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HomeContentsThemes > Fashion

Contents

Introduction
3.01   Introduction to fashion
3.02   Early fashion photography
Photo-jewelry
3.03   Photo-jewelry: Bracelets
3.04   Photo-jewelry: Brooches
3.05   Photo-jewelry: Lockets
3.06   Photo-jewelry: Pendants
3.07   Photo-jewelry: Rings
3.08   Photo-jewelry: Stick pins
3.09   Photo-jewelry: Political
Items of clothing
3.10   Still life: Textiles and lace
Key fashion photographers
3.11   Norman Parkinson (1913-1990)
Magazines
3.12   Vanity Fair
Fashion houses
3.13   Fashion houses and photography
3.14   Fashion houses: Gianni Versace
3.15   Parisian couture (ca. 1900-1920)
Fashion photographers by decade
3.16   Fashion photographers by decade
3.17   Fashion 1920s
3.18   Fashion 1930s
3.19   Fashion 1940s
3.20   Fashion 1950s
3.21   Fashion 1960s
3.22   Fashion 1970s
3.23   Fashion 1980s
3.24   Fashion 1990s
Fashion and the use of colour
3.25   The rise of colour in fashion photography
Fashion and transportation
3.26   Transportation and fashion examples
Fashion and the military
3.27   Fashion: Accessories: Gas masks
Contemporary fashion
3.28   Contemporary fashion photography
Case studies
3.29   Robinson & Roi: The Famous Glass Dress - Royal Robe of Princess Eulalia
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
3.01   Fashion >  Introduction to fashion 
  
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By the end of the 19th century studio photographers in Paris, including the Reutlinger studio, Bissonais et Taponnier, were taking photographs for magazines that showed the latest in fashion. The photographic style was neither adventurous nor innovative - very largely the models were posed in a similar way to the carte de visite which came out in 1854. Models were provided with suitable costumes, painted backdrops and props but the shots were largely studio based. It is true that technical limitations of the cameras required artificial lighting and this often necessitated a studio setting. The earliest fashion shots could hardly be differentiated from the portrait shots of the same period. Studies of fashion through photography during the nineteenth century therefore tend towards the analysis of clothing within individual photographs to show trends that might be a useful aid to dating[1] much the same way that hairstyles[2] and facial hair can be used.[3] Photographs showed the clothing of the day but they were rarely for the express purpose of marketing or discussing contemporary fashion.  
  
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Children 
  
 
  
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Women 
  
 
  
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Men 
  
A further interconnection between fashion and photography is the use of photographs within photo-jewelry[4] and on clothing. Bracelets, brooches, lockets, pendants, rings and stick pins all incorporated photographs into their designs. Queen Victoria for example wore a bracelet brooch with an ambrotype of her beloved Prince Albert.  
  
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Daguerreotype of a man adding photographs into lockets 
  
 
  
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Photo-jewelry 
  
As the size and wealth of the urban middle class expanded during the late nineteenth century both in Europe and North America so the market for seamstresses and ready to ware clothing grew. Standardized designs could be promoted and we can see this in the photographs of companies that specialized in high society clothing such as Talbot[5] in Paris. Before modelling became a celebrity profession the lades wearing, and promoting, the fashions of the day were largely society ladies.  
  
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Talbot (Paris) 
  
The French fashion houses of Maisons Worth, Vionnet, Lanvin, Pingat, Poiret and many others were maturing through the age of photography and this was the age of wealthy Edwardian women changing their clothes five or six times a day.[6] Each period had its own leading designers such as Coco Chanel and Elsa Schiaparelli in the late 1920s and 1930s and they had their own favourite photographers. Schiaparelli for example used Man Ray, George Hoyningen-Heaune, Horst and Cecil Beaton.[7]  
  
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Coco Chanel 
  
The film industry along with fan magazines showing the stars became a worldwide means of showing contemporary fashion and some films included fashion shows as a part of the story. Licensing deals between clothing companies, movies stars and film companies expanded a trend that has only grown over the years.
 
Models became the clothes horses of fashion and each trend is reflected in their shape, hair and personalities. A classic example of this would be the English models of the 1960s including Jean Shrimpton and Twiggy both becoming superstars of the age of Swinging London.  
  
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Jean Shrimpton 
  
 
  
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Twiggy 
  
During the same period the photographers themselves who were involved in fashion became celebrities themselves with people like David Bailey, Brian Duffy, Terry O'Neill, Snowdon and Norman Parkinson.
 
If "fashion is the secret police of desire"[8] photography is the means of dissemination. 
  
Fashion 1930s 
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Fashion 1940s 
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Fashion 1950s 
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Fashion 1960s 
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3.02   Fashion >  Early fashion photography 
  
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These two journal illustrations show costumes in 1851 from America and France but they have far more than that to tell us.[9] The American Costume:
No. 1 represents Mrs. Amelia Bloomer, of Seneca Falls, N. Y. It was engraved from a Daguerreotype for the Cayuga Chief, an excellent newspaper published in Auburn, N. Y., and kindly loaned to us by Mr. Thurlow W. Brown, the gentlemanly proprietor.
and of the French costume:
No. 2 was copied by our own Engraver, from the Illustrated London News, and is an exact copy of the original, without variation; and is a perfect representation of the French Fashions, as worn in July last. We submit the two styles side by side, for the consideration of American Women.
Whilst both illustrations are engravings one is based on a photograph and the other is not. We can we can that the realism of photography is influencing the style of illustrations. 
  
Photo-jewelry 
  
3.03   Fashion >  Photo-jewelry: Bracelets 
  
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In the 1898 short story “My Sweetheart’s Young Man” by Fred Gillett during a visit to a jeweller a bracelet is shown…
The only time this bracelet-watch would come in handy would be when she was ill, and the doctor came to feel her pulse. Besides the watch, this bracelet had a sort of trap-door, which buzzed open on provocation, and showed a place where a miniature photograph could be inserted.
 
"Whose photograph?" I asked.
 
"The young lady's young man's," answered the jeweller. "I don't know which of you two gentlemen is the one; but, whichever it is, it's him."
 
That enigmatic speech of the jeweller's first set me wondering which of us really was Cerise's young man—Knowles or me? "It's like this," said Knowles to me, interrupting my speculations. "When you marry her, she won't want a photograph of you, because she'll always possess the original."
 
He might more appropriately have said, "the negative." That's what I am—Cerise's negative.
 
"That's very true," I said. "It would only be waste of money to put my photo in. Still, I suppose we shall have to put some one's—for it would also be waste of money to buy a bracelet with a trap-door, and not put a photograph into it. We might have a photo of the Queen or Lord Salisbury."
 
"Or one of me?" suggested Knowles. It was just like him to think of the right thing on the spur of the moment.[10]
 
  
3.04   Fashion >  Photo-jewelry: Brooches 
  
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In a 19th memoir the gift of a brooch from the last German Empress Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein (1858 –1921) to a lady at the Augusta Hospital in Berlin was remembered:
Two days before I left, Her Majesty visited the hospital, and came to my room. Sitting down on my sofa she took a small parcel and a photograph out of her pocket. The parcel contained a black brooch of onyx, with a locket at its back. Cutting with a pair of scissors her photograph to the proper size and fitting it in the locket, she gave me the brooch, requesting me always to wear it in remembrance of her; she had worn it herself in very sad moments. Much affected by this great kindness of my most gracious sovereign I put on the brooch, and inclined to superstitious ideas as I am, I imagined it was a kind of talisman protecting me against evil, which I must guard like the apple of my eye. As the fastening seemed to me not secure enough, I went on my return to Coblentz to Mrs. Goldschmidt the jeweller, and asked her to make me an extra chain as an additional security, but she laughed at me and said that the fastening was as secure as could be. Still it was not so. When I, one evening, undressed, I discovered with dismay that this my supposed talisman was gone: and I became the more excited, as I never lost anything and now imagined that my good luck was lost with it also. I advertised in several papers offering a reward exceeding the value of the brooch, but in vain; it was not found, at least not restored to me. I was really afraid to meet Her Majesty again, and when a friendly lady advised me to buy a similar brooch, assuring me that the Empress would not become aware of the change, I could not follow her advice, as it was repugnant to my feelings. The Empress did not notice my loss, but I always felt guilty for not confessing it to her.[11]
 
  
3.05   Fashion >  Photo-jewelry: Lockets 
  
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Portraits and photographs in lockets are common place in Victorian popular fiction as this example by M.E. Braddon in the story “To the Bitter End” (April 1872) shows:
'I should like to give her something,' he said to himself; 'something as a—as a souvenir. I have caused her only too much pain; why should I not give her one half-hour of innocent pleasure? And it comes natural to a woman to be fond of these things. But I think she would hardly care for anything unless there were a sentiment associated with it. A locket, for instance—I suppose that would be the right kind of thing—a locket, with my photograph in it. She is simple enough and loving enough to value my unworthy countenance. And I am rather better-looking in a photograph than in the flesh—that is one comfort. There are some men whom the sun always shows at their worst, exaggerating every wrinkle; but me Helios treats kindly.'
 
He had almost decided the point to his own satisfaction, and was going into the shop, when he stopped suddenly, turned on his heel, and walked a few paces farther, still meditating.
 
'How about aunt Hannah?' he asked himself. 'There's the rub. If I were to send Grace my likeness, she must surely see it. What is there which those piercing eyes of hers do not see? And yet I must be the clumsiest of Lotharios if I can't cheat aunt Hannah. What were such sharp-eyed all-seeing people created for, except to be duped egregiously, sooner or later? Yes; I think I am a match for aunt Hannah.'
 
He turned back again, and this time went straight to the jeweller's counter. He selected a locket—the handsomest, or the one that pleased him best, in the shop: a massive dead-gold locket, oval, with an anchor in large rich-looking pearls on the back; such a jewel as a man would scarcely choose for a farmer's daughter, unless he had sunk very far down that pit from which extrication is so difficult and so rare. He turned the locket over in his fingers thoughtfully after he had chosen and paid for it.
 
'I suppose, now,' he said to the shopman, 'you could make me a false back to this thing, and put a portrait into it in such a manner that its existence need only be known to the owner of the locket?'
 
The shopman replied diffusely, to the effect that the thing was practicable, but would be troublesome, requiring great nicety of adjustment, and so on, and so on, and would be, of course, expensive.
 
'I don't care about a pound or two, more or less,' said Mr. Walgrave. 'I should like the thing done, if it can be done neatly. There must be a secret spring, you understand, in the style one reads about in novels. I never saw it in real life; but I have a fancy for trying the experiment. You can send to me for the photograph in a day or two; and the sooner you can let me have the locket the better.'
 
He tossed his card on to the counter and departed, more interested in this trifling purchase than he had been in anything for a long time.[12]
 
  
3.06   Fashion >  Photo-jewelry: Pendants 
  
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3.07   Fashion >  Photo-jewelry: Rings 
  
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3.08   Fashion >  Photo-jewelry: Stick pins 
  
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3.09   Fashion >  Photo-jewelry: Political 
  
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In 1861 Charles Dickens published an article Election-Time in America in All Year Round: A Weekly Journal in which he described the types of promotional material, including photo-jewelry, that was common during elections.
Everywhere advertisements meet your eye of this inflammatory kind:
 
Roll On Roll Up !
 
Sixteen varieties of Campaign Medals, solid rim, with milled edge and giltshell rim medals containing beautiful melainotype likenesses of
 
Lincoln and Hamlin,
Bell and Everett,
Douglas and Johnson,
Breckinridge and Lane.
 
Mark Barnewitz and Jonathan Pumpner, 38 and 40, West Fourth-Street, New York.
 
Now, when I go to the store of Barnewitz, and buy these election badges, which are about the size of a five-dollar gold piece, I find they bear on one side the likeness of the nominee for President, on the other the Vice-Président, and are to be worn at the button-hole. I have seen thousands wearing them; and since I have been in America, and indeed a week ago on the Alabama river, I met a well-known duellist with a little silver bell on his watchchain : signifying thereby his changeless attachment to Mr. Bell, one of the candidates for the presidentship. These election medals follow me everywhere barefooted boys bring cigar-boxes full of them for sale, into the luxurious marble-paved smoking-rooms of the great hotels; lean dried-up men hawk them through the long avenues of the railway-cars, and awake me to recommend their medals and their "plum candy;" the shops have trays of them in their windows; you can almost tell in different cities how the voting is likely to go, by the majority of medals you meet, being either "Lincoln" or "Douglas."[13]
 
  
Items of clothing 
  
3.10   Fashion >  Still life: Textiles and lace 
  
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Slideshow (Be patient as this has 18 slides to load.) 
  
 
  
Key fashion photographers 
  
3.11   Fashion >  Norman Parkinson (1913-1990) 
  
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These examples from 1959 and 1960 show both the colour and black & white styles of Norman Parkinson. 
  
Magazines 
  
3.12   Fashion >  Vanity Fair 
  
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The society magazines of the early twentieth century were the arbiters of good taste and the status quo - a land were the monarchies of Europe were a good influence and where tea on lawn was to be accompanied by photographs of people of exquiste taste, power or artistic prowess. During the early years of Vanity Fair[14] it was owned by Condé Naste and the editor from 1914 to 1936 was Frank Crowninshield who said that the target audience was:
"... people of means, who cultivate good taste, read good books, buy the best pictures, appreciate good opera, love good music and build distinguished homes.."[15]
There may have been a lack of gravitas in the writing and the political turmoils of the period were largely ignored but this was not the point of the magazine. Where it excelled was in the photography and the ability of the picture editor to obtain the very best portraits of the period. To look at a list of the photographers who provided portraits to Vanity Fair during this period is to see the very best.
 
Photographers whose work was shown in Vanity Fair (1914-1936) included:
Photographers included in Vanity Fair (1914-1936)
James Abbé
Berenice Abbott
Malcolm Arbuthnot
Cecil Beaton
Imogen Cunningham
Adolf deMeyer
Arnold Genthe
Maurice Goldberg
Emil Otto Hoppé
Horst
George Hoyningen-Heune
Gertrude Käsebier
Man Ray
Nickolas Muray
August Sander
Charles Sheeler
Edward Steichen
Alfred Stieglitz
Edward Weston
 
  
Fashion houses 
  
3.13   Fashion >  Fashion houses and photography 
  
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The rise of the fashion house linked to a named individual has been a fascinating phenomenon and has its roots in the early 20th century. Although there were named fashion designers long before this the global awareness of individuals really came to the fore with the rise of the great fashion magazines such as Harper's Bazaar and Vogue which were innovative in the way they used photography.
 
The names from the early 1900's are the names of legend Coco Chanel, Gucci, Fendi, Yves Saint Laurent and Prada.
  • Coco Chanel opened her millinery shop in 1912 and rapidly rose to become one of the premier fashion designers in Paris, France.
     
  • Prada, the Italian fashion house, was established in Milan, Italy in 1913.
     
  • Guccio Gucci was born in 1881 and opened his first shop in Florence in 1920.
     
  • Edoardo and Adele Fendi opened a small leather and fur store in 1925 in Via del Plebiscito in the center of Rome.
     
  • Elsa Schiaparelli (1890-1973) was a French designer who established a fashion house in Paris that ran from the late 1920's until 1954, and established a New York showroom in 1949.
The cult of the personality they developed in the 1920's and 30's has led to the glitterati of today where the cult is molded by the designs of Karl Lagerfield, Christian Dior, Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, Louis Vuitton and the Versace family
  
3.14   Fashion >  Fashion houses: Gianni Versace 
  
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The major fashion houses have always hired photographers with the ability to show their clothes to the greatest advantage. Advertising and fashion shows are an essential promotional activity and have a higher proportional budgets than in most comparable industries.
 
The collections of Gianni Versace (1946-1997) for example used Richard Avedon (1923-2004) and Irving Penn to take the photographs and these were published in books of the different seasonal collections. 
  
3.15   Fashion >  Parisian couture (ca. 1900-1920) 
  
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Fashion photographers by decade 
  
3.16   Fashion >  Fashion photographers by decade 
  
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To highlight the main trends in fashion photography each decade is discussed within a separate theme and influential magazine such as Vogue have pages to themselves.  
  
3.17   Fashion >  Fashion 1920s 
  
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Following the First World War (1914-1918) there was a strong reaction against the values of the older generation that was held responsible for the carnage. Women were struggling to get political representation and were entering the workplace in larger numbers. The younger generation of the wealthier classes were expressing themselves in their clothing and through the music of the Jazz Age. The stylistic elements of modernism, abstraction and Art Deco were incorporated into architecture, design and clothing styles.  
  
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Adolf De Meyer 
  
Fashion photography had been firmly rooted in approaches that had come out of Pictorialism - indeed Baron Adolf De Meyer[16] had been appointed as photographer at Vogue based upon his works done in the first decade of the twentieth century that were stylistically reminiscent of portrait painting. By the early twenties this approach was looking dated and out of line with cultural changes that were being driven by youth rather than aging aristocrats. Edward Steichen replaced Baron Adolf De Meyer as Chief Photographer for Condé Nast publications in 1923 and there was a move towards a more modernist and geometric approach to fashion photography.  
  
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Edward Steichen 
  
The striking images of Edward Steichen[17] used props and light to create visual patterns that reflected the optimism of the high society 1920's. The fashion houses of Elsa Schiaparelli, Vionnet and Alix all promoted the new woman - the short haired smoking thin waisted debutante. Pictorialism was rejected and soft focus was replaced by sharp detail - outdoor photography became increasingly common along with the angular designs of Cubism.  
  
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George Hoyningen-Heune 
  
In Europe the British edition of Vogue came out in 1916 followed in 1920 by the French edition based in Paris. George Hoyningen-Heune, who was recruited to French Vogue in 1925.[18] The same year that George Hoyningen-Heune joined French Vogue the International Decorative Arts Exhibition (Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels) was held in Paris. This showed commercial products where design had been incorporated along with functionality into everyday items - at the time this was called Moderne, Jazz Moderne or Streamline Modern but is now better known as Art Deco. George Hoyningen-Heune used parallels from the clean lines of antiquity to pose models as remote objects of desire. This style of linking back to classical themes had its roots in the pictorialist style of Fred Holland Day - but now there was none of the gentle fuzziness - beauty and elegance was the issue and the backgrounds and props served to give the model a static religious like desire - these were the Vestal virgins for a new age. 
  
3.18   Fashion >  Fashion 1930s 
  
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The 1930's were a period of financial instability following the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the heady extravagance of the 1920's in Western Europe and America came to an abrupt end. Unemployment rose rapidly to devastating levels and in America the situation worsened with the social ravages bought about by the droughts and dust storms in the rural heartland. This was a time when optimism was difficult to justify and the exotic fashions of the 1920's were out of line with what was happening to the working population.  
  
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Horst 
  
 
  
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A.L. Schaeffer 
  
 
  
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Martin Munkácsi 
  
 
  
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George Hurrell 
  
 
  
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George Saad 
  
 
  
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Man Ray 
  
 
  
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Louise Dahl-Wolfe 
  
 
  
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George Hoyningen-Huene 
  
 
  
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Norman Parkinson 
  
 
  
   Fashion 1930s 
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3.19   Fashion >  Fashion 1940s 
  
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Within Europe and America the 1940's were split into two very distinct parts by the Second World War - firstly there was the restrictive war period with restrictions on fabric availability and a tendency to less flamboyance as more women entered the workforce. Following the war the New Look of Christian Dior brought back high fashion with a swirling flourish.  
  
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Horst 
  
 
  
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Louise Dahl-Wolfe 
  
 
  
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Norman Parkinson 
  
 
  
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Barbara Morgan 
  
 
  
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George Platt Lynes 
  
 
  
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Toni Frissell 
  
 
  
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Cecil Beaton 
  
 
  
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Fritz Henle 
  
 
  
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Richard Avedon 
  
 
  
   Fashion 1940s 
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3.20   Fashion >  Fashion 1950s 
  
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The 1950s had a freedom from rationing and the austerity that had plagued the fashions of Second World War (1939-1945) and the years that immediately followed it.  
  
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1950s colour fashion photography 
  
 
  
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Lillian Bassman 
  
 
  
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Jean-Philippe Charbonnier 
  
 
  
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Louise Dahl-Wolfe 
  
 
  
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Toni Frissell 
  
 
  
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Frank Horvat 
  
 
  
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William Klein 
  
 
  
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Willy Maywald 
  
 
  
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Frances McLaughlin-Gill 
  
 
  
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Norman Parkinson 
  
 
  
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Irving Penn 
  
 
  
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Horst 
  
 
  
   Fashion 1950s 
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3.21   Fashion >  Fashion 1960s 
  
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David Bailey 
  
 
  
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Lillian Bassman 
  
 
  
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Cecil Beaton 
  
 
  
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Guy Bourdin 
  
 
  
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Terence Donovan 
  
 
  
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Brian Duffy 
  
 
  
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Philippe Halsman 
  
 
  
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Horst 
  
 
  
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William Klein 
  
 
  
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Frances McLaughlin-Gill 
  
 
  
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Norman Parkinson 
  
 
  
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Irving Penn 
  
 
  
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Rico Puhlmann 
  
 
  
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Frank Horvat 
  
 
  
   Fashion 1960s 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
3.22   Fashion >  Fashion 1970s 
  
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3.23   Fashion >  Fashion 1980s 
  
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3.24   Fashion >  Fashion 1990s 
  
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Fashion and the use of colour 
  
3.25   Fashion >  The rise of colour in fashion photography 
  
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Fashion and transportation 
  
3.26   Fashion >  Transportation and fashion examples 
  
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Fashion and the military 
  
3.27   Fashion >  Fashion: Accessories: Gas masks 
  
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Slideshow 
  
Every technological development has a photographic history and gas masks[19] are no exception. Over time to understand these developments we need to establish temporal timelines of images that show both the innovations and how these changes have affected the photography of warfare. 
  
Contemporary fashion 
  
3.28   Fashion >  Contemporary fashion photography 
  
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By the 1980's photographers such as Sarah Moon and Deborah Turbeville were creating images of women that reflected changing social attitudes. Here the women are not in control or at ease with their surroundings - it is a form of fashion photography where the model and subject in the photograph seems to be questioning whether to be there. Fashion photography molds generations but at the same time it is a victim of it's own success - a successful advertizing campaign leads to imitators and years pass where the style is the emmaciated destruction and androgynous look of heroin chique without the context of drug abuse that Larry Clark gave in his seminal book Tulsa. In Terryworld the images of fashion photographer Terry Richardson blends sex and fashion into a world of no taboos - here porn becomes a fashion statement and style. Fashion goes through phases when under-age models are used to sell underwear and cosmetics to increasingly young audiences. It is the sermon of the old to remember and lecture on a golden age when things were not so commercialized - and I'm doing exactly that.
 
In many ways I agree with the comments made by the curator at MOMA (NY) when the exhibition on Contemporary fashion was mounted, by the late 80's and 90's there was a move from the clothes themselves to two different approaches to marketing them. The first was to make them appear as if the models are actors or props on a film set - rather like the fabricated realities of Cindy Sherman[20] approach, whilst the second is lifestyle. 
  
Case studies 
  
3.29   Fashion >  Robinson & Roi: The Famous Glass Dress - Royal Robe of Princess Eulalia 
  
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In this cabinet card shows a mannequin wearing the glass dress that was ordered by the Spanish Princess Eulalia at the 1893 World's Fair. The back of the card provides the context and serves as a promotion for The Libbey Glass Company
  
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Joan L. Severa, 1997, Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900, (Kent State University Press); Joan L. Severa, 2006, My Likeness Taken: Daguerreian Portraits In America, (Kent State University Press); LInda Setnik, 2012, Victorian Costume for Ladies 1860-1900, (Schiffer Publishing Ltd); Linda Setnik, 2012, Victorian Fashions for Women and Children: Society's Impact on Dress, (Schiffer Publishing Ltd); Kristina Harris, 2002, Victorian Fashion in America: 264 Vintage Photographs, (Dover Publications); Priscilla Harris Dalrymple, 1991, American Victorian Costume in Early Photographs, (Dover Publications)
     
    Photo historians have long recognised the bidirectional benefits of studying fashion and photography. The photographs serves as a means of understanding the diversity of fashions, the changes of time and presumably with a corpus of photographs with known dates the possibility of using statistical tracking of regional changes in fashions. In the opposite direction fashion photographs can provide clues as to changes in technical processes, studio and lighting arrangements and give before and after dates to undated photographs. These clues are significant in better understanding the history of photography. See - Alison Gernsheim, 1982, Victorian and Edwardian Fashion: A Photographic Survey, (Dover publications) 
      
  2. Λ Victoria Sherrow, 2006, Encyclopedia of Hair: A Cultural History, (Greenwood); Marian I. Doyle, 2003, An Illustrated History of Hairstyles 1830-1930, (Schiffer Publishing); Maureen A. Taylor, 2009, Fashionable Folks Hairstyles 1840-1900, (Picture Perfect Press) 
      
  3. Λ Helen Bunkin & Randall Williams, 2000, Beards, Beards, Beards!, (Hunter & Cyr); Allan Peterkin, 2001, One Thousand Beards. A Cultural History of Facial Hair, (Arsenal Pulp Press) 
      
  4. Λ Larry J. West & Patricia A. Abbott, 2005, Antique Photographic Jewelry: Tokens of Affection and Regard, (Larry J. West- Privately printed) 
      
  5. Λ There is no known connection between the Talbot Photographic Studio in Paris and the inventor of photography Henry Fox Talbot. 
      
  6. Λ Kerry Taylor, 2013, Vintage Fashion & Couture: From Poiret to McQueen, (Michael Beazley, p. 12 
      
  7. Λ Kerry Taylor, 2013, Vintage Fashion & Couture: From Poiret to McQueen, (Michael Beazley, p. 46 
      
  8. Λ "Fashion is the secret police of desire" comes from graffiti Alan Griffiths saw on Clapham Common in London in the mid 1970s. 
      
  9. Λ October 1851, The Water-Cure Journal (New York), vol. XII, no. 4, p. 96. 
      
  10. Λ Fred Gillet, Sept – Dec 1898, “My Sweetheart’s Young Man”,Crampton’s Magazine of Fiction [LateChapman’s], vol. XI, p. 57 
      
  11. Λ Agnes Elisabeth Winona Leclerq Joy Salm-Salm (Prinzessin zu), 1877, Ten Years of My Life, (Belford Brothers), p. 369 
      
  12. Λ M.E. Braddon, April 1872, “To the Bitter End”, Belgravia, vol. VII (Second Series), vol. XVII (First Series), pp. 159-160 
      
  13. Λ Charles Dickens, 13 April 1861, "Election-Time in America", All Year Round: A Weekly Journal, vol. 5, pp. 67-68 
      
  14. Λ 1982, Vanity Fair: Portraits of an Age 1914-1936, (Thames and Hudson); Graydon Carter & David Friend, 2008, Vanity Fair: The Portraits: A Century of Iconic Images, (Harry N. Abrams) 
      
  15. Λ Quote in 1982, Vanity Fair: Portraits of an Age 1914-1936, (Thames and Hudson), p. xii 
      
  16. Λ R. Brandau (ed.), 1976, De Meyer, (New York: Knopf); Alexandra Anderson-Spivy, 1992, Of Passions and Tenderness: Portraits of Olga by Baron de Meyer, (Marina del Rey: Graystone Books); Anne Ehrenkranz et al., 1994, A Singular Elegance: The Photographs of Baron Adolph de Meyer, (San Francisco: Chronicle Books; New York: International Center of Photography) 
      
  17. Λ Edward Steichen, 1985, A Life In Photography, (New York: Bonanza Books); J. Steichen (ed.), 2000, Steichen’s Legacy: Photographs, 1895–1973, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) 
      
  18. Λ W. A. Ewing, 1998, The Photographic Art of Hoyningen-Huene, (New York: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  19. Λ Gas Mask - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 6 August 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_mask 
      
  20. Λ Cindy Sherman & Peter Galassi, 2003, Cindy Sherman: The Complete Untitled Film Stills, (New York: Musem of Modern Art)
     
    In 1995, The Museum of Modern Art (New York) purchased the series from the artist, preserving the work in its entirety. 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Bailey, David & Harrison, Martin, 1985, Shots of Style. Great Fashion Photographs chosen by David Bailey, (London: Victoria & Albert Museum) isbn-10: 185177081X isbn-13: 978-1851770816 [Δ
  
Dalrymple, Priscilla Harris, 1991, American Victorian Costume in Early Photographs, (Dover Publications) [Δ
  
Harris, Kristina, 2002, Victorian Fashion in America: 264 Vintage Photographs, (Dover Publications) [Δ
  
Harrison, Martin, 1991, Appearances: Fashion Photography since 1945, (Rizzoli) isbn-10: 0847813711 isbn-13: 978-0847813711 [Δ
  
Lansdell, Avril, 1985, Fashion à la Carte 1860-1900, (London: Shire Publications) [Δ
  
Meinwald, Dan, 1990, ‘Memento Mori: Death in Nineteenth Century Photography‘, CMP Bulletin, California Museum of Photography, vol. 9, no. 4 [Δ
  
Setnik, Linda, 2012, Victorian Costume for Ladies 1860-1900, (Schiffer Publishing Ltd) isbn-10: 0764339729 isbn-13: 978-0764339721 [2nd edition] [Δ
  
Setnik, Linda, 2012, Victorian Fashions for Women and Children: Society's Impact on Dress, (Schiffer Publishing Ltd) isbn-10: 0764341642 isbn-13: 978-0764341649 [Δ
  
Severa, Joan L., 1997, Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900, (Kent State Univ Press) isbn-10: 0873385128 isbn-13: 978-0873385121 [Δ
  
Severa, Joan L., 2006, My Likeness Taken: Daguerreian Portraits In America, (Kent State Univ Press) isbn-10: 0873388372 isbn-13: 978-0873388375 [Δ
  
Taylor, Kerry, 2013, Vintage Fashion & Couture: From Poiret to McQueen, (Mitchell Beazley) isbn-10: 1845337956 isbn-13: 978-1845337957 [Δ
  
Vanity Fair, 1982, Vanity Fair: Portraits of an Age 1914-1936, (Thames and Hudson) [Δ
  
West, Larry J. & Abbott, Patricia A., 2005, Antique Photographic Jewelry: Tokens of Affection and Regard, (Larry J. West- Privately printed) isbn-10: 0977710777 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
G. Agié 
  
Roger-Miles, L. & Agié, G., 1910, Les Createurs de la Mode, (Paris: Ch. Eggimann / Edition du Figaro) [175 numbered copies] [Δ
  
Amy Arbus 
  
Arbus, Amy, 2006, On the Street, (Welcome) [Δ
  
Richard Avedon 
  
Arbus, Doon & Avedon, Richard, 1999, The Sixties, (Random House) [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 1976, Portraits, (New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux) [Also published by Noonday Press (1976)] [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 1978, Avedon Photographs: 1947-1977, (Farrar Straus & Giroux) [Essay by Harold Brodkey] [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 1993, An Autobiography, (New York: Random House) [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 1994, Evidence: 1944-1994, (Random House) [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 1998, Versace: The Naked and the Dressed, (Random House) [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 2001, Richard Avedon: Made in France, (Fraenkel Gallery) [Essay by Judith Thurman] [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 2002, Vice et versa: 20 ans de mode de Versace, (Plume) [Δ
  
Avedon, Richard, 2005, Women in the Mirror: 1945-2004, (Harry N. Abrams, Inc) [Δ
  
Cecil Beaton 
  
Pepper, Terence, 2004, Beaton: Portraits, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300102895 isbn-13: 978-0300102895 [Δ
  
Ross, Josephine, 2012, Beaton in Vogue, (Thames & Hudson) isbn-10: 0500290245 isbn-13: 978-0500290248 [Δ
  
Vickers, Hugo, 2003, Beaton in the Sixties, (Weidenfeld & Nicolson) isbn-10: 0297645560 isbn-13: 978-0297645566 [Δ
  
Erwin Blumenfeld 
  
Ewing, William A., 1996, A Fetish For Beauty: Blumenfeld, (Thames & Hudson) isbn-10: 0500542023 isbn-13: 978-0500542026 [Δ
  
Ewing, William A. & Schinz, Marina, 1996, Blumenfeld: Photographs: A Passion for Beauty, (Harry N Abrams) isbn-10: 0810931451 isbn-13: 978-0810931459 [Δ
  
Alexey Brodovitch 
  
Grundberg, Andy, 2002, Brodovitch, (Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810907240 isbn-13: 978-0810907249 [Δ
  
Purcell, Kerry William, 2002, Alexey Brodovitch, (New York: Phaidon Press) isbn-10: 0714841633 isbn-13: 978-0714841632 [Δ
  
Baron Adolph de Meyer 
  
Brandau, R. (ed.), 1976, De Meyer, (New York: Knopf) [Δ
  
Ehrenkranz, Anne et al., 1994, A Singular Elegance: The Photographs of Baron Adolph de Meyer, (San Francisco: Chronicle Books; New York: International Center of Photography) [Δ
  
Terence Donovan 
  
Donovan, Diana & Hillman, David (eds.), 2000, Terence Donovan: The Photographs, (London: Little Brown & Cc) [Δ
  
Bruce Gilden 
  
Gilden, Bruce, 2002, Facing New York, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) isbn-10: 094879707X isbn-13: 978-0948797071 [Δ
  
George Hoyningen-Huene 
  
Ewing, W. A., 1998, The Photographic Art of Hoyningen-Huene, (New York: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
  
Alfred Cheney Johnston 
  
Hudovernik, Robert, 2006, Jazz Age Beauties: The Lost Collection of Ziegfeld Photographer Alfred Cheney Johnston, (Universe) isbn-10: 0789313812 isbn-13: 978-0789313812 [Δ
  
Johnston, Alfred Cheney, 1987, September, Alfred Cheney Johnston: Women of talent and beauty 1917 to 1930, (Malvern, PA: Charles Isaacs Photographs) [Sales catalogue] [Δ
  
Johnston, Alfred Cheney, 1990, Alfred Cheney Johnston: Woman of Talent and Beauty, (Light Impressions) isbn-10: 999032672X isbn-13: 978-9990326727 [Δ
  
Lee Miller 
  
Conekin, Becky E., 2013, Lee Miller in Fashion, (Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 050051691X isbn-13: 978-0500516911 [Δ
  
Martin Munkácsi 
  
Morgan, Susan, 1992, Martin Munkacsi, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
White, Nancy & Esten, John, 1979, Style in Motion: Munkacsi Photographs ’20s, ’30s, ’40s, (New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.) [Δ
  
Herb Ritts 
  
Martineau, Paul, 2012, Herb Ritts: L.A. Style, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 1606061003 isbn-13: 978-1606061008 [With an essay by James Crump] [Δ
  
Bruce Weber 
  
Weber, Bruce, 1991, Calvin Klein Jeans Supplement [Δ
  
Weber, Bruce, 2003, A Letter to true: A Film Journal by Bruce Weber - Supplement to Vogue Italia, (Vogue Italia) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Richard Avedon 
http://www.pbs.org ... 
This is part of the excellent American Masters series of television programs broadcast by PBS in the USA. 
  
Condé Nast Art 
http://www.condenastart.com 
This the official sales arm for the photographic and art work used in the various Condé Nast publications including Vogue, Vanity Fair and the New Yorker. If you wish to purchase a photographic print or discuss rights and permissions this will be a useful starting point. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
G. Agié • Richard Avedon  (1923-2004) • Lillian Bassman  (1917-2012) • Cecil Beaton  (1904-1980) • Gilles Bensimon • Erwin Blumenfeld  (1897-1969) • Guy Bourdin  (1928-1991) • Alexey Brodovitch  (1898-1971) • Louise Dahl-Wolfe  (1895-1989) • Corinne Day  (1965-) • Baron Adolph de Meyer  (1868-1946) • Patrick Demarchelier  (1943-) • Brian Duffy  (1933-2010) • Felix-Paris • Toni Frissell  (1907-1988) • F.C. Gundlach  (1926-) • Hiro  (1930-) • E.O. Hoppé  (1878-1972) • Horst  (1906-1999) • George Hoyningen-Huene  (1900-1968) • Nick Knight  (1958-) • Serge Lutens  (1942-) • George Platt Lynes  (1907-1955) • Man Ray  (1890-1976) • Henri Manuel • Guido Mocafico  (1962-) • Sarah Moon  (check) • Martin Munkácsi  (1896-1963) • Arnold Newman  (1918-2006) • Helmut Newton  (1920-2004) • Norman Parkinson  (1913-1990) • Irving Penn  (1917-2009) • Platon  (1968-) • John Rawlings  (check) • Terry Richardson  (1965-) • Herb Ritts  (1952-2002) • Paolo Roversi  (1947-) • George Saad • Satoshi Saikusa  (1959-) • Francesco Scavullo  (1921-2004) • David Seidner  (1957-1999) • Jeanloup Sieff  (1933-2000) • David Sims • Victor Skrebneski  (1929-) • Rodney Smith • Melvin Sokolsky  (1933-) • Edward Steichen  (1879-1973) • Juergen Teller • Mario Testino • Deborah Turbeville  (1937-2013) • Javier Vallhonrat  (1953-) • Albert Watson  (1942-) • Bruce Weber  (1946-) • Joel-Peter Witkin  (1939-)
HomeThemes > Fashion 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Photo-jewelry 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Fashion

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAndrej Glusgold: An Evolving Retrospective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 12, 2007)
ThumbnailFashion 1930s 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 25, 2011)
ThumbnailFashion 1940s 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 25, 2011)
ThumbnailFashion 1950s 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 25, 2011)
ThumbnailFashion 1960s 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 25, 2011)
ThumbnailFashion: 19th Century - Dating - Children 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 24, 2011)
ThumbnailFashion: 19th Century - Dating - Gentlemen 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 24, 2011)
ThumbnailFashion: 19th Century - Dating - Ladies 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 24, 2011)
ThumbnailFashion: 19th Century - Dating - Mixed 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 24, 2011)
ThumbnailLillian Bassman 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 17, 2007)
ThumbnailTalbot: Fashion Photography in Paris 1910-1920 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 7, 2007)
  
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Fashion

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailLisa Fonssagrives 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA. Denis & Cie.: Tintype in a carte de visite mount: A woman in mourning 
ThumbnailAlbert Renger-Patzsch: Schubert & Salzer - Textile machinery - Ingolstadt 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailErwin Blumenfeld: Lisa Fonssagrives on the Eiffel Tower (1939) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelix-Paris: Parisian couture (ca. 1900-1920) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrances McLaughlin-Gill: Fashion 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailG. Agié: Les Createurs de la Mode (1910) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailG. Agié: Parisian couture (ca. 1900-1920) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenri Manuel: Couture hats (ca. 1910) 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: Textiles 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHorst: Round the Clock 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHorst: The Mainbocher Corset 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailIrving Penn: Fashion 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailIrving Penn: Gianni Versace collections 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailIzima Kaoru: #21 Otsuka Nene wears Tuzigahana 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMartin Munkácsi: Lucille Brokaw 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMelanie Pullen: High Fashion Crime Scenes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMelvin Sokolsky: The bubble series (1963) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMilton Miller (attributed): Chinese lady in traditional and French costume 
ThumbnailRichard Avedon: Gianni Versace collections 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Klein: Models smoking 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailEdward Steichen - Erwin Blumenfeld 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailDocumentary: Death: Mourning clothing 
ThumbnailFashion: 19th century - Dating - Children 
ThumbnailFashion: 19th century - Dating - Gentlemen 
ThumbnailFashion: 19th century - Dating - Ladies 
ThumbnailFashion: 19th century Illustrations 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Eyewear (spectacles, glasses and sunglasses) 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Fans 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Gas masks 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Headwear 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Jewellery 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Mannequins - Dress forms 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Masks 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Umbrellas and parasols 
ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Veils 
ThumbnailFashion: Bound feet 
ThumbnailFashion: Clothing displays 
ThumbnailFashion: Costume: Body stockings 
ThumbnailFashion: Costume: Dressing in foreign clothing 
ThumbnailFashion: Costume: Pierrot and Pierrette 
ThumbnailFashion: Fashion magazines: Early fashion magazines 
ThumbnailFashion: Fashion magazines: Harper`s Bazaar 
ThumbnailFashion: Fashion magazines: Vogue 
ThumbnailFashion: Houses: Coco Chanel 
ThumbnailFashion: Houses: Dior 
ThumbnailFashion: Models: Jean Shrimpton 
ThumbnailFashion: Models: Jeannie Patchett 
ThumbnailFashion: Models: Twiggy 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1840s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1850s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1860s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1890s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1900s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1910s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1920s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1930s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1940s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1950s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1960s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1970s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1980s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 1990s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 2000s 
ThumbnailFashion: Period: 2010s 
ThumbnailFashion: Photo-jewelry: Bracelets 
ThumbnailFashion: Photo-jewelry: Brooches 
ThumbnailFashion: Photo-jewelry: Lockets 
ThumbnailFashion: Photo-jewelry: Pendants 
ThumbnailFashion: Photo-jewelry: Political 
ThumbnailFashion: Photo-jewelry: Rings 
ThumbnailFashion: Photo-jewelry: Stick pins 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailCyanotypes: Themes: Textiles 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailGianni Versace collections 
ThumbnailParisian couture (ca. 1900-1920) 
ThumbnailTextiles and lace 
ThumbnailThe clothing of colonialism 
 
  
Refreshed: 09 December 2014, 21:41
 
  
 
  
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