. But out of the corner of my eye I did see it I didn't want to stop, and didn't. I didn't want to remember that I had seen it, so I drove on and ignored the summons. Then, accompanied by the rhythmic hum of the windshield wipers, arose an inner argument:
Dorothea, how about that camp back there? What is the situation back there?
Are you going back?
Nobody could ask this of you, now could they?
To turn back certainly is not necessary. Haven't you plenty of negatives already on this subject? Isn't this just one more of the same? Besides, if you take a camera out in this rain, you're just asking for trouble. Now be reasonable, etc. etc., etc.
Having well convinced myself for 20 miles that I could continue on, I did the opposite. Almost without realizing what I was doing I made a U-turn on the empty highway. I went back those 20 miles and turned off the highway at that sign, PEA-PICKERS CAMP.
I was following instinct, not reason; I drove into that wet and soggy camp and parked my car like a homing pigeon.
I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. She told me her age, that she was 32. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean-to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it.
The pea crop at Nipomo had frozen and there was no work for anybody. But I did not approach the tents and shelters of other stranded pea-pickers. It was not necessary; I knew I had recorded the essence of my assignment."[15]
Memory is an unreliable witness and is the power of the photograph dependent upon the caption? The photograph as been altered and if version are compared there is a subtle difference to remove a distraction. Comparing different versions from the same negative on some there is a thumb showing at the lower right and on others not. The removal of the thumb improves the photograph but negates documentary truth.  
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More recently this photograph has been colorized by John Boero a task that he accomplished well. The colour version is not a visual truth but is it less truthful that the one missing the thumb?  
398.07   Documentary >  Dorothea Lange: White Angel Breadline, San Francisco 
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This photograph by Dorothea Lange was taken at the White Angel Jungle[16], a soup kitchen for San Francisco's jobless during the Great Depression. From June 1931 until September 1933 Lois Jordan, a wealthy white woman known as the "White Angel", supported the soup kitchen at Abe Reuff's lot, bounded by the Embarcadero and Battery, between Filbert and Greenwich, through charitable donations. There is a small historical marker with photographs on the site near Levi's Plaza Park at 1160 Battery St. next to The Embarcadero road at the end of Pier 23 in San Francisco.
Widely reproduced it has become one of the iconic photographs of economic hardship and was used as the cover photograph for Irving Bernstein A Caring Society: The New Deal, the Worker, and the Great Depression (Houghton Mifflin, 1985).
There is an a story that this photograph was tacked on the wall up in the studio of Dorothea Lange and on her darkroom door there was a quotation by Francis Bacon[17]:
The contemplation of things as they are without error or confusion without substitution or imposture is in itself a nobler thing than a whole harvest of invention.[18]
Industrial wastelands 
398.08   Documentary >  Carl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Slideshow (Be patient as this has 73 slides to load.) 
Part 1: Les Corons d’Auchel 1975-1980
Part 2: Auchel Revisited 2001-2005
Cité is the French word for a neighbourhood: a loosely defined area in a community which bears some common identity. In the city of Auchel there are different ‘cité‘. Cité3 is the oldest one. Cité5 is a newer one built on the other side of the slag heap half a mile away..
Auchel, A Curse, A Camp, A Ghetto
A bewildered documentary photo essay by Carl Uytterhaegen
Recently, I have seen those pictures again about the Northern French coalminers‘ village Auchel. They still are as shocking as when 1 saw them the first time. They are really pictures about a camp, a ghetto. The picture are made with so susceptible feeling behind a tight objectivity, that you cannot comment on them without having a feeling of shame and respect, misery is calling for. They are frightful images with sometimes also rare memories of beautiful and real things such as a smiling child, a flower, playing children, a young woman, Yet, these are exactly the things which make Auchel a curse....
The pictures, dealt with in this article, are only a limited selection out of thousands of pictures which Carl Uytterhaegen, photographer and professor in photography at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten (Royal Academy of Fine Arts) in Gent, Belgium, has made about Auchel between 1975 and 1980. On his way back from a holiday in Southern France, he discovered this bewildered scenery. During the next 5 years, he returns to Auchel more than 50 times to photograph there in all seasons. He really becomes obsessed about this strange and bewildered environment where people stayed to live.
This selection of his pictures, gives a good survey of the quality of this kind of photography. These pictures remind one the ones Sander made about war invalids, gypsies and beggars, and which clearly show how Sander met those people and how he talked with them. In the selection of Uytterhaegen‘s pictures, you get exactly the same impression. Auchel is seen and felt with humility and pity.
This is a portrait of what is called, ‘La ville d‘Auchel‘, where 411 mining operations ceased after the Second World War. Yet, the heaps of stone and slag as wall as the typical coalminers‘ dwellings are still there as was the case in 1920. The aspect of the region did not change very much after the closing of the mines. Yet, poverty did enter because besides the mines, there was no other industry. People who actually found jobs are commuting and have to leave their homes at 3.45 a.m. to get to their job by 7.00 a.m.
A lot of people is unemployed at Auchel. The village lives in an atmosphere of indifference under a regularly on blowing sulphurous smell. The children play on the stone and slag heaps between waste. Young people are drinking in small local pubs or are playing at cards for money on the porches of their modest houses. Women are at homes looking T. V. or taking care of their families. Once a week, they can afford to buy some meat. Next to physical and spiritual poverty, there are also a lot of physically and mentally handicapped people living in Auchel. They all live closely together and have developed a strong solidarity amidst their great misery. They live in rubbish, inadequate wooden sheds between bicycles, carts, secondhand and repaired motorbikes broken toys, dogs and cats, chickens and duckier graffiti on the walls, etc. etc. And then, there are the children, sometimes with a flower or cuddling a pet to get some warmth, pathetic faces, with their Sunday suit or dresses, which makes it still more worse. Yet, there is also a boy with a balloon (remember ‘Le Ballon Rouge‘!). Occasionally there is also a rare tree to be seen. How in heaven‘s name has someone deserved to be born there? This valuable series of pictures (in which every foreign publisher would see a project for a highly esteemed photo book), is an example of documentary photography vs. commentary photography. The traditional commentary photography in indeed photography of (maybe very recent) events, of situations which summarize these events and (if possible, depending on the photographer) which explains these events, giving us at the same time some knowledge about the background or the range of influence of these events.
Documentary photography is far more illustrating photography, as such that it is prepared with scientific care or dealing extensively and in depth with a subject in all its different aspects, in view of objectivity; subjects are mostly sociological themes, as is here the case with Carl Uytterhaegen.
His extensive photographic work about Auchel is very much in line with what documentary photography stands for. Only the preparative study is complemented here with good knowledge of the subject, i.e. a society of people who you can get acquainted with only after several meetings as Carl Uytterhaegen has done in a most friendly, patient and attentive way. (The historical survey about the development of Auchel from an agrarian village to a miners‘ town, is summarized from a "Histoire de la Ville d‘Auchel, written in 1930, of which the bibliography is missing).
In the five years, Carl Uytterhaegen was working on this project, a systematic pattern in his dealing with the subject can be observed:
  1. The landscape with stone and slag heaps to the horizon and the rhythmical repeating of the coalminers‘ dwellings constitute the general setting of the small town
  2. The total view of the streets of the coalminers‘ quarters, with left and right a looking, playing or running figure. The total aspect of the surroundings.
  3. Small groups of playing children in the landscape who show the proportion of the people in this environment.
  4. People in the streets, groups who show what kind of people is living here (sociological) and how they arc bored, having a strong solidarity at the same time.
  5. People in the setting of their daily life: a small courtyard, back premises; lonely people surrounded by waste which works very symbolic here. Individualizing of social problems.
  6. (Mostly young) people sitting for their portrait who were asked by the photographer to look into his camera; pathetic faces of people, having surmounted their distrust to discover that friendly attention in given to them. This is a form of intimate contact with the outside worlds another world.

That this is exclusively black and white photography is quite evident. The same can be said of miniature photography, but we stress that theme pictures are only completely developed negatives. We distinguish some elements of shaping which Carl Uytterhaegen clearly prefers:
  1. First of all the light, which remains gray and which is only rarely sunny.
  2. The horizon which is almost never captured in the picture, and when it is, it is seen high in the right corner, resulting in a closed landscape picture.
  3. A lot of outdoor pictures are taken between the stone and slag heaps in ‘plongé‘ (from top downwards) resulting also in the same closeness.
  4. If there are sitting persons in front of the picture, they are set very near the viewer, the scenery which dominates everything nl the background.
  5. The squarely right position of the camera on the street scenes stresses the loneliness of the setting.
  6. There is always a distinguished relation between the persons and the background.
  7. A lot of standing people are set in the rectangle in such way that they are out off at the height of their knees, by which they come prominently into view.

This is indeed a very efficiently constructed photography which is dominated by a great intuitive accuracy and technical subtlety.
When talking with Flemish photographers, the same theme is always coming forward a disappointing and discouraging (sometimes) rage about the lack of possibilities in Belgium. This is related to the fact that we do not have here yearbooks, nor markets for artistic photography, no publishers who publish present photography (as photography), no great magazine nor review exclusively for high standing photography. So no money is available.
As such, there are many young photographers having many plans and good ideas who are very promising photographers but who also find out in the end that it is not sufficient to have good ideas or to make good pictures only. There has to be market for them, which is seldom the case. The cause of this situation is not always due to pure Mercantilism shortsightedness or reactionary mentality. We do live indeed in a small linguistic community with all restrictions attached to it. Compared with what is spent to photography in the U. S. A. or in the German Federal Republic, the situation in Belgium is dramatic. It remains a frustrating business for a Flemish photographer who is already happy having the possibility to publish some of his pictures f. i. in the ‘AVENUE’ magazine.
A progressing cultural integration of the Dutch speaking community as a whole might help these photographers in the future, especially if this integration would be combined with forms for commercial cooperation.
Carl Uytterhaegen belongs to this group of photographers with the negative experience of not having their work published. He recently informed me that his Auchel pictures will be on exhibition in June in Cardiff (Wales, U. K.) and in the Fall in Gent, Belgium.
Because of the skeptical situation in Belgium as far as photography is concerned, a Center for Creative Photography has been established in Gent (with Carl Uytterhaegen, Walter De Mulder and Johan VaIcke as promoters ) to force somewhere a breakthrough.
I would like to add something to the curriculum vitae of Carl Uytterhaegen within the scope of this article and to give his pictures and personality some more backing. Carl Uytterhaegen comes from a family of four, and studied after his humanities, pedagogy, French and history. Very soon, he took up photography, in which he discovered himself. He photographed gypsies, Jazz musicians, made concepts of photographs series, sometime in cooperation with artists in plastic arts, landscapes a very interesting series of landscapes with traffic mirrors (about which he wrote very keen commentary himself) a series about the Olive Trees of San Donato, the mining district of Wales, street portraits which he called ‘contact portraits‘. Carl Uytterhaegen is very much involved in everything he undertakes his work, his teaching, the renovation of his house, his neighbourhood, his town. He is active in a neighbourhood committee and is very much involved in the problems of town renovation and protection of the environment. He considers Vietnam and Cambodia as great dramas being however comfortably too far away.
His activities in the neighbourhood Committee are partly based on the fact that he himself has renovated a house, he bought in the Old Beguinage actually the very center of the renovation and living dispute of that beautiful historical city of Gent.
When you enter Car1Uytterhaegen‘s house, you are immediately impressed by the very personal decor of a very personal artist. Steps and levels, works of art on the walls, beautiful light everywhere, a lot of pebbles, rocks and wood, all playfully ordered, a nice interior to feel oneself at home.
On top of that, there is an incredible silence in the very heart of that busy city. A silence which sticks to you, also when you have left the house, thinking about Auchel and the people who are condemned to survive there together with their children.
Karel Van Deuren
‘Foto‘ (NL) 8-1981, p. 52-59 
   Carl  Uytterhaegen 
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  1. Λ The book London Labour and London Poor was evidently rare quite soon after it was published in 1851 as in The Atheneum, no. 1407, Oct. 14, 1854, p. 1223 there was the following advert:
    RARE WORK. A few Copies just ready of HENRY MATHEWS Celebrated and very Extraordinary Work, 'LONDON LABOUR AND THE LONDON POOR : a CycIopedia of Those that Work, Those that cannot Work, and Those that will not Work,' with Engravings of the Scenes and People described, copied from Daguerreotypes taken expressly for this Book by Beard. Prices [unclear on scan]. Each bound copy has at end the whole of the valuable "Answers to Correspondents arranged to be read uninterruptedly." EITHER DIVISION OF THE WORK SOLD SEPARATELY.
    A quantity of Odd Numbers for completion of sets to 63rd number -(pages 432 of vol. II. and 199 of vol. III.). The Answers to Correspondents prepared for binding, all Advertisements, &c. attached on publication being excluded. Copies bound in manner rendering them more complete than any ever supplied, except by
    G. Newbold, 8, Regent-street. Westminster.
    N.B. Numbers bought - full price given - lists requested by post.
  2. Λ Naomi Rosenblum, 1984, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press); Naomi Rosenblum, 2007, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press) [4th edition] 
  3. Λ John Thomson & Adolphe Smith, [1877], Street Life in London, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington); Emily Kathryn Morgan, 2014, Street Life in London: Context and Commentary, (MuseumsEtc) 
  4. Λ Thomas John Barnardo, 1879, A Brief Account of the Institutions known as Dr. Barnardo's Homes, (London), [British Library: Identifier: System number 000204069] 
  5. Λ Thomas John Barnes (1809-1901) - John Kirkham, 1993, "Barnardo's photographic and film archive", Local History Magazine, no: 41, pp. 10 - 12, illus 
  6. Λ Valerie Lloyd & Gillian Wagner, 1974, The Camera and Dr. Barnardo, (The National Portrait Gallery); Alan Trachtenberg, 1975, "The camera and Dr Barnardo", Aperture, vol. 19, pp. 68 - 77; Seth Koven, 1997, "Dr Barnardo's 'Artistic fictions' photography, sexuality and the ragged child in Victorian London", Radical History Review, vol. 69, pp. 6-45 
  7. Λ Godfrey Holden Pike, 1875, Children Reclaimed for Life, Dr. Barnardo's Work in London, (London: Hodder And Stoughton), p. 90 
  8. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company).
    For the socio-political context and biographical details on Jacob A. Riis - Alexander Alland Sr, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture); Janet B. Pascal, 2005, Jacob Riis: Reporter and Reformer, (Oxford University Press, USA); Bonnie Yochelson, & Daniel Czitrom, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press) 
  9. Λ For a lantern lecture by Jacob Riis - "The Society of Amateur Photographers of New York, Lantern Exhibition",The Photographic Times and American Photographer, vol. XVIII, February 3, 1888, no. 333, pp. 58-59. 
  10. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company) 
  11. Λ Stephen Crane, 1893, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, (Self-published); Stephen Crane, 1986, Maggie, a Girl of the Streets: And Other Short Fiction, (A Bantam classic) 
  12. Λ Stephen Crane, April 1894, "An Experiment in Misery", New York Press 
  13. Λ Don Nardo, 2011, Migrant Mother: How a Photograph Defined the Great Depression, (Compass Point Books) [Designed for young readers.] 
  14. Λ RA/FSA caption for variant of this image (no. 2-31) 
  15. Λ Dorothea Lange interview in 1960 Popular Photography.
    Part quoted in - R.E. Stryker & Nancy Wood, 1973, In This Proud Land, (New York: Galahad Books), p. 19 
  16. Λ Lois Jordan, 1935, The work of the White Angel Jungle of San Francisco waterfront (Mother Lois Jordan Book Co.) 
  17. Λ Milton Meltzer, 2000, Dorothea Lange: A Photographer's Life, (Syracuse University Press) p. 286 
  18. Λ For a variant - Francis Bacon, 1815, The Works of Francis Bacon: Novum organum scientiarum, Volume 4 of The Works of Francis Bacon, (M. Jones), pp. 144-145 (Google Books)
    ...the contemplation of things, as they are in themselves, without substitution or imposture, error or confusion, is itself of greater dignity than all the benefits of invention.


HomeContents > Further research

Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
General reading 
Appollo, Ken, 1997, Humble Work & Mad Wanderings. Street Life in the Machine Age, (Nevada City: Carl Mautz) [Δ
Batchen, Geoffrey; Gidley, Mick; Miller, Nancy K. & Prosser, Jay (eds.), 2012, Picturing Atrocity: Photography in Crisis, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 186189872X isbn-13: 978-1861898722 [Δ
Mayhew, Henry, 1861-62, London Labour and the London Poor, (London: Charles Griffin, and Company) [4 volumes, the woodcuts are based upon daguerreotypes by Richard Beard] [Δ
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
Thomas Barnardo 
Koven, Seth, 1997, Dr Barnardo's 'Artistic fictions' photography, sexuality and the ragged child in Victorian London [Δ
Lloyd, Valerie & Wagner, Gillian, 1974, The Camera and Dr. Barnardo isbn-10: 0904017125 isbn-13: 978-0904017120 [Exhibition catalogue, National Portrait Gallery, London] [Δ
Trachtenberg, Alan, 1975, The camera and Dr Barnardo [Δ
Thomas John Barnes 
Koven, Seth, 1997, Dr Barnardo's 'Artistic fictions' photography, sexuality and the ragged child in Victorian London [Δ
Trachtenberg, Alan, 1975, The camera and Dr Barnardo [Δ
Bruce Davidson 
Davidson, Bruce, 2003, East 100th Street, (St. Anns Press) isbn-10: 0971368139 isbn-13: 978-0971368132 [Δ
Dorothea Lange 
Lange, Dorothea & Taylor, Paul S., 1999, An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion in the Thirties, (Paris: Jean-Michel Place) [Δ
Meltzer, Milton, 2000, Dorothea Lange: A Photographer’s Life, (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press) [Δ
Partridge, Elizabeth, 2013, Dorothea Lange: Grab a Hunk of Lightning, (Chronicle Books) isbn-10: 1452122164 isbn-13: 978-1452122168 [Δ
Sprin, Anne Whiston, 2008, Daring to Look: Dorothea Lange's Photographs and Reports from the Field, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226769844 isbn-13: 978-0226769844 [Δ
Eugene Richards 
Richards, Eugene, 1987, Below the Line: Living Poor in America, (Mount Vernon, NY: Consumers Union) [Δ
Jacob A. Riis 
Alland Sr, Alexander, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
Riis, Jacob, 1896, Out of Mulberry Street: Stories of Tenement Life in New York City, (New York: Century) [Δ
Riis, Jacob, 1900, A Ten Years' War: An Account of the Battle with the Slum in New York, (New York: Houghton, Mifflin) [Δ
Riis, Jacob, 1901, The Making of an American, (New York: Macmillan) [Δ
Riis, Jacob A., 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons) [Δ
Riis, Jacob A., 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company) [Δ
Yochelson, Bonnie & Czitrom, Daniel, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press) [Δ
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - 

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

Thomas John Barnes  (1809-1901) • Nicholas Battye • Exit Photography Group • John Gutmann  (1905-1998) • Gary Knight  (1964-) • Dorothea Lange  (1895-1965) • A.J. Munby  (1828-1910) • Manuel Rivera-Ortiz  (1968-) • John Sevigny  (1969-) • Stephen Shames • Chris Steele-Perkins  (1947-) • Paul Trevor • Roman Vishniac  (1897-1990)
HomeThemesDocumentarySociety > Poverty 
A wider gazeRelated topics 

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Poverty

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailCarl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 22, 2007)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Jacob Riis and How the Other Half Live 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 23, 2010) As the quality of the images in the nineteenth century books of Jacob Riis are so poor I'm seeking scans of the photographs.
ThumbnailDocumentary: 20th Century The FSA (Farm Security Administration) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (June 9, 2012)
ThumbnailJohn Sevigny: Ladies' Bar 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 12, 2007)
ThumbnailRoger Mayne 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 8, 2007)
ThumbnailSusan Ressler: At Owner's Risk - My Journey Among The Algonquian 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 12, 2007)
ThumbnailThomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow (1900) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 18, 2006)
ThumbnailWalker Evans 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 3, 2006)

HomeVisual indexes > Poverty

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailArthur Rothstein: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBen Shahn: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCarl Mydans: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDorothea Lange: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDr. Thomas John Barnardo: Home for Working and Destitute Lads 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdwin Locke: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdwin Rosskam: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGordon Parks: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Mayhew: London Labour and the London Poor 
ThumbnailJack Delano: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Vachon: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMarion Post Wolcott: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPaul Carter: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRussell Lee: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSheldon Dick: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: FSA - Farm Security Administration 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDorothea Lange - Margaret Bourke-White 
ThumbnailJacob A. Riis - Unidentified Russian photographer 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: FSA - Farm Security Administration - OWI: Early colour 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: FSA - Farm Security Administration: Examples 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: FSA - Farm Security Administration: Models 
Refreshed: 17 January 2015, 04:20
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