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HomeContentsThemes > Second World War (1939-1945)

Contents

Introduction
247.01   Second World War (1939-1945): Introduction
Propaganda and public information
247.02   Heinrich Hoffmann: Portraits of Adolf Hitler
247.03   Adolf Hitler - Nazi propaganda series
247.04   Heinrich Hoffmann (Editor) & Josef Bürckel (Foreword): Hitler holt die Saar heim (1938)
247.05   A question of emotional interpretation: People of Cheb salute the German troops entering the town in the Anschluss of the Sudetenland (October 1938)
247.06   Winston Churchill - Wanted for incitement to Murder
247.07   American posters from the Second World War (1939-1945):
The home front
247.08   Second World War (1939-1945): The home front
The war in Europe
247.09   Second World War (1939-1945): Soviet photographers
247.10   Margaret Bourke-White: Purple Heart Valley
247.11   Robert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944)
247.12   Nazi suicides in Leipzig, Germany (1945)
247.13   Second World War (1939-1945): Resistance in lands under Nazi occupation
247.14   Yevgeny Khaldei: Soldiers raising the flag of Soviet Union on the roof of Reichstag building in Berlin (2 May 1945)
The Holocaust
247.15   The Holocaust: The Pre-Second World War setting
247.16   The Holocaust: Photographing inside the ghettos
247.17   The Holocaust: Death camps
247.18   The Holocaust: Children
247.19   The Holocaust: Photographers who died
Internment camps
247.20   Internment camps in the USA during the Second World War
The war in the Pacific
247.21   Second World War (1939-1945): The War in the Pacific
247.22   Naval Aviation Photographic Unit
247.23   Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945)
Hiroshima (6 August 1945)
247.24   War: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima
Nagasaki (9 August 1945)
247.25   War: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki
Aerial photography
247.26   Second World War (1939-1945): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography
247.27   Harold E. Edgerton: Night experiments at Stonehenge
Memory
247.28   James Fee: The Peleliu Project
247.29   The legacy of the Holocaust in contemporary photography
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
247.01   War >  Second World War (1939-1945): Introduction 
  
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During the Second World War many photographers with distinguished pre-war careers chose to use their skills to switch to war photography. Some such as Edward Steichen who had carried out aerial photography during First World War (1914-1918) and Robert Capa (1913-1954)[1] who photographed the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) were well versed in war but others such as W. Eugene Smith, Cecil Beaton[2], Lee Miller[3], Margaret Bourke-White and the surrealist French photographer Roger Parry, who became a war correspondent for Agence France Presse, had to adapt to it. Each of these had shot different types of images before the war but each of them produced major bodies of work.  
  
John G. Morris: Robert Capa (1944) 
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Some of these photographers created books covering aspects of the war for example - Lee Miller with Wrens in Camera (1945)[4] and Margaret Bourke-White with Shooting the Russian War (1942)[5], Purple Heart Valley (1944)[6] and the wars aftermath in Dear fatherland, rest quietly (1946).[7]
 
The coverage in different sources depending on the language skills of researchers and access to archival material and private collections. There were many excellent Soviet photographers including Georgii Petrusov, Georgi Zelma, Anatoli Egorov, Max Alpert, Yevgeny Khaldei, Dmitri Baltermants and Yakov Khalip.
 
The proverb "to the victors go the spoils" applies to photography, the control of archives, censorship and the way history is told. In the case of the German defeat The Holocaust (1933-1945) has understandably effected which photographs have been published and how they are contextualized. This is starting to change with the publication of Henryk Ross: Lodz Ghetto Album[8] showing a strange normality within domestic scenes. This in no way is a sop to the extremist elements who say The Holocaust did not take place rather it is a piece of photographic history that has been avoided. The analysis of German publications, such as Signal,[9] during the war also deserve inclusion within histories along with the private albums of soldiers.[10]
 
No matter how distasteful the task we need to open up the archives to ensure that the photographic history of the Second World War is told in all its complexity with a balanced, and nuanced, incorporation of the visual evidence. 
  
Propaganda and public information 
  
247.02   War >  Heinrich Hoffmann: Portraits of Adolf Hitler 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Heinrich Hoffmann (1885-1957), had the dubious distinction of being Hitler‘s personal photographer from 1933 onwards.[11] His photographs were used in innumerable propaganda books with titles including Jugend um Hitler [Youth Around Hitler] (1934),[12] Hitler abseits vom Alltag [Hitler Off Duty] (1937),[13] and Hitler in seinen Bergen [Hitler in His Mountains] (1939).[14] His studio assistant, Eva Braun, was Adolf Hilter's mistress and became his wife the day before they commited suicide. 
  
247.03   War >  Adolf Hitler - Nazi propaganda series 
  
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Joseph Goebbels (1987-1945) was highly educated with a Phd in literature of the romantic school from Heidelberg University. On 30 January 1933 Adolf Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor of Germany and on 13 March Goebbels was appointed Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Volksaufklärung und Propaganda) with a seat on the cabinet. The cabinet position was a recognition of the significance Hitler in the management of his own image, the role of the National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP) or Nazi Party in revitalizing Germany.
 
There was an immense output of books about Hitler using photographs by his personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann.[15] Sets of postcards and smaller images were widely available promoting adoring crowds, industrial and military strength, the construction of autobahn, party rallies and cheering German youth. This was a well orchestrated visual assault to establish party credibility and strong government with an appeal to nationalist sentiments based on deep-rooted ideals. Combined with radio and the undeniably talented propaganda film footage and photographs of Leni Riefenstahl[16] this was a highly sophisticated campaign. 
  
247.04   War >  Heinrich Hoffmann (Editor) & Josef Bürckel (Foreword): Hitler holt die Saar heim (1938) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The book Hitler holt die Saar heim (1938)[17] tells the story of the Saar plebiscite using 88 full-page and half-page photographs. Following the First World War (1914-1918) the Saar region was placed under an unpopular British and French mandate. Adolf Hitler saw the political capital in reintegrating it into Germany and a vote was held on 13 January 1935. The voter participation rate was a staggering 98% and of those 90.73% voted to re-join the German Reich. This book from 1938 uses photography as propaganda to enhance Adolf Hitler's power by appealing to nationalistic sentiments. 
  
247.05   War >  A question of emotional interpretation: People of Cheb salute the German troops entering the town in the Anschluss of the Sudetenland (October 1938) 
  
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Additional information (Wikipedia - Accessed April 2011):
 
This iconic picture of the Anschluss of the Sudetenland has been captioned and interpreted differently, depending on who published it. The Nazis, who first published it in autumn 1938 shortly after the Anschluss in their newspaper Völkischer Beobachter, claimed the woman cried tears of joy. See for instance this history of the Sudetenland, which uses such a caption:
A Sudeten woman, overcome with emotion, pays homage as the Wehrmacht enters the Sudeten border town of Cheb.
Also see the letter Lieutenant Earle A. Cleveland wrote to the Time Magazine (printed November 12, 1945). He wrote:
The Nazi explanation was that here were portrayed the intense emotions of joy which swept the Sudeten Germans as Hitler crossed the Czech border at Asch and drove through the streets of the nearby ancient city of Eger, 99% of whose inhabitants were ardently pro-Nazi Sudeten Germans at the time...
to which the Time editors commented
...sauce for the Nazi goose is sometimes sauce for Allied propaganda.
The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) provides this image (as #78) with the caption:
The tragedy of this Sudeten woman, unable to conceal her misery as she dutifully salutes the triumphant Hitler, is the tragedy of the silent millions who have been 'won over' to Hitlerism by the 'everlasting use' of ruthless force.
which is similar in spirit to the ADN/Zentralbild (a GDR news agency) German caption preserved by the German Federal Archive. Translation:
With her arm raised to the Hitler salute, this woman stood at the roadside when the troops of fascist Germany entered this town [Cheb] after the Munich Agreement (Sep. 29/30, 1938). The salute was not convincing; it was forced. She expresses it in her tears. Tears of misery, of deprivation, of human suffering. What has she gone through because of the fascists; what will she experience after this day?
 
  
247.06   War >  Winston Churchill - Wanted for incitement to Murder 
  
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This 1940 Nazi propaganda leaflet included a picture of Winston Churchill holding a Thompson submachine gun[18] with the text "Wanted for Incitement to Murder" and on the reverse it continues:
This gangster, who you see in his element in the picture, incites you by his example to participate in a form of warfare in which women, children and ordinary civilians shall take leading parts.
 
This absolutely criminal form of warefare which is forbidden by the Hague Convention will be punished according to military law
 
Save at least your families from the horrors of war![19]
On 14 May 1940 during the Second World War the German airforce bombed Rotterdam extensively and RAF Bomber Command was authorized shortly afterwards to do the same to German industrial and civilian targets. On the night of 15/16 May 96 RAF bombers attacked targets related to the production and distribution of oil and the devastation of civilian centres began soon after. This leaflet may have been a response to these bombing missions.[20]
 
The German leaflet used a photograph of Churchill taken on 31 July 1940 on a visit to coastal defense positions near Hartlepool in England. The original photograph had people behind Churchill and a soldier to his right. To strengthen the photograph the other people were removed in British propaganda to provide an image of a stalwart leader ready to take on all-comers. The text on the German leaflet accompanying the photograph subverted the meaning. 
  
247.07   War >  American posters from the Second World War (1939-1945): 
  
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The majority of the public information posters produced in America during the Second World War (1939-1945) used graphic art rather than photographs as the imagery. Here are some examples that either use photographs or in the case of Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945) are based on a photograph[21][22] by Joe Rosenthal
  
The home front 
  
247.08   War >  Second World War (1939-1945): The home front 
  
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Many aspects of the home front were documented during the Second World War as photojournalism, record shots and propaganda to adjust morale as required.
 
In London on 29 December 1940 an unidentified photographer took St Paul's Cathedral, rising above the bombed London skyline, is shrouded in smoke during the Blitz[23] which was an a sign of resilience as the surrounding parts of the city were burnt out by bombing and incendiaries. Known now for his FSA, subway and street photographs, Walker Evans took a series In Bridgeport’s War Factories for Fortune in 1941. In 1943 Cecil Beaton better known for his fashion shots and portraits of the Royal family photographed the Tyneside Shipyards in the north-east of England
  
The war in Europe 
  
247.09   War >  Second World War (1939-1945): Soviet photographers 
  
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On 22 June 1941 The Soviet forces were caught totally off guard when 'Operation Barbarossa' began with over 3 million German soldiers and 3,300 tanks crossing the Russian border. In these days of sophisticated surveillance it seems extraordinary that a military build up of this scale could take place without the full threat being appreciated. The German Luftwaffe annihilated the Soviet air force in the first few days of the campaign - but this initial victory led into a sequence of interminable battles and terrible winters with bewilderingly high casualty rates. Throughout the The Great Patriotic War, as the Russians call it, a group of talented Soviet photojournalists covered the brutal campaigns that took place on what the Western powers called 'The Eastern Front'.  
  
247.10   War >  Margaret Bourke-White: Purple Heart Valley 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Margaret Bourke-White[24] along with Lee Miller,[25] was one of the few women photojournalists during the Second World War, and documented a part of the Italian Campaign of the Cassino Valley in her book They called it "Purple Heart Valley" (1944).[26] 
  
247.11   War >  Robert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Photojournalist Robert Capa landed on Omaha Beach with the 16th Regiment of the 1st Infantry Division on D-Day 6th June 1944 with the soldiers. His photographs show the backs of heavily laden troops at they waded past the steel landing craft obstructions, the "steel obstacles" of Capa towards the Normandy beaches.
 
In his autobiography Slightly Out of Focus (1947) Capa proved an account of the early stages of the landing as he attempted to take photographs with his Contax:
The flat bottom of our barge hit the earth of France. The boatswain lowered the steel-covered barge front, and there, between the grotesque designs of steel obstacles sticking out of the water, was a thin line of land covered with smoke — our Europe, the 'Easy Red' beach.
 
My beautiful France looked sordid and uninviting, and a German machine gun, spitting bullets around the barge, fully spoiled my return. The men from my barge waded in the water. Waist-deep, with rifles ready to shoot, with the invasion obstacles and the smoking beach in the background gangplank to take my first real picture of the invasion. The boatswain, who was in an understandable hurry to get the hell out of there, mistook my picture-taking attitude for explicable hesitation, and helped me make up my mind with a well-aimed kick in the rear. The water was cold, and the beach still more than a hundred yards away. The bullets tore holes in the water around me, and I made for the nearest steel obstacle. A soldier got there at the same time, and for a few minutes we shared its cover. He took the waterproofing off his rifle and began to shoot without much aiming at the smoke-hidden beach. The sound of his rifle gave him enough courage to move forward, and he left the obstacle to me. It was a foot larger now, and I felt safe enough to take pictures of the other guys hiding just like I was.[27]
He exposed 106 frames on three rolls of film before he waded across to an LCI (landing craft, infantry) and was taken aboard to get the raw film back to England as soon as possible. The next phase has become a legend of photographic history. He delivered the film to the LIFE magazine offices in London and a darkroom assistant in his haste overheated the film melting the emulsion and destroying most of what would have been historic images.[28] Only eleven blurry negatives survived and one of those was lost shortly after.[29] 
  
247.12   War >  Nazi suicides in Leipzig, Germany (1945) 
  
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Towards the end of the Second World War (1939-1945) when it became apparent that Germany would lose the war and the Third Reich would fall there were a series of mass suicides in Leipzig. The motivations for the suicides were the collapse of the Nazi Party and its ideology and the fear of retribution from the Allied forces that were entering the homeland.
 
On the 18th April 1945[30] a number of officials of Leizig commited suicide in the New Town Hall (Neues Rathaus). It is the photographs of the office of the Deputy Mayor Dr. jur. Ernst Kurt Lisso with his wife Renate Stephanie and daughter Regina Lisso photographed on or around 20th April 1945 by Lee Miller, Margaret Bourke-White, Robert Capa and J. Malan Heslop who was a U.S Army Signal Corps photographer that show the scene.
 
The daughter is wearing a nurses cap. 
  
247.13   War >  Second World War (1939-1945): Resistance in lands under Nazi occupation 
  
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In France...
  • Julia Pirotte - Most notable for her brave work in Marseille during the Second World War when she documented the work of the French Resistance.[31]
     
  • Henri Cartier-Bresson after escaping from a Prisoner of War camp photographed for the French Resistance.
Cas Oorthuys and Charles Breijer (1914-) photographed the German Occupation of The Netherlands using hidden cameras.[32]
 
The Czech photographer Zdenek Tmej was conscripted under the Nazi Totaleinsatz policy (the mobilization of the workforce) to forced labour from 1942 to 1944 at Breslau in Prussia. The most remarkable point about this was that he was able to take photographs of life during this period. 
  
247.14   War >  Yevgeny Khaldei: Soldiers raising the flag of Soviet Union on the roof of Reichstag building in Berlin (2 May 1945) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Yevgeny Khaldei (1917-1997)[33] was a Soviet photographer[34] active during the Second World War and particularly remembered for his photograph of the Soviet flag being placed on the ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin on 2 May 1945.[35]
 
On 23 February 1945 Joe Rosenthal had, perhaps unwittingly, created an iconic image with his Flag raising at Iwo Jima which used on postage stamps, posters and all means of propaganda communications to promote war bonds and act as a symbol of American national pride. Stalin required a similar image and Yevgeny Khaldei was ordered to take it. To achieve the desired result he needed a Soviet flag and he hired Israil Solomonovich Kishitser to make three from tablecloths.[36] He used one flag at the Tempelhof Airport,[37] another at the Brandenberg Gate, and the third at the Reichstag and it is the last one that became the image Stalin required.
 
Khaldei provided the context:
"Early in the morning on May 2, 1945, I entered it (the Reichstag). I was surrounded by horrendous noise, Russians and Germans were all shouting in horrible confusion ... A pleasant young soldier came up to me. I had a red flag in my hand. He said, 'Lieutenant, davai, let's hurry up and climb onto the roof with the flag' ... We started out, but all the stairs were badly damaged. When we finally got up the Reichstag was on fire. ...We found a long pole. I spent lots of time trying out different compositions. I took one picture from the left, but that wasn't any good. I wanted Berlin to be clearly visible in the picture. Then I said, 'Boys, go and stand over there and raise the flag ... then try over there'. There were three of them. One was from the Ukraine, the other from Machatshkala in Dagestan and the third was a Russian. ... I shot a whole roll of film, 36 shots"[38]
In the original prints the soldier holding the flag had a watch on each wrist which was a sure sign of looting so in later published versions one of the watch was retouched and made to vanish. The photo was also not "dramatic" enough and so smoke was added in the background to heighten the drama of the situation. On the 30th anniversary of "La victoria sobre el fascismo" (The victory over Fascismo) in 1975 Cuba issued a stamp using this photograph that shows the flag raising with the smoke behind.[39] The photograph was also taken two days after the Reichstag had fallen and so it was not what it was described to be.
 
Despite the issues with accuracy and timing the photograph was published in the Soviet illustrated magazine Ogoniok[40] and has been widely used ever since. The photograph was taken on the 2 May which was the end of the Battle of Berlin and therefore the photograph could by extension symbolize the complete Soviet victory over Fascism. The images they are flawed and are remembered in photohistory largely for their manipulation of the truth but outside it is the historical moment that retains significance. 
  
The Holocaust 
  
247.15   War >  The Holocaust: The Pre-Second World War setting 
  
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It would be difficult to claim that there was no awareness of prejudice against the Jewish residents of Germany prior to the Second World War. In 1936 in England the book The Yellow Spot[41] was published, prepared anonymously it brought together German propaganda and publically available information that showed all to clearly what was happening. The Final Solution, meaning the annihilation of the Jewish population, may not have been agreed until the Wannsee Conference[42] on 20 January 1942 but the foundations of the policy were being established long before and Kristallnacht on 9 November 1938 had indicated what was to come.
 
Photography in the Jewish ghettos in Central and Eastern Europe is not that well known[43] but there are surviving photographs that document some of the locations:
  • Roman Vishniac travelled through the Jewish communities of Poland and Eastern Europe in the 1930's and recorded life in the ghettoes with the poverty, joy and variety that makes up a rich tradition. The significance of Roman Vishniac is that because of the destruction of all aspects of Jewish culture by the Nazis that so little remains.[44]
     
  • Margaret Michaelis-Sachs (1902-1985) - Austrian who fled the rise of Fascism in 1933 and travelled widely. She was involved in the Spanish Civil War and in 1938 she visited her parents and photographed in the Jewish ghetto at Cracow.[45]
 
  
247.16   War >  The Holocaust: Photographing inside the ghettos 
  
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Although photographs of ghettos were generally prohibited they are numerous exceptions including:
  • Henryk Ross (1913-1991) was a Polish press photographer who was arrested in 1940 and sent to the Jewish Ghetto of Lodz where he took photographs for the Germans.[46] When the Germans started destroying the ghetto he hid 3,000 negatives in barrels and retrieved them after the war. The images were used as evidence at the trial of Adolf Eichmann at which he gave evidence.
     
  • Heinrich Jöst (1898-1983) was a sergeant in the German Army (Wehrmacht) stationed near Warsaw (Poland) in 1941. On 19 September 1941, which was his birthday, he visited the Jewish Ghetto in Warsaw with his Rolleiflex camera. The photographs that he took that day are amongst the few surviving shots of the Ghetto taken before the uprising that started on 19 April 1943 and the final clearing and destruction of the ghetto on 16 May 1943. The photographer did not show the photographs to anybody until 1982 the year before his death and his motivations remain unclear.[47]
     
  • Joe Heydecker was a journalist and photographer. During the Second World War In 1941 he was ordered to Warsaw to join a propaganda unit (Propogandakompanie) and he took over a thousand photographs of military life including an important series of 42 photographs taken between 11 November 1941 and 14 April 1942 in the Warsaw Ghetto. After the war he covered the Nuremberg Trials before moving to South America where the photographs he had taken in Warsaw were exhibited for the first time in São Paulo in 1981.[48]
     
  • Willy Georg in the summer of 1941 spent a day photographing in the Warsaw Ghetto. He was stopped when taking his fifth roll of film and it was confiscated but the four rolls he had already taken survived. These photographs were published in In the Warsaw Ghetto Summer 1941: Photographs by Willy Georg with Passages from the Warsaw Ghetto Diaries.[49]
 
  
247.17   War >  The Holocaust: Death camps 
  
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At times one hears that everybody knew of the horrors of the death camps but appears to be far from the case. First hand accounts of the soldiers, commanders, and photographers accompanying the forces show clearly that they were not aware of the horrors they would find. Journalists like the BBC's Richard Dimbleby and American broadcast journalist Edward R. Murrow reported the news.
 
General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Generals George Patton and Omar Bradley visited Ohrdruf Nord, a forced labour camp near Gotha in Germany, for military and civilian prisoners on 12 April 1945:
The visual evidence and the verbal testimony of starvation, cruelty, and bestiality were so over powering as to leave me a bit sick. In one room where there were piled up twenty or thirty naked men, killed by starvation, George Patton would not even enter. He said he would get sick if he did so. I made the visit deliberately, in order to be in a position to give first-hand evidence of these things if ever, in the future, there develops a tendency to charge these allegations mere to "propaganda."[50]
The opening of the death camps was documented by multiple photographers:
  • Lee Miller[51] walked into the newly liberated Buchenwald death camp and later went to Dachau. She photographed a death train loaded with dead prisoners and actually climbed into it to photograph. She cabled the London office of Vogue before she sent through her film and the story:
    I don’t take pictures of these things usually as I know you wont use them, DON’T THINK FOR THAT REASON THAT EVERY TOWN AND EVERY AREA ISN’T RICH WITH THEM. EVERY COMMUNITY has its big concentration camps, some like this for torture and extermination ... well I wont write about it now ... just read the daily press and believe every word of it. I would be very proud of Vogue if they would run a picture of some of the ghastliness ... I would like Vogue to be on record as believing. [52]
    To her credit and theirs her photographs were run in American Vogue with the headline Believe It.[53]
     
  • Margaret Bourke-White[54] photographed the opening of the death camps - particularly Buchenwald in April 1945.
    I saw and photographed the piles of naked, lifeless bodies, the human skeletons in furnaces, and the living skeletons that would die the next day and have their tattooed skin for lampshades. Using the camera was almost a relief. It interposed a slight barrier between myself and the horror in front of me.[55]
    LIFE magazine published her photographs in their 7 May 1945 issue with the statement "Dead men will have indeed died in vain if live men refuse to look at them."
     
  • Walter Rosenblum[56] had landed in Normandy on D-Day and took the first motion picture footage of the Dachau concentration camp.
     
  • Bert Hardy[57], who was working for Picture Post, was one of the first photographers at Bergen-Belsen near Hanover in April 1945 where emaciated bodies were still on the ground.
    Never inclined to photograph corpses Bert realised that he had to record what he was witnessing. He knew no one would believe such things could happen were they not to see photographic proof.
     
    Bert took to carrying a print of the concentration camp in his pocket which he would show to any German who refused to accept that such things had happened. Even then some Germans refused to accept that images of the death camps were not Allied propaganda.[58]
  • Henri Cartier-Bresson photographed an interrogation at Dessau's displaced persons' camp when a survivor from a recognised a Gestapo informer who had attempting to hide amongst refugees.[59]
After the Second World War (1939-1945 Anti-Semitism was still commonplace in Europe and Julia Pirotte, who had photographed for the French Resistance during the war, returned to Poland where she covered the aftermath of the Kielce pogrom of 4 July 1946. 
  
247.18   War >  The Holocaust: Children 
  
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The magnitude of the deaths means that one of the ways we relate to it is through the lives of individuals - the diaries and letters of children such as Anne Frank (1929-1945)[60] or Georges Halpern (1935-1944) bring home both the courage and terrors of that period. The book by Serge Klarsfeld (2001) Remembering Georgy: Letters from the House of Izieu includes the illustrations and letters of Georges Halpern from the childrens home in Izieu (France) for the two years before he was exterminated at the age of 8 in Auschwitz.[61] 
  
247.19   War >  The Holocaust: Photographers who died 
  
Photographers who died in the Holocaust included:  
  
Internment camps 
  
247.20   War >  Internment camps in the USA during the Second World War 
  
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Under pressure from public outcry following the Pearl Harbour attack on 7 December 1941 on February 19th 1942 President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 by which 120,000 people of Japanese descent living in the US were interned in camps. The controversy over this action still continues as more than two thirds of those interned were US citizens and had never shown any signs of disloyalty.
  • Hansel Mieth and her husband Otto Hagel were working for LIFE magazine when they were assigned to photograph the Heart Mountain Relocation Center in Wyoming during the Second World War where more than 10,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans were being unconstitutionally incarcerated. Bill Manbo (1908-1992) documented the Heart Mountain camp in colour using Kodachrome.
     
  • Ansel Adams photographed Japanese internment camp at Manzanar (California).
     
  • Dorothea Lange photographed an Japanese internment camp and her photographs were censored by the U.S. Army and not published until many years later.
In December 1944 Public Proclamation number 21 allowed internees to return to their homes from January 1945 onwards. The photographs of the camps were not published during the war and it was not until the 1990s that it became politically acceptable to publish them. 
  
The war in the Pacific 
  
247.21   War >  Second World War (1939-1945): The War in the Pacific 
  
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The photographers in the Pacific theatre of war are generally less well known than those in Europe though the war was just as brutal.
  • Louis Stettner (1922-) A rich career that has included, combat photography in the Pacific (1941-1945), advertizing, documentary, landscapes, nudes and still lives.
     
  • Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was with the US Navy.
     
  • W. Eugene Smith Okinawa - finding the baby.
     
  • Carl Mydans of LIFE took the dramatic photograph of General Douglas MacArthur with his staff coming ashore at Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, in the Philippines on January 9, 1945.
     
  • Flag Raising at Iwo Jima - by Joe Rosenthal, February 1945
     
  • Nagasaki Journey: The Photographs of Yosuke Yamahata August 10, 1945 - The photographs Shomei Tomatsu took in 1960 of Nagasaki - with the scarred flesh, decimated cemeteries and twisted glass bottle such a poignent reminder of burnt and twisted flesh.
     
  • The celebrations in Time Square (New York) when VJ was announced. - Alfred Eisenstaedt, V-J Day, 15 August 1945, the war had actually ended the day before.
     
  • The photographs of the Japanese surrender USS Missouri - Sept. 2, 1945 at the end of the war.
    http://www.acepilots.com/ww2/pictures.html
     
  • Werner Bischof's studies of post-war Japan. The suicide of the writer Yukio Mishima and the cult of ultra strong nationalism mixed with militarism.
 
  
247.22   War >  Naval Aviation Photographic Unit 
  
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Although officially Edward Steichen[65] was too old to serve during the Second World War he re-enlisted and, after several attempts, was commissioned as a Lieutenant Commander in 1942. His considerable photographic skills were recognised and he joined the US Navy founding the Naval Aviation Photographic Unit.[66]
 
The group Steichen led covered the aircraft carrier battles and amphibious landings of the US Navy in the Pacific theatre.[67] Over 14,000 photographs are preserved in the American National archives. Photographers included:
Edward Steichen
LCdr. Horace Bristol
Lt. Barrett Gallagher
LCdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs
Lt. Victor Jorgensen
LCdr. Charles Kerlee
LCdr. Dwight S. Long
Lt. Wayne Miller
Edward Steichen also made the documentary The Fighting Lady (1944)[68] which chronicled the voyages and battles of the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Yorktown which won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature in 1945 and the New York Film Critics Circle Special Award in 1946. He was 67 when he was discharged in 1945 and he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. He was also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President John F. Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson presented it to him in December 1963. 
  
247.23   War >  Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The "Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945)" by Joe Rosenthal holds as one of the iconic propaganda photographs of the Second World War (1939-1945).[69] It remains a symbol of hard-won patriotic duty during a time of national stress and symbolised shared valour within the US Marine Corp. On 11 July 1945 the United States Postal Service issued a 3 cent postage stamp with a rendition of the image.[70] 
  
Hiroshima (6 August 1945) 
  
247.24   War >  War: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima 
  
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At 8:15 on the morning of 6th August 1945 B-29 bomber (Enola Gay) of US Air force 393d Bombardment Squadron piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets dropped an atom bomb, "Little Boy", on the city of Hiroshima in Japan.
 
The mission  
  
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The city  
  
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The bombing
A small number of photographs were taken from only 7km from the blast site as the mushroom cloud was rising about the city by Seizo Yamada. Mitsuo Matsushige also photographed the explosion. Remarkably some photographs by an unidentified photographer were also found at Honkawa Elementary School.  
  
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The aftermath
Wayne Miller who was a part of Edward Steichen's Naval Aviation Photographic Unit took photographs in Hiroshima in September 1945.  
  
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Swiss photojournalist Werner Bischof[71] in 1951 took a photograph of a survivor with a terribly scarred back.  
  
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Japanese photographers were not surprising deeply affected by the atom bomb. The Post-War pacifist and no-nuclear-weapons policies of Japan were a result of an immediacy to the physical destruction and the long-term medical affects.
 
In 1958 Ken Domon's book Hiroshima was published. The book had photographs by Ken Domon a dust jacket design by Jean Miro and was designed by Shigejiro Sano.[72]  
  
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On the twentieth anniversary of the bombing Kikuji Kawada's book The Map was published. The book with its complex meanings, gatefolds and highly abstract photographs showing the wall stains left by the bomb was difficult at the time the book was first published.[73]  
  
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Kenji Ishiguro's 1970 book Hiroshima Now[74] is about a city that is survived the tragedy. It has not forgotten but it is moving forward.  
  
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Photographic reflections on tragedy
The survivors of the two atomic bombs on Japan are known as the Hibakusha.[75] Photographers, including Marissa Roth, have returned to document them.  
  
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Nagasaki (9 August 1945) 
  
247.25   War >  War: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki 
  
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Soon after 11.00 on the morning of 9th August 1945 B-29 bomber (Bockscar) of US Airforce 393d Bombardment Squadron piloted by Major Charles W. Sweeney dropped an atom bomb, "Fat Man", on the city of Nagasaki in Japan.
 
The bombing  
  
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The aftermath  
  
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Photographic reflections on tragedy
Shomei Tomatsu's 1966 book 11 ji 02 fun Nagasaki ("11:02" Nagasaki) takes its name from the exact time of the explosion.[76] The opening photograph of a glass bottle twisted into a repulsive form by the heat of the explosion is almost a metaphor for the changes in Japanese society that had been brought about by the Second World War and the post-War occupation.  
  
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Aerial photography 
  
247.26   War >  Second World War (1939-1945): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
  
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Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography played a pivotal role during the Second World War - just as the Ultra cracking of the German military codes was crucial to the defeat of the U-Boats in the Atlantic.[77] In the European sector the work of the Allied Central Interpretation Unit (ACIU) and the photographic intelligence unit based at RAF Medmenham in Buckinghamshire was vital to providing the intelligence on V-weapons.[78][79] 
  
247.27   War >  Harold E. Edgerton: Night experiments at Stonehenge 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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During the Second World War in 1944 Harold E. Edgerton carried out experiments photographing Stonehenge using powerful flashes on aircraft to illuminate the ground.[80] In the book of his photographs Stopping photographs (1987) this experiment is described:
Illuminated by a 50,000 watt-second flash in the bay of a night-flying airplane 1500 feet above the ancient monoliths, Edgerton's pictures of Stonehenge served as a demonstration to the Allied commanders of the potential for nighttime reconaissance photography. Edgerton was on the ground with a folding pocket camera braced on a fence post as the plane flew overhead. Simultaneously, the monument was recorded in perfect detail by a camera in the plane. The target was chosen because it was remote enough to allow the equipment to be tested without arousing unwanted interest.[81]
 
  
Memory 
  
247.28   War >  James Fee: The Peleliu Project 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The father of photographer James Fee was with the US Marines when they landed on Peleliu an the event fundamentally altered who he was. When his son revisited the seemingly idyllic location of blue seas with crystal clarity and bleached sands he was exploring visually the life of his father and attempting to understand or at least get a connection with what had happened. Using underwater photography he dove on the wrecks in 2001 he found military detritus - the physical memories of the Second World War in the Pacific.
 
A press release for an exhibition of this series gives a background:
The battle of Peleliu began on September 15, 1944. It was supposed to be over in three days. It lasted for 73. Under a scorching sun, in temperatures that reached 115 degrees, American and Japanese forces struggled for control of this six mile by two mile coral island in the South Pacific. When it was over, 8,769 Americans had been killed or wounded, and all but a handful of the 10,500 Japanese who had dug themselves into caves to defend the island were dead. There are many who believe the battle served no purpose.
 
Photographer James Fee’s father, Russell James Fee, a 21 year old Marine corpsman from Iowa, spent the first day of battle going back and forth from shore to ship under heavy fire tending to the eleven hundred men wounded in the initial hours of combat. In the days and weeks to follow, the demands on the young corpsman would grow exponentially as thousands upon thousands more men were wounded. When the battle ended, Fee would be assigned to bury the dead both Japanese and American.
 
Two months before the invasion, writing in pencil in a thin, black, cloth covered notebook eight by four and a half inches in size, Russell Fee began to record his experiences. "This is not a day to day diary," he writes in the opening sentence, "but rather just the important days of my overseas life". The entries which follow in this 23 page "book of facts" begin the day after he ships out for the South Pacific, and end sixteen months later as he is returning home. Russell Fee’s prose is uncrafted. He was not writing for an audience. There is no attempt to create a literary effect or dramatize events in any way. In simple, declarative sentences, he relates what happened and records his emotions. His words are like hammer strokes engraving each moment in the mind of the reader.
 
Russell Fee returned from Peleliu with a fierce, uncompromising vision of America which would have a profound impact on the life and work of his son. Fifty-three years later, armed with his fathers’ snapshots and diary which he had just uncovered, James Fee went to Peleliu to see with his own eyes the place where his father’s vision had taken shape. The result of his five year quest is The Peleliu Project. Do not be deceived by the simplicity of that title. Beneath the calm, luxuriant surface of James Fee’s color images of the island today lies the terrible history of this battle, and the long, dark shadow which it would cast on the family of Pharmacist’s Mate 3rd Class, Russell Fee.[82]
The series concerns not only family history but the nature of memory and how landscape photography and historical issues are intertwined. In this case there are fading physical traces of the remnants of war so there is a tangible connection but what happens when the traces have gone? Does a landscape still carry traces of a non-visual kind?[83] 
  
247.29   War >  The legacy of the Holocaust in contemporary photography 
  
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Contemporary photographers who try to record some of the issues:  
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Richard Whelan, 1994, Robert Capa: A Biography, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press); for the "Mexican Suitcase" - Cynthia Young (ed.), 2010, The Mexican Suitcase, (Steidl / ICP Publications); for the difficulty in the authentication of what exactly happened with the "Falling soldier" - Richard Whelan 2002, Spring, ‘Proving that Robert Capa's "Falling Soldier" is Genuine: A Detective Story‘, Aperture, no. 166 
      
  2. Λ Cecil Beaton, 1981, Cecil Beaton War Photographs, 1939-45, (Imperial War Museum) 
      
  3. Λ For studies of Lee Miller's war photography by her son Antony Penrose - Antony Penrose (ed.), 1992,Lee Miller’s War: Photographer and Correspondent with the Allies in Europe 1944–1945, (Boston: Bulfinch Press); Antony Penrose (ed.), 2005, Lee Miller’s War, (New York: Thames and Hudson) [Foreword by David E. Scherman] 
      
  4. Λ Lee Miller, 1945, Wrens in Camera, (London: Hollis and Carter) 
      
  5. Λ Margaret Bourke-White, 1942, Shooting the Russian War, (New York, Simon and Schuster) 
      
  6. Λ Margaret Bourke-White, 1944, They called it "Purple Heart Valley": A Combat Chronicle of the War in Italy, (New York: Simon and Schuster) 
      
  7. Λ Margaret Bourke-White, 1946, "Dear fatherland, rest quietly": A Report on the Collapse of Hitler's "Thousand years", (New York, Simon and Schuster) 
      
  8. Λ Henryk Ross, 2009,Henryk Ross: Lodz Ghetto Album, (Chris Boot) 
      
  9. Λ Will Fowler, 2000, Their War: German Combat Photographs From the Archives Of Signal Magazine, (Da Capo Press) 
      
  10. Λ For a book containing the snapshots of German forces - Ed Jones & Timothy Prus (eds.), 2007, Nein, Onkel: Snapshots from Another Front 1938-1945, (Archive of Modern Conflict) 
      
  11. Λ Rudolf Herz, 1994, Hoffmann & Hitler. Fotografie als Medium des Führer-Mythos, (Munich) 
      
  12. Λ Heinrich Hoffmann, 1934, Jugend um Hitler [Youth Around Hitler] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] 
      
  13. Λ Heinrich Hoffmann, 1937, Hitler abseits vom Alltag [Hitler Off Duty], (Berlin) [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] 
      
  14. Λ Heinrich Hoffmann, [1939], Hitler in seinen Bergen [Hitler in His Mountains], (Berlin) [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] 
      
  15. Λ Rudolf Herz, 1994, Hoffmann & Hitler. Fotografie als Medium des Führer-Mythos, (Munich) 
      
  16. Λ Leni Riefenstahl's (1902-2003) life has been continuously controversial. She produced two of the most significant propagand films of all time in Triumph of the Will (Ger. Triumph des Willens) (1935) on the Nuremburg Rally and the two part Olympia (ger. Olympia 1. Teil - Fest der Völker / Olympia 2. Teil - Fest der Schönheit) (1938). Her films are infamous because of their portrayal of Nazi ideology.
     
    Her photographic work on the 1936 Munich Olymptics was an exceptional work on sports photography - Leni Riefenstahl, 1936, Schönheit im Olympischen Kampf, (Berlin, Im Deutschen Verlag); Leni Riefenstahl, 1994, Olympia, (St Martins Press)
     
    A one-woman play "The Blue Light" (2010) examines her culpability for the results of her actions. 
      
  17. Λ Heinrich Hoffmann (ed.) & Josef Bürckel (foreword), 1938, Hitler holt die Saar heim (Berlin: Zeitgeschichte-Verlag, 1938), 
      
  18. Λ The Thompson submachine gun was generally known as the Tommy gun. 
      
  19. Λ Courtesy of Lee Richards and his www.psywar.org website. 
      
  20. Λ Further information on this leaflet and its historical background are requested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  21. Λ Hal Buell, 2006, Uncommon Valor Common Virtue: Iwo Jima and the Photograph that captured America, (Penguin) 
      
  22. Λ Michael Burgan, 2011, Raising the Flag: How a Photograph Gave a Nation Hope in Wartime, (Capstone) 
      
  23. Λ Unidentified photographer, "St Paul's Cathedral, rising above the bombed London skyline, is shrouded in smoke during the Blitz", 1940, 29 December, Gelatin silver print, Imperial War Museum, © Daily Mail, Imperial War Museum, Ministry of Information Second World War Press Agency Print Collection (HU 36220A 4700-09) 
      
  24. Λ The Margaret Bourke-White Papers -Syracuse University Library. (Accessed: 17 November 2013)
    library.syr.edu/digital/guides/b/bourke-white_m.htm 
      
  25. Λ For studies of Lee Miller's war photography by her son Antony Penrose - Antony Penrose (ed.), 1992,Lee Miller’s War: Photographer and Correspondent with the Allies in Europe 1944–1945, (Boston: Bulfinch Press); Antony Penrose (ed.), 2005, Lee Miller’s War, (New York: Thames and Hudson) [Foreword by David E. Scherman] 
      
  26. Λ Margaret Bourke-White, 1944, They called it "Purple Heart Valley": A Combat Chronicle of the War in Italy, (New York: Simon and Schuster) 
      
  27. Λ Robert Capa, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt and Company), pp. 145-146 
      
  28. Λ The darkroom assistant was Dennis Banks.
    Interview: John Morris on his friend Robert Capa - Interviewed by Simon Kuper (FT Magazine, 31 May 2013)
    (Accessed: 13 November 2013)
    www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/3d37a03e-c8be-11e2-acc6-00144feab7de.html#slide0 
      
  29. Λ In his autobiography Capa wrote that only eight survived and this appears to be an error - Robert Capa, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt and Company), p. 151 
      
  30. Λ On the same day SS guards burnt alive or shot around 300 the inmates at Leipzig-Thekla concentration camp three or fours northeast of Leipzig. The US Army 69th Infantry Division arrived at the camp on the 19th April 1945 and provided support to the 90-100 survivors.
    The 69th Infantry Division - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    (Accessed: 30 April 2013)
    www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10006167 
      
  31. Λ Julia Pirotte, 1994, Julia Pirotte, une photographe dans la Résistance, (Charleroi: Musée de la photographie) 
      
  32. Λ Eric Zafran, 1996, The Illegal Camera: Photography in the Netherlands during the German Occupation 1940-1945, (New York: The Jewish Museum), [Exhibition brochure] 
      
  33. Λ The name Yevgeny Khaldei is given is quite a number of different ways depending on the source and all the following are all used - Evgeny Khaldey, Evgueni Ananievich Khaldei, Evgueni Khaldei, Jewgeni Chaldej and Yevgeni Khaldei.
     
    The Red Flag over the Reichstag - Iconic Photos (blog)
    (Accessed: 17 November 2013)
    iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2009/04/22/the-red-flag-over-the-reichstag-2/ 
      
  34. Λ Yevgeny Khaldei was born in the Ukraine which was a part of the Soviet Union at the time. 
      
  35. Λ Ernst Volland & Heinz Krimmer (eds.), 1999, Von Moskau nach Berlin. Bilder des russischen Fotografen Jewgeni Chaldej, (Berlin) 
      
  36. Λ The Red Flag over the Reichstag (blog posting)
    (Accessed: 17 November 2013)
    iconicphotos.wordpress.com/2009/04/22/the-red-flag-over-the-reichstag-2/ 
      
  37. Λ Jewgenei Chaldej, "Tempelhof Airport, Berlin, April 1945", Bassenge, Photography Auction 102, 4 December 2013, Lot# 4157, catalogue, p. 114 
      
  38. Λ Ernst Volland & Heinz Krimmer (eds.), 1999, Von Moskau nach Berlin. Bilder des russischen Fotografen Jewgeni Chaldej, (Berlin), p. 151 
      
  39. Λ  Postage stamp - Cuba correos 1975 30, 1975, 9 May (date of issue), Yevgeny Khaldei, Stamp commemorates 30th anniversary of liberation from fascism. 
      
  40. Λ The transliterated name of the magazine can be Ogoniok or Ogonjok. There is another connection with photography and graphic design with this illustrated magazine. The magazine's print shop at 1st Samotechny Lane in Moscow is the only work of architecture by El Lissitzky. 
      
  41. Λ Anonymous, 1936, The Yellow Spot, (Victor Gollancz)
     
    For a discussion of The Yellow Spot
    propagandaphotos.wordpress.com/2012/08/02/the-yellow-spot-anonymous-victor-gollancz/ 
      
  42. Λ The Wannsee Conference is covered in the film Conspiracy (dir: Frank Pierson, 2001)
    (Accessed: 24 November 2013)
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0266425/ 
      
  43. Λ This statement is rather simplistic as the are some vast projects that bring material together including:
     
    Yad Vashem Photo Archive
    collections.yadvashem.org/photosarchive
     
    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    www.ushmm.org/research/research-in-collections/overview/photo-archives 
      
  44. Λ The books of Roman Vishniac have gone through multiple editions and include - Roman Vishniac & Abraham Joshua Heschel (ed.), 1947, Polish Jews: A Pictorial Record, (New York: Schocken Books); Roman Vishniac, 1969, A Vanished World, (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux); Wiesel, Marion & Roman Vishniac, 1993, To Give Them Light: The Legacy of Roman Vishniac, (New York: Simon and Schuster) 
      
  45. Λ For Margaret Michaelis-Sachs - Helen Ennis, 2005, Margaret Michaelis: love, loss and photography, (National Gallery of Australia) 
      
  46. Λ Henryk Ross, 2009,Henryk Ross: Lodz Ghetto Album, (Chris Boot)
    Book description (Accessed: 19 July 2013):
    Henryk Ross (1910-91) was a Jewish press photographer in Poland before World War II. Incarcerated by the invading Germans in the Lodz ghetto, he became one of its two official photographers. His duties afforded him access to photographic facilities which he used to secretly photograph the atrocities of Lodz, while also recording scenes of domestic life among the ghetto "elite." As the Germans began the liquidation of Lodz in 1944, Ross buried his 3,000 negatives. Surviving the Holocaust, he recovered them and, from his postwar home in Israel, circulated images showing the horrors of Lodz. But until now, the bulk of his photographs have remained unseen, including many of the ghetto police. For an audience accustomed to dramatic photographs of Holocaust suffering, the quiet, domestic scenes he recorded are poignant and sometimes shocking, challenging us to rethink what we understand about ghetto society.
     
      
  47. Λ In late 1941 Heinrich Jost, a hotel owner and sergeant in the Wehrmacht, went into the Warsaw Ghetto and photographed it - he did not show the photographs until 1982 the year before he died - Gunther Schwarberg (ed.), 2001, In the Ghetto of Warsaw: Photographs by Heinrich Jost (Steidl) 
      
  48. Λ Joe Julius Heydecker, 1991, The Warsaw Ghetto: A Photographic Record 1941-1944, (St. Martins Press) 
      
  49. Λ Willy George, 1993, In the Warsaw Ghetto Summer 1941: Photographs by Willy Georg with Passages from the Warsaw Ghetto Diaries, (Aperture) 
      
  50. Λ Cable from General Dwight D. Eisenhower to General George C. Marshall, the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Washington.
    Cited in "Ohrdruf", Holocaust Encyclopedia - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
    (Accessed: 3 December 2013)
    www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10006131 
      
  51. Λ For studies of Lee Miller's war photography by her son Antony Penrose - Antony Penrose (ed.), 1992,Lee Miller’s War: Photographer and Correspondent with the Allies in Europe 1944–1945, (Boston: Bulfinch Press); Antony Penrose (ed.), 2005, Lee Miller’s War, (New York: Thames and Hudson) [Foreword by David E. Scherman] 
      
  52. Λ Miller, L. (nd) Dispatch to Vogue: ‘Captions for undeveloped film’ [taken in Buchenwald and Weimar]. Lee Miller Archives (4 pages), Buchenwald Folder, Farley Farm House,East Sussex. Cited in: Sharon Sliwinski, 2010, "Visual Testimony: Lee Miller's Dachau", Journal of Visual Culture, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 389-408
    (Available online - accessed: 3 December 2013)
    www.torontophotographyseminar.org/sites/default/files/uploads/Sliwinski_Lee_Miller.pdf 
      
  53. Λ Drusilla Beyfus, 8 Sept 2007, "Lee Miller: on the front line", The Telegraph (UK)
    www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/3667801/Lee-Miller-on-the-front-line.html
    Her dispatches on Buchenwald and Dachau are printed at length in American Vogue under the banner headline 'Believe It'. She cabled, 'No question that German civilians knew what went on.' Haward-Booth [sic] notes that British Vogue ran Miller's text in full but declined to publish the most searing images. Audrey Withers held the view that for British readers - so close to recently liberated Europe - the editorial mood called for jubilation.
    Error in original: "Haward-Booth" should be Mark Haworth-Booth 
      
  54. Λ Vicki Goldberg, 1986, Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography, (New York: Harper and Row) 
      
  55. Λ Although this is widely quoted I have not found the original source. If you know please email me with the details - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  56. Λ There is a film on the live of Walter Rosenblum - 2000, Walter Rosenblum: In Search of Pitt Street, (Daedalus Productions) 
      
  57. Λ Bert Hardy, 1985, Bert Hardy: My Life, (London: Godon Fraser).
    From the dust wrapper:
    "Bert Hardy, for many years Picture Post's chief photographer, has become known as one of the great all rounders of photography. His direct approach always leads him to the human side of any story, whether his subject is war, children, poverty, or simply ordinary people enjoying themselves.His pictures of the poor areas in various cities are among the most powerful of their kind, and he was one of the first photographers in Belsen, the most shocking experience of his life. Bert grew to fame during the Korean War, when his daring pictures of the Inchon landings won him many awards. Later, he shocked Britain and America with his pictures of the ill-treatment of prisoners of war. None the less, Bert is an indomitable character, and this autobiography contains countless examples of the blunt humour and determination which stayed with him throughout his career. Bert's writing always returns to the happy times; it is full of anecdote and incident, and illustrated with a mass of the photographs which made him famous; full of warmth and humour, occasionally painful, but always direct and touching. You will not forget Bert Hardy."
     
      
  58. Λ The Life and Times of Albert Hardy (1913-1995) - PhotoHistories, The Photographers' History of Photography
    (Accessed: 4 December 2013)
    www.photohistories.com/Photo-Histories/50/the-life-and-times-of-albert-hardy-1913-1995 
      
  59. Λ The photograph has various titles but "Gestapo Informer Recognized by a Woman She Had Denounced, Deportation Camp, Dessau, Germany" (1945) sums the situation up. The rarely seen film Le retour by Henri Cartier-Bresson covers the same camp - David Campany, 2008, Photography and Cinema, (Reaktion Books), pp. 28-29. 
      
  60. Λ Anne Frank, 1947, Het Achterhuis [The Secret Annex; Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl], (Amsterdam: Contact) [First edition, in Dutch]; Anne Frank, 1952, Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, (Garden City: Doubleday) [First American edition] 
      
  61. Λ Serge Klarsfeld, 2001, Remembering Georgy: Letters from the House of Izieu, (Aperture) 
      
  62. Λ Emil Meyer & Edward Rosser, 1999, Viennese Types, (Blind River Editions) 
      
  63. Λ Erich Salomon, 1931, Berühmte Zeitgenossen in unbewachten Augenblicken, (Stuttgart: Engelhorns Nachf.) ["Celebrated Contemporaries in Unguarded Moments"]
     
    Erich Salomon was one the first photojournalists in the 1920s to user the light Ermanox and Leica cameras. His "candid portraits" of the politicians and royalty of the pre-Second World War era remain popular - Erich Salomon, 1963, Porträt einer Epoch, (Frankfurt and Berlin: Verlag Ullstein); Peter Hunter-Salomon, 1967, Erich Salomon: Portrait of an Age, (New York: Macmillan); Erich Salomon, 1975, Portrait of an Age, (New York: Collier Books); Erich Salomon, 1978, Erich Salomon, (Millerton, NY: Aperture)
     
    There is a film The Candid Image: A Portrait of Erich Salomon (1992) on Erich Salomon. Description of this documentary:
    His camera hidden in his hat, he sat in a courtroom and photographed two accused murderers being sentenced; photographed Von Hindenburg from a bathroom window across from the presidential palace; hid his camera in a music stand to photograph Toscanini in performance. But he had artistic talent as well as nerve. This program tells Salomon’s story, the famous photos augmented by some of the negatives hidden from the Nazis and now restored. Salomon was killed in Auschwitz, but his astonishing documentation of the 20th century survives.
     
      
  64. Λ Edward Serotta, 2009, Imre Kinszki, (Budapest: Vintage Gale´ria ; Vienna: Centropa) {Hungarian , English] 
      
  65. Λ For the rich and varied career of Edward Steichen - Edward Steichen, 1985, A Life In Photography, (New York: Bonanza Books) ; Todd Brandow & William A. Ewing, 2007, Edward Steichen: Lives in Photography, (Minneapolis: Foundation for the Exhibition of Photography) 
      
  66. Λ For the war in the Pacific - Edward Steichen, 1945, Power In the Pacific, (New York: US Camera Publishing Corp.); Edward Steichen, 1987, U.S. Navy War Photographs Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay, (Bonanza Books); Mark Faram, 2009, Faces of War: The Untold Story of Edward Steichen's WWII Photographers, (Berkley Hardcover); Christopher Phillips, 1983, Steichen at War: The Navy's Pacific Air Battles, (Harry N Abrams) 
      
  67. Λ Edward Steichen, 1945, Power In the Pacific, (New York: US Camera Publishing Corp.); Edward Steichen, 1987, U.S. Navy War Photographs Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay, (Bonanza Books) 
      
  68. Λ The Fighting Lady (1944) - IMDB
    Directors: Edward Steichen, William Wyler
    (Accessed: 17 November 2013)
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0036823/
    The film follows the WWII exploits of the Essex-class aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-10) (unidentified in the film), in its first major operations following its commissioning in 1943. The life of the crew is documented from July 1943 to June 1944, from its passage through the Panama Canal through assaults on Marcus, Kwajalein, Truk and Tinian Islands, and culminating with the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Spectacular 16mm Kodachrome footage of combat operations and naval aviation is prominent throughout. [Summary written by: Written by scgary66]
     
      
  69. Λ James Bradley, 2006, Flags of Our Fathers, (New York: Bantam); Hal Buell (ed), 2006, Uncommon Valor, Common Virtue: Iwo Jima and the Photograph that Captured America, (Berkley, CA: Penguin)
     
    Clint Eastwood directed the film Flags of our Fathers (2006)
    (Accessed: 4 November 2013)
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0418689/
     
    Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 11 November 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raising_the_Flag_on_Iwo_Jima 
      
  70. Λ Marines at Iwo Jima - Perf 10½ x 11, Washington, D.C. - July 11, 1945, 137,321,000 issued 
      
  71. Λ Werner Bischof published several books on his photographs of Japan including - Werner Bischof & Robert Guillain, 1954, Japan, (Simon & Schuster), in German; Werner Bischof, 1961, Japan by Werner Bischof, (Bantam Books) 
      
  72. Λ Ken Domon, 1958, Hiroshima, (Tokyo): (Kenko-sha) 
      
  73. Λ Kikuji Kawada, 1965, The Map, (Tokyo: Bijutsu Shuppansha)
     
    For a background to this book - Ryuichi Kaneko & Ivan Vartanian, 2009, Japanese Photobooks of the 1960s and '70s, (New York: Aperture), pp. 86-93 
      
  74. Λ Kenji Ishiguro, 1970, Hiroshima Now, (Tokyo: Shinya Sosho-sha) 
      
  75. Λ The Japanese word Hibakusha literally translates as "explosion-affected people".
    Hibakusha - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 13 January 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibakusha 
      
  76. Λ Shomei Tomatsu, 1966, 11 ji 02 fun Nagasaki ("11:02" Nagasaki), (Tokyo: Shashin Dojinsha)
     
    For a context to this book - Ryuichi Kaneko & Ivan Vartanian, 2009, Japanese Photobooks of the 1960s and '70s, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  77. Λ David Kahn, (1991), Seizing the Enigma: The Race to Break the German U-boat Codes, 1939–1943, (Houghton Mifflin Co.) 
      
  78. Λ The V-weapons were the V1 flying bomb and the V2 rocket. The "V" comes from the German Vergeltungswaffe (Vengence). 
      
  79. Λ Allan Williams, 2013, Operation Crossbow: The Untold Story of Photographic Intelligence and the Search for Hitler's V Weapons (Random House). The author said about this book:
    Operation Crossbow tells a compelling story about how crucial the work of the reconnaissance squadrons and the interpretation unit was to the outcome of the Second World War. The imagery that survives in the collection relating to Operation Crossbow reveals shows the extent of the search for test and launch sites – which involved taking over 1.2 million aerial photographs – and the great efforts made by the Germans to camouflage the sites. It also tells the story of the dramatic response of the Allied air forces when targets were pinpointed. Without this photographic intelligence – which was created at remarkable speed – the Germans could have launched potentially devastating attacks on Britain before D-Day that could have easily changed the outcome of the war.
     
      
  80. Λ The Edgerton Digital Collections (EDC) project - MIT
    (Accessed: 24 November 2014)
    edgerton-digital-collections.org/
     
    "Aerial night photography, Stonehenge (Wiltshire, England, UK) ", 1944,The Edgerton Digital Collections (EDC) project - Mit Museum number: HEE-SC-02835
    For a ground-based photograph - "Unititled [Night at Stonehenge]", nd (presumably 1944?), The Edgerton Digital Collections (EDC) project - Mit Museum number: HEE-NC-44001 
      
  81. Λ Harold Edgerton; Estelle Jussim & Gus Kayafas (ed.) , 1987, Stopping Time, The Photographs of Harold Edgerton, (New York: Abrams), p. 77 
      
  82. Λ James Fee, 2003, The Peleliu Project, (Seraphin Gallery) 
      
  83. Λ © William Levinson - courtesy of the Seraphin Gallery 
      
  84. Λ They question of place and memory is addressed in Eva Leitolf's series "German Images - Looking for Evidence 2006-2008" and in David Farrell's book, 2002, Innocent Landscapes: Sites of the Disappeared in Ireland, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Anonymous, 1936, The Yellow Spot, (Victor Gollancz) [Δ
  
Brugioni, Dino A. and Poirier, Robert G., 1979, The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Complex, (Central Intelligence Agency) [Δ
  
Carter, Ernestine, 1941, Grim Glory: Pictures of Britain Under Fire, (London: Lund, Humphries) [Preface by Edward R. Murrow. Includes photographs by Lee Miller and others] [Δ
  
Citroen, Hans & Starzynska, Barbara, 2012, Auschwitz-Oswiecim, Oswiecim-Auschwitz, (Post Editions) isbn-13: 978-9460830501 [There are editions in Dutch, English and German] [Δ
  
Fowler, Will, 2000, Their War: German Combat Photographs From the Archives Of Signal Magazine, (Da Capo Press) isbn-10: 1580970400 isbn-13: 978-1580970402 [Δ
  
Fox, Frank, 1999, God's Eye: Aerial Photography and the Katyn Forest Massacre, (West Chester, PA: West Chester University Press) [Δ
  
Georg, Willy, 1993, In the Warsaw Ghetto Summer 1941: Photographs by Willy Georg with Passages from the Warsaw Ghetto Diaries, (Aperture) isbn-10: 0893815268 isbn-13: 978-0893815264 [Δ
  
Jones, Ed & Prus, Timothy (eds.), 2007, Nein, Onkel: Snapshots from Another Front 1938-1945, (Archive of Modern Conflict) isbn-10: 095470911X isbn-13: 978-0954709112 [Δ
  
Klarsfeld, Serge, 2001, Remembering Georgy: Letters from the House of Izieu, (Aperture) isbn-10: 0893819549 [Δ
  
Lewinski, Jorge, 1978, The Camera at War, A History of War Photography, (New York: Simon & Schuster) [Δ
  
Lindstrom, Lamont & White, Geoffrey M., 1990, Island Encounters: Black and White Memories of the Pacific War, (Smithsonian) isbn-10: 0874744571 isbn-13: 978-0874744576 [Δ
  
Livingston, Jane, 1985, The Indelible Image, Photographs of War, (New York: Harry Abrams) [Δ
  
Manbo, Bill & Muller, Eric L. (ed.), 2012, Colors of Confinement: Rare Kodachrome Photographs of Japanese American Incarceration in World War II, (The University of North Carolina Press) isbn-10: 0807835730 isbn-13: 978-0807835739 [Δ
  
McGlade, Fred, 2011, History of the British Army Film and Photographic Unit in the Second World War, (Helion) isbn-10: 1906033943 isbn-13: 978-1906033941 [Kindle edition available] [Δ
  
Piórkowska, Krystyna, 2012, English-speaking Witnesses to Katyn: Recent Research, (MK, Muzeum Katyn´skie) [Δ
  
Poirer, Robert G., 1981, Spring, ‘The Katyn Enigma: New Evidence in a 40-year-old Riddle‘, Studies in Intelligence, vol. 25, pp. 53-63 [Δ
  
Roberts, Hilary, 2012, December, ‘The First Casualty of War is Truth‘, Despatches Magazine (Imperial War Museum), vol. 2, no. 15 [Len Chetwyn's photography of the Battle of El Alamein, 1942] [Δ
  
Shneer, David, 2010, Through Soviet Jewish Eyes: Photography, War, and the Holocaust, (Rutgers University Press) isbn-10: 0813548845 isbn-13: 978-0813548845 [Exhibition catalogue, CU Art Museum, University of Colorado Boulder, Fall 2011] [Δ
  
Thomson, David, 2013, 82, (AMC Books / Archive of Modern Conflict) isbn-13: 978-0957049048 [Two volumes] [Δ
  
Williams, Allan, 2013, Operation Crossbow: The Untold Story of Photographic Intelligence and the Search for Hitler's V Weapons, (Random House) isbn-10: 1409051730 isbn-13: 978-1409051732 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Ansel Adams 
  
Adams, Ansel, 1944, Born free and equal, photographs of the loyal Japanese-Americans at Manzanar Relocation Center, Inyo County, California, (New York: U.S. Camera) [Δ
  
Robinson, Gerald, 2002, Elusive Truth: Four Photographers at Manzanar, (Carl Mautz) isbn-10: 1887694242 [Ansel Adams, Clem Albers, Dorothea Lange and Toyo Miyatake] [Δ
  
Clem Albers 
  
Robinson, Gerald, 2002, Elusive Truth: Four Photographers at Manzanar, (Carl Mautz) isbn-10: 1887694242 [Ansel Adams, Clem Albers, Dorothea Lange and Toyo Miyatake] [Δ
  
Cecil Beaton 
  
Beaton, Cecil, 1981, Cecil Beaton War Photographs, 1939-45, (Imperial War Museum) isbn-10: 0710601360 isbn-13: 978-0710601360 [Δ
  
Margaret Bourke-White 
  
Bourke-White, Margaret, 1942, Shooting the Russian War, (New York, Simon and Schuster) [Δ
  
Bourke-White, Margaret, 1944, They called it "Purple Heart Valley": A Combat Chronicle of the War in Italy, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ
  
Bourke-White, Margaret, 1946, "Dear fatherland, rest quietly": A Report on the Collapse of Hitler's "Thousand years", (New York, Simon and Schuster) [Δ
  
Rubio, Oliva María & Quimby, Sean, 2013, Margaret Bourke-White: Moments in History, (Madrid: La Fábrica) isbn-13: 978-8415303961 [Δ
  
Horace Bristol 
  
Faram, Mark, 2009, Faces of War: The Untold Story of Edward Steichen's WWII Photographers, (Berkley Hardcover) isbn-10: 0425221407 [Δ
  
Robert Capa 
  
Capa, Robert, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt) [Δ
  
Capa, Robert, 1964, Images of War, (NY: Paragraphic Books) [Δ
  
Capa, Robert, 1989, Robert Capa, (Paris: Centre National de la Photographie) [Δ
  
Forbes-Robertson, Diana & Capa, Robert, 1941, The Battle of Waterloo Road, (New York: Random House) [Δ
  
Kershaw, Alex, 2002, Blood and Champagne: The Life and Times of Robert Capa, (Macmillan) [Δ
  
Wertenbake, Charles & Capa, Robert, 1944, Invasion!, (New York: D. Appleton Century) [Includes 16 photographs by Robert Capa] [Δ
  
Whelan, R., 2001, Robert Capa: The Definitive Collection, (New York: Phaidon Press) [Δ
  
Whelan, Richard, 1994, Robert Capa: A Biography, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press) [Δ
  
Brigitte Carnochan 
  
Carnochan, Brigitte, 2012, Imagining Then: A Family Story, 1941-47, (hp MagCloud) [Introduction by Brooks Jensen & Afterword by David Bayles. Exhibition catalog. MagCloud id: 374656] [Δ
  
Chim 
  
Naggar, Carole & Seymour, David [Chim], 2013, Chim: Children of War, (Umbrage Editions) isbn-10: 1884167837 isbn-13: 978-1884167836 [Δ
  
Young, Cynthia; Naggar, Carole & Cohen, Roger, 2013, We Went Back: Photographs from Europe 1933-1956 by Chim, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791352814 isbn-13: 978-3791352817 [Δ
  
Robert Doisneau 
  
Doisneau, Robert, 1944, La semaine héroïque. 19-25 Août 1944, (Paris: S.E.P.E.) [Δ
  
Alfred Eisenstaedt 
  
Verria, Lawrence & Galdorisi, George, 2012, The Kissing Sailor: The Mystery Behind the Photo that Ended World War II, (Naval Institute Press) isbn-10: 1612510787 isbn-13: 978-1612510781 [Foreword by David Hartman] [Δ
  
Bert Hardy 
  
Hardy, Bert, 1985, Bert Hardy: My Life, (London: Gordon Fraser) [Δ
  
Joe Heydecker 
  
Heydecker, Joe J., 1983, Das Warschauer Ghetto: Foto-Dokumente eines deutschen Soldaten aus dem Jahr 1941, (Muenchen: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag) isbn-10: 3423102470 isbn-13: 978-3423102476 [Δ
  
Heydecker, Joe J., 1991, The Warsaw Ghetto: A Photographic Record, 1941-1944, (London: St Martins Press) isbn-10: 1850431558 isbn-13: 978-1850431558 [Δ
  
Heinrich Hoffmann 
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, n.d.Mit Hitler in Polen [With Hitler in Poland], (Berlin) [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1930s, Das Antlitz des Führers [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1930s, Ein Folk ehrt seinen Führer [A Folk Honors its Fuehrer] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1930s, Hitler befreit Sudetenland [Hitler Liberates Sudetenland] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1930s, Hitler in Böhmen-Mähren-Memel [Hitler in Bohemia-Moravia-Memel] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1930s, Hitler in Italien [Hitler in Italy] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1930s, Hitler in seiner Heimat [Hitler in His Homeland] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1930s, Mit Hitler im Westen [With Hitler in the West] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1933, Hitler wie ihn keiner kennt [The Hitler Nobody Knows] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1934, Jugend um Hitler [Youth Around Hitler] [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1937, Hitler abseits vom Alltag [Hitler Off Duty], (Berlin) [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1938, Hitler baut Großdeutschland [Hitler Builds Greater Germany: The triumph of Konigsberg to Vienna], (Berlin) [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 1970, Adolf Hitler: faces of a dictator; photographs from the Heinrich Hoffmann archives, (London: Joseph) [Text and captions by Jochen von Lang] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, 2011, Hitler was my friend: Heinrich Hoffmann, 1885-1957, (Barnsley: Frontline) [Translated by R.H. Stevens] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich, [1939], Hitler in seinen Bergen [Hitler in His Mountains], (Berlin) [Reprinted with German and English text by Preuss, 2006] [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich (ed.), [1933], Der Triumph des Willens: Kampf und Aufstieg Adolf Hitlers und seiner Bewegung [The Triump of the Will: The struggle and rise of Adolf Hitler and his movement], (Berlin) [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich (ed.) & Bürckel, Josef (Foreword), 1938, Hitler holt die Saar heim, (Berlin: Zeitgeschichte-Verlag) [Δ
  
Hoffmann, Heinrich (ed.) & Marsiani, A.R., 1942, German East, country of the future, (Munchen) [British library - System number: 002395875] [Δ
  
Yevgeny Khaldei 
  
Volland, Ernst & Krimmer, Heinz (eds.), 1999, Von Moskau nach Berlin. Bilder des russischen Fotografen Jewgeni Chaldej, (Berlin) [Δ
  
Franz Krieger 
  
Kramml, Peter F. & Straßl, Roman, 2008, Der Salzburger Pressefotograf Franz Krieger (1914–1993): Bildberichterstattung im Schatten von NS-Propaganda und Krieg, (Salzburg Stadtarchiv und Statistik) isbn-13: 978-3900213084 [German. English translation of title: The Salzburg Press Photographer Franz Krieger (1914-1993): Photojournalism in the Shadow of Nazi Propaganda and War] [Δ
  
Germaine Krull 
  
Krull, Germaine & Vaillant, Roger, 1945, La bataille d'Alsace. Novembre - Décembre 1944, (Paris: Jacques Haumont) [With photograp[hs by Germaine Krull] [Δ
  
Dorothea Lange 
  
Gordon, Linda & Okihiro, Gary Y. (eds.), 2006, Impounded: Dorothea Lange and the Censored Images of Japanese American Internment, (W. W. Norton & Company) isbn-10: 039306073X isbn-13: 978-0393060737 [Δ
  
Robinson, Gerald, 2002, Elusive Truth: Four Photographers at Manzanar, (Carl Mautz) isbn-10: 1887694242 [Ansel Adams, Clem Albers, Dorothea Lange and Toyo Miyatake] [Δ
  
Lee Miller 
  
Allmer, Patricia, 2012, ‘Lee Miller's Revenge on Fascist Culture‘, History of Photography, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 397-413 [Δ
  
Miller, Lee, 1945, Wrens in Camera, (Hollis and Carter) [Δ
  
Penrose, Antony, 1985, The Lives of Lee Miller, (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston) [Δ
  
Penrose, Antony (ed.), 2005, Lee Miller’s War, (New York: Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 0500285586 isbn-13: 978-0500285589 [Foreword by David E. Scherman] [Δ
  
Wayne Miller 
  
Daiter, Stephen (ed.), 2008, Wayne F. Miller: Photographs 1942-1958, (powerHouse Books) isbn-10: 1576874621 isbn-13: 978-1576874622 [Essay by Kerry Tremain. Introduction by Fred Ritchin.] [Δ
  
Faram, Mark, 2009, Faces of War: The Untold Story of Edward Steichen's WWII Photographers, (Berkley Hardcover) isbn-10: 0425221407 [Δ
  
Toyo Miyatake 
  
Robinson, Gerald, 2002, Elusive Truth: Four Photographers at Manzanar, (Carl Mautz) isbn-10: 1887694242 [Ansel Adams, Clem Albers, Dorothea Lange and Toyo Miyatake] [Δ
  
John Phillips 
  
Phillips, John, 1986, Testimone del secolo - John Phillips Fotografie 1936-1982, (Olivetti) [Italian] [Δ
  
W.G. Sebald 
  
Patt, Lise (ed.), 2007, Searching for Sebald: Photography After W. G. Sebald, (Los Angeles: The Institute of Cultural Inquiry) [Δ
  
Edward Steichen 
  
Faram, Mark, 2009, Faces of War: The Untold Story of Edward Steichen's WWII Photographers, (Berkley Hardcover) isbn-10: 0425221407 [Δ
  
Phillips, Christopher, 1983, Steichen at War: The Navy's Pacific Air Battles, (Harry N Abrams) isbn-10: 0810916398 isbn-13: 978-0810916395 [Δ
  
Steichen, Edward, 1945, Power In the Pacific, (New York: US Camera Publishing Corp.) [Δ
  
Steichen, Edward, 1987, U.S. Navy War Photographs Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay, (Bonanza Books) isbn-10: 0517455498 isbn-13: 978-0517455494 [Δ
  
Steichen, Edward (ed.), 1947, The Blue Ghost, (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co.) [Δ
  
Shõmei Tõmatsu 
  
Tomatsu, Shomei, 1966, 11 ji 02 fun Nagasaki ("11:02" Nagasaki), (Tokyo: Shashin Dojinsha) [Δ
  
Paolo Ventura 
  
Ventura, Paolo & Prose, Francine, 2006, War Souvenir, (Contrasto) isbn-10: 8889032979 isbn-13: 978-8889032978 [Δ
  
Roman Vishniac 
  
Vishniac, Roman, 1986, A Vanished World - Roman Vishniac, (Douglas & McIntyre) isbn-10: 0374520232 isbn-13: 978-0374520236 [Foreword by Elie Wiesel] [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Poland at Wat 
http://www.thornb2b.co.uk ... 
Photographs taken in Poland during the Second World War. 
  
World War I Color Photos 
http://www.worldwaronecolorphotos.com ... 
An interesting collection of French autochromes of the First World War. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Max Alpert  (1899-1980) • Emmy Andriesse  (1914-1953) • Dmitri Baltermants  (1912-1990) • Cecil Beaton  (1904-1980) • Thérèse Bonney  (1894-1978) • Margaret Bourke-White  (1904-1971) • Wilhelm Brasse  (1917-2012) • Horace Bristol • Robert Capa  (1913-1954) • Henri Cartier-Bresson  (1908-2004) • Anatoli Egorov • Emmanuel Evzerikhin  (1911-1984) • James Fee  (1949-2006) • Andrew Freeman • Toni Frissell  (1907-1988) • Bert Hardy  (1913-1995) • Joe Heydecker  (1916-1997) • Heinrich Hoffmann  (1885-1957) • Dmitri Kessel  (1902-1995) • Yevgeny Khaldei  (1917-1997) • Germaine Krull  (1897-1985) • Constance Stuart Larabee  (1914-2000) • Cornel Lucas  (1920-2012) • Andreas Magdanz • Mark Markov-Grinberg  (1907-) • Yoshito Matsushige  (1913-2005) • Lee Miller  (1907-1977) • Wayne Miller  (1918-2013) • Carl Mydans  (1907-2004) • Cas Oorthuys  (1908-1975) • Roger M. Parry  (1905-1977) • Georgii Petrusov  (1903-1971) • John Phillips  (1914-1996) • Julia Pirotte  (1911-) • Arthur Rickerby • George Rodger  (1908-1995) • Walter Rosenblum  (1919-2006) • Joe Rosenthal  (1911-2006) • Henryk Ross  (1910-1991) • Paul Senn  (1901-1953) • George Silk  (1916-) • W. Eugene Smith  (1918-1978) • Humphrey Spender  (1910-2005) • Edward Steichen  (1879-1973) • Louis Stettner  (1922-) • John Swope  (1908-1979) • Zdenek Tmej  (1920-2004) • Tony Vaccaro  (1922-) • Alexander Zhitomirsky  (1907-1993)
HomeThemesWar > Second World War (1939-1945) 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
De Ondergedoken Camera - The Underground Camera 
France 
Germany 
Italy 
Japan 
Naval Aviation Photographic Unit 
Russia - Russian Federation 
The Holocaust (1933-1945) 
The Netherlands 
UK 
USA 
 
Key dates 
  
The Holocaust (1933-1945) 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Second World War (1939-1945)

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailJames Fee: The Peleliu Project 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 9, 2008)
ThumbnailPortrait: The Guinea Pig Club 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 18, 2010) Warning: These images may be considered disturbing as this exhibition remembers the pioneering plastic surgery of Archibald McIndoe. Thanks to Nicola Kurtz who photographed the 65th reunion of The Guinea Pig Club in September 2006.
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Second World War (1939-1945)

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailAdolf Hitler 
ThumbnailMussolini 
ThumbnailWinston Churchill 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlfred Eisenstaedt: VJ Day Times Square 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAnsel Adams: Manzanar Relocation Center 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: Persecution 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCecil Beaton: Tyneside Shipyards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDmitri Baltermants: Second World War (1935-1945) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinrich Hoffman: Adolf Hitler 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinrich Hoffmann (Editor) & Josef Bürckel (Foreword): Hitler holt die Saar heim (1938) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJames Fee: The Peleliu Project 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean-Philippe Charbonnier: Execution of a collaborator, Vienne, Isère, France 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKen Domon & Shomei Tomatsu: Hiroshima-Nagasaki, Document 1961 
ThumbnailKen Domon: Hiroshima 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMargaret Bourke-White: Purple Heart Valley 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMax Alpert: Soviet officer leading his soldiers to the assault 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Capa: Collaborationist is Scorned... 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert F. Sargent: Taxi to Hell 
ThumbnailSAFARA: Fabrication des casques de soldats 
ThumbnailShõmei Tõmatsu: Nagasaki 11:02 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTodd Webb: Decorations welcoming home the military after the Second World War 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: In Bridgeport’s War Factories 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWayne Miller: Hiroshima 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailYevgeny Khaldei: Soldiers raising the flag of Soviet Union 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailLt. Comdr. Charles Fenno Jacobs - Carl Mydans 
ThumbnailMargaret Bourke-White - Lee Miller 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer (Third Reich) - Yevgeny Khaldei 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer - Margaret Bourke-White - Robert Capa 
ThumbnailUnidentified Russian Army photographer - Jack Burman 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailFlag raisings during WWII 
ThumbnailRise of European Fascism 
ThumbnailThe entry of German forces into the Sudetenland - A question of interpretation 
ThumbnailWanted for incitement to Murder 
ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima (6 August 1945) 
ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki (9 August 1945) 
ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945) 
ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): Justice and revenge 
ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): Publications 
ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): The Holocaust 
 
 
  
   Events 
  
ThumbnailVE Day 
ThumbnailVJ Day 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAdolf Hitler - Nazi propaganda series 
ThumbnailDavid Thomson: 82 
ThumbnailHiroshima: Before and after 
ThumbnailInvitation to "The Class Party", Class 4-73 Port Wing, Naval Training School (Photography) Pensacola, Florida (15 April 1943) 
ThumbnailPublic indignity of an old Jewish man 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 04 September 2014, 00:34
 
  
 
  
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