Luminous-Lint - for collectors and connoisseurs of fine photography
HOME  BACKFREE NEWSLETTER

Getting around

 

HomeWhat's NewContentsVisual IndexesOnline ExhibitionsPhotographersGalleries and DealersThemes
AbstractEroticaFashionLandscapeNaturePhotojournalismPhotomontagePictorialismPortraitScientificStill lifeStreetWar
CalendarsTimelinesTechniquesLibraryImages and WordsSupport 
 

Social media

Share |

 

HomeContentsThemes > Cityscapes - Urban

Contents

Introduction
284.01   Early examples of using photography to provide a social commentary
284.02   Early street photography
Examples
284.03   Landscape: Cityscapes
284.04   Ports, harbours and docks
Photographers
284.05   George Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857)
284.06   Silas A. Holmes (attributed): New York ca. 1855)
284.07   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow
284.08   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh
284.09   Charles Marville: Paris
284.10   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris
284.11   Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal
284.12   H. Béchard: Cairo: Streets
284.13   Désiré Charnay: Views of Mexico City and environs (1858)
284.14   Marc Ferrez: Buildings of Brazil
284.15   Luis Pastorino: Fotografias de Montevideo (1880)
284.16   Album of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later)
284.17   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives
284.18   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers
284.19   Alvin Langdon Coburn: London (1909)
284.20   Alvin Langdon Coburn: New York (1910)
284.21   Edward Steichen: The Flatiron
284.22   Berenice Abbott: Changing New York
284.23   Morrison & Burdekin: London Night (1934)
284.24   W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project
Pictorialism
284.25   Landscape: Pictorialist Cityscapes
Construction
284.26   Landscape: Construction within cityscapes
Wartime
284.27   Cityscapes in wartime
People within the city
284.28   Strolling the city streets
Energy of the city
284.29   William Klein: Books
The contemporary street
284.30   The contemporary street and surveillance
284.31   The contemporary street and mapping
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
284.01   Landscape >  Early examples of using photography to provide a social commentary 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Photographic prints have the ability to inform the higher classes of society about the living conditions of the less fortunate poor and homeless. By the 1860s the wretched decaying quarters of cities were revealed and social remedies were required and this became a political objective. The examples shown have a mixed effect upon a modern audience - they show the cramped alleys and poverty but at the same time there is a misplaced nostalgia for a world that has largely gone in the developed world. 
  
284.02   Landscape >  Early street photography 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There are photographs from the late 1830s and 1840s showing streets including the famous daguerreotype of the View of Boulevard du Temple[5] by Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, calotypes of Paris taken in 1843 by Henry Fox Talbot showing the street from an upper window of the Hotel de Douvres.[6] Remarkable though these photographs are they are more "proof of concept" shots showing what could be done with a photograph rather than a conscious decision to show activity on the street - having said this the distinction is a fine one. To argue a case for the "first" street photographs is unnecessary as we are seeking trends within the genre and "street photography" concentrates on photographers with a commitment to documenting what was happening on the street rather than just streets.  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There are daguerreotypes, carte de visite and albumen prints that show streets and monuments with people but they are more about significant monuments and places.  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
With very photography long exposures meant that streets are largely devoid of people or traces of blurred ghost-like figures remain. The physical street was recorded with the surrounding architecture but life on the street was largely absent. In rare cases such as a civic event, a protest or crowd the whole scene is captured but those are about the "event" rather than the everyday. There is a level of detachment from the events taken place on the street rather than an involvement in it. In cases where photographers recorded people on the street it was to document vendors, traders and the "characters" rather than the fluid mix of people that makes up the everyday. 
  
Examples 
  
284.03   Landscape >  Landscape: Cityscapes 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
284.04   Landscape >  Ports, harbours and docks 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Photographers 
  
284.05   Landscape >  George Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
George Robinson Fardon (1806-1886) with his series of albumenized salt paper prints in San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857) has the distinction of creating the first album of photographs on an American city ever published.[7]
 
Fardon arrived in San Francisco in 1856 and had a Daguerreian Studio at 203 Clay Street in 1859. The book George Robinson Fardon. San Francisco Album: Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings (San Francisco: Fraenkel Galleries, Hans P. Kraus, Jr. and Chronicle Books, 1999) includes a catalogue of the 65 known San Francisco views and their variants by Fardon. Although this is a small number of plates and only nine copies of the complete album are known the importance of a photographic series showing the urban development of an American city is difficult to over emphasize.
 
Fardon later moved to Victoria on Vancouver Island and became one of the earliest photographers on the West Coast of Canada. He first opened a studio at 68 Government Street and in 1864 moved to Langley Street. He died on 20th August 1886 and was buried at Ross Bay Cemetery in Victoria. 
  
   George Robinson  Fardon 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.06   Landscape >  Silas A. Holmes (attributed): New York ca. 1855) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Silas A. Holmes (1820-1886) was an early American photographer who took salted paper prints of New York City in the 1850s. 
  
284.07   Landscape >  Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
This section covers the portfolio The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust. With an Introduction by William Young, R.S.W. that was published in 1900 by James MacLehose & Sons of Glasgow. The importance of this work is that it includes photographs taken by Thomas Annan[8] (1829-1887) in 1868 of the squalid slums and closes of the Scottish city. These photographs are amongst the earliest taken specifically as a record of housing conditions prior to urban renewal and as such they are an important milestone in the history of documentary photography.
 
In the introduction to a 1977 reprint of this work Anita Ventura Mozley wrote:
"It is likely that Annan regarded the commission from the Trustees of the Improvements Act as just another he received when his success as a commercial photographer of Glasgow was increasingly recognized. However inadvertently, he did give us the first thorough photographic representation available of the dwelling places and the inhabitants of an urban slum." [9]
The importance of the choices made by the photographer was almost totally ignored in the original work and it was only on page 22 of the Introduction by the historian William Young that he is mentioned:
"The City Improvement Trustees acquired, by act of parliament, in 1866, the right to alter and reconstruct several of the more densely built areas of the city, and these operations, it was foreseen, would remove many old and interesting landmarks. Before entering upon their work, the Trustees arranged with the late Mr. Thomas Annan to take photographs of a series of views of the closes and streets more immediately affected, and a few copies were presented to members of the Corporation and others."[10]
When Martin Parr and Gerry Badger describe this work in their The Photobook: A History - Volume 1 they make an important observation about the camera viewpoint choices that Annan was largely forced into by the nature of the architectural spaces he was attempting to record.
"The Scottish ‘close‘ and ‘wynd‘ - the terms are almost interchangeable - were familiar landmarks in any city with a densely packed medieval street pattern: narrow passageways leading either from one street to another, or into the middle of a building block. It is the consistently narrow form of the alley that gives formal coherency to most of Annan‘s imagery- he simply stood the camera in the middle of the passageway and shot down it."[11]
Thomas Annan was not the first to record architectural subjects. There had been the Mission Héliographiques in France which combined the talents of Edouard Baldus, Hippolyte Bayard, Gustave Le Gray, Henri Le Secq and Auguste Mestral. There were also the wet collodion photographs of Charles Marville (1816-1879) capturing in the 1860s a record of the streets of Paris prior to their destruction to make way for Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann’s urban redesign. The work of Annan pre-dates that of Eugéne Atget (1857-1927) in creating an important record of a 19th century urban slum: a slum that to many Glasgow residents in the 1860s was home all the same.
 
Thomas Annan was not a purist and improved his printed photographs:
"He added clouds, which brighten the skies over Glasgow‘s slums, and he whitened the wash on the line. He did this for pictorial effect, for nice balance. While his taste for the picturesque, for a tradition inherited from painting, and quite in accord with salon practice of the day, may distort to some extent the immediacy of the mise-en-scene, we must appreciate the fact that he did not tidy up the rest of the picture, as his son, James Craig Annan, did when he made the photogravure plates for the 1900 edition. The photogravures are lighter in tone, and consequently in mood, in the sense of the place, than Annan‘s carbon prints. Moving figures, those ghosts who would not stand still for the photographer, are completely excised in the photogravure edition..."[12]
This brings us to the point that there are multiple versions of the portfolio in carbon prints and photogravures and there are differences between them that are not only a part of the processes involved in reproduction but also in the aesthetics of the printer. When James Craig Annan, the son of Thomas Annan, created the photogravure plates for the 1900 edition he did not remove all of the "ghosts" and though lacking in power compared to their unadulterated carbon print counterparts, the plates shown here do not lack in content or feeling in richness of tone.
 
Finally it is worth providing a short background to the different versions that exist of these photographs. A very small number of bound sets of Annan‘s albumen photographs from this endeavor are known to exist: examples are in the Mitchell Library in Glasgow and in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh. Surprisingly, another set of 31 mounted albumen prints with printed caption labels but lacking the title page and enclosed in a contemporary green half morocco portfolio, lettered on upper cover Glasgow Improvements Act. 1866. Photographs of Streets, Closes &c. taken 1868-71 sold at auction for £13,000 (Lyon and Turnbull in Edinburgh - July 11th, 2006).
 
In the introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley (1977) we also learn of a second edition of this work: "Sometime late in 1878 or early in 1879, an edition comprising 40 carbon prints was published in an edition of 100 quarto-sized copies by Annan‘s Lenzie firm for the Glasgow City Improvements Trust." At the Phillips de Pury auction (New York - April 22, 2004) a complete carbon version of this edition was offered for sale and it realized £66,000.
 
The present edition comes from the photogravure edition of 100 copies (not numbered) issued in 1900 by James MacLehose & Sons of Glasgow. The portfolio contains 50 fine photogravures from wet-collodion negatives taken between 1868 and 1899 and engraved and printed by James Craig Annan of T. & R. Annan & Sons. The later pictures added to the 1900 edition done after Thomas Annan‘s death in 1885 were most likely done by Thomas Annan‘s eldest son John Annan (1862-1947). According to the National Library of Scotland, John Annan was "a member of the family firm of photographers. John specialized in architectural photography and was known for his photographs of Glasgow slums." The National Galleries of Scotland online collections website states in part "His son John inherited the project and in 1900, the family firm T.&R. Annan produced a photogravure album with new prints by John Annan".
 
T. & R. Annan & Sons also printed and issued a second 1900 edition of 100 copies under their own imprint. Glasgow historian William Young supplied an introduction (23 pages-dated August of 1900 in portfolio) for both 1900 photogravure editions but only makes a brief reference to the author of these historically important photographs.
 
© Photoseed & Alan Griffiths (2006) - Used with permission 
  
   Thomas  Annan 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.08   Landscape >  Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Archibald Burns was active in Edinburgh (Scotland) between 1858 and his death in the early 1880s. He provided photographs for the tourist trade and to illustrate books including Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh (1868). In 1871 he was appointed by the Edinburgh Improvement Trust to document an over-crowded slum area of the city after the buildings had been demolished in February 1871.[13] 
  
284.09   Landscape >  Charles Marville: Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Charles Marville[14] as an official city photographer for Napoleon III took a series of about 425 images of the older roads of Paris that were to be destroyed by Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann's[15] redesign of the city during the 1860s. Civil engineering on this scale in a bustling capital city was controversial as it involved the relocation of considerable numbers of citizens but it was viewed as an essential part of Napoleon III's modernisation of Paris through the construction of the grand boulevards.  
  
Charles Marville: The rebuilding of Paris 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
A further commission for Charles Marville was to document the street furniture of the city designed by architect Gabriel Davioud for Baron Haussmann. Marville made magnificent albumen prints of the newly installed gas lamps,[16] ironwork, pissoirs, Morris columns[17] for posting advertising, along the streets. When Paris installed gas lighting along the Champs De Elysees in 1828 it was the first European city to do so. The modernisation of under Baron Haussmann added 20,000 gas lamps[18] and Paris was indeed the "City of Light".  
  
Charles Marville: Gas lamps 
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Charles Marville: Colonne Morris 
Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Charles Marville: Pissoirs 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Charles Marville: Ironwork 
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
   Charles  Marville 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.10   Landscape >  Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Eugène Atget is best known for his photographs late nineteenth and early twentieth century Paris that detail the streets, architecture, shops, parks and trees of the city.[19] He sold photographs to archives and museum and to artists who used them to develop their painting skills. He lived very close to Man Ray in Paris who knew his work and purchased prints. In his final years his work was promoted by Berenice Abbott[20] and the New York gallery owner Julian Levy
  
284.11   Landscape >  Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Carlo Naya[21] and his onetime publisher Carlo Ponti[22] made many of the classic photographs of the canals of Venice that were bought as souvenirs by those who travelled to the great cities of Italy in the nineteenth century. Edward Wilson wrote at the time of Naya's death in 1882:
‘the largest establishment we think we ever saw devoted to photography, in an old palace on the other side of the grand canal‘.
The canals and alleys of Venice were also documented in the 1890s by Ferdinando Ongania.[23] 
  
284.12   Landscape >  H. Béchard: Cairo: Streets 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There are quite a number of photographs taken in Egypt that have a signature "H. Bechard" in the negative. Recent research is starting to question who this was. It may be that "Henri Bechard" never existed and H. Bechard refers to "Hippolyte Bechard" who was the brother of Émile Bechard. "Hippolyte Bechard" never visited Egypt but may have been responsible for printing and/or marketing his brother's Egyptian photographs in France.[24] 
  
284.13   Landscape >  Désiré Charnay: Views of Mexico City and environs (1858) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
284.14   Landscape >  Marc Ferrez: Buildings of Brazil 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
284.15   Landscape >  Luis Pastorino: Fotografias de Montevideo (1880) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
This 1880 album "Fotografias de Montevideo" consists of 24 albumen prints taken by Luis Pastorino, Fotografo, 94A Calle Minas, Montevideo. 
  
   Landscape Urban Montevideo 1880 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.16   Landscape >  Album of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Cyanotypes are rarely found in Italy. Cyanotype views are even rarer, while twelve topographical cyanotypes in a studio album format are virtually unknown, at least in my experience as a collector. Unfortunately, the studio which produced these images is not indicated, though the maker would appear to be a professional photographer who had worked in Florence. He used more than one lens, and he had access to privileged viewpoints, which would not have been available to amateurs or visiting foreigners. The subjects reflect the typical itinerary of the ‘grand tour’ souvenir album of the city, and they were probably derived from glass plates made at an earlier date, probably the early 1880s. The positioning of the camera and the absence of shadows suggests that each view was taken at the most appropriate time of the day, i.e., they are the result of a sustained and costly effort to capture the moment when each subject could be photographed to its best advantage. If albums such as this were intended as a commercial enterprise, however, we can reasonably conclude that the attempt was not a commercial success.[25] 
  
284.17   Landscape >  Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
To publicize the social ills that would be described in his book How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (1890) Jacob A. Riis[26] gave lectures using lantern slides of his photographs and here is an account of one he gave on 25th January 1888 in New York:
THE SOCIETY OF AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHERS OF NEW YORK.
Lantern Exhibition.
 
The regular monthly lantern exhibition was given at the rooms of the Society. 123 West 30th Street, on Wednesday evening, January 25th, and was very largely attended.
 
The subject was, "The Other Half How it lives and dies in New York," and was explained in an informal way by Mr. Jacob A. Riis, who for ten years past has been the police reporter of the New York Press. The object of the exhibition was to picture to the audience the exact condition of the lowest phases of life as it at present exists in New York City. Many of the pictures were obtained by the aid of flash magnesium light.
 
The exhibition opened with a view of a well-known alley in Cherry Street, around which, it was said, 1,000 persons lived.
 
Other views included the "Bandit's Alley," near Mott and Hester Streets, where murderers and thieves congregate and enjoy life in what is known as the "stale beer dives."
 
"Bottle Alley," near Baxter Street, contained many children. A capital picture was that of an old tramp and thief in front of his broken-down shanty. About this Mr. Riis said he obtained the consent of the tramp to stand for ten cents, but he put his pipe in his pocket. So the tramp struck for higher pay, and on giving him five cents more he posed with his pipe as Mr. Riis desired. Another excellent picture illustrated how young boys first practice picking pockets.
 
The object of attack was a drunken man lying down in a stupor. The two boys were on each side overhauling the pockets with decided energy. They term the pickings their winnings, never call it stealing. At a place called "Hell's Kitchen," near Eleventh Avenue on Thirty-ninth Street, they experienced considerable difficulty, were attacked by some of the women with brickbats, which broke one of the plate-holders. The Italian rag-pickers' alley in South Fifth Avenue was shown; the women at work were suddenly dispersed by one word from the Italian proprietor before their pictures could be caught. An Italian tea-kettle was shown, somewhat large in size, stuffed with dirty linen. In the morning the kettle was used as boiler for boiling the clothes; at night it was employed for making tea.
 
A typical group of New York toughs called "The Growlers," was exhibited, hidden away under one of the dump docks on the East Side. They were factory hands, and got young boys to go after beer which they would drink in these places. A single picture of a young lad eight years old carrying a large pail of beer was quite effective. Other views of the back of tenement-houses showing the multiplicity of clothes-lines; of Baxter Street, crowded with humanity; of Mott and Pell Streets, showing Chinese life; the interior of a Chinese opium den, with the Chinamen laying off in their bunks under its influence: of the Chinese altar in the Joss-house, some of the latter being taken by aid of flash-light, were extremely interesting. Also pictures of the interior of the cheap lodging-houses, the Tombs, the Five Points House of Industry, the Catholic Protectory, with children playing around and Sister Irene in the foreground, who is said to have saved 13,003 children; also the exterior and interior of an uptown branch of the Boys' Lodging House of the Children's Aid Society, established through the beneficence of the late Mrs. Robert L. Stuart. All of the above were exceedingly interesting as showing the beneficent power which these institutions exert in this city.
 
Portraits of children side by side, of how they looked when taken from their hovels, and cruel and wretched parents, and after they were cleaned and cared for by Mr. E. Gerry's "Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children," illustrated more forcibly than any word picture the necessity and usefulness of that institution.
 
Several interesting portraits of noted thiefs and forgers, both male and female, taken from the Rogues' Gallery, were shown; Ex-Governor Moses, of South Carolina, had the handsomest looking face.
 
A fine picture, showing four or five detectives holding a refractory thief while he was having his photograph taken, was quite comical.
 
A good interior of a police office, showing the sergeant recording the facts, with the policeman standing near the rail, holding a foundling wrapped up in a black shawl, and messenger and others looking on, was quite effective and well lighted.
 
Several views of the Arabs in their hovels in Washington Street were exhibited. The women lay around on the floor without any bedding, and were completely embedded and begrimed with dirt. These were secured by aid of the flash-light. There were also two or three excellent interiors of the School for Blind Children.
 
The exhibition terminated with several excellent views of the New York Morgue, interior of Bellevue Hospital, exterior and interior of the Penitentiary on Blackwell's Island, of the Lunatic Asylum on Ward's Island, and of the burying ground on Hart's Island.
 
Mr. Riis related many interesting episodes and facts. It was hard to realize the enormity of the degradation and poverty constantly present in the great city. He remarked that four thousand children were barred out from the public schools, because there was not room enough to accommodate all who could attend.
 
At 10 o'clock the entertainment terminated.[27]
 
  
   Documentary 19thc Jacob Riis 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.18   Landscape >  Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Towards the end of the nineteenth century in the United States Jacob Riis (1849-1914) and Lewis Hine (1874-1940) were committed to social change. When Jacob Riis published his first book, How the Other Half Lives on the overcrowded New York slums in 1890 it was a damning statement on societal ills.[28] The book included seventeen halftone illustrations from photographs and a further nineteen hand drawings.
 
The journalist and novelist Stephen Crane (1871-1900) published Maggie: A Girl of the Streets[29] in 1893 and the following year he wrote the article Experiment in Misery when he dressed as a bum and spent a night in a flophouse.[30] 
  
   Documentary 19thc Jacob Riis 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.19   Landscape >  Alvin Langdon Coburn: London (1909) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Alvin Langdon Coburn[31] had twenty-six of his photographs included in Camera Work and had solo exhibitions in New York at the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession in 1907 and 1908.[32] He moved to Hammersmith in London and set up two printing presses at home and mastered the photogravure process. In 1909 visual endeavors were published in his book London.[33]
 
The plates in London include:
Westminster Abbey
The Temple
From Westminster Bridge
Kensington Gardens, November
Hyde Park Corner
St. Paul's from the River
Trafalgar Square
The Tower Bridge
Paddington Canal
Wapping
Leicester Square
Regent's Canal
Waterloo Bridge
Kingsway
The Tower
On the Embankment
Houses of Parliament
London Bridge
The British Lion
St. Paul's From Ludgate Circus
 
  
   Alvin Langdon  Coburn London 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.20   Landscape >  Alvin Langdon Coburn: New York (1910) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
There were twenty photogravures by Alvin Langdon Coburn (1882-1966) included in his 1910 book New York.[34][35] The book was introduced with an essay by H.G. Wells "the famous novelist".
 
The plates in New York include:
The Ferry
The Flat-Iron
The Knickerbocker Trust Company
The Park Row Building
The Skyline
The Tunnel-Builders
Brooklyn Bridge - From the River
Brooklyn Bridge, From a Roof Top
The Chinese Quarter, New York
The Singer Building - Twilight
The Waterfront
Williamsburg Bridge
The Battery
The Metropolitan Tower
The Holland House
Broadway at Night
The Singer Building, Noon
The Unfinished Bridge
The Stock Exchange
Fifth Avenue From the St. Regis
 
  
   Alvin Langdon  Coburn NY 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.21   Landscape >  Edward Steichen: The Flatiron 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
284.22   Landscape >  Berenice Abbott: Changing New York 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Berenice Abbott had known Eugène Atget in Paris and admired and promoted his work after his death in 1927. She saw the significance of detailed documentary projects that preserved the architectural heritage of changing urban centers. In 1935 she proposed her project "Changing New York" to the Federal Art Project (FAP) which was to support unemployed artists and those with related skills during the Great Depression. Berenice Abbott's work resulted in the book Changing New York (1939) with an introduction by art critic Elizabeth McCausland.[36] 
  
   Berenice  Abbott NY 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
284.23   Landscape >  Morrison & Burdekin: London Night (1934) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
John Morrison and Harold Burdekin collaborated together on the book of night photography London Night.[37] 
  
284.24   Landscape >  W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
W. Eugene Smith (1918-1978)[38] is justifiably remembered as a master of the photo-essay and left a legacy with LIFE magazine of memorable pieces that will be found in any significant history of photography. His photo-essays in LIFE included "Spanish Village" (9 April 1951), "Country Doctor" (20 Sept 1948), "Schweitzer" (15 Nov 1954) and the environmental catastrophe of "Minamata" (2 June 1972) and on the last of these he did a book with his second wife Aileen.[39]
 
In March 1955 Eugene Smith, now with Magnum commenced a project for Stefan Lorant[40] to take a hundred photographs for the book project "Pittsburgh: Story of an American City" to commemorate the bicentennial of the industrial city.[41] The project was supposed to take three weeks but it lasted until August and instead of the 100 photographs required Eugene Smith had taken between 11,000, 17,000 or possibly 21,000 negatives.[42] The need to make darkroom prints to assist in the editing process was immediate and James Karales and Howard Feinstein[43] performed the monumental task working day and night. The Smith's house in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, was filled with boards covered with prints as an attempt the edit the debt-laden project continued with the help of two Guggenheim fellowships.
 
Sam Stephenson, biographer of Eugene Smith, said:
"He really thought that when he finished his Pittsburgh project people were going to look at it and change their behaviour. You know, a culture was going to be changed by what he was showing. When he came here to Pittsburgh he saw nature, this extraordinary geographic environment and the heaviest industry America ever had. Immigrants from all over Europe were here. There was destruction and construction. There was wealth and poverty. There were these beautiful rivers. And it all came together in this one bundle in Pittsburgh."[44]
The "Pittsburgh Project" was published in an incomplete Popular Photography's Photography Annual in late 1958 but it was far from the all-embracing vision Eugene Smith desired. The project had grown from a three week assignment for Magnum into a three year project that was never completed to his satisfaction.
 
In 1964 the book edited by Stefan Lorant Pittsburgh: The Story of An American City was published including over 1,000 photographs by Eugene Smith, Margaret Bourke-White and others.[45] 
  
Pictorialism 
  
284.25   Landscape >  Landscape: Pictorialist Cityscapes 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Construction 
  
284.26   Landscape >  Landscape: Construction within cityscapes 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Wartime 
  
284.27   Landscape >  Cityscapes in wartime 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Cities are architecture for the masses. Living together the design of a window, shape of a door, use of tiles, shutters and balconies give us cultural clues. In the old days the way electrical wiring ran or the look of a telephone box could tell us which country you are in. Differences in electrical sockets, mail boxes, the colours and fonts of street signs are material culture discriminators. The street furniture that we find in the photographs of Paris by Charles Marville and Eugène Atget are so particular to a single place and time - we know when we look at a Paris Metro or a London Underground sign where we are not only because of what they say but because design reflects civic values and identity.
 
If we accept that the architecture of cityscapes is culturally determined so the photographs of that place should be. They will reflect in each physical detail spatial and temporal evidence.
 
War destroys not only physical objects - it destroys the notion of time and space. If we look at shelled, bombed and burnt out cities they look similar no matter what period. Just as a naked murder victim loses the context of clothing so does humanity with ravaged cities. 
  
People within the city 
  
284.28   Landscape >  Strolling the city streets 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
Energy of the city 
  
284.29   Landscape >  William Klein: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Between 1955 and 1964 William Klein broke all the supposed rules of street photography if Henri Cartier-Bresson was looking for the "decisive moment"[46] to extract a well composed image of the flow of life in a single moment of stillness Klein was about the visual chaos of fast moving cities. Just as Alexey Brodovitch has influenced visual design and the nature of fashion and dance photography with his motion blurs[47] so Klein altered our perception of the street and the city. The books of his photographs on New York (1955)[48], Rome (1958-1959)[49], Moscow (1964)[50] and Tokyo (1964)[51] are about the energy of a city. The off-kilter shots look like snapshots with their grainy texture with distortion and blurred focus showing people crushed together. These were not the kind of photographs to be included in a travel book of a pristine and tranquil city - they are mood flashes from within cosmopolitan chaos.
 
After around a decade of innovative photographic books William Klein abandoned photography for filmmaking and once again stretched the boundaries with his experimental films.[52] 
  
The contemporary street 
  
284.30   Landscape >  The contemporary street and surveillance 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
284.31   Landscape >  The contemporary street and mapping 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Thomas Annan is well known for his Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry (1870) and for The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust which has gone through multiple editions and is a classic of documentary photography.
     
    For studies on the work of Thomas Annan - Roy McKenzie, 1992, ‘Thomas Annan and the Scottish Landscape: Among the Gray Edifices‘, History of Photography, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 40; Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [With a supplement of 15 related views) with a new introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley. Published through the Cooperation of The International Museum of Photography / George Eastman House]; Ian Spring, 1996, ‘Midnight Scenes and Social Photographs: Thomas Annan's Glasgow‘, in Mancoff, Debra N. & Trela, DJ (eds.), Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and Its Contexts, pp. 195-213; Sara Stevenson, 1990, Thomas Annan 1829-1887, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland)
     
    The book by Thomas Annan is included in - Martin Parr & Gerry Badger (2004) The Photobook: A History, volume 1, (Phaidon Press Limited) 
      
  2. Λ Archibald Burns & Thomas Henderson, 1868, Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh: A Series of Photographs, (Edomonston and Douglas, publishers to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Company)
     
    The National Library of Scotland has a collection of salted paper prints by Archibald Burns. 
      
  3. Λ For Charles Marville and Paris - Jacqueline Chambord (ed.), 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris, 1852-1878, (French Inst/Alliance Francaise); Charles Marville, 1994, Marville Paris, (Hazan); Charles Marville, 1997, Charles Marville, (Centre National de Photo) 
      
  4. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company).
     
    For the socio-political context and biographical details on Jacob A. Riis - Alexander Alland Sr, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture); Janet B. Pascal, 2005, Jacob Riis: Reporter and Reformer, (Oxford University Press, USA); Bonnie Yochelson, & Daniel Czitrom, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press) 
      
  5. Λ Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, "View of Boulevard du Temple", 1839 (ca), Daguerreotype, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum 
      
  6. Λ Henry Fox Talbot, View of the Boulevards at Paris", The Pencil of Nature, Part 1, pl. 2, 1844 (published) 
      
  7. Λ George Robinson Fardon, 1856, Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco; George Robinson Fardon & Jeffrey Fraenkel, 1999, George Robinson Fardon. San Francisco Album: Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings, (San Francisco: Fraenkel Galleries, Hans P. Kraus, Jr. and Chronicle Books) 
      
  8. Λ Thomas Annan is well known for his Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry (1870) and for The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust which has gone through multiple editions and is a classic of documentary photography.
     
    For studies on the work of Thomas Annan - Roy McKenzie, 1992, ‘Thomas Annan and the Scottish Landscape: Among the Gray Edifices‘, History of Photography, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 40; Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [With a supplement of 15 related views) with a new introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley. Published through the Cooperation of The International Museum of Photography / George Eastman House]; Ian Spring, 1996, ‘Midnight Scenes and Social Photographs: Thomas Annan's Glasgow‘, in Mancoff, Debra N. & Trela, DJ (eds.), Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and Its Contexts, pp. 195-213; Sara Stevenson, 1990, Thomas Annan 1829-1887, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland)
     
    The book by Thomas Annan is included in - Martin Parr & Gerry Badger (2004) The Photobook: A History, volume 1, (Phaidon Press Limited) 
      
  9. Λ Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.), p. xii 
      
  10. Λ William Young, (1900) The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust, With an Introduction by William Young, R.S.W., (Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons) 
      
  11. Λ Martin Parr & Gerry Badger (2004) The Photobook: A History, volume 1, (Phaidon Press Limited), p. 49 
      
  12. Λ Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.), pp. xi-xii 
      
  13. Λ Archibald Burns & Thomas Henderson, 1868, Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh: A Series of Photographs, (Edomonston and Douglas, publishers to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Company)
     
    The National Library of Scotland has a collection of salted paper prints by Archibald Burns. 
      
  14. Λ For Charles Marville and Paris - Jacqueline Chambord (ed.), 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris, 1852-1878, (French Inst/Alliance Francaise); Charles Marville, 1994, Marville Paris, (Hazan); Charles Marville, 1997, Charles Marville, (Centre National de Photo)
     
    The work of Charles Marville is highly regarded and exhibitions of his work are mounted such as - "Charles Marville: Photographer of Paris" (The Metropoltan Museum of Art, NY, 29 January - 4 May 2014) 
      
  15. Λ For the work of Baron Haussmann and the urban design of Paris - Stephane Kirkland, 2013 , Paris Reborn: Napoléon III, Baron Haussmann, and the Quest to Build a Modern City, (St. Martin's Griffin); Patrick Camiller & Michel Carmona, 2002, Haussmann: His Life and Times, and the Making of Modern Paris, (Ivan R Dee) 
      
  16. Λ For the public lighting photographed by Charles Marville - Marie de Thézy, 1993, Charles Marville: Réverberes, (Paris: Paris Tête d'Affiche) 
      
  17. Λ In France advertising columns are called Colonne Morris taking their name from Gabriel Morris, a printer, with held the concession for advertising in 1868.
    (Accessed: 4 April 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising_column 
      
  18. Λ "Charles Marville: Photographer of Paris" (The Metropoltan Museum of Art, NY, 29 January - 4 May 2014)
    (Accessed: 4 April 2014)
    ww.metmuseum.org/en/exhibitions/listings/2014/charles-marville 
      
  19. Λ There are a large number of monographs on Eugène Atget and the standard by which all others are judged are the four volumes published by the Museum of Modern Art (1981-1985):
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1981, The Work of Atget. vol. 1: Old France, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1982, The Work of Atget. vol. II: The Art of Old Paris, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1983, The Work of Atget. vol. III: The Ancien Regime, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1985, The Work of Atget. vol. IV: Modern Times, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
      
  20. Λ Clark Worswick, 2002, Berenice Abbott & Eugene Atget, (Santa Fe: Arena Editions) 
      
  21. Λ Italo Zannier & Alberto Moravia, (foreword), 1981, Venice, The Naya Collection, (Venice: O. Bohm) 
      
  22. Λ 1996, Carlo Ponti: Un magicien de l'image, (Vevey: Kameramuseum), [Exhibition at the Kameramuseum / Musee suisse de l'appareil photographique, Vevey: 31 octobre 1996 au 2 fevrier 1997] 
      
  23. Λ Ferdinando Ongania (1842-1911) was an Italian photographer who in the 1890s issued the two volume Calli e Canali in Venezia (Streets and Canals in Venice) containing one hundred photogravures of the canals, streets and inhabitants of Venice. 
      
  24. Λ F. Fiorelli, 2013, Viaggio in Oriente: Fotografie dell'Africa a Casa Martelli, (Sillabe)
     
    Thanks to Roberto Cassanelli, Professor in the history of photography, Università cattolica di Milano for bringing this to my attention (pers. email, 9 January 2014). Thanks also to Michael Jacobs for assisting with the translation. 
      
  25. Λ Text courtesy of Michael G. Jacob, Spoleto, Italy 
      
  26. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company).
     
    For the socio-political context and biographical details on Jacob A. Riis - Alexander Alland Sr, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture); Janet B. Pascal, 2005, Jacob Riis: Reporter and Reformer, (Oxford University Press, USA); Bonnie Yochelson, & Daniel Czitrom, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press) 
      
  27. Λ For a lantern lecture by Jacob Riis - "The Society of Amateur Photographers of New York, Lantern Exhibition",The Photographic Times and American Photographer, vol. XVIII, February 3, 1888, no. 333, pp. 58-59. 
      
  28. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company) 
      
  29. Λ Stephen Crane, 1893, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, (Self-published); Stephen Crane, 1986, Maggie, a Girl of the Streets: And Other Short Fiction, (A Bantam classic) 
      
  30. Λ Stephen Crane, April 1894, "An Experiment in Misery", New York Press 
      
  31. Λ Helmut Gernsheim & Alison Gernsheim (eds.), 1966, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Photographer, An Autobiography, (New York: Praeger) [Also published by Dover Publications 1978]; Mike Weaver, 1986, Alvin Langdon Coburn: Symbolist Photographer, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  32. Λ Christian A. Peterson, 2012, Pictorial Photography at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, (Christian A. Peterson: Privately printed). Says 1907 and 1909 but the dates were:
     
    March 11 - April 10, 1907
    January 18 - February 1, 1908 
      
  33. Λ Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1909, London, (London: Duckworth & Co.) 
      
  34. Λ Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1910, New York, (London: Duckworth and New York: Brentano‘s) 
      
  35. Λ An advertisement for Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1910, New York, (London: Duckworth and New York: Brentano‘s) was published in Camera Work, 1910, no, XXXII. 
      
  36. Λ Elizabeth McCausland & Berenice Abbott, 1939, Changing New York, (New York: E. P. Dutton). The book included 97 illustrations by Berenice Abbott and larger sets of 302 photographs were distributed by FAP to High schools, libraries and public institutions. 
      
  37. Λ John Morrison and Harold Burdekin, 1934, London Night, (Collins) 
      
  38. Λ For W. Eugene Smith - Jim W. Hughes, 1989, W. Eugene Smith: Shadow and Substance: The Life and Work of an American Photographer, (New York: McGraw-Hill); William S. Johnson (ed.), 1981, W. Eugene Smith: Master of the Photographic Essay, (Millerton, NY: Aperture); B. Maddow, 1985, Let Truth Be the Prejudice, W. Eugene Smith, His Life and Photographs, (Millerton, NY: Aperture); Gilles Mora, 1998, W. Eugene Smith: Photographs 1934-1975, (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams); W. Eugene Smith, 1993, W. Eugene Smith: His Photographs and Notes, (New York: Aperture); W. Eugene Smith & Aileen M. Smith, 1975, Minamata: Words and Photographs, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston); Alan Trachtenberg & Sam Stephenson (eds.), 2003, Dream Street: W. Eugene Smith’s Pittsburgh Project, (New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company); Glenn G. Willumson, 1992, W. Eugene Smith and the Photographic Essay, (New York: Cambridge University Press) 
      
  39. Λ W. Eugene Smith & Aileen M. Smith, 1975, Minamata: Words and Photographs, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) 
      
  40. Λ Stefan Lorant was asked to do the project by Edgar Kaufmann owner of the department store. 
      
  41. Λ Alan Trachtenberg & Sam Stephenson (eds.), 2003, Dream Street: W. Eugene Smith’s Pittsburgh Project, (New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company) 
      
  42. Λ In the Darkroom with W. Eugene Smith - The Paris Review
    Posted November 20, 2013 - Sam Stephenson
    (Accessed: 4 December 2013)
    www.theparisreview.org/blog/2013/11/20/in-the-darkroom-with-w-eugene-smith/
     
    On the Magnum website the number of negatives is given as 17,000. Portfolio - USA. 1955-1957. Pittsburg, W. Eugene Smith
     
    On the BBC FOUR - Genius of Photography website the number of negatives is given as 21,000
    www.bbc.co.uk/photography/genius/gallery/smith.shtml 
      
  43. Λ Gene Smith, James Karales and me: Remembering the Pittsburgh Project Posted by Harold Feinstein on Dec 3, 2013
    (Accessed: 4 December 2013)
    www.haroldfeinstein.com/gene-smith-james-karales-remembering-pittsburgh-project/ 
      
  44. Λ Sam Stephenson quotations from 'Right Time, Right Place', Genius of Photography (Wall to Wall)
    The Genius of Photography" was a BBC television series.
    www.bbc.co.uk/photography/genius/gallery/smith.shtml 
      
  45. Λ Stefan Lorant Collection - Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
    Finding aid for 14 boxes, containing extensive notes and drafts for each chapter of Pittsburgh: The Story of an American City and more than 1,000 images that were used in the book. (Accessed: 7 December 2013)
    www.carnegielibrary.org/locations/oliver/archivalfindingaids/StefanLorantCollection.pdf 
      
  46. Λ  Henri Cartier-Bresson,, 1952, Images à la Sauvette, (Paris: Editions Verve) was published in English as - Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1952, The Decisive Moment, (New York: Simon and Schuster) 
      
  47. Λ Alexey Brodovitch & Edwin Denby, 1945, Ballet, (New York: J.J. Augustin) [Text by Edwin Denby] 
      
  48. Λ William Klein, 1955,New York 1954, (Marval); William Klein, 1956, [NEW YORK] Life is good & good for you in NEW YORK, (Editions du Seuil) 
      
  49. Λ William Klein, 1958-1959, Rome: The City and its People, (The Viking Press) [Also published by Seuil, Paris (1959) and Feltrinelli, Milan (1960). Republished by Aperture (2009) with texts by Alberto Moravia, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Ennio Flaiano, Federico Fellini.] klein_moscow_01 
      
  50. Λ William Klein, 1964, Tokyo, (New York: Crown Publishers); William Klein, 1964, Tokyo, (Tokyo, Japan: Zokeisha Publications) 
      
  51. Λ "The Delirious Fictions of William Klein" (available as a 3 DVD boxed set from the Criterion Collection) is stimulating viewing. His 1966 film "Who are You Polly Maggoo?" should be watched by anybody interested in fashion photography and the supermodel. 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
Edwards, Elizabeth, 2012, The Camera as Historian: Amateur Photographers and Historical Imagination, 1885–1918, (Duke University Press) isbn-10: 0822351048 isbn-13: 978-0822351047 [Δ
  
George, Alice Rose (ed.), Peress, Gilles et. al., 2002, Here is New York: A Democracy of Photographs, (New York: Scalo) isbn-10: 3908247667 isbn-13: 978-3908247661 [Δ
  
Golden, Reuel, 2012, London: Portrait of a City, (Taschen) isbn-13: 978-3836528771 [Δ
  
Hales, Peter Bacon, 2005, Silver Cities: Photographing American Urbanization, 1839–1939, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
Pinkney, David H., 1972, Napoleon III and the Rebuilding of Paris, (Princeton University Press) isbn-10: 0691007683 isbn-13: 978-0691007687 [Δ
  
Rice, Shelley, 1999, Parisian Views, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262681072 isbn-13: 978-0262681070 [Δ
  
Robinson, Percy, 1896, Relics of Old Leeds, (Leeds: Percy Robinson; London: B. T. Batsford) [Δ
  
Spring, Ian, 1990, Phantom Village: The Myth of the New Glasgow, (Edinburgh: Polygon) [Δ
  
Stamp, Gavin, 1984, The Changing Metropolis: Earliest Photographs of London, 1839-79, (Hammondsworth: Penguin) [Δ
  
Werner, Alex & Williams, Tony, 2012, Dickens's Victorian London: 1839-1901, (Edbury Press) isbn-10: 0091943736 isbn-13: 978-0091943738 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Berenice Abbott 
  
McCausland, Elizabeth & Abbott, Berenice, 1939, Changing New York, (New York: E. P. Dutton) [Δ
  
Van Haaften, Julia (ed.), 1989, Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision, (New York: New York Public Library) [Δ
  
Yochelson, Bonnie, 1997, Berenice Abbott: Changing New York, (New York: The New Press; New York: Museum of the City of New York) [Δ
  
Thomas Annan 
  
Annan, Thomas, 1977, Photographs of the Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow, 1868–1877, (New York: Dover Publications) [Introduction by Anita Ventura Mozeley. Reprint] [Δ
  
McKenzie, Roy, 1992, ‘Thomas Annan and the Scottish Landscape: Among the Gray Edifices‘, History of Photography, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 40 [Δ
  
Spring, Ian, 1996, ‘Midnight Scenes and Social Photographs: Thomas Annan's Glasgow‘, in Debra N. Mancoff & D.J. Trela (eds.), 1996, Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and Its Contexts, (New York: Garland), pp. 195-213 [Δ
  
Stevenson, Sara, 1990, Thomas Annan 1829-1887, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland) [Δ
  
Eugène Atget 
  
Atget & Proust, 2012, Paris du temps perdu, (Paris: Editions Hoëbeke) [Δ
  
Szarkowski, John & Hambourg, Maria Morris, 1981, The Work of Atget. Vol. 1: Old France, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Archibald Burns 
  
Burns, Archibald & Henderson, Thomas, 1868, Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh: A Series of Photographs, (Edomonston and Douglas, publishers to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Company) [Δ
  
Alvin Langdon Coburn 
  
Chesterton, G.K. & Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1914, London With ten photographs by Alvin Langdon Coburn, (London: Privately printed for Alvin Langdon Coburn & Edmund D. Brooks and their friends) [Δ
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1909, London, (London: Duckworth & Co.) [Δ
  
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1910, New York, (London: Duckworth and New York: Brentano‘s) [Introductory essay by H.G. Wells] [Δ
  
John Davies 
  
Davies, John, 2009, Cities on the Edge, (Liverpool University Press) isbn-10: 1846311861 isbn-13: 978-1846311864 [Δ
  
George Robinson Fardon 
  
Fardon, George Robinson, 1856, Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco [Δ
  
Fardon, George Robinson & Fraenkel, Jeffrey, 1999, George Robinson Fardon. San Francisco Album: Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings, (San Francisco: Fraenkel Galleries, Hans P. Kraus, Jr. and Chronicle Books) isbn-10: 0811826309 isbn-13: 978-0811826303 [Δ
  
Marcel Gautherot 
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 1956, Modern Architecture in Brazil, (Amsterdam/Rio de Janeiro: Colibri) [Δ
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 1965, Rio de Janeiro, (Munique: W. Anderman) [Δ
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 2001, O Brasil de Marcel Gautherot, (São Paulo: Instituto Moreira Salles (IMS)) isbn-10: 8586707058 [Δ
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 2010, Building Brasilia: Photographs by Marcel Gautherot, (Thames & Hudson) isbn-10: 0500515425 isbn-13: 978-0500515426 [Δ
  
György Lorinczy 
  
Lorinczy, György, 1972, New York, New York, (Budapest, Magyar Helikon) [Δ
  
David Maisel 
  
Maisel, David, 2006, Oblivion, (Nazraeli Press) [Essay by William L. Fox and poem by Mark Strand] [Δ
  
Charles Marville 
  
Borhan, Pierre, 1994, Charles Marville: Vespasiennes, (Paris: Paris Musées) [Δ
  
Chambord, Jacqueline (ed.), 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris, 1852-1878, (French Inst/Alliance Francaise) isbn-10: 0933444397 isbn-13: 978-0933444393 [Δ
  
French Institute/ Alliance Francaise, 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris at the Time of the Second Empire, (New York: French Institute/ Alliance Francaise) [Δ
  
Marville, Charles, 1997, Charles Marville, (Centre National de Photo) isbn-10: 286754100X isbn-13: 978-2867541001 [French] [Δ
  
Moncan, Pierre de, 2009, Charles Marville: Paris photographié au temps d'Haussmann, (Paris: Les Editions du Mécthne) [Δ
  
Thézy, Marie de, 1993, Charles Marville: Réverberes, (Paris: Paris Tête d'Affiche) [Δ
  
Thézy, Marie de, 1994, Marville: Paris, (Hazan) [Δ
  
Morrison & Burdekin 
  
Morrison, John & Burdekin, Harold, 1934, London Night, (London: Collins) [Δ
  
Lori Nix 
  
Nixi, Lori & Pollack, Barbara, 2013, Lauri Nix: The City, (Decode Books) isbn-13: 978-0983394235 [Δ
  
Jacob A. Riis 
  
Alland Sr, Alexander, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Riis, Jacob A., 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons) [Δ
  
Yochelson, Bonnie & Czitrom, Daniel, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press) [Δ
  
W. Eugene Smith 
  
Trachtenberg, Alan & Stephenson, Sam (eds.), 2003, Dream Street: W. Eugene Smith’s Pittsburgh Project, (New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Berenice Abbott  (1898-1991) • Akinbode Akinbyi • Alinari • Thomas Annan  (1829-1887) • Eugène Atget  (1857-1927) • Archibald Burns • Alvin Langdon Coburn  (1882-1966) • George Robinson Fardon  (1807-1886) • Marcel Gautherot  (1910-1996) • David Maisel • Charles Marville  (1813-1879) • Lori Nix  (1969-) • William Notman  (1826-1891) • Victor Prevost  (1820-1881) • Jacob A. Riis  (1849-1914) • Camilo José Vergara  (1944-)
HomeThemesLandscapeLandscape types > Cityscapes - Urban 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Architecture 
Early social commentary 
London 
New York 
Paris 
Street 
Urban life 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Cityscapes - Urban

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: London 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 18, 2006)
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: New York 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 18, 2006) Thanks to Mark Katzman of the photogravure.com website for supplying the missing images.
ThumbnailBerenice Abbott and Changing New York (1935-1938) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 8, 2011)
ThumbnailCharles Marville 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 5, 2010)
ThumbnailCyanotypes of Florence, Italy 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 10, 2013)
ThumbnailDavid Maisel: Oblivion 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 9, 2007)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Jacob Riis and How the Other Half Live 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 23, 2010) As the quality of the images in the nineteenth century books of Jacob Riis are so poor I'm seeking scans of the photographs.
ThumbnailGeorge Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 8, 2007)
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - A Pictorialist Perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 22, 2012)
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban - Urbanscapes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 22, 2012)
ThumbnailNew York 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 19, 2010)
ThumbnailPhotograph album - Fotografias de Montevideo (1880) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 7, 2007)
ThumbnailStanko Abadžic: Prague 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 15, 2007) To coincide with his exhibition at the John Cleary Gallery.
ThumbnailThomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow (1900) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 18, 2006)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Cityscapes - Urban

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlfredo Noack: Italy: Genova 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: London 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlvin Langdon Coburn: New York 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArchibald Burns: Edinburgh 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCarlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Gatewood: Wall Street 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Marville: Old Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDavid Maisel: Oblivion 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Atget: Paris: Streets and buildings 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Atget: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenri Béchard: Cairo: Streets 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJacob August Riis: How the Other Half Live: Book covers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJacob Riis: How the Other Half Live 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKarl Struss: USA: New York City 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMorrison & Burdekin: London Night 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSilas A. Holmes (attributed): New York ca. 1855) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Annan: 6 Close No. 118 High Street 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Keith: Edinburgh 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW. Eugene Smith: Pittsburgh 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Klein: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailAlfred Stieglitz - A.H. Blake 
ThumbnailBerenice Abbott - Lou Stoumen - Phil Palmer 
ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard - Adolphe Braun - Robert Capa - Peter Keetman 
ThumbnailPierre Dubreuil - André Kertész - Berenice Abbott 
ThumbnailThomas Annan - Charles Marville - Eugène Atget - August Sander 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer - Bill Brandt 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban - Urbanscapes 
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban: A Pictorialist perspective 
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban: Construction 
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban: Strolling the streets 
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban: Wartime 
ThumbnailPorts, harbors - harbours and docks 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Cityscapes 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAlbum of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later) 
ThumbnailMarkets 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Cityscapes 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 18 April 2014, 21:02
 
  
 
  
HOME  BACKFREE NEWSLETTER
 Facebook LuminousLint 
 Twitter @LuminousLint