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HomeContentsThemes > Christianity

Contents

Introduction
227.01   Introduction to Christianity
Overview
227.02   Jesus Christ
227.03   F. Holland Day: The Seven Words
227.04   Christianity
227.05   The Last Supper
227.06   Christian architecture
Locations
227.07   Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo
227.08   Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre
227.09   Jerusalem: Garden of Gethsemane
227.10   Walker Evans: Churches
Photographers
227.11   Frederick H. Evans: Cathedrals
227.12   Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843)
Photomicrographs of Christian texts
227.13   Christianity and photomicrographs
227.14   W. & F. Langenheim: The Lord's Prayer
Significant events
227.15   Menu de communion d'Adolphe Verspreeuwen
227.16   Baptism
Passion plays
227.17   Erinnerung an Oberammergau 1890 (Souvenir of Oberammergau 1890)
Photography as Biblical evidence
227.18   George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859)
227.19   H.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875)
227.20   American Palestine Exploration Society
227.21   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem
227.22   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai
227.23   Palestine Exploration Fund
Evolution and the Bible
227.24   Evolution and the Biblical flood
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
227.01   Documentary >  Introduction to Christianity 
  
The photographic represention of Christian faith can be sub-divided into multiple topics:
 
Representations of Christ
The reproduction of works of art, tableau vivant, reanactments of scenes from the life of Christ.  
  
Photographic representations of Jesus Christ 
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F. Holland Day: The Seven Words 
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Holy works
Professor Charles C. Piazzi Smyth[1] in his Notice of an Illuminated Vellum Manuscript, which formerly belonged to Mary Queen of Scots (1862) included a photograph of Queen Mary's Missal Now at St. Petersburg.  
  
Charles Piazzi Smyth: Queen Mary's Missal 
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Rituals of worships and rights of passage
Baptism, communion, marriage, death and burial, prayer and confession.  
  
Rites of passage 
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Baptism 
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Communion 
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Marriage 
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Death 
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Prayer 
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Confession 
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Priesthood
Popes, bishops, priests, monks, nuns etc.  
  
Priests and monks 
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Nuns
Events within the history of the Church
 
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Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
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Locations in the life of Christ
Garden of Gethsemane, Arch of Ecce Homo and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
Church architecture
Churchs, monasteries, St. Peter's and vernacular achitecture.  
  
Rome: St. Peter's 
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Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
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Evidence for and against Biblical Truth
 
  
George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
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Evolution and the Biblical flood 
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Overview 
  
227.02   Documentary >  Jesus Christ 
  
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227.03   Documentary >  F. Holland Day: The Seven Words 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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227.04   Documentary >  Christianity 
  
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227.05   Documentary >  The Last Supper 
  
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227.06   Documentary >  Christian architecture 
  
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Locations 
  
227.07   Documentary >  Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo 
  
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The name of the Ecce Homo arch and church (Behold the Man) are taken from the Gospel of St. John[2] and were the words Pontius Pilate supposedly said when he introduced Jesus Christ to the crowd. The arch was thought to be a part of the gateway to Herod's Antonia Fortress where the speech was given but archaeological evidence has shown that the arch was constructed under the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (76-138 AD) who ruled from 117 to 138 AD as an entrance to the eastern Forum of Aelia Capitolina.[3] The site on the Via Dolorosa or Way of Sorrows has significance in Catholicism, and other Christian beliefs, of the route Jesus Christ carried the cross towards his cruxifixation.
 
In the mindset of nineteenth century pilgrims and travellers to Jerusalem prior to the revelations of archaeological research this was the arch through which Jesus walked. The photographs they took of the arch were seen as physical proof of the Gospels and are probably still seen so be many. 
  
227.08   Documentary >  Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
  
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In the book Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt (1881) edited by Colonel Charles William Wilson there is an illustration[4] of the courtyard infront of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and a brief description:
On the right-hand side of the street a narrow passage and flight of steps lead down to the courtyard in front of the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (...). The open court is the favourite resort of pedlars from Bethlehem, who expose their wares for sale on the pavement, and drive a thriving trade in rosaries, mother-of-pearl ornaments, olive-wood trinkets, and other small articles, which the pilgrims purchase as mementoes of their visit to the Holy City.[5]  
  
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With the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem the viewpoints for the entrance becomes significant as we can find a number of photographers in the nineteenth century who have taken their photographs from almost exactly the same vantage point. A comparison of works by Félix Bonfils, Francis Frith, O. von Ostheim, Tancrède Dumas, P.Z. and Francis Bedford show a remarkable similarity.[6] The same can be seen in sequences of the Forum Romanum in Rome.
 
The interesting difference are the photographs of Auguste Salzmann who was an archaeologist.[7][8] His eye is searching not for the trite similarity of the photograph that would interest the tourist market but for documentation that shows evidence for the architectural changes that have taken place over time.[9] 
  
227.09   Documentary >  Jerusalem: Garden of Gethsemane 
  
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The Garden of Gethsemane at the base of the Mount of Olives is the location where a pivotal event happens in the life of Jesus Christ when he was betrayed by Judas - the incident is recorded in three of the Gospels.[10] The garden now includes eight olive trees and dendrochronological data has placed them around the 12th century.[11] For visitors prior to this scientific information it would have been easy to see these trees as the very ones that Jesus and his disciples prayed, walked and rested among. As one nineteenth century source said of the apostles:
At a short distance from the city there was a spot familiar to them all. It was a garden, and bore the name of Gethsemane, or Oil Press. Tradition points out the exact spot; and some olive trees still standing, possibly the natural representatives of trees then in existence, are supposed to confirm it; but beyond the general locality nothing can be identified with certainty.[12]
 
  
227.10   Documentary >  Walker Evans: Churches 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Photographers 
  
227.11   Documentary >  Frederick H. Evans: Cathedrals 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Frederick H. Evans (1853-1943)[13] was a London bookseller who turned to photography later in life - he selected religious architecture, especially the great cathedrals of England and France, as a subject that the camera was well suited for being able to capture the subtle tonalities of the subdued stone interiors. 
  
   Frederick Henry  Evans Cathedrals 
View exhibition 
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227.12   Documentary >  Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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David Octavius Hill was a talented landscape painter and lithographer based in Edinburgh in Scotland. In 1843 when there was the Disruption of the Church of Scotland he vowed to create a painting that would commemorate the occasion and include the portraits of the nearly five hundred church ministers involved.[14] Sir David Brewster proposed that calotypes would reduce the labour of sketches and introduced Hill to Robert Adamson who was a chemist and had recently established a calotype studio on Carlton Hill in Edinburgh. The partnership was fortuitous indeed as their skills were an ideal match until Adamson's early death in January 1848.
 
A surviving letter from David Octavius Hill to the Revd Dr Gordon dated 9 June 1843 provides the context:
9 June 1843
 
Mr D.O.Hill presents his respectful compliments to the Revd Dr Gordon and requests that he will favor him by giving him a sitting for his portrait with a view to its being made use of in Mr Hills prospective Historical Picture of “The First General Assembly of the Free Protesting Church of Scotland” – a work undertaken with the sanction and approval of the Reverend Moderator and a number of the leading members of assembly, and friends of the Church. The preliminary studies of the portraits for this work will in the first instance be made by the use of the Daguerreotype and Calotype – and as Mr Hill has made the necessary arrangements with Mr Adamson a gentleman recommended to him by Sir David Brewster as an adept in the latter process, he requests that Dr Gordon will consent to meet him at Mr Adamson’s house – Calton Stairs (at the top of the first flight of steps leading to the Hill from Waterloo Place) on Saturday the 10th Instant between the hours of 10 A M and 2 P.M. or on the Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday following at the same time. The sitter is detained only a very short time – the whole process being affected in a few minutes. Should none of these days suit Dr Gordon’s convenience, Mr Hill will make it his business to attend any other day and hour he may appoint.[15]
Even using hundreds of calotypes the completion of the painting took many years and carbon prints of the final version were offered for public sale as was announced in The Photographic News on 29th June 1866:
The subject is one full of interest to every one who can admire heroic self-abnegation in the assertion of principle, and to Scotchmen will possess in especial value as an illustration of national character, whatever their especial views on the question at issue. It is a picture commemorative of the Disruption in the Church of Scotland in 1843. The subject is the "Signing of the Deed of Demission," painted by Mr. D. O. Hill, Secretary to the Royal Scottish Academy, a gentleman whoso name has been many years associated with a deep interest in the art capacity of photography, and with some of the most artistic calotype portraits ever produced. The picture contains nearly five hundred portraits of ministers of the Scotch Church, who gave up livings, manses, glebes in short, all the temporalities which their connection with the Church gave them in the assertion of liberty of conscience.[16]
The vast painting hangs the offices of the Free Church of Scotland[17] and amongst the hundreds of faces a small David Octavius Hill can be seen with a camera. 
  
Photomicrographs of Christian texts 
  
227.13   Documentary >  Christianity and photomicrographs 
  
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W. & F. Langenheim: The Lord's Prayer 
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Alfred Reeves: The Creed 
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227.14   Documentary >  W. & F. Langenheim: The Lord's Prayer 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Significant events 
  
227.15   Documentary >  Menu de communion d'Adolphe Verspreeuwen 
  
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This 1882 "Photoglyptie" from the collection of the Musée français de la Photographie (2007.34.1) shows the "Menu de communion d'Adolphe Verspreeuwen". 
  
227.16   Documentary >  Baptism 
  
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Passion plays 
  
227.17   Documentary >  Erinnerung an Oberammergau 1890 (Souvenir of Oberammergau 1890) 
  
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The Oberammergau Passion Play has been performed since 1634 in the village of Oberammergau in Bavaria, Germany.[18] Souvenir photographs of the actors who performed in the 1890 plat were taken by Carl Stockman
  
Photography as Biblical evidence 
  
227.18   Documentary >  George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In an age of deeply held religious convictions photographic evidence of places mentioned in the Bible was much sought after as it provided visible proof. Alexander Keith's book Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy was highly popular and went through numerous editions. George Skene Keith took daguerreotypes of locations and archaeological sites in and around the Holy Land to provide visual evidence for his father Alexander Keith's book. In the Preface to the Thirty-Sixth Edition it says:
In searching for facts alone, in illustration of prophecies, it has uniformly been the Author's endeavour to adduce the most unexceptionable and conclusive evidence; and hence unbelievers, condemned out of their own mouths, have in general been the leading witnesses. As soon as photography began to take its place among the wonderful arts or inventions of the present day, he anticipated a mode of demonstration that could neither be questioned nor surpassed; as, without the need of any testimony, or the aid of either pen or pencil, the rays of the sun would thus depict what the prophets saw. With this intent, on his first visit to the East, he took with him some calotype paper, &c., the mode of preparing which was then secret; but on reaching Syria it was wholly useless. Then engaged in another object, he passed within an hour of Ashkelon and another of Tyre, without seeing either. A second visit to Syria, accompanied by one of his sons, Dr G. S. Keith, Edinburgh, by whom the daguerreotype views were taken, enables him now to adduce such proof; and has led besides to such an enlargement of the evidence from manifold additional facts, as he fain hopes may impart that lesson to others with which his own mind has been impressed, a still deeper conviction of the defined precision of the sure word of prophecy.[19]
 
  
227.19   Documentary >  H.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875) 
  
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The 1875 folio by H.H. Kitchener entitled Photographs of Biblical Sites[20] includes 12 mounted albumen photographs of interiors, exteriors and landscapes in Palestine and each plate is accompanied by text.
 
List of views:
Scene of the return of the ark from captivity with the Philistines
The scene of the attack on the Philistine camp by Jonathan and his armour-bearer
Mount Moriah
The site of Solomon's temple
Elisha's fountain at Jericho
Bethlehem
Presentation in the temple
Baptism in Jordan
Cana of Galilee
Bethany
The way of the cross
The holy Sepulchre
 
  
227.20   Documentary >  American Palestine Exploration Society 
  
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The American Palestine Exploration Society was founded in New York in 1870 as a privately funded society for archaeological and geographic exploration of the Holy Land. A forerunner of the American Schools of Oriental Research, the organization conducted its second expedition to the Holy Land in 1875 and hired French photographer Tancrede Dumas, who owned a studio in Beirut, to accompany the expedition.
 
Boston Univerversity houses the American Palestine Exploration Society (APES) Photograph Collection. 
  
227.21   Documentary >  Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
  
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Photographic work by Sergeant Henry Phillips, under the command of Sir Charles Warren, of the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF)[21] was undertaken in Jerusalem, The Holy Land (1867-1870). Some of the photographs were exhibited in London in 1869.
The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund have opened the Dudley Gallery, Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, for an exhibition of great interest, which may form the nucleus of the desired Biblical Museum.

The centre piece of the Gallery is a large Ordnance Survey Plan of Jerusalem and its environs, telling very forcibly to the eye the nature of the country, with its well-known historic hills and sacred sites. The walls of the Gallery are hung with nearly 350 admirable photographic views of scenes in Palestine and Syria, taken by Sergeant Phillips under the orders of Captain Wilson and Lieutenant Warren. These pictures are a study in themselves. After looking at them we seem to be familiar with landscapes, now desolate and ruin bestrewn, once so rich and fertile, "with milk and honey blest," that land, "Over whose acres trod those blessed feet."[22]
 
  
227.22   Documentary >  Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
  
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The Ordnance Survey of the Sinai (1868-1869) was undertaken by the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF)[23] and led by Captains Charles W. Wilson and H.S. Palmer. Sergeant James McDonald took photographs of the survey team and the topographical and archaeological features.[24] 
  
227.23   Documentary >  Palestine Exploration Fund 
  
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The Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) was founded in 1865 under the royal patronage of Queen Victoria with the mission to "to promote research into the archaeology and history, manners and customs and culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of biblical Palestine and the Levant."[25] Through a program of expeditions during which cartographic surveys[26] were carried out and archaeological excavations undertaken the PEF has made a considerable contribution to our knowledge of the region.
 
The Karl Baedeker guidebook for Palestine and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (1876) provided a description of the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Lastly we must mention the valuable services rendered to science by the society of the 'Palestine Exploration Fund', whose labours have extended over nearly ten years, but which unfortunately has not received pecuniary support commensurate with the importance of its objects. (Subscriptions are received by the Secretary, Walter Besant, Esq., 9 Pall Mall East, London.) The object of the society is the 'accurate and systematic exploration of the topography, geology, natural history, and ethnology of the Holy Land, particularly with a view to the interpretation of the Bible'. The society publishes ' Quarterly Statements', sent gratis to every subscriber, the substance of which down to the end of 1872 is comprised in two very interesting works. The larger of these is the 'Recovery of Jerusalem' by Major Wilson and Capt. Warren, edited by W. Morrison (London, 1871), and the smaller, which is to a great extent abridged from the other, 'Our Work in Palestine' (London, 1873). The Society first sent out Major Wilson, R.E., and Captain Anderson, R.E., to report on the best method of proceeding. These officers made a reconnaissance in Galilee and along the watershed to Nabulus; they took a great number of photographs and discovered several of the Galilean synagogues. The Fund next turned its attention to the archaeology of Jerusalem. In 1867 Capt. Warren, R.E., was sent out. His work was continued till 1870, and consisted mainly in making excavations. He, however, also made reconnaissances in Philistia, the Jordan Valley, and Moab. The results of the Jerusalem work are extremely valuable to scholars, especially in fixing the character and dimensions of the great Temple platform and the original rock surface of the Temple hill.
 
In 1871 the Society sent out Professor Palmer, accompanied by Mi. Tyrwhitt Drake. These gentlemen made an adventurous journey through the Negeb and an expedition into Moab.
 
In 1872 the most important undertaking of the Fund was started, being the topographical survey of Western Palestine to the scale of 1-inch to the mile. The party was commanded by Captain Stewart, R.E., and included Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. Captain Stewart fell ill at the commencement of the work and was succeeded by Lieut. Conder, R.E., who is still in command. At the present date the survey of the whole country from Beersheba to Safed in Galilee, 4600 sq. miles in area, is complete, while 1400 sq. miles remain to be surveyed in upper Galilee. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake died at his work from fever in June 1874. On 11th July, 1875, the survey party was attacked by a fanatical armed mob at Safed. Lieut. Conder was wounded, as well as Lieut. Kitchener, R.E., the second in command, and nearly every other member of the party. In consequence of this attack, and of the spread of cholera, the party was withdrawn for the winter. It is hoped that the survey will be completed in 1876, and published about a year later.
 
This work will probably prove the most important yet done in Palestine. The Biblical discoveries have been numerous and important; the number of sites explored and names collected is six or seven times greater than that on any published map; careful observations of natural history, geology, architecture, etc., have been made, and large scale plans of important towns, ruins, or buildings, have been drawn. Between 30 and 40 new churches have been found in various parts of Palestine, and some 200 of the rock-cut tombs have been planned.
 
The map will be published in ten large sheets, each accompanied by a memoir with plans and lists of names in English and Arabic. An endeavour will be made to give a description of every ruined site in the whole country from Dan to Beersheba. Numerous photographs have also been taken by the party, which are now being published.
 
In 1874 the Fund also sent out M. Clermont-Ganneau to Jerusalem. His work was principally epigraphic, and his most valuable discovery was that of a fine Hebrew inscription defining the limits of the city of Gezer, which he had already identified from independent considerations.[27]
On the expeditions Sergeant Henry Phillips of the Royal Engineers and Sergeant James McDonald both took photographs during the surveys of The Holy Land
  
Evolution and the Bible 
  
227.24   Documentary >  Evolution and the Biblical flood 
  
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The nineteenth century was an age of technological progress and intellectual rigour that used scientific evidence to confront religious doctrine. This was the age of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913). Their expeditions and analysis of evidence from the natural world provided the foundation for evolutionary biology. When On the Origin of Species was published in 1859 it questioned beliefs in the stability of a God-given natural order. Investigations of fossil beds were uncovered bones of life forms that no longer existed on Earth and although the Biblical Flood could be used the reason it was becoming increasingly difficult to support. By 1855 at the Crystal Palace Exhibition large models of extinct animals were placed in the grounds and these were photographed by Philip Henry Delamotte.[28] At this point it had only been about 16 years since the announcement of photography by Daguerre and photography was being used to provide scientific evidence to support hypotheses that would fundamentally alter how humans understood time and biology. A photograph by an unidentified photographer Two workmen in the gravel pit near the Seminary of St Acheul, 27 April 1859. The standing workman is pointing to the in situ flint[29] taken on 27 April 1859 is critical in our understanding of human evolution. Within the section of a gravel pit there and human-made lithic tools beneath layers of bones for extinct animals. The new science of photography was being harnessed to reassess everything that had previously been thought about the development of humans. 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ In the same year that Professor Charles C. Piazzi Smyth published on Queen Mary's Missal in St. Petersburg he also published - C. Piazzi Smyth, 1862, Three Cities in Russia, (London: Lovell, Reeve & Co.) [2 volumes] 
      
  2. Λ St. John's Gospel, 19.5 
      
  3. Λ Pierre Benoit, 1971, "The Antonia of Herod the Great, and the East Forum of Aelia Capitolina", Harvard Theological Review, vol. 64, pp. 135-167 
      
  4. Λ Colonel [Charles William] Wilson (ed.), 1881, Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt, (New York: D. Appleton and Company), vol. 1, part 1, p. 16 
      
  5. Λ Colonel [Charles William] Wilson (ed.), 1881, Picturesque Palestine, Sinai, and Egypt, (New York: D. Appleton and Company), vol. 1, part 1, p. 14 
      
  6. Λ I'd be interested in any evidence that the same negatives were shared by any of these photographers or there are cases of negatives being sold on to later studios - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  7. Λ The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York acquired an excellent collection of salted paper prints when they acquired the Gilman Collection in 2005. 
      
  8. Λ Auguste Salzmann was later involved in archaeological excavations on the island of Rhodes with some of his finds going to the British Museum - 1862, 2 June (Ordered), "Antiquities from Camirus, in the Island of Rhodes", The Finance Accounts I.-VII. of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for the Financial Year 1861-1862 (House of Commons) in the section on "Accounts, Estimates, &c. of the British Museum", pp. 16-17. 
      
  9. Λ For the publication of Auguste Salzmann of Jerusalem - Auguste Salzmann, 1856, Jérusalem. Etude et reproduction photographique des monuments de la Ville Sainte depuis l'époque judaïque jusqu'à nos jours par Auguste Salzmann, chargé par le Ministère de l'instruction publique d'une mission scientifique en Orient, [Jerusalem: Photographs of the Monuments of the Holy City], (Paris: Gide et J. Baudry) 
      
  10. Λ The three Gospels are: Matthew 26:36-46, Luke 22:39-46 and Mark 14:32-42. 
      
  11. Λ The secret of the Garden of Gethsemane - National Research Council of Italy: Trees and Time Institute
    (Published: 19 October 2012, Accessed: 14 December 2014)
    www.ivalsa.cnr.it/en/news/dettaglio-news/article/i-segreti-del-giardino-del-getsemani.html
    The results of the integration of the dendrochronological dating with the radiometric technique (C14 radiocarbon dating) of the part of the trunk which is still present (technique performed using the Wiggle matching method) converge in around the 12th century and leave little doubt that the epigean part of the three trees analysed refers to the same period: Tree no. 1 (1198); Tree no. 4 (1092) and Tree no. 7 (1166).
     
      
  12. Λ George Philip, 1882, The Garden of Gethsemane, (Hodder), pp. 17-18 
      
  13. Λ The photographic historian Beaumont Newhall authored the first monograph on Frederick Henry Evans - Beaumont Newhall , 1973, Frederick Evans: Photographer of the Majesty, Light and Space of the Medieval Cathedrals of England and France, (Aperture)
     
    Anne Hammond (ed.), 1992, Frederick H. Evans: Selected Texts and Bibliography, (Boston: G. K. Hall) [World Photographers Reference Series, vol. 1]; Anne M. Lyden & Hope Kingsley, 2009, The Photographs of Frederick H. Evans, (J Paul Getty Museum) 
      
  14. Λ David Octavius Hill, 1866, "The First General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland - Signing the Act of Separation and the Deed of Demission at Tanfield, Edinburgh, May 1843", Oil painting, 5 foot x 11 foot 4 inches (1.53m x 3.45m), Free Church of Scotland [This photograph was taken by Rev George T. Thomson LRPS and is provided with the permission of the Free Church of Scotland.] 
      
  15. Λ An example letter from "Hill, D O, to the subjects of the Disruption picture, here filled in to Dr Gordon, 9 June 1843"
    New College Library (Free Church of Scotland), autograph folder 240
    [Open, lithographed letter]
    DOH to the subjects of the Disruption picture, here filled in to Dr Gordon, 9 June 1843
    Source: scottishphotography.org/?page_id=285 
      
  16. Λ June 29, 1866, "Large Carbon Reproductions", The Photographic News: A Weekly Record of the Progress of Photography, vol. X, no. 408, pp. 304-305. 
      
  17. Λ Free Church of Scotland, 15 North Bank Street, The Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LS, Scotland. Tel: 0131 226 5286 
      
  18. Λ Oberammergau Passion Play - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 20 May 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberammergau_Passion_Play 
      
  19. Λ Alexander Keith, 1859, Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy, Thirty-seventh edition, (London, T. Nelson and Sons), preface 
      
  20. Λ H.H. Kitchener, 1875, Photographs of Biblical Sites (London: Richard Bentley & Son) Folio. Unpaginated. Black decorated maroon cloth with gilt lettering. 
      
  21. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  22. Λ anon., July 1, 1869, January, "Relics and Photographs from the Holy Land", The Scattered Nation, vols. 3-4, pp. 194 
      
  23. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  24. Λ Ordnance Survey, 1869, Ordnance survey of the peninsula of Sinai. / Made with the sanction of the Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, bart., secretary of state for war, by Captains C.W. Wilson and H.S. Palmer, under the direction of Colonel Sir Henry James...director-general of the Ordnance survey. Pub. by authority of the lords commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, (Southampton, Ordnance survey office [London, H.M. Stationery off., G.E. Eyre and W.S. Spottiswoode, printers])
     
    Library of Congress, Call Number: DS110.5 .G7 (Case Y) [P&P] Copy 1
    www.loc.gov/pictures/item/20010340/ 
      
  25. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  26. Λ Major early surveys of the Palestine Exploration Fund included:
     
    Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem
    Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
      
  27. Λ Karl Baedeker (firm), 1876, Palestine and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1876), pp.125-126. 
      
  28. Λ For the Philip Henry Delamotte photographs of the models of extinct animals - British Library, Shelfmark: Tab.442.a.5
     
    For a contemporary description of the extinct animals - Samuel Phillips, 1857, Guide to the Crystal Palace and Park, p. 189-197 
      
  29. Λ  Unidentified photographer/creatro, "Two workmen in the gravel pit near the Seminary of St Acheul, 27 April 1859. The standing workman is pointing to the in situ flint", 1859, 27 April, Albumen print, Bibliothèques d'Amiens Métropole 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
Keith, Alexander, 1859, Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy, (London, T. Nelson and Sons) [Thirty-seventh edition] [Δ
  
Keller, Werner, 1983, The Bible as History, (Bantam) isbn-10: 0553279432 isbn-13: 978-0553279436 [2nd revised edition] [Δ
  
Kitchener, H.H., 1875, Photographs of Biblical Sites, (London: Richard Bentley & Son) [Δ
  
Nir, Yeshayahu, 1985, The Bible and the image: The history of photography in the Holy Land, 1839-1899, (University of Pennsylvania Press) [Δ
  
Onne, Eyal, 1980, Photographic Heritage of the Holy Land 1839-1914, (Institute of Advanced Studies Manchester Polytechnic) isbn-10: 0905252101 isbn-13: 978-0905252100 [Δ
  
Pellerin, Denis; May, Brian & Fleming, Paula, 2013, Diableries: Stereoscopic adventures in Hell, (The London Stereoscopic Company) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Frederick H. Evans 
  
Newhall, Beaumont, 1973, Frederick Evans: Photographer of the Majesty, Light and Space of the Medieval Cathedrals of England and France, (Aperture) [Aperture Monograph, Vol 18, No 1] [Δ
  
Lee Friedlander 
  
Friedlander, Lee, 2003, Staglieno, (Nazraeli Press) isbn-10: 1590050398 isbn-13: 978-1590050392 [Δ
  
Francis Frith 
  
Frith, Francis, 1861 (ca), The Holy Bible, (Eyre & Spottiswoode) [Illustrated with photographic views of Biblical Scenery from nature by Frith . 20 albumen prints, approx. 83/4 x 61/2 inches / 225 x 165 mm] [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1862-1863, The Holy Bible … Illustrated with Photographs by [Francis] Frith, (Glasgow: William Mackenzie) [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1862-1863, The Holy Bible: Containing the Old and New Testaments . . . Illustrated with Photographs by Frith, (Glasgow: W. Mackenzie) [Second title page: The Queen's Bible. 56 albumen prints, approx. 83/4 x 61/2 inches / 225 x 165 mm.] [Δ
  
Beaumont Newhall 
  
Newhall, Beaumont, 1973, Frederick Evans: Photographer of the Majesty, Light and Space of the Medieval Cathedrals of England and France, (Aperture) [Aperture Monograph, Vol 18, No 1] [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Abbas  (1944-) • Michael Coyne • Frederick H. Evans  (1853-1943) • Giorgia Fiorio  (1967-) • George Skene Keith  (1819-1910) • Giuseppe Leone • Larry Towell • Craig Varjabedian  (1957-)
HomeThemesDocumentaryReligions > Christianity 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Christian architecture 
Israel and Palestine 
Jerusalem 
Rome 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Christianity

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailArchitecture: Christian 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 27, 2011)
ThumbnailFrederick H. Evans: Cathedrals 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 10, 2011)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Christianity

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailJesus Christ 
ThumbnailJohn the Baptist 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlexander Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBisson freres: France: Bourges 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBisson freres: France: Chartres 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBisson freres: France: Paris: Notre Dame 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailC.R. Savage: Baptism of 130 Indians of the Shebit Nation at St. George, by the Mormons 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCalvert Richard Jones: Capuchin Friars, Valetta, Malta (1846) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailF. Holland Day: Crucifixion 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailF. Holland Day: The Seven Words 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFernand Cuville: Greece: Mount Athos 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Frith: The Holy Bible (ca. 1861) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailH.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875) 
ThumbnailHill & Adamson: Scottish presbyterians 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKeystone View Company: [6?]19 - Her Guardian Angel 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLarry Towell: Mennonites 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLéon Bovier: Christ au tombeau 
ThumbnailRephotographic surveys: Mountain of the Holy Cross 
ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Rievaulx Abbey 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW. & F. Langenheim: The Lord's Prayer 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: Churches 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam A. Pumphrey: York Cathedral 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: Holy Cross 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailHenri Le Secq - Bisson frères - Charles Marville - Charles Nègre 
ThumbnailJoseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey - Charles Marville - Bisson frères - Auguste Rosalie Bisson 
ThumbnailMendel Diness - Félix Bonfils - Robertson, J. & Beato, F. 
ThumbnailRobert Rive - Le Gray & Mestral - Édouard Baldus - Giorgio Sommer - Neurdein Frères - Léon Gérard - Francis Frith 
ThumbnailUnidentified artist - Félix Bonfils 
ThumbnailWilliam A. Pumphrey - Roger Fenton 
 
  
   Occupationals 
  
ThumbnailPriests, monks, bishops, pilgrims, missionaries, penitents and holy men 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailArchitecture: Christian 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Religion: Christianity 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Bethlehem 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Garden of Gethsemane 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Nazareth 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAmerican Colony photographers of Jerusalem 
ThumbnailAngels 
ThumbnailChristmas and New Year Greetings 
ThumbnailChristmas trees 
ThumbnailCommunion 
ThumbnailErinnerung an Oberammergau 1890 (Souvenir of Oberammergau 1890) 
ThumbnailEvolution vs. The Biblical Flood 
ThumbnailMadonnas 
ThumbnailMenu de communion d'Adolphe Verspreeuwen 
ThumbnailPenitents in New Mexico (October 1922) 
ThumbnailThe Cedars of Lebanon 
ThumbnailThe Shroud of Turin 
 
  
Refreshed: 15 September 2014, 10:23
 
  
 
  
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