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HomeContentsThemes > Indian Mutiny (1858)

Contents

Introduction
395.01   Indian Mutiny (1858): Introduction
Events
395.02   The Cawnpore (Kanpur) Massacres
Photographers
395.03   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Lucknow
395.04   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Mutineers hanged
395.05   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Hodson's Horse
395.06   Robert & Harriet Tytler: India at the time of the Mutiny
395.07   Darogha Ubbas Alli: Sekunder Bagh, Lucknow
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
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Introduction 
  
395.01   War >  Indian Mutiny (1858): Introduction 
  
From the perspective of the British Empire the 1857 the war that took place in India was a mutiny against the crown and needed to be suppressed. The Indian perspective is not surprisingly rather different and it is seen as the Indian Uprising or the First War of Indian Independence against an oppressive colonial power.[1] 
  
  War Indian Mutiny 
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Felice  Beato India 
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Events 
  
395.02   War >  The Cawnpore (Kanpur) Massacres 
  
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There were two well-remembered massacres at Cawnpore [Kanpur] in Uttar Pradesh - the first at the Satichaura Ghat on 27 June 1857 and the second at the Bibighar [Bibi Ghar] on 15th July 1857.[2] Following the suppression of the Indian Mutiny a memorial was erected ca. 1860 with the statue of an angel by Baron Carlo Marochetti surrounded by an octagonal gothic stone screen by Henry Yule. The All Souls Memorial Church was also built 1862-75 to commemorate the events. The Memorial was originally at the Bibi Ghar well and Indians were not allowed onto the site until Indian Independence in 1947 when the memorial was moved to the All Souls Memorial Church. 
  
Photographers 
  
395.03   War >  Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Lucknow 
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One's perspective on the storming of the Secunderbagh at Lucknow in November 1857 during the Indian Mutiny (1857-1858 can be influenced by how history is told. From the British point of view it was revenge for The Cawnpore (Kanpur) Massacres that had happened in June and July of the same year. It it was a reaction to earlier events it was an extremely brutal over reaction slaughtering thousands of Indians.
 
Accounts at the time described it as "brilliant" and there "never was a bolder feat of arms":
"The attack on the Secunderbagh had now been proceeding for about an hour and a half, when it was determined to take the place by storm, through a small opening which had been made.
 
"This was done in the most brilliant manner by the remainder of the Highlanders, the 53rd and 4th Punjaub Infantry, supported by a battalion of detachments under Major Barnston.
 
"There never was a bolder feat of arms. The loss inflicted on the enemy, after the entrance of the Secunderbagh was effected, was immense. More than 2,000 of the enemy were carried out.*
 
* I was subsequently informed that upwards of 2,700 bodies were buried, and numbers more were burnt. The probability is that the enemy's loss was some 3,000 men[3]
A contemporary account of the site of the massacre:
Seizing the opportunity of a moment's leisure, I ran inside to see a sight I was told would astound me, and even glut all revenge for the atrocious deeds of Cawnpore. It was indeed a massacre, such as no imagination could conceive. Within the enclosure, about 120 yards square, lay the dead bodies of about 3,000 sepoys, mostly bearing the mark of the deadly bayonet. Not a man, it is believed, escaped to tell the tale. Never was punishment so summarily inflicted. Its effect on the besieged was said to have been terrible. Four entire regiments were lost to them, at that post alone.[4]
Following the massacre the Indian bodies were left on the ground to rot and the British bodies were buried in a trench. The city of Lucknow had to be evacuted by the British and by 21 March 1858 they recaptured it under the command of Sir Colin Campbell.[5] Felice Beato photographed the war damage of the two sieges[6] and the interior of the Secunderbagh which was still littered with skeletons. Contemporary writers attempted to mitigate the horror of Beato's photographs by claiming that he had some of the bodies dug up for effect or that dogs had dug them up but The Times correspondent William Howard Russell in April 1858 reported on seeing skeletons.[7]
 
Beato also visited other cities that had been affected by the Indian Mutiny including Delhi and Cawnpore (Kanpur) 
  
   Felice  Beato India 
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395.04   War >  Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Mutineers hanged 
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Notice how in these variants of the albumen print by Felice Beato taken after the capture of Delhi by the British forces during the Indian Mutiny (1858) the background has been altered to provide a stronger silhouette to the scene. 
  
   Felice  Beato India 
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395.05   War >  Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Hodson's Horse 
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Hodson's Horse was a corp of Irregular Horse raised by Lieutenant W S R Hodson, 1st European Fusiliers, and officiating Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General during the Indian Mutiny. On 25th May, Hodson wrote:
"My commission is to raise a body of Irregular Horse on the usual rates of pay and the regular complement of native officers, but the number of troops to be unlimited - ie., I am to raise as many men as I please: 2000 if I can get them. The worst of it is, the being in a part of the country I do not know and the necessity of finding men who can be trusted."[8]
 
  
   Felice  Beato India 
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395.06   War >  Robert & Harriet Tytler: India at the time of the Mutiny 
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Robert (1818-1872) and Harriet Tytler (1827-1907)[9] were active in India during and after the Indian Mutiny.[10] 
  
395.07   War >  Darogha Ubbas Alli: Sekunder Bagh, Lucknow 
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Darogha Ubbas Alli was an Indian municipal engineer in Lucknow and an amateur photographer who in 1874 created his Lucknow Album.[11] The Album included locations in the city that were significant during the Indian Mutiny and included accompanying texts about the events. In 1880 he prepared a further album An Illustrated Historical Album of Rajas and Taaluqdars of Oudh.[12] 
  
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ  Julian A.B. Palmer, 1966, The Mutiny Outbreak at Meerut in 1857, (Cambridge University Press); Eric Stokes & C.A. Bayly, C.A. (ed.), 1986, The Peasant Armed: The Indian Revolt of 1857, (Oxford: Clarendon); P.J.O. Taylor, 1997, What really happened during the mutiny: a day-by-day account of the major events of 1857–1859 in India, (Delhi: Oxford University Press); John Harris, 2001, The Indian Mutiny, (Ware: Wordsworth Editions); Clare Anderson, 2007, Indian Uprising of 1857–8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion, (New York: Anthem Press) 
      
  2. Λ Barbara English, Feb. 1994, "The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857", Past and Present, no. 142, pp. 169–178 
      
  3. Λ George Bourchier, 1858, Eight Months' Campaign Against the Bengal Sepoy Army During the Mutiny of 1857 (Smith, Elder), p. 141 
      
  4. Λ George Bourchier, 1858, Eight Months' Campaign Against the Bengal Sepoy Army During the Mutiny of 1857 (Smith, Elder), p. 143 
      
  5. Λ John F. Riddick, 2006, The History of British India: A Chronology, (Greenwood Publishing Group), p. 62 
      
  6. Λ Bruce Watson, 1991, The Great Indian mutiny: Colin Campbell and the campaign at Lucknow, (Praeger) 
      
  7. Λ Sir William Howard Russell, 1860, My diary in India, in the year 1858-9, (London: Routledge, Warne, and Routledge,), p. 314
    The Secunderbagh is a large square enclosure, with turrets at the angles, and a garden inside with kiosks and summer-houses. In one angle we found H. M.'s 53rd huddled together as far away as possible from the dreadful smell that came from the rotting bodies of the sepoys that were slain there in Sir Colin's advance. I walked as far as I could venture among the skeletons, to look at the actual scene of the struggle; but I was soon glad to retrace my steps and join the party at the gate.
     
      
  8. Λ cited in "Hodson's Horse"
    (Accessed: 4 July 2013)
    www.britishempire.co.uk/forces/armyunits/indiancavalry/hodsons.htm 
      
  9. Λ Anthony Attin (ed.), 1986, An Englishwoman in India: The Memoirs of Harriet Tytler, 1828-1858, (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [With an introduction by Philip Mason] 
      
  10. Λ G. Thomas, 1985, October / December, ‘Indian Mutiny Veterans: The Tytlers‘, History of Photography, vol. 9, pp. 125-128 
      
  11. Λ The Getty Research Institute (Accession/ID Number 282576) has a copy of his "Lucknow Album" (G. H. Rouse, Baptist Mission Press, 1874) which contains 50 tipped-in albumen plates. 
      
  12. Λ Brij B. Sharma, 1983, January / March, ‘Darogha Ubbas Alli: an unknown 19th-century Indian photographer‘, History of Photography, vol. 7, pp. 63-68 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
General reading 
  
Cave-Browne, J., 1861, The Punjab and Delhi in 1857: Being a Narrative by which the Punjab Was Saved and Delhi Recovered during the Indian Mutiny, (London: William Blackwood and Sons) [Includes an engraving based on a photograph by Charles Waterloo Hutchinson] [Δ
  
English, Barbara, 1994, February, ‘The Kanpur Massacres in India in the Revolt of 1857‘, Past and Present, no. 142, p. 169–178 [Δ
  
Lewinski, Jorge, 1978, The Camera at War, A History of War Photography, (New York: Simon & Schuster) [Δ
  
Livingston, Jane, 1985, The Indelible Image, Photographs of War, (New York: Harry Abrams) [Δ
  
Llewellyn-Jones, Rosie (ed.), 2006, Lucknow City of Illusion, (Prestel Publishing) [Δ
  
Sharma, Brij Bhushan, 1982, ‘A 'Photographic' Book on the Indian Mutiny‘, History of Photography, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 173-177 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Felice Beato 
  
Bowen, Claire, 2007, ‘Memorising the Mutiny: Felice Beato's Lucknow Photographs‘, Cahiers victoriens & édouardiens, no. 66, pp. 195-209 [Δ
  
Chappell, Walter, 1958, Feb., ‘Robertson, Beato & Co. Camera vision at Lucknow‘, Image, no. 7, pp. 36-40 [Δ
  
Clark, John; Fraser, John & Osman, Colin, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) [Δ
  
Fraser, John, 1981, ‘Beato's photograph of the interior of the Sikansar-Bagh at Lucknow‘, Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, vol. 59, pp. 51-55 [Δ
  
Harris, John, 2000, ‘Topography and Memory: Felice Beato's Photographs of India, 1858-1859‘, in Vidya Dehejia (ed.), 2001, India through the Lens - Photography 1840-1911, (New York: Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M Sackler Gallery), pp. 118-147 [Δ
  
Masselos, Jim & Gupta, Narayani, 1997, Beato's Delhi, 1858, 1887, (Delhi) [Δ
  
James Robertson 
  
Chappell, Walter, 1958, Feb., ‘Robertson, Beato & Co. Camera vision at Lucknow‘, Image, no. 7, pp. 36-40 [Δ
  
Robertson, J. & Beato, F. 
  
Chappell, Walter, 1958, Feb., ‘Robertson, Beato & Co. Camera vision at Lucknow‘, Image, no. 7, pp. 36-40 [Δ
  
Clark, John; Fraser, John & Osman, Colin, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) [Δ
  
Harriet Christina Tytler 
  
Attin, Anthony (ed.), 1986, An Englishwoman in India: The Memoirs of Harriet Tytler, 1828-1858, (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [With an introduction by Philip Mason] [Δ
  
Thomas, G., 1985, October / December, ‘Indian Mutiny Veterans: The Tytlers‘, History of Photography, vol. 9, pp. 125-128 [Δ
  
Robert & Harriet Tytler 
  
Attin, Anthony (ed.), 1986, An Englishwoman in India: The Memoirs of Harriet Tytler, 1828-1858, (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [With an introduction by Philip Mason] [Δ
  
Thomas, G., 1985, October / December, ‘Indian Mutiny Veterans: The Tytlers‘, History of Photography, vol. 9, pp. 125-128 [Δ
  
Robert Christopher Tytler 
  
Attin, Anthony (ed.), 1986, An Englishwoman in India: The Memoirs of Harriet Tytler, 1828-1858, (Oxford: Oxford University Press) [With an introduction by Philip Mason] [Δ
  
Thomas, G., 1985, October / December, ‘Indian Mutiny Veterans: The Tytlers‘, History of Photography, vol. 9, pp. 125-128 [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

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Felice Beato  (1832-1909) • Robert & Harriet Tytler
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HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Indian Mutiny (1858)

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ThumbnailFelice Beato - India and the Indian Mutiny (1858) 
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Released (November 20, 2010)
ThumbnailIndian Mutiny (1858) 
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Released (November 9, 2010)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Indian Mutiny (1858)

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   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailFelice Beato: India: Hodson's Horse 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: India: Lucknow: Interior of the Secundra Bagh 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: India: Lucknow: The Residency 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: India: Mutineers Hanged 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert & Harriet Tytler: India at the time of the Mutiny 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailWar: Indian Mutiny (1856) 
 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailIndia: Cawnpore [Kanpur] 
ThumbnailIndia: Lucknow: Secundra Bagh - Sekunder Bagh 
 
  
   Events 
  
ThumbnailIndian Mutiny: The Cawnpore [Kanpur] Massacres 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 01 October 2014, 06:55
 
  
 
  
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