Luminous-Lint - for collectors and connoisseurs of fine photography   
HOME  BACKFREE NEWSLETTER

Getting around

 

HomeWhat's NewContentsVisual IndexesOnline ExhibitionsPhotographersGalleries and DealersThemes
AbstractEroticaFashionLandscapeNaturePhotojournalismPhotomontagePictorialismPortraitScientificStill lifeStreetWar
CalendarsTimelinesTechniquesLibraryImages and WordsSupport 
 

HomeContentsThemes > American Civil War (1861-1865)

Contents

Introduction
234.01   The Photographic History of the Civil War
Photographic techniques and processes
234.02   Reasons for the popularity of the tintype during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.03   Carte de visites during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.04   Stereocard series on the American Civil War
234.05   American Civil War (1861-1865) photograph albums
234.06   Advertisements for early photograph albums during the American Civil War
Cameras
234.07   American Civil War: Cameras
234.08   Mathew Brady: Camera
Photographic teams and photographic vans
234.09   Photographer teams and photographic vans during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
Contemporary photographic books
234.10   Alexander Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War (1866)
Composite photographs and photomontage
234.11   George N. Barnard: Composite photographs during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.12   George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta
234.13   George N. Barnard: Destruction of Hood’s Ordnance Train
234.14   Photomontage during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
Tax revenue stamps
234.15   Revenue stamps during the American Civil War
Themes
234.16   Breastworks and fortications during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.17   Weapons of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.18   Railways and the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.19   American Civil War: Balloons
234.20   Prisons and prisoners during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.21   Animals of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.22   American Civil War: Copying maps
234.23   George N. Barnard: Panoramas
234.24   American Civil War: Censorship
234.25   Propaganda during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.26   A.C. Kline: Jeff Davis "taking" Washington
234.27   Commanders and officers of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.28   Soldiers of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.29   American Civil War (1861-1865): Portraits in brass bezels
234.30   Camp life during American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.31   Spies of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.32   Families of the American Civil War (1861-1865)
234.33   American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead
234.34   Death and dying during the American Civil War
234.35   Placing photographs on the dead during the American Civil War
234.36   William H. Mumler: Spirit photography
234.37   The United States Sanitary Commission
234.38   Charity during the American Civil War: The Children of the Battlefield
234.39   Patriotic and military backgrounds for portraits during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
Events
234.40   The Battle of Gettysburg and photographic evidence (July 1863)
234.41   Timothy O'Sullivan: A council of war at Massaponax Church, VA (21 May 1864)
War injuries and medical claims
234.42   Major General Henry Barnum
234.43   Private George Lemon
234.44   R.B. Bontecou: Surgical injuries and their treatment during the American Civil War
234.45   William H. Bell: Medical injuries during the American Civil War
234.46   George A. Otis: Photographs of Surgical Cases and Specimens (1867 or later)
Aftermath
234.47   Portraits of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln
234.48   Execution of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Popular culture
234.49   Use of a cased photograph in the film "The Birth of a Nation" (1915)
Photographic fabrications
234.50   Photographic fabrications of the American Civil War
Colourising the past
234.51   Colourising the past
Photographic analysis
234.52   1st Lieutenant Henry. B. Loomis, adjutant of the 56th New York Infantry Regiment (Evolving case study)
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
234.01   War >  The Photographic History of the Civil War 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
In the American Civil War (1861-1865) the photographs of Mathew Brady [1], Alexander Gardner [2], Timothy O’Sullivan[3] on the Union side and George S. Cook[4] on the Confederate side recorded the offcers, soldiers, battles, logistics and munitions.[5] At times they brought home to the public the real chaos of war and the fact that it is rarely glorious. When the 10 volume Photographic History of the Civil War edited by Robert S. Lanier[6] came out there was a vast range of images to select from and this is still evident from the number of original Civil War photographs, both original and fraudulent, that can still be purchased on Ebay. Recent exhibitions have become more inclusive of the range of photographic material and its impact - a good example of this was the 2013 exhibition "Photography and the American Civil War" (Metropolitan Museum of Art).[7]
 
The Civil War has been well researched and documentaries including those of Ken Burns have used the photographic record to create compelling narratives.[8] Different issues have been addressed such as Black Americans[9] including their role in combat and the effects of slavery and emacipation, methodologies of military battlefield forensics by William Frassinato[10], railroad construction and destruction photographs of Andrew J. Russell[11], medical photography[12], and photographs of individual soldiers along with their stories[13]
  
Photographic techniques and processes 
  
234.02   War >  Reasons for the popularity of the tintype during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
There had been a rapid growth in photographic studios in the 1850's and the introduction of the tintype / ferrotype[14] in 1853 meant that photographs could be on cheap metal sheets rather than on the more fragile glass plates used by ambrotypes. There are multiple reasons why the tintype was ideally suited to the American Civil War:
  • The chemical processes were simple making it ideal for itinerant photographers.
     
  • The process is a single stage requiring no negative.
     
  • They were cheap to create making them ideal for the military and their relatives.
     
  • The metal was robust and could stand up to camp life.
     
  • The metal base meant they could be placed in albums or mailed.
     
  • They could be cut with scissors or pincers making them perfect for photo-jewelry.
The relatively low cost of portraits and the abundance of photographers led to the American Civil War being the first major conflict in which common soldiers had their portraits taken in large numbers. 
  
234.03   War >  Carte de visites during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
For the officers during the American Civil War (1861-1865) the carte de visite had been patented in 1854 and higher quality glass plates were also available. The plethora of techniques and the ways they could be displayed ensured that there was something appropriate for every pocket.[15] 
  
234.04   War >  Stereocard series on the American Civil War 
  
During and after the American Civil War (1861-1865) there was a commercial opportunity for marketing series of stereoviews of the personalities, battlefields, equipment and camp life. The study of these is complex as the photographer is frequently not recorded, the studio or studio owner claimed rights over the photographs they had financed or purchased without giving credit to the photographer, publishers obtained photographs from multiple sources, studios went out of business, negatives were sold from one studio to another, the captions and attributions on occasion were not accurate.
Photographic incidents of the War 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Includes photographs by Alexander Gardner
 
The War for the Union - Photographic History 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Includes photographs by George N. Barnard[16], Thomas C. Roche, John C. Taylor and others by The War Photograph & Exhibition Company (Hartford), and Taylor & Huntington (Hartford).
 
War Views 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
War Views - Army of the Potomac 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
Includes photographs by Thomas C. Roche.
 
Home Views 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  

 
American Scenery 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
  
234.05   War >  American Civil War (1861-1865) photograph albums 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
In the James Wadsworth Family Papers archive at The Library of Congress there is a particularly fine photograph album of two hundred individuals thought to have been collected by John Hay (1838-1905) who was the personal secretary to President Abraham Lincoln.
 
The collecting and exchange of carte de visite was a craze during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and it was common place to have them autographed by the sitter. 
  
234.06   War >  Advertisements for early photograph albums during the American Civil War 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
Cameras 
  
234.07   War >  American Civil War: Cameras 
  
Civil War Cameras - George Eastman House Curator of Technology Todd Gustavson discusses two examples of Civil War-era cameras - a stereo camera and the Lewis wet-plate camera. 
  
 
  
234.08   War >  Mathew Brady: Camera 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
Photographic teams and photographic vans 
  
234.09   War >  Photographer teams and photographic vans during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
Contemporary photographic books 
  
234.10   War >  Alexander Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War (1866) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow (Be patient as this has 45 slides to load.) 
  
During the American Civil War (1861-1865) vast numbers of photographs were taken but there are few illustrated works as well known as highly regarded as Gardner‘s Photographic Sketchbook of the War[17] compiled by Alexander Gardner. The two volume album contained 100 albumen prints in total with 50 tipped in plates in each volume accompanied by a descriptive text possibly by Alexander Gardner. The book was published by Philp & Solomons (Washington) in two editions, one thought to have been published in 1865 and the other in 1866. More recent research by Anne E. Peterson (Curator of Photographs, DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University) now indicates that both editions came out in 1866.
 
Within public collections the same plate can have different photographers assigned to it and a level of confusion can occur. This is partly because of the way the work was created with the negative being taken by one photographer, the print made by another and the copyright registered by a third. The text printed on the first plate "Marshall House, Alexandria, Virginia" highlights this:
"Negative by Wm. R. Pyrell. August 1862. Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1865, by A. Gardner, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District of Columbia. Incidents of the War. Marshall House, Alexandria, VA. Published by Philp & Solomons, Washington. Positive by A. Gardner, 511 7th St., Washington"
These original records are not always accurate and to find the actual photographer who took the negative it is advisable to check with:
 
Alexander Gardner with the introduction by E.F. Bleiler (1959) Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War (New York: Dover Publications)
 
The solid introduction by E.F. Bleiler and reproductions of all the plates makes this the most authoritative source on this series. Where there are discrepancies between different sources I have attempted to highlight them but I always welcome additional research to ensure accuracy and completeness.
 
The exact number of copies of the Photographic Sketchbook of the War sold is not known but is thought to be between 125 and 200 copies and there are complete sets at George Eastman House and Cornell University Library both of which have copies on the Internet. Because there was no way of printing the photographs directly onto the pages the 100 photographs for each set were made individually and then affixed to the pages. This was both laborious and expensive and the two volume sold for $150 a set when they were published in the 1860s a vast sum of money at the time. 
  
Composite photographs and photomontage 
  
234.11   War >  George N. Barnard: Composite photographs during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
With wet collodion negatives the light sensitivity of the chemicals was such that one could get the correct exposure for the sky or for the landscape but rarely both. The French master of seascapes, Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884), got around this by taking two plates each exposed correctly for a part of the shot and then creating a final image that was a composite of the two.
 
With George N. Barnard[18] during the American Civil War (1861-1865) these examples show both the original negative (presumably from a plate) and the retouched version where the clouds are both dramatic and visible. If you look at the skyline on the retouched version of the Potter House image and examine the trees on the right hand side you can clearly see where the two images have been joined. 
  
234.12   War >  George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
An examination of the skyline and the edges of the tree branches in the photograph Rebel Works in front of Atlanta, No. 1 by American Civil War (1861-1865) photographer George N. Barnard[19] shows that this is a composite made from multiple distinct negatives
  
234.13   War >  George N. Barnard: Destruction of Hood’s Ordnance Train 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
An examination of the clouds in versions of George N. Barnard's dramatic photograph of Destruction of Hood's Ordnance Train indicates that these are composite prints using one negative for the landscape and another for the sky.[20] 
  
234.14   War >  Photomontage during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
The use of collage and photomontage were widespread long before the American Civil War (1861-1864)[21] and both techniques were used for propaganda purposes during the war. Photographs of real events by photographers of the stature of George N. Barnard were not immune to using multiple glass plate negatives to create an "improved" version of the truth.  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
  
 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
George N. Barnard: Destruction of Hood’s Ordnance Train 
  
When the President of the Confederate States Jefferson Davis was captured attempting to escape wearing women's clothing the potential propaganda uses of manipulated portraits was exploited immediately.  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Jefferson Davis in women's clothing 
  
 
  
Tax revenue stamps 
  
234.15   War >  Revenue stamps during the American Civil War 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow (Be patient as this has 20 slides to load.) 
  
On 30th June 1864 Congress passed the Internal Revenue Act of 1864[22] to raise additional revenue to finance the American Civil War. This included a provision to tax "photographs, ambrotypes, daguerreotypes or any other sun-pictures" by affixing a tax revenue stamp[23] proportionate to the cost of the photograph to the reverse of each photograph.
Up to 25 cents - 2 cent revenue stamp
26-50 cents - 3 cent revenue stamp
51 cents - $1 - 5 cent revenue stamp
Over $1 a further 5 cent stamp for each $1 or fraction thereof.
 
  
   War American Civil 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Themes 
  
234.16   War >  Breastworks and fortications during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.17   War >  Weapons of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.18   War >  Railways and the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
Sherman's neckties - otherwise known at Sherman's hairpins or Sherman's bow ties - where named after Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman of the Union Army and were a method employed for destroying Confederate railroad infrastructure as a part of his scorched earth policy during the American Civil War.
 
Gerneral Sherman, Special Field Orders No.37, (July 18, 1864)
"...Keep every man of his command at work in destroying the railroad by tearing up track, burning the ties and iron, and twisting the bars when hot. Officers should be instructed that bars simply bent may be used again, but if when red hot they are twisted out of line they cannot be used again. Pile the ties into shape for a bonfire, put the rails across and when red hot in the middle, let a man at each end twist the bar so that its surface becomes spiral.”
Other devices for wrecking track employed large levers and A.J. Russell[24] photographed the use of these in his series Photographs illustrative of operations in construction and transportation, as used to facilitate the movements of the Armies of the Rappahannock, of Virginia, and of the Potomac ... (1863)[25] 
  
234.19   War >  American Civil War: Balloons 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
In 1862 President Abraham Lincoln established a civilian group of balloonists to work with the Corps of Topographical Engineers to carry our reconnaisance work and take photographs of enemy positions.[26] The control of the unit was passed to the Quartermaster Corps and then to the Corps of Engineers on 7 April 1863. The most notable balloonist was Thaddeus S.C. Lowe[27] who remained a civilian with the pay of a Colonel.[28] In a letter Lowe, Aeronaut, to Lieut. Col. A. V. Colburn, Assistant Adjutant-General (16 December 1861) he wrote:
The communication of W. G. Fullerton, of December 2, in reference to photographic pictures taken from the balloon which was referred to me, has been examined, and I would say that the author advances no new ideas. As soon as other matters connected with the balloons are accomplished I shall give the photographic matter a thorough and practical test.[29]
Thaddeus Lowe also saw that photographic negatives could be blown up to larger sizes with implications for the production of maps:
I also have with me a set of powerful magnifying lenses with which a photograph of three inches square can be magnified to the size of twenty feet square. Thus it will be seen that a view taken at a distance too far for the objects to be discernible with the naked eye, could be easily distinguished with the magnifier. A map photographed and thus magnified would be found much easier to consult.[30]
 
  
234.20   War >  Prisons and prisoners during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.21   War >  Animals of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
Prior to the introduction of railways the fastest mode of human locomotion was by horse and that speed had remained pretty well the same since its' domestication. Military logistics were limited to the weights single animals could carry or the size of wagons they could pull. Cavalry continued through the First World War (1914-1918) and there were still some cavalry units in the Second World War (1939-1945). During the American Civil War (1861-1865) hundreds of thousands of horses, mules, donkeys and other draft animals would have been used.[31] Vast numbers would have been injured by cannon fire, lead bullets and sabre cuts but there are few photographs that depict this slaughter. Alexander Gardner's photograph of September 1862 Is This Death - Antietam Battlefield shows the dead horse of a Confederate Colonel, both killed during the battle.  
  
Thumbnail  
Alexander Gardner: Is This Death - Antietam Battlefield (September 1862) 
  
A stereoview by John C. Taylor also shows numerous dead horses.  
  
Thumbnail  
John C. Taylor: View at Trostle’s Barn, with dead horses of Ninth Massachusetts Battery 
  
We know of famous horses such as "Traveller" the mount of General Robert E. Lee who said of it:
"Such a picture could inspire a poet, whose genius could then depict his worth and describe his endurance of toil, hunger, thirst, heat and cold, and the dangers and sufferings through which he has passed. He could dilate upon his sagacity and affection and his invariable response to every wish of his rider. He might even imagine his thoughts through the long night-marches and days of battle through which he has passed."[32]
"Traveller" was at the funeral of General Robert E. Lee in 1870 just as Abraham Lincoln's horse "Old Bob" was at his.  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Lincoln's horse "Old Bob" 
  
Given the role that animals played during the American Civil War (1861-1865) their photographic history appears to have been largely neglected. 
  
234.22   War >  American Civil War: Copying maps 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
Accurate maps can be in short supply in complex and fast moving military campaigns. Waiting for new of maps to be printed puts any army are a disadvantage and photography allowed a quick solution. By pinning up a copy of a map a negative could be made and as many copies as required made in the darkroom.
 
In the photograph attributed to Alexander Gardner taken in March 1865 during the American Civil War the pinned up map, copying camera, and printing frames are plainly visible.[33] In 1909 William Pinkerton recalled that Alexander Gardner:
... was utilized by the Government for photographing maps and other articles of that kind which were prepared by the secret service. I used to travel around with Gardner a good deal while he was taking these views and saw many of them made.[34]
Thaddeus S.C. Lowe, Chief of Aeronautics for the Union Army, in a letter to Marjor General Parke wrote that photographic negatives could be blown up to larger sizes with implications for military maps:
I also have with me a set of powerful magnifying lenses with which a photograph of three inches square can be magnified to the size of twenty feet square. Thus it will be seen that a view taken at a distance too far for the objects to be discernible with the naked eye, could be easily distinguished with the magnifier. A map photographed and thus magnified would be found much easier to consult.[35]
The need for maps was reported in contemporary military dispatches such as by Major General W.S. Rosecrans from Corinth, Mississippi on 22 October 1862:
Destitute of engineers or topographical engineers, groping our way through an unknown wooded and hostile country, we have been obliged to resort to every possible device to obtain and diffuse information among commanders of troops. Having no copyists, when we get a map we have to resort to an improvised photographer, who, taking likenesses, was required to provide himself with the means of copying maps as the tax for the privilege of staying in camp.[36]
 
  
234.23   War >  George N. Barnard: Panoramas 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.24   War >  American Civil War: Censorship 
  
Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
Preventing the sale of photographs of opponents was enacted during the American Civil War (1861-1865):
Headquarters Middle Department, Eighth Army Corps,
Office Provost Marshal, Baltimore, March llth, 1863
 
Detective Pontier is hereby ordered to proceed to any photographist, or dealer in pictures in this city, and seize all pictures of rebel generals and statesmen which they are publicly or privately exposing for sale, as they have been repeatedly requested not to display such pictures for sale, and furthermore ordered by Marshal Van Nostrand not to sell such pictures; and the sale of such pictures is hereby forbidden hereafter, unless by special permission of the military authorities.
 
Per order of Major General R. C. SCHENCK.
W. S. Fish, Lieutenant Colonel and Protost Marital. [37]
 
  
234.25   War >  Propaganda during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
On 10 May 1865, Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States, was captured in Georgia wearing his wife's overcoat. Such a small event may be at first appear trivial with the context of the American Civil War but to make your opponent, furtive, perverted, a coward or a figure of fun - each of which might apply - allowed photographers and caricaturists to create humorous pieces that could be used as Propaganda for the Union.[38]
 
It is interesting that one of the carte de visite "We are about making a movement that will astonish the world,” J.D. was created by William H. Mumler who was a charlatan who used double exposures and composite photographs to con gullible people by saying he had contact with their departed loved ones through spirit photography.[39] 
  
234.26   War >  A.C. Kline: Jeff Davis "taking" Washington 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
An amusing piece of photographic ephemera printed for A.C. Kline uses a pun to refer to "Jeff David 'taking' Washington. The joke being that the only way Jefferson Davis (1908-1889), President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War (1861-1865), was ever going to "take" the capital of the Union was if he took a photograph of it rather than by military force. 
  
234.27   War >  Commanders and officers of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.28   War >  Soldiers of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow (Be patient as this has 35 slides to load.) 
  
The American Civil War (1861-1865 was the first war where all ranks were photographed in considerable detail and where even the lowest ranks could afford to have their portraits taken. Soldiers visited the studios in the towns they passed through and there were numerous itinerant photographers who worked in the camps. Photography was also used by the Quartermaster Corp of the Union Army as an aid to the specification of uniforms.[40]
 
This abundance of photographs and the diversity of well described uniforms and equipment has meant that historians and collectors have been able to construct highly detailed sets of photographs for each military unit involved. Having said that the limited access to chemicals and equipment due to the blockade of the South from April 1861[41] meant that photographic coverage of the Confederate forces is not as good as for the Union side. 
  
234.29   War >  American Civil War (1861-1865): Portraits in brass bezels 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.30   War >  Camp life during American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.31   War >  Spies of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
Both sides during the American Civil War used women spies, people like Harriet Tubman, Pauline Cushman, Belle Boyd, Rose O'Neal Greenhow, Antonia Ford and others.[42] 
  
234.32   War >  Families of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
234.33   War >  American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow (Be patient as this has 21 slides to load.) 
  
During the American Civil War (1861-1865) the cameras were not able to photograph movement with any fidelity and therefore more static subjects were selected. The dead were a natural if macabre choice but there has been considerable discussion about the placement of the dead so that they provided the best visual composition. Analysis by William Frassanito in his pioneering book on photo-forensics Gettysburg: A Journey in Time[43] indicated that some bodies had been moved and the captions provided within Gardner's Sketchbook of the War[44] were not always accurate. 
  
234.34   War >  Death and dying during the American Civil War 
  
Mary Ashton Rice Livermore was a nurse in the Union Army during the American Civil War in her reminiscences My Story of the War (1890) she told the story of dying man who had been shot the night before:
"Can we do anything for you?" one of us inquired, after the surgeon had examined him, and he had been placed in bed.
 
"Too late! too late!" was his only reply, slightly shaking his head.
 
"Have you no friends to whom you wish me to write?"
 
He drew from an inside vest pocket — for his clothing was not removed — a letter, enclosing a photograph of a most lovely woman. "You wish me to write to the person who has sent you this letter?"
 
He nodded slightly, and feebly whispered, "My wife."
 
Bowing her head, and folding her hands, Miss Safford offered a brief touching prayer in behalf of the dying man, bending low over him that he might hear her softly spoken words. Her voice faltered a little, as she remembered in her prayer the far-absent wife, so near bereavement? "Amen I" responded the dying man, in a distinct voice, and then we left him with the attendant, to minister to others. Lifting the photograph, he gazed at it earnestly for a few moments, pressed it to his lips, and then clasped it in both hands. When I returned to his bed, some twenty minutes later, he was still looking upward, his hands still clasping the photograph, and his face was irradiated with the most heavenly smile I have ever seen on any face. I spoke to him, but he seemed not to hear, and there was a far-away look in the gaze, as though his vision reached beyond my ken.
 
I stood still, awestruck. The wardmaster approached, and laid his finger on the wrist. "He is dead!" he whispered.
 
The duty of writing the widowed wife was assigned me, and I took the letter and photograph. Ah, what a letter was that which the dying man had placed in my hands! He had evidently not replied to it, for it had been only just received, and had not the worn look of having been carried long in the pocket. It was from his wife, informing her husband of the death, on the same day, of their two children, three and five years old. It was the letter of a superior woman, who wrote nobly and tenderly, hiding her own grief, in her desire to comfort her husband.
 
"I do not feel that we have lost our children," thus she wrote; "they are ours still, and will be ours forever. Their brief life was all sunshine, and by their early departure they are spared all experience of sorrow and wrong. They can never know the keen heartache that you and I must suffer at their loss. It must be well with them. Their change of being must be an advance, a continuance of existence on a higher plane. And some time, my dear Harry, we shall rejoin them. I sometimes fear, my darling, that you may meet them before I shall. Their death has taken from me all the fear of dying, which, you know, has so greatly distressed me. I can never fear to follow where my children have led. I have an interest in that other life, whatever it may be, an attraction towards it, of which I knew nothing before. Oh, my dear Harry, do not mourn too much! I wish I were with you, to share with you, not alone my hope, but the great conceptions of that other life which have come to me."[45]
 
  
234.35   War >  Placing photographs on the dead during the American Civil War 
  
Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
On 2 January 1864 Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper published the article "An incident at Gettysburg" which included an illustration of Amos Humiston dies holding an ambrotype of his three children. Within the American population during the American Civil War there was generally held belief that the family would join together after death. This acceptance of a heavenly order is shown in letters of the time:
"I have often thought if I have to die on the battlefield, if some kind friend would just lay my Bible under my head and your likeness on my breast with the golden curls of hair in it, that it would be enough."
 
Letter from William Stilwell to his wife, Molly, in Georgia.[46]r>
 
  
234.36   War >  William H. Mumler: Spirit photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
William H. Mummler (1832-1884) was one of American's great spirit photographers and also a considerable fraud.[47] At the time of national grieving for the terrible losses of the American Civil War (1861-1865) he took photographs of people with departed relatives. The most famous of these is his portrait of Mary Todd Lincoln, the wife of Abraham Lincoln, sitting with the departed President standing behind her with his hand affectionately resting on her shoulder. In April 1869 he was tried for fraud and P.T. Barnum testified against him and had the noted New York photographer Abraham Bogardus created a fake to show how it could be done.
 
A contemporary account of the evidence given by P.T. Barnum at the trial of William H. Mummler was published in the The Saturday Review and reprinted in The Living Age:
The celebrated Barnum was called among other witnesses for the prosecution, and he stated that he had devoted a portion of his life to the detection of humbugs. About seven years ago Mr. Barnum was composing a book on humbugs, and he wrote to Mr. Mumler that he wished to purchase specimens of his so-called spirit photographs for the Museum of humbugs established by him, Barnum. Spirit photographs were accordingly supplied by Mr. Mumler at two dollars apiece, and they were hung by Mr. Barnum on the walls of the Museum for three or four years. Among them were spirit photographs of Napoleon Bonaparte and Henry Clay, and the positions of the figures were exactly like the well-known engravings of these personages. The title of Mr. Barnum's book was The Humbugs of the World. All the chapter relating to spirit photographs, referred to Mr. Mumler, who does not seem to have objected to the celebrity thus bestowed upon him. The spirit photographs which were hung upon the walls of Mr. Barnum's Museum were labelled "humbug," and the compliment thus conveyed was not repudiated by Mr. Mumler.[48]
 
  
234.37   War >  The United States Sanitary Commission 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
The United States Sanitary Commission (USSC) was a private relief agency to raise charitable funds to supply medical supplies and the most basic of necessities to Union soldiers during the American Civil War (1861-1865).[49] The USSC also operated soldiers' homes, lodges, or rest houses for traveling or disabled Union soldiers.
 
Sanitary Fairs were held in Chicago (1863),[50] Cincinnati, Boston, Brooklyn (1864) and Philadelphia (1864)[51] to support the troops. In many ways these copied the format of the International exhibitions in London (1851), New York (1853/54) and Paris (1855).[52]
 
In a surviving stereocard of the Great Central Sanitary Fair[53] held in Logan Square, Philadelphia, in June 1864 one can see the Photograph Gallery and above one of the displays there is a sign for F. Gutekunst who was a well known studio photographer of Philadelphia. 
  
234.38   War >  Charity during the American Civil War: The Children of the Battlefield 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
This carte de visite by Wenderoth, Taylor and Brow was published in 1864 during the American Civil War (1861-1865) and is entitled on the front "Frank, Frederick & Alice". The front shows three children and at it is a family portrait. The carte de visite is a copy of an ambrotype and the back of the card explains.
"The Children of the Battle Field"
 
This is a copy of the Ambrotype found in the hands of Sargeant Humiston of the 154th N.Y. Volunteers as he lay dead on the Battlefield of Gettysburg.
 
The proceeds of the sale of the copies are approportioned to the support and education of the Orphan Children.
 
This Picture is private property, and can not be copied without wronging the Orphans for whom it is published.
(Philadelphia, Dec. 3d 1864.

J. Francis Bourns.

Curatorial comment from "Dawn's Early Light: The First 50 Years of American Photography" 2011 exhibition on this carte de visite explains that a Philadelphia physician sold them to raise funds for the children.[54] 
  
234.39   War >  Patriotic and military backgrounds for portraits during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
Both studio and itinerant photographers employed patriotic and military motifs on painted backgrounds for carte de visites and tintypes during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
  
Events 
  
234.40   War >  The Battle of Gettysburg and photographic evidence (July 1863) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
The number of professional and amateur historians who have written on American Civil War (1861-1865) is enormous but few have had the influence on the analysis of the photographic evidence that William Frassanito had with his 1975 book Gettysburg: A Journey in Time. Frassinato's background in intelligence analysis with the U.S. Army provided a new perspective on the visual material. His analysis of the over 230 surviving photographs of the battlefield at Gettysburg known at that time saw them not as mere illustrations but as historical documents worthy of a thorough forensic analysis to provide evidence and insights into the events of July 1863. Many of the captions on the photographs were misleading, imprecise or incorrect and the same images were being used repeatedly embedding the mistakes within subsequent histories.
 
William Frassanito clearly articulated the six questions he wanted to address:
Who, in fact were the early photographers of the battlefield and from where did they come? How long after the battle were the various views taken - several days, several weeks, or several years? What portions of the field were covered by the different cameramen? What portions were neglected and why? How did each photographer interpret his subject matter? Has each photograph been properly credited with the scenes he recorded? If the currently accepted captions on the better-known Gettysburg views are incorrect, how did they come to be misidentified?[55]
The analysis of the scene revealed that the photographs taken in the vicinity of the Rose Farm and Rose Woods had confusing labels and the motivations for the mislabeling are unclear - it could have been memory failings or a conscious desire to improve sales by associating the scenes with significant moments in the battle. The fact that the same group of bodies was photographed with cameras at an angle of 135o and yet each group was given different captions presents a problem. The original captions say that the fallen were Union soldiers and in another case Confederate, on another the caption refers to "Field Where General Reynolds Fell, Gettysburg" which is not accurate. The photographs have been on occasion credited to Alexander Gardner[56] as some of them were published in the Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War. Incidents of the War but it was Timothy H. O'Sullivan[57] who took some of them. 
  
234.41   War >  Timothy O'Sullivan: A council of war at Massaponax Church, VA (21 May 1864) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
During the American Civil War (1861-1864) at about noon on 21st May 1864 the Army of the Potomac with Generals U.S. Grant and George Mead arrived at Massaponax Church, on Telegraph Road (Virginia, in Spotsylvania County). During a brief stay a Council of War was held and photographed by Timothy O'Sullivan[58] through a window from the gallery in the nearby Massaponax Church.
 
The people included in the photographs are:
General U.S. Grant
General George Meade
Secretary of War Charles Dana
Chief of Staff John A. Rawlins
 
  
   Timothy H  Osullivan 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
War injuries and medical claims 
  
234.42   War >  Major General Henry Barnum 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
This is an example of the use of photography to support a pension claim based on a military injury during the American Civil War (1861-1865)
  
234.43   War >  Private George Lemon 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
In these photographs of injuries to Private George Lemon that required the amputation of his leg during the American Civil War (1861-1865) in the version on the left he is shown naked from the waist down to highlight the injury. The same negative has been used for the photograph on the right but here a leaf has been painted over his genitals. 
  
234.44   War >  R.B. Bontecou: Surgical injuries and their treatment during the American Civil War 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
Reed Brockway Bontecou (1824-1907)[59] was a New York surgeon who used photography to record injuries and their surgical repair during the American Civil War.[60] His work on gunshot wounds continued long after the war and in 1888 he published What class of gunshot wounds and injuries justify resection or excision in modern warfare? : with a description of an antiseptic provisional wound dressing for the field, devised for the military service
  
234.45   War >  William H. Bell: Medical injuries during the American Civil War 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
William H. Bell (1830-1910)[61] was an American photographer remembered for his documentation of medical injuries during the American Civil War
  
234.46   War >  George A. Otis: Photographs of Surgical Cases and Specimens (1867 or later) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
Aftermath 
  
234.47   War >  Portraits of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow (Be patient as this has 22 slides to load.) 
  
Following the assassination of President Lincoln at 14 April 1865 at Ford's Theatre by John Wilkes Booth there was an intensive manhunt for the conspirators.[62] A broadside with tipped-on photographs[63] of Booth, Surratt and Herold was published on 20 April 1865 with the reward of $50,000 for Booth and $25,000 for each of Surratt and Herold.[64] Carte de visites of the conspirators were widely sold and following their arrest they were photographed by Alexander Gardner[65] and an album of these photographs is in the collection at George Eastman House.[66] Alexander Gardner also photographed the execution of the conspirators at the Old Arsenal Penitentiary in Washington on 7 July 1865. 
  
234.48   War >  Execution of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
On 7 July 1865 Lewis Powell (aka Payne), David Herold, George Atzerodt, and Mary Surratt[67] were exectuted at the Old Arsenal Penitentiary in Washington for conspiring with John Wilkes Booth to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln and attempting to assasinate Secretary of State William H. Seward. Alexander Gardner, known for his photographs of the American Civil War (1861-1865),[68] documented the event and his albumen prints were used as the basis for wood engravings that were published in the popular magazine Harper's Weekly. on 22 July 1865.[69] 
  
Popular culture 
  
234.49   War >  Use of a cased photograph in the film "The Birth of a Nation" (1915) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
In the 1915 silent film Birth of a Nation, (dir. D.W. Griffith) part of this story of the American Civil War (1861-1865) and its aftermath hangs on Ben Cameron, a Southerner seeing a cased photograph showing Elsie Stoneman a Northener and falling in love during a period of social and political upheaval. 
  
Photographic fabrications 
  
234.50   War >  Photographic fabrications of the American Civil War 
  
Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
 
  
Colourising the past 
  
234.51   War >  Colourising the past 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
From the earliest days of photography people have been painting on photographs and daguerreotypes, salt prints and albumen prints were all coloured. Mostly the painting was done by the photographer or an unknown artist but in rare cases the name of the artist is recorded.[70] The painting on the actual photograph surface was presumably done close to the time the original photograph was taken but this is supposition. We accept these work as contemporary artworks that hopefully reflect the details of accurate coloring although we can not prove it. With versions where there are many years between the photograph and the colouring we tend to be more suspicious of the purpose. Widely used in the movie business for effects and re-releasing black and white films colorization is now well accepted although each release brings both praise and criticism.[71] Praise as it brings new life to a well loved story and criticism because it was not the director or cinematographers intention or vision.
 
The use of software to manipulate digital surrogates of original photographs is widely accepted. Contrast, balance and sharpening are regularly applied to bring out required detail or to enhance a faded calotype or albumen print. The assumption that the final digital version of the image is an accurate rendition of the original is spurious and an act of faith unless the two can be directly compared. Passions appear stronger when colour is added to an image that was previously of a restricted colour palette because of the original chemical processed used for example the yellowish-brown hues of an albumen print. The book The Civil War in Color: A Photographic Reenactment of the War Between the States (2012)[72] by John C. Guntzelman is an example of this ammendment of history.
 
The use of Photoshop to colourized the black and white high quality TIFF scans of the American Civil War from the Library of Congress was carried out by John Guntzelman[73] The final images look more "real", having colour, than the yellowish-brown hues of an albumen print or a black and white scan from a glass negative but they are all versions of a lost moment. 
  
Photographic analysis 
  
234.52   War >  1st Lieutenant Henry. B. Loomis, adjutant of the 56th New York Infantry Regiment (Evolving case study) 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
Slideshow 
  
In February 2014 an experiment was conducted on the Civil War Faces group on Facebook to see how much information can be extracted from a single portrait from the American Civil War (1861-1865). Civil War authority Philip Katcher[74] selected a carte de visite of 1st Lieutenant Henry. B. Loomis, adjutant of the 56th New York Infantry Regiment as the subject and over the following weeks each element of the photograph was discussed.
 
Uniform
JacketNine button shell jacket with First Lieutenant shoulder-straps.  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
TrousersDark blue trousers with a sky blue stripe on the seam?
CapThe resolution is difficult on the carte de visite but there may be a cap on the plinth. Any comments?
ShoesAny comments?
SashOn the left hand side of the top of the plinth is a sash. The color of the sash would have been yellow.
Sword and beltOn the presentation of a sword and belt to Henry B. Loomis in 1863 a contemporary account stated:
56th Regiment N. Y. Vol. SWORD PRESENTATION. Henry B. Loomis recently promoted from a Sergeant to a Second Lieutenant, in the 56th Regiment, N. Y. Vol., was on the 30th ult. made the recipient of a handsome Sword and Belt by the members of Company F., as a token of their esteem. The presentation was made by Orderly Sergeant Clements, in a few brief remarks, and was responded to by Lieut. Loomis in a neat and appropriate speech. It was an occasion of much interest to the boys of Company F.[75]
The sword appears to be a Model 1850[76] but there were various types of presentation swords so this is not certain.  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
 
Watch chain and fobAny comments?
The sitter - Henry B. Loomis / Henri B. Loomis[77]
Pre-Civil WarAny comments?
During the Civil War
Military record
A summary of Henry B. Loomis' military service can be found online.[78]
 
Mustered in as second lieutenant November 14th 1862
Commissioned as second lieutenant on December 30th 1862
Mustered out at Charleston, SC on October 17th 1865
 
Actions?
Post-Civil WarAny comments?
The photographer - Samuel A. Cooley[79]
[Full set of backmarks / imprints required[80]]
Pre-Civil WarWhat is known about Samuel A. Cooley before the American Civil War?
During-Civil WarOn the back of a rare carte de visite (New York State Military Museum, Object Id: PA.1999.0014.0498) there is an imprint for "S. A. Cooley, Photographer 10th Army Corps, Beaufort, S C.".  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
One of the soldiers who mustered into the 56th Regiment, New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry with Henri B. Loomis was Isaac Beckett and a photograph of him has survived in the New York State Military Museum.[81]  
  
Thumbnail  
  
Presumably this is the same Isaac Becket, with a slight spelling alteration in the surname, who partnered with Samuel A. Cooley in Cooley & Becket.
Post-Civil WarWhat is known about Samuel A. Cooley after the American Civil War?
The photographic studio
Camera usedAlthough we do not know exactly which type of camera was used to take this photograph it was probably similar to those illustrated in D.V. Monckhoven's 1863 book Traité Général De Photographie by (Paris: Librairie de Victor Masson et Fils).  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
The type of camera used can not be certain and it may have been similar to this one from around 1862 - a Lewis wet-plate camera with a 1/4 plate repeating back bellows. Although multi lens cameras are commonly shown these were expensive as the major cost of a cameras was in the lens and a half plate camera and a quarter plate negalive. Later on a 5x7 inch plate with one shift could be used to make two negatives on a single plate.[82]  
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
BackgroundThe painted background in the photograph shows a balustrade with some foliage. Balustrades, in two-dimensional or three-dimensional form, were a common feature of photographic studios during the period when carte de visites were popular.
PropsThe use of props, such as columns or the plinth seen in this photograph, was widespread in nineteenth century photography although not universally approved of. A short piece in the 1862 The Photographic Journal being the Journal of the Photographic Society, almost contemporary with when this photograph was taken, captured the difficulty with the selection of studio props:
There is always too much of the studio in these carte de visite portraits. We do not merely refer to the extraordinary backgrounds which some of these operators employ. Why a respectable old lady is to be represented as sitting without her bonnet in a chair placed upon a Brussels carpet in the middle of a terraced garden, is always very perplexing; and it is equally difficult to understand what the foundation can be for the theory, which seems to have possessed the minds of several of the photographers, that the middle-aged men of England generally spend their lives leaning against a Corinthian pillar, with a heavy curtain flapping about their legs, turning their backs to a magnificent view, and obviously standing in a frightful thorough draught.[83]
When was the photograph taken?
DateAs the sword and belt have been placed in a prominent position to highlight them it would seem likely that the photograph was taken on the day, or soon after, he was presented with the sword in 1863. (See above).
The photograph itself
Format / bordersAny comments?
ColorsWhat colors should we be seeing and why?  
  
Thumbnail  
  
The photograph would have been taken using the wet collodion process and this affects the way colors are seen in the resulting image. This would be important for the determination of the colour of the sash which would have been yellow but shows up darker on the carte de visite.

 
Thanks to all those participating in this educational experiment and particularly Philip Katcher who selected and provided the original photograph. Those who assisted include: Matt Anderson, Lee Eltzroth, Robert Gray, Todd Gustavson, Mark Jaeger, Philip Katcher, Joseph Maghe, Jerilyn Marshall, Ryan McIntyre, Kristine Mcnary, Greg McMahon, Andrew J. Morris, Theodoros Natsinas, Rob Niederman, Mark Osterman, Harry Ridgeway, David W. Vaughan and Brian White. 
  
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ There is a large literature on Mathew Brady and he remains the best known photographer of the American Civil War even though he may not have taken many photographs himself. His role in financing teams of photographers was critical in providing the rich visual legacy we have of the war.
     
    For a biography - Robert Wilson, 2013, Mathew Brady: Portraits of a Nation, (Bloomsbury)
     
    Barry Britzker, 2003, Mathew Brady, (JG Press); James D. Horan, 1955, Mathew Brady: Historian With a Camera, (Bonanza); Roy Meredith, 1976, The World of Mathew Brady: Portraits of the Civil War Period, (Brooke House Publishers); Roy Meredith, 1982, Mathew Brady’s Portrait of an Era, (New York and London: W. W. Norton); Mary Panzer, 2001, Mathew Brady, (MA, Boston: Phaidon Inc); Theodore P. Savas, 2008, Brady's Civil War Journal: Photographing the War, 1861-65, (New York: Skyhorse Publications); George Sullivan, 1994, Mathew Brady: His Life and Photographs, (New York, Cobblehill/Dutton) 
      
  2. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  3. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) includes some of the most famous photographs taken by Timothy O'Sullivan of the American Civil War. 
      
  4. Λ Conley L. Edwards III, 1974, June, ‘The Photographer of the Confederacy on George S. Cook‘, Civil War Times, vol. XIII, no. 5, pp. 27-33; Thomas J. Peach, 1982, George Smith Cook: South Carolina's Premier Civil War Photojournalist, (Master's thesis, University of South Carolina); Jack C. Ramsey, Jr., 1994, Photographer ... Under Fire: the Story of George S. Cook (1819-1902), (Green Bay: Historical Resources Press) 
      
  5. Λ Although Mathew Brady is the best known of photographers active during the American Civil War there were a multitude of others. Directories of photographers active during the war include - George F. Witham, 1988, Catalogue of Civil War Photographers: A Listing of Civil War Photographers' Imprints, (Portland, OR: G. F. Witham); Ross J. Kelbaugh, 1990, Directory of Civil War Photographers, (Baltimore, MD: Historic Graphics).
     
    An analysis of the passes given to photographers passing through checkpoints indicates that there were hundreds involved. 
      
  6. Λ Robert S. Lanier (ed.), 1911, Photographic History of the Civil War, (New York: Review of Reviews Co.) [10 volumes]
     
    There are other multi-volume photographic histories including: William C. Davis (ed.), 1984, The Image of War, 1861-1865, (New York: Doubleday & Co.) Six volumes - Vol. 1: Shadows of the Storm, Vol. 2: The Guns of '62, Vol. 3: Embattled Confederacy, Vol. 4: Fighting for Time, Vol. 5: The South Besieged, Vol. 6: End of an Era 
      
  7. Λ Jeff L. Rosenheim, 2013, Photography and the American Civil War, (Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  8. Λ Ken Burns, The Civil War, nine episodes, first broadcast on PBS in the USA September 23 to September 27, 1990. A book was published to accompany the series - Geoffrey C. Ward, 1994, The Civil War, (Knopf). A series this popular dealing with a subject that is so well researched will lead to controversy and a further book was published - Robert Brent Toplin, 1997, Ken Burns's The Civil War: Historians Respond, (Oxford University Press) 
      
  9. Λ Ronald S. Coddington, 2012, African American Faces of the Civil War: An Album, (The Johns Hopkins University Press); Deborah Willis & Barbara Krauthamer, 2012, Envisioning Emancipation: Black Americans and the End of Slavery, (Temple University Press) 
      
  10. Λ William Fassinato had been a military intelligence analyst and brought these skills to the analysis of the photographic evidence - William A. Frassanito, 1975, Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, William A., 1978, Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, 1995, Early Photography at Gettysburg, (Thomas Publications) 
      
  11. Λ Andrew J. Russell, 1982, Russell's Civil War Photographs, (Dover Publications); Susan E. Williams, 2002, ‘Richmond Again Taken: Reappraising the Brady Legend through Photographs by A. J. Russell‘, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 437-460 
      
  12. Λ 1870-88, Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion (1865-65), (Washington, Gov’t print. off.) [Three volumes. Includes work by Joseph Janvier Woodward], Stanley Burns, 1980, Civil War Medical Photography, (Burns Press); B.O. Rogers, 1995, May-June, ‘The first Civil War photographs of soldiers with facial wounds‘, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 269-83 
      
  13. Λ Ronald Coddington, 2004, Faces of the Civil War: An Album of Union Soldiers and Their Stories, (Johns Hopkins University Press); Ronald S. Coddington, 2008, Faces of the Confederacy: An Album of Southern Soldiers and Their Stories, (Johns Hopkins University Press); Ronald S. Coddington, 2012, African American Faces of the Civil War: An Album, (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 
      
  14. Λ Floyd & Marion Rinhart, 1999, The American Tintype, (Ohio State University Press); Janice G. Schimmelman, 2007, Tintype in America, 1856-1880, (American Philosophical Society) 
      
  15. Λ Andrea Volpe, 6 August 2013, "The Cartes de Visite Craze", The New York Times - Opionionator
    (Accessed: 6 August 2013)
    opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/06/the-cartes-de-visite-craze/ 
      
  16. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  17. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  18. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  19. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  20. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  21. Λ There are multiple histories of manipulation and photomontage including - Dawn Ades, 1993, Photomontage, (New York: Thames and Hudson); Mia Fineman, 2012, Faking it: Manipulated photography before Photoshop, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
      
  22. Λ 30 June 1864, Internal Revenue Act of 1864 (13 Stat. 223) 
      
  23. Λ Richard Friedberg, 1994, "Introduction to United States Revenue Stamps", Linn's Stamp News (Sidney, Ohio); David Horton, 2006, Exposing America: Photographs From August 1, 1864 through July 31, 1866, (Soundhole Publishing) 
      
  24. Λ For Andrew Joseph Russell during the American Civil War - Andrew J. Russell, 1982, Russell's Civil War Photographs, (Dover Publications); Susan E. Williams, 2002, ‘Richmond Again Taken: Reappraising the Brady Legend through Photographs by A. J. Russell‘, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 437-460 
      
  25. Λ Library of Congress, Call Number: LOT 9209 (H) (M) [P&P], www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004668756/ - Andrew J. Russell, [Photographs illustrative of operations in construction and transportation, as used to facilitate the movements of the Armies of the Rappahannock, of Virginia, and of the Potomac ...] / United States Military Railway Department.
    Photographs show Civil War military construction and transportation in Northern Virginia and elsewhere. Includes bridges, arks, and barges under construction; barges loaded with railway cars; tracks under construction; experimental means of crossing water; railway construction workers. Many views made in the Washington area, and in Alexandria, Virginia. Includes photographs of a shed at a carpenter shop in Alexandria, where the Construction Corps built portable bridge trusses; soldiers and crew members crossing the Potomac in rubber "blanket boat" rafts. Includes many photographs of black laborers.
     
      
  26. Λ If you know of the existence of any aerial photographs taken from balloons during the American Civil War I'd be most interested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  27. Λ For Thaddeus S.C. Lowe - Mary Hoehling, 1958, Thaddeus Lowe, America's One-Man Air Corps, (New York: Julian Messner, Inc.); Charles M. Evans, 2002, The War of the Aeronauts: A History of Ballooning During the Civil War, (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books); Stephen Poleskie, 2007, The Balloonist: The Story of T. S. C. Lowe: Inventor, Scientist, Magician, and Father of the U.S. Air Force, (Frederic C. Beil) 
      
  28. Λ Philip Katcher, 1982, The Civil War Source Book, (Facts on File), pp. 172-173 
      
  29. Λ Letter from Thaddeus S.C. Lowe, Aeronaut to Lieut. Col. A. V. Colburn, Assistant Adjutant-General, 16 December 1861>br> Professor Thaddeus Lowe's Official Report (Part I), O.R.,- Series III, Volume III [S# 124] Correspondence, Orders, Reports, and Returns of the Union Authorities from January 1 TO December 31, 1863, #11
    (Accessed: 28 January 2014 - Full text online)
    www.civilwarhome.com/loweor.htm 
      
  30. Λ Letter from Thaddeus S.C. Lowe, Chief of Aeronautics, &c. to Major-General Parke, Chief of Star, &c., 20 November 1862.
    Professor Thaddeus Lowe's Official Report Part II, O.R.,- Series III, Volume III [S# 124] Correspondence, Orders, Reports, and Returns of the Union Authorities from January 1 TO December 31, 1863, #11
    (Accessed: 28 January 2014 - Full text online)
    www.civilwarhome.com/loweor2.htm 
      
  31. Λ For cavalry - Stephen Z. Starr, 1981, The Union Cavalry in the Civil War. Vol. 1, From Fort Sumter to Gettysburg 1861–1863, (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press); Stephen Z. Starr, 1981, The Union Cavalry in the Civil War. Vol. 2, The War in the East from Gettysburg to Appomattox 1863–1865, (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press); Stephen Z. Starr, 1981, The Union Cavalry in the Civil War. Vol. 3, The War in the West 1861–1865, (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press); Edward G. Longacre, 2000, Lincoln's Cavalrymen: A History of the Mounted Forces of the Army of the Potomac, (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books) 
      
  32. Λ Armistead Lindsay Long & Marcus Joseph Wright, 1886, Memoirs of Robert E. Lee: his military and personal history [embracing a large amount of information hitherto unpublished, (Low), p. 131 
      
  33. Λ Attributed to Alexander Gardner, "Copying Maps, Photographic Headquarters, Petersburg, Virginia", March 1865, Albumen silver print from glass negative, Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY, Gilman Collection, Museum Purchase, 2005 Accession Number: 2005.100.1236
    (Accessed: 24 January 2014)
    metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/286664 
      
  34. Λ William Pinkerton quoted in - Bob Zeller, 2005, The Blue and Gray in Black and White: A History of Civil War Photography, (Greenwood Publishing Group), p. 152 
      
  35. Λ Letter from Thaddeus S.C. Lowe, Chief of Aeronautics, &c. to Major-General Parke, Chief of Star, &c., 20 November 1862.
    Professor Thaddeus Lowe's Official Report Part II, O.R.,- Series III, Volume III [S# 124] Correspondence, Orders, Reports, and Returns of the Union Authorities from January 1 TO December 31, 1863, #11
    (Accessed: 28 January 2014 - Full text online)
    www.civilwarhome.com/loweor2.htm 
      
  36. Λ Letter from Major General W.S. Rosecrans to E.M. Stanton, Secretary of War, Washington, 22 October 1862. 
      
  37. Λ J. Thomas Scharf, 1879, "History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day, (Baltimore, John B. Piet), vol. III, pp. 527-528. 
      
  38. Λ The exhibition organized by Erin Barnett "President in Petticoats! Civil War Propaganda in Photographs" (18 May - 2 September 2012) at the International Center of Photography, New York addressed this subject:
    As the American Civil War ground to a dispiriting and unheroic end after the surrender of General Robert E. Lee's rebel forces and the shocking assassination of President Abraham Lincoln in mid-April 1865, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States, became a political fugitive. At dawn on May 10, 1865, a contingent of Michigan cavalry captured Davis in a makeshift camp outside Irwinville, Georgia. In his haste to flee, Davis grabbed his wife's overcoat rather than his own. News reports immediately circulated that Davis had been apprehended in women's clothes and that he was attempting to disguise himself as a woman. Northern artists and caricaturists seized upon these rumors of cowardly escape and created wildly inventive images, some using photomontage, to sensationalize the political story. Photographers circulated and even pirated dozens of fanciful photographic cards; many used a photographic portrait of Davis on a hand-drawn body in a woman's dress, hat, and crinoline, but wearing his own boots, the detail that supposedly betrayed him to his captors.
     
      
  39. Λ Louis Kaplan, 2008, The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer, (University of Minnesota Press) 
      
  40. Λ Edgar M. Howell, 1961, Uniform Regulations for the Army of the United States 1861, (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution). This has been republished as - War Department, 2013, Revised Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1861, (Dover Publications)
     
    See also - Francis A. Lord, 1970, Uniforms of the Civil War, (New York: Thomas Yoseloff) reprinted by Dover Publications; Philip Katcher, 1982, The Civil War Source Book, (Facts on File) 
      
  41. Λ On 19 April 1861 President Lincoln issued a Proclamation of Blockade Against Southern Ports. It reduced cotton exports from the South by 95% effectively ruining the economy. 
      
  42. Λ Cate Lineberry, 9 May 2011, "Woman Spieces of the Civil War: Hundreds of women served as spies during the Civil War. Here’s a look at six who risked their lives in daring and unexpected ways", Smithsonian Magazine. Online: www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Women-Spies-of-the-Civil-War.html 
      
  43. Λ William Fassinato had been a military intelligence analyst and brought these skills to the analysis of the photographic evidence - William A. Frassanito, 1975, Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, William A., 1978, Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, 1995, Early Photography at Gettysburg, (Thomas Publications) 
      
  44. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  45. Λ Mary Ashton Rice Livermore, 1890, My Story of the War: A Woman's Narrative of Four Years Personal Experience as Nurse in the Union Army, and in Relief Work at Home, in Hospitals, Camps, and at the Front, During the War of the Rebellion, (A.D. Worthington and Company), pp.
    Available on Google Books 
      
  46. Λ Cited in Drew Gilpin Faust, 2008, This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War (Knopf), p. 12 
      
  47. Λ Louis Kaplan, 2008, The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer, (University of Minnesota Press) 
      
  48. Λ "Spiritual Photography", 1869, The Living Age, vol. 102, pp. 314-315 gives an account of the trial of William H. Mummler taken from The Saturday Review 
      
  49. Λ William Quentin Maxwell & Allan Nevins, 1956, Lincoln's Fifth Wheel: the Political History of the United States Sanitary Commission, (New York: Longmans, Green); Jeanie Attie, 1998, Patriotic Toil: Northern Women and the American Civil War, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press) 
      
  50. Λ Chicago, "Northwestern Soldiers' Fair", 27 October - 7 November 1863. 
      
  51. Λ Great Central Fair, in aid of the U. S. Sanitary Commission Logan Square, Philadelphia (June 1864)
    (Accessed: 16 January 2014)
    www.lcpimages.org/inventories/sanitaryfair/ 
      
  52. Λ The earliest of the "Great Exhibitions" and "World Fairs" were:
     
    1851 , London, Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations (Crystal Palace Exhibition)
    1853/1854, New York, Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations (New York Crystal Palace Exhibition)
    1855 , Paris, Exposition Universelle des Beaux-Arts
     
    Each of them included exhibition galleries for photographs and art. 
      
  53. Λ Charles J. Stille,1864, Memorial of The Great Central Fair for the U.S. Sanitary Commission Held at Philadelphia, June 1864, (Philadelphia) 
      
  54. Λ "Dawn's Early Light: The First 50 Years of American Photography" (October 20, 2011 - May 4, 2012, Hirshland Exhibition Gallery in Carl A. Kroch Library, Cornell University) 
      
  55. Λ William Frassanito Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, (Scribner), p. 15 
      
  56. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  57. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) includes some of the most famous photographs taken by Timothy O'Sullivan of the American Civil War. 
      
  58. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) includes some of the most famous photographs taken by Timothy O'Sullivan of the American Civil War. 
      
  59. Λ Stanley Burns, 2011, Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography By R.B. Bontecou, (Burns Press) For a review - Andrea Volpe, 2012, "Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography by R. B. Bontecou, and: Doctored: The Medicine of Photography in Nineteenth-Century America" (review), The Journal of the Civil War Era, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 456-459
     
    B.O. Rogers, 2000, March, ‘Reed B. Bontecou, M.D. - his role in Civil War surgery and medical photography.‘, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 114-29 
      
  60. Λ Dr. Stanley Burns donated a number of his albumen prints by R.B. Bontecou to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 
      
  61. Λ Carl Mautz, 1997, Biographies of Western Photographers. A Reference Guide to Photographers Working in the 19th Century American West, (Nevada City: Carl Mautz Publishing) 
      
  62. Λ James Swanson, 2006, Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer, (Harper Collins) 
      
  63. Λ Tipped-in - ILAB: International League of Antiquarian Booksellers
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    www.ilab.org/eng/glossary/557-tipped-in.html
    Attached to, but not integral to the binding of the book. We usually use this term to indicate something that has been added: a letter from the author, a newspaper or magazine review or obituary, etc. The nature of what is tipped-in will determine whether this addition will enhance or devalue the book.
     
      
  64. Λ Unknown Artist (American School), [Broadside for Capture of Booth, Surratt, and Herold, April 20, 1865], 1865, 20 April, Printed sheet with three albumen silver prints, 60.5 x 31.3 cm (23 13/16 x 12 5/16 ins) (sheet), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gilman Collection, Purchase, The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation Gift, through Joyce and Robert Menschel, 2005, Accession Number: 2005.100.96 
      
  65. Λ Alexander Gardner was a well respected photographer during the American Civil War - Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  66. Λ Album of the Lincoln Assassination Conspirators, George Eastman House, Accession Number: 1972:0033 
      
  67. Λ The trial of Mary Elizabeth Jenkins Surratt was used as the basis for the film The Conspirator (2010).
    The Conspirator - IMDB
    (Accessed: 31 December 2013)
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0968264/ 
      
  68. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
      
  69. Λ 22 July 1865, "Execution of the Conspirators - Springing of the Trap ", Harper's Weekly
     
    George Eastman House, The Lincoln Conspiracy Album, Accession Number: 1972:0033:0037 
      
  70. Λ Some examples where both the names of the photographer and the artist are known include:
     
    A. Jarrot [photographer] & Willem de Famars Testas [watercolourist], Portrait of Willem de Famars Testas during his stay in Egypt, 1859, 1859, Photograph, watercoloured, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden Leiden, 19.6.3-1
     
    William Notman [photographer] & John A. Fraser [artist?], Sir John A. Macdonald, 1861, Albumen silver print, with watercolour on wove paper, 59 x 45.2 cm, National Gallery of Canada, Purchased 1979, no. 23338 
      
  71. Λ Film Colorization - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 2 December 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Film_colorization 
      
  72. Λ John C Guntzelman, 2012, The Civil War in Color: A Photographic Reenactment of the War Between the States, (Sterling) 
      
  73. Λ Photo Interactive: The Civil War, Now in Living Color - Smithsonian
    John Guntzelman interviewed by Ryan R. Reed (22 February, 2013)
    (Accessed: 2 December 2013)
    www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/The-Civil-War-Now-in-Living-Color-192504401.html 
      
  74. Λ Philip Katcher, 1982, The Civil War Source Book, (Facts on File), pp. 172-173 
      
  75. Λ News clipping (7 July 1863) From the Tenth Legion.—A correspondent of the Times, writing from Port loyal Harbor, under date of July 7th.
    (Accessed: 4 February 2014)
    dmna.ny.gov/historic/reghist/civil/infantry/56thInf/56thInfCWN.htm
     
    Joel C. Fisk & William H. D. Blake, , A condensed history of the 56th Regiment, New York Veteran Volunteer Infantry, which was part of the organization known as the "Tenth Legion" in the Civil War, 1861-1865, together with a register or roster of all the members of the regiment, and the war record of each member as recorded in the Adjutant General's Office at Albany, New York, (Newburgh, N.Y., Newburgh journal printing house and book bindery) [Full text on the Internet Archive] 
      
  76. Λ Harry Ridgeway (www.relicman.com) on the Model 1850 sword wrote:
    "The model 1850 foot officer sword was intended for officers up to captain, these officers received a pay allowance but made their own purchase decision, hence there is a great deal of variation in officer swords."
    (Accessed: 3 February 2014)
    www.relicman.com/weapons/W1157sell.htm 
      
  77. Λ In official accounts his name can be Henri B. Loomis. 
      
  78. Λ For the military service of Henry B. Loomis - dmna.ny.gov/historic/reghist/civil/rosters/Infantry/56th_Infantry_CW_Roster.pdf, p. 1116
     
    In The New York Times (21 October 1865) in an article "The City Military.; Return of the Fifty sixth Regiment New-York Volunteers." it said:
    The Fifth-sixth Regiment New-York Veteran Volunteers, under command of Lieut.-Col. Smith, arrived in this city yesterday by United States transport Empire City, from Hilton Head. S.C. This Regiment was organized in September, 1861, at Newburgh, Orange County, New-York, by Brigadier-General - then Colonel - Van Wyck.
    Within the article "Henri B. Loomis", Adjutant and Brevet Captain, is mentioned. 
      
  79. Λ Detailed biography of Samuel A. Cooley is requested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  80. Λ Backmarks for "Sam A. Cooley" and those for "Cooley & Becket" are rare indeed. From late 1864 until early 1865 Sam Cooley was in partnership with Isaac Becket and thare is an imprint in the private collection David W. Vaughan that shows this. In the New York State Miltary Museum there is a carte de visite (Object Id: PA.1999.0014.0498) showing First Lieutenant Isaac Beckett who was in the New York Infantry Regiment, 56th, (1861-1865), Company D which was the same regiment that Henry B. Loomis was in. Although the name Beckett is spelt with only one "t" in the carte de visite imprints it looks like the same person. So a fellow officer of the person being photographed went on to become a partner of the person taking the photograph.
     
    The Harvey S. Teal's 2001 book Partners with the Sun: South Carolina Photographers, 1840-1940 (University of South Carolina Press) he includes reproductions of:
     
    1. Cooley & Beckett: Savannah/Hilton Head/Beaufort backmark (p. 108)
    2. Cooley's: Hilton Head/Beaufort/Folly Isl./Jacksonville
    3. Beckett's Photographic Gallery, Savannah

    In the Reed Album at Beaufort County Public Library there is a Cooley & Beckett carte de viste with Cooley's name crossed out.
     
    Special thanks are due to Lee Elzroth for providing most of this information (pers. email to Alan Griffiths, 4 February 2014) 
      
  81. Λ New York State Miltary Museum there is a carte de visite (Object Id: PA.1999.0014.0498) showing First Lieutenant Isaac Beckett. 
      
  82. Λ Todd Gustavson, 2009, Camera: A History of Photography from Daguerreotype to Digital, (Sterling Publishing Co.) p. 79. George Eastman House, 1981:2814:0005
     
    With thanks to Todd Gustavson for bringing this to my attention. (pers. email Todd Gustavson to Alan Griffiths, 6 February 2014) Further information was kindly provided by Mark Osterman (Facebook, 6 February 2014). 
      
  83. Λ 15 December 1862,"Cartes de Visite of Celebrities", The Photographic Journal being the Journal of the Photographic Society, no. 128, p. 188 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
1870-88, Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion (1865-65), (Washington, Gov’t print. off.) [Three volumes. Includes work by Joseph Janvier Woodward] [Δ
  
Burns, Stanley, 1980, Civil War Medical Photography, (Burns Press) [Δ
  
Coddington, Ronald S., 2004, Faces of the Civil War: An Album of Union Soldiers and Their Stories, (Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 0801878764 isbn-13: 978-0801878763 [Δ
  
Coddington, Ronald S., 2008, Faces of the Confederacy: An Album of Southern Soldiers and Their Stories, (Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 0801890195 isbn-13: 978-0801890192 [Δ
  
Coddington, Ronald S., 2012, African American Faces of the Civil War: An Album, (The Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 142140625X isbn-13: 978-1421406251 [Forward by J. Matthew Gallman] [Δ
  
Connor, J.T.H. & Rhode, Michael G., 2003, ‘Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Images, Memory, and Identity in America‘, Invisible Culture: An Electronic Journal for Visual Culture, vol. 5 [Δ
  
Davis, William C. (ed.), 1984, The Image of War, 1861-1865, (New York: Doubleday & Co.) [Six volume illustrated history of the American Civil War. Vol. 1: Shadows of the Storm, Vol. 2: The Guns of '62, Vol. 3: Embattled Confederacy, Vol. 4: Fighting for Time, Vol. 5: The South Besieged, Vol. 6: End of an Era] [Δ
  
DK Publishing, 2011, The Civil War: A Visual History, (DK Publishing) isbn-10: 075667185X isbn-13: 978-0756671853 [Δ
  
Faust, Drew Gilpin, 2008, This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War, (Knopf) isbn-10: 037540404X isbn-13: 978-0375404047 [Δ
  
Fralin, Frances, 1985, The Indelible Image: Photographs of War - 1846 to the Present, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810911108 isbn-13: 978-0810911109 [Δ
  
Frassanito, William A., 1975, Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, (Scribner) isbn-10: 0684139243 isbn-13: 978-0684139241 [Δ
  
Frassanito, William A., 1978, Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day, (Scribner) isbn-10: 0684156598 isbn-13: 978-0684156590 [Δ
  
Frassanito, William A., 1995, Early Photography at Gettysburg, (Thomas Publications) isbn-10: 0939631865 isbn-13: 978-0939631865 [Δ
  
Frassinato, William A., 1983, Grant and Lee: The Virginia Campaigns, 1864-1865, (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons) isbn-10: 0684178737 isbn-13: 978-0684178738 [Δ
  
Guntzelman, John C., 2012, The Civil War in Color: A Photographic Reenactment of the War Between the States, (Sterling) isbn-10: 1402790813 isbn-13: 978-1402790812 [Δ
  
Harvey, Eleanor Jones, 2012, The Civil War and American Art, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300187335 isbn-13: 978-0300187335 [Δ
  
Hogge, Dennis, 2011, Mathew Brady's Manassas Photo Journal, (Centreville, VA: Old Dominion Publishers) isbn-10: 0615493435 isbn-13: 978-0615493435 [Δ
  
Hopkins, Donald A., 2012, Robert E. Lee in War and Peace: Photographs of a Confederate and American Icon, (El Dorado Hills, CA: Savas Beatie) isbn-13: 978-1611211207 [Δ
  
Horton, David, 2006, Exposing America: Photographs From August 1, 1864 through July 31, 1866, (Soundhole Publishing) isbn-10: 097687606X isbn-13: 978-0976876069 [Δ
  
Howell, Edgar M., 1961, Uniform Regulations for the Army of the United States 1861, (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution) [Illustrated with contemporary official war department photographs. Republished by Dover Publications, 2013] [Δ
  
Hyslop, Steve, 2006, Eyewitness to the Civil War, (National Geographic) isbn-10: 0792262069 isbn-13: 978-0792262060 [Δ
  
Katcher, Philip, 1982, The Civil War Sourcebook, (Facts on File) [Δ
  
Kelbaugh, Ross J., 1990, Directory of Civil War Photographers, (Baltimore, MD: Historic Graphics) isbn-10: 0914931024 isbn-13: 978-0914931027 [Δ
  
Kelbaugh, Ross J., 1991, Introduction to Civil War Photography, (Thomas Pubns) isbn-10: 0939631369 isbn-13: 978-0939631360 [Δ
  
Kelbaugh, Ross J., 2012, Maryland's Civil War Photographs: The Sesquicentennial Collection, (The Maryland Historical Society) isbn-10: 0984213511 isbn-13: 978-0984213511 [Δ
  
Knauer, Kelly, 2011, TIME The Civil War: An Illustrated History, (Time) isbn-10: 1603201718 isbn-13: 978-1603201711 [Δ
  
Lanier, Robert S. (ed.), 1911, Photographic History of the Civil War, (New York: Review of Reviews Co.) [10 volumes] [Δ
  
Lewinski, Jorge, 1978, The Camera at War, A History of War Photography, (New York: Simon & Schuster) [Δ
  
Livingston, Jane, 1985, The Indelible Image, Photographs of War, (New York: Harry Abrams) [Δ
  
Miller, Francis Trevelyan, 1910, The Photographic History of the Civil War, (New York: T. Yoseloff) [Ten volume illustrated history of the American Civil War] [Δ
  
Peterson, Anne E., 2013, The Civil War in Photographs: New Perspectives from the Robin Stanford Collection, (De Golyer Library, South Methodist University) [Exhibition catalogue, January 15 - March 15, 2013, De Golyer Library, South Methodist University] [Δ
  
Piston, William Garrett & Sweeney, Thomas P., 2009, Portraits of Conflict: A Photographic History of Missouri in the Civil War, (University of Arkansas Press) isbn-10: 1557289131 isbn-13: 978-1557289131 [Δ
  
Recker, Stephen, 2012, Rare Images of Antietam: And the Photographers Who Took Them, (Another Software Miracle) isbn-10: 0971548617 isbn-13: 978-0971548619 [Δ
  
Rogers, B.O., 1995, May-June, ‘The first Civil War photographs of soldiers with facial wounds‘, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 269-83 [Δ
  
Rosenheim, Jeff L., 2013, Photography and the American Civil War, (Metropolitan Museum of Art) isbn-10: 0300191804 isbn-13: 978-0300191806 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Sweet, Timothy, 1990, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography, and the Crisis of the Union, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 0801839599 isbn-13: 978-0801839597 [Δ
  
Teal, Harvey S., 2001, Partners with the Sun: South Carolina Photographers, 1840-1940, (University of South Carolina Press) isbn-10: 1570033846 isbn-13: 978-1570033841 [Δ
  
Toplin, Robert Brent, 1997, Ken Burns's The Civil War: Historians Respond, (Oxford University Press) isbn-10: 0195115813 isbn-13: 978-0195115819 [Δ
  
Trachtenberg, Alan, 1989, ‘Albums of War‘, in Alan Trachtenberg, 1989, Reading American Photographs: Images as History, Mathew Brady to Walker Evans, (New York: Hill & Want) [Examines the publication and public dessimination of photographs during the American Civil War] [Δ
  
Tucker, Anne Wilkes; Michels, Will & Zelt, Natalie, 2012, War/Photography: Images of Armed Conflict and Its Aftermath, (The Museum of Fine Arts Houston) isbn-10: 0300177380 isbn-13: 978-0300177381 [Δ
  
Ward, Geoffrey C., 1992, The Civil War: An Illustrated History, (Knopf) isbn-10: 0679742778 isbn-13: 978-0679742777 [With Ric Burns and Kurn Burns. Companion volume to the PBS series] [Δ
  
Willis, Deborah & Krauthamer, Barbara, 2012, Envisioning Emancipation: Black Americans and the End of Slavery, (Temple University Press) isbn-10: 1439909857 isbn-13: 978-1439909850 [Δ
  
Witham, George F., 1988, Catalogue of Civil War Photographers: A Listing of Civil War Photographers' Imprints, (Portland, OR: G. F. Witham) [Alphabetical list of photographers organized geographically by state. Also includes a listing of Army photographers.] [Δ
  
Zeller, Bob, 1997-2000, The Civil War in Depth: History in 3-D, ( San Francisco: Chronicle Books) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
George N. Barnard 
  
Barnard, George N., 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck) [Δ
  
Barnard, George N., 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall] [Δ
  
Davis, Keith F (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) [Δ
  
Barnard & Gibson 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
R.B. Bontecou 
  
Bontecou, Reed B., 1888, What class of gunshot wounds and injuries justify resection or excision in modern warfare? : with a description of an antiseptic provisional wound dressing for the field, devised for the military service, (Troy, N.Y. : [s.n.], (Phila., Pa. : Press of Wm. F. Fell & Co.)) [Δ
  
Burns, Stanley, 2011, Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography By R.B. Bontecou, (Burns Press) isbn-13: 978-1936002054 [Δ
  
Rogers, B.O., 2000, March, ‘Reed B. Bontecou, M.D. - his role in Civil War surgery and medical photography.‘, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 114-29 [Δ
  
Mathew B. Brady 
  
Britzker, Barry, 2003, Mathew Brady, (JG Press) isbn-10: 1572153423 isbn-13: 978-1572153424 [Δ
  
Horan, James D., 1955, Mathew Brady: Historian With a Camera, (Bonanza) [Δ
  
Meredith, Roy, 1976, The World of Mathew Brady: Portraits of the Civil War Period, (Brooke House Publishers) isbn-10: 0912588055 isbn-13: 978-0912588056 [Δ
  
Meredith, Roy, 1982, Mathew Brady’s Portrait of an Era, (New York and London: W. W. Norton) [Δ
  
Panzer, Mary, 2001, Mathew Brady, (MA, Boston: Phaidon Inc) isbn-10: 0714840653 isbn-13: 978-0714840659 [Δ
  
Savas, Theodore P., 2008, Brady's Civil War Journal: Photographing the War, 1861-65, (New York: Skyhorse Publications) isbn-10: 1620870525 [Δ
  
Sullivan, George, 1994, Mathew Brady: His Life and Photographs, (New York, Cobblehill/Dutton) isbn-10: 0525651861 isbn-13: 978-0525651864 [Δ
  
Wilson, Robert, 2013, Mathew Brady: Portraits of a Nation - Biography, (Bloomsbury) isbn-10: 1620402033 isbn-13: 978-1620402030 [Δ
  
George S. Cook 
  
Edwards III, Conley L., 1974, June, ‘The Photographer of the Confederacy on George S. Cook‘, Civil War Times, vol. XIII, no. 5, pp. 27-33 [Δ
  
Kocher, A. Lawrence & Dearstyne, Howard, 1954, Shadows in Silver: A Record of Virginia, 1850-1900, In Contemporary Photographs Taken by George and Huestis Cook, with Additions from the Cook Collection, (New York: Scribner) [Δ
  
Peach, Thomas J., 1982, George Smith Cook: South Carolina's Premier Civil War Photojournalist, (Master's thesis, University of South Carolina) [Δ
  
Ramsey, Jr., Jack C., 1994, Photographer ... Under Fire: the Story of George S. Cook (1819-1902), (Green Bay: Historical Resources Press) [Δ
  
Alexander Gardner 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
Johnson, Brooks, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) [Δ
  
Savas, Theodore P., 2008, Brady's Civil War Journal: Photographing the War, 1861-65, (New York: Skyhorse Publications) isbn-10: 1620870525 [Δ
  
James Gardner 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
David Knox 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
Edwin Hale Lincoln 
  
Lincoln, Edwin Hale; Marty, Karl & Drickamer, Lee C., 2006, Drummer boy: The Civil War diary of Edwin Hale Lincoln, (Raleigh, NC: Ivy House Pub. Group) [Edwin Hale Lincoln went on to become a notable photographer of wild flowers and orchids in the North-Eastern USA.] [Δ
  
Mathew Brady's Studio 
  
Wilson, Robert, 2013, Mathew Brady: Portraits of a Nation - Biography, (Bloomsbury) isbn-10: 1620402033 isbn-13: 978-1620402030 [Δ
  
Timothy H. O'Sullivan 
  
Davis, Keith F. & Aspinwall, Jane L., 2011, Timothy H. O'Sullivan: The King Survey Photographs, (Nelson Atkins Museum) isbn-10: 0300179847 isbn-13: 978-0300179842 [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
Savas, Theodore P., 2008, Brady's Civil War Journal: Photographing the War, 1861-65, (New York: Skyhorse Publications) isbn-10: 1620870525 [Δ
  
William Pywell 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
John Reekie 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
A.J. Russell 
  
Russell, Andrew J., 1982, Russell's Civil War Photographs, (Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486242838 isbn-13: 978-0486242835 [Δ
  
Wood & Gibson 
  
Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
  
Gardner, Alexander & Bleiler, E.F., 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications) isbn-10: 0486227316 isbn-13: 978-0486227313 [Introduction by E.F. Bleiler] [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Military Images magazine 
http://www.civilwar-photos.com ... 
For those interested in the photography of the American military upto the First World War then this is a useful resource. They can be contacted at: Military Images, PO Box B, Export, PA 15632 (milimage04@yahoo.com) 
  
Civil War Photography 
http://www.civilwarphotography.com 
An essential resource for those interested in the photography of the American Civil War (1861-1865). They can be contacted at: The Center for Civil War Photography, P.O. Box 1740, Oldsmar, Florida 34677 (813) 951-4962 info@civilwarphotography.org 
  
Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War 
http://rmc.library.cornell.edu ... 
An excellent resource by Cornell University Library on an important record of the American Civil War. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
George N. Barnard  (1819-1902) • Barnard & Gibson • Bergstressar Brothers • R.B. Bontecou  (1824-1907) • Mathew B. Brady  (1823-1896) • George S. Cook  (1819-1902) • Samuel A. Cooley • O.D. Finch • Alexander Gardner  (1821-1882) • James Gardner  (check) • James F. Gibson  (1828-1905) • David Knox • Mathew Brady's Studio • Timothy H. O'Sullivan  (1840-1882) • William Pywell • John Reekie • Thomas C. Roche  (1826-1895) • A.J. Russell  (1830-1902) • Wood & Gibson • Joseph Janvier Woodward  (1833-1884)
HomeThemesWar > American Civil War (1861-1865) 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Early political photomontage 
USA 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > American Civil War (1861-1865)

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAmerican Civil War (1861-1865) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 28, 2011)
ThumbnailAmerican Civil War (1861-1865: Robin Stanford Civil War Photography Collection 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 3, 2013)
ThumbnailGardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War (1866) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (September 19, 2006)
  
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > American Civil War (1861-1865)

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailAbraham Lincoln 
ThumbnailAbraham Lincoln: Spirit form 
ThumbnailUlysses S. Grant 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA.C. Kline: Jeff David "taking" Washington 
ThumbnailA.J. Russell: Apparatus for track wrecking 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailA.J. Russell: Photographs illustrative of operations in construction and transportation - With mounts 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailA.J. Russell: Photographs illustrative of operations in construction and transportation - Without mounts 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: A Contrast. Federal Buried; Confederate Unburied, Where They Fell on Battle Field of Antietam 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: A Sharpshooter’s Last Sleep 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Confederate Wounded, After the Battle of Antietam, at Smith’s Barn, Dr. A. Hurd, 114 Indiana Volunteers, in Attendance 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Copying Maps, Photographic Headquarters, Petersburg, Virginia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Execution of the Conspirators 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: Ruins of Arsenal, Richmond, Virginia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexander Gardner: View of Slaughter Pen at Battle of Gettysburg 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBrady & Co.: Camp at French’s Bridge, near Chickahominy, Va. 
ThumbnailCharles Paxson: Learning is Wealth 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Paxson: Our Protection 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailE. & H.T. Anthony & Co.: Earth Entrenchments and Cannon, Maryland Heights, Harpers Ferry 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailE. & H.T. Anthony & Co.: Group of Soldiers in the Trenches, Morris Island, S.C. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailE. & H.T. Anthony & Co.: War Views 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederick Gutekunst: The Devil holding portraits of leading Southern figures during the American Civil War 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailG.O. Brown: Rebel Grounds, near triangle of death. Wilderness field 
ThumbnailGardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War (1866) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge A. Otis: Photographs of Surgical Cases and Specimens (1867 or later) 
ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard: Destruction of Hood’s Ordnance Train 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard: Gen. Sherman’s men destroying the Railroad, before the evacuation of Atlanta, Ga. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHubbard & Mix: Negro Quarters on Fripp Place St. Helena’s [sic] Island, S.C. 
ThumbnailHubbard & Mix: Thorpe with the Negros working cotton, St. Helena’s [sic] Island 
ThumbnailJ.E. Larkin: Rebel Prison at Elmira 
ThumbnailJ.H. Norman: Tinted Blockade runner with flag 
ThumbnailJeremiah Gurney: Chicago Zouaves in New York City 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn C Guntzelman: The Civil War in Color (2012) 
ThumbnailJohn Carbutt: Return of a Foraging party, near Columbus, Ky. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMathew Brady's Studio: Brady Gallery photographic team for the Civil War, Berlin, Maryland 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMathew Brady: Camera 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMcPherson & Oliver: [Artillery post.] Port Hudson 
ThumbnailOsborn & Durbec’s: Portion of Negro burying ground. Jany. 31, 1863. Plantation No. 8. 
ThumbnailOsborn & Durbec’s: Sumter after the bombardment 
ThumbnailR.B. Bontecou: Surgical injuries and their treatment during the American Civil War: 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRidgway Glover: Crowd with Lincoln’s casket, procession, Philadelphia 
ThumbnailSally Mann: Last Measure 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel A. Cooley: 1st Lieutenant Henry. B. Loomis, adjutant of the 56th New York Infantry Regiment 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel A. Cooley: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel A. Cooley: Genl. Sherman’s men wheeling Rebel shot & shell from Ft. McAllister, GA. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSamuel A. Cooley: Unidentified military portrait 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTaylor & Huntington: Chattanooga, Tenn. In the foreground is the Railroad Depot of Chattanooga; a group of Rebel prisoners waiting for a train to take them North 
ThumbnailThe War Photograph & Exhibition Company: Federal Camp at Johnsonville, Tenn. This view taken at Johnsonville the day before the evacuation…. In the foreground is the depot platform and just back of that is the 1st Tennessee Colored Battery 
ThumbnailThomas C. Roche (attributed): Camp Dinner 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas C. Roche (attributed): Dead Confederate soldier in trenches outside the walls of Fort Mahone 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas C. Roche (attributed): The Amateur Barber 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas C. Roche: Dead Confederate soldier in trenches before Petersburg 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTimothy H. O'Sullivan: A council of war at Massaponax Church, VA 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTimothy H. O'Sullivan: View of the Gas Work, Petersburg, VA 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: 26th Colored Regt. (26th Regiment, US Colored Infantry, Camp William Penn, Pa.) 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: Freedom on the Plantation 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: Photograph Department-Philadelphia San'y Fair-June/'64 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: Union Army Officer (1861) 
ThumbnailWenderoth, Taylor and Brown: The Children of the Battle Field 
ThumbnailWilliam H. Bell: Medical injuries during the American Civil War 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailA.J. Russell - George N. Barnard 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailStereoview series: American Scenery 
ThumbnailStereoview series: HomeViews 
ThumbnailStereoview series: Photographic incidents of the War 
ThumbnailStereoview series: The War for the Union 
ThumbnailStereoview series: War Views 
ThumbnailStereoview series: War Views - Army of the Potomac 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865) 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Animals 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Birth of a Nation (1915) 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Camp life 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Patriotic and military backgrounds 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Prisons and prisoners 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Private George Lemon, ex-prisoner of war of the Confederates 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Propaganda 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Revenue stamps 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The breastworks and fortifications 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The commanders and officer class 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The families 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The hospitals 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The injuries 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The photographers 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The press 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The railways 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The soldiers 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The spies 
ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The weapons 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAmerican Civil War (1861-1865): Portraits in brass bezels 
ThumbnailAmerican Civil War: Balloons 
ThumbnailDead horses during the American Civil War 
ThumbnailThe scourged back 
 
  
Refreshed: 06 October 2014, 23:47
 
  
 
  
HOME  BACKFREE NEWSLETTER
 Facebook LuminousLint 
 Twitter @LuminousLint