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Techniques and processes
217.01 Portrait > Daguerreotypes: Celebrities
The invention of photography brought fidelity to the portrait. Here in mercurial form was the mirror image of humanity with the flaws of the moment of capture. Celebrities of the age who had been seen in woodcuts, engravings, lithographs and paintings could now be posed, photographed and preserved. Their photographs were used as the basis for other forms of illustration and so the printed visage in magazines and books evolved int ever more realistic forms through the 1840s and 50s.
For the first time we have the true features of notable figures recorded - politicians such as Abraham Lincoln, Henry Clay and Lajos Kossuth, and abolitionist John Brown at the time a wool broker in Hartford CT. long before his attack on Harper's Ferry. Scientists such as James Hyatt inhaling chlorine, Samuel Morse of telegraph-fame, Michael Faraday who worked with electromagnetism and electrochemistry and Oliver Wendell Holmes who was a physician, writer and inventor of a popular stereoscope design. Military officers such as Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, who had been instrumental in the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, was photographed by Antoine Claudet in 1844. Sir John Franklin had his portrait taken along with some of his officers by Richard Beard before setting out in command of the ill-fated British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848). Travellers equipped with daguerreotype equipment supplemented their views of landscapes, cities and monuments with photographs of the noble classes such as the Hawaiian royal family.
In the arts a drawing of the composer Chopin by George Sand was photographed by an unknown daguerreotypist and can be compared with a surviving daguerreotype portrait of Chopin in the collection of Musée de la musique. Swedish opera singer Jenny Lind, known as the "Swedish Nightingale" was photographed by the outstanding Boston photographers Southworth & Hawes and began a craze of the photography of opera stars that would continue through the nineteenth century. The popular authors of the day such as William Makepeace Thackeray, Hans Christian Anderson, Edgar Allen Poe, Alexandre Dumas and Nikolai Gogol were all photographed during the early years of photography.
Throughout history the famous have been recorded in painting, prints and sculpture to create a sense of national pride in material form. It was seen as the legacy of a nation to preserve portraits of the great and still is. Daguerreotypes came in different plate sizes and the largest commonly used was the whole plate at 6.5 x 8.5 ins (16.5 x 21.5 cm) which was not going to compete with a large painting on scale alone. Unless the daguerreotype was hand-coloured, it had an elusive silvery form rather than the richness of oil paint but it had distanct advantages. A daguerreotype was relatively quick to create as exposure times decreased and more importantly it captured the reality of the moment.
217.02 Portrait > Carte de visites: Celebrities
The standardized size of the carte de visite and its robust card-based format allowed for the first photograph albums that encouraged, indeed forced, a display on the pre-cut pages. All previous paper-based forms could be pasted into scrapbooks but carte de visite encouraged the creation of visual family histories and the collection of celebrities. Just as with earlier daguerreotypes of celebrities a similar range of personalities is shown.
Abraham Lincoln was collected and so was actor John Wilkes Booth who would assassinate him in Ford's Theatre in 1865. British Prime Ministers William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli have the rigid poses that remind one of busts and full length sculptures. In an age of the printed word authors and poets were popular and Alfred Tennyson, Henry Wordsworth Longfellow, Charles Dickens, Washington Irving and Hans Christian Anderson are all found on carte de visites. The nineteenth century was the age of colonial empires and explorers such as Henry Morton Stanley led expeditions into Africa that would result in King Leopold's brutal control of the Congo.
Carte de visite portraits of celebrities were collected like the cigarette cards, bubble-gum cards and sports cards that would follow. By owning a carte de visite of Kit Carson or Admiral Dot one's association with celebrity was brought closer in much the same way that friending a celebrity on Facebook does today. It is a symbol of a real or imagined relationship.
217.03 Portrait > Cabinet cards: Celebrities
The cabinet card, which is essentially a larger carte de visite, was introduced in 1863 was a 4 x 5 1/2 inch photograph affixed to a 4 1/2 x 6 1/2 inch card stock. It prolonged the collecting of card-based photographs until snapshot photography came in during the 1890s and in some countries cabinet cards continued until after the First World War (1914-1918). As with earlier forms of photography, particularly carte de visites, celebrities of the day were widely collected.
Once again authors and poets were well represented with Oscar Wilde, Tolstoy, Mark Twain and Victor Hugo. Cards of those who had carried out heroic deeds such as William Frederick Cody, perhaps better known as Buffalo Bill, Roald Amundsen for his trek to the South Pole, Baden Powell well known throughout the British Empire for holding Mafeking during the Second Boer War and around the world for founding the Boy Scouts movement were purchased. Popular entertainers such as tightrope walker Charles Blondin, actresses Sarah Bernhardt and Lilly Langtry toured widely and were celebrities of the age.
Celebrities of their age
217.04 Portrait > Mathew Brady's Studio photographs of Jenny Lind
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
In September 1850 Swedish Opera singer Jenny Lind started on a tour of America promoted by P.T. Barnum. He promoted her so successfully that 40,000 people awaited the arrival of her ship in New York City. During her time in America she agreed to have daguerreotype portraits taken by Mathew Brady and the Musical Times of Saturday, October 19, 1850 described it:
She also objects to have her likeness exhibited; but this objection is overruled by Mr. Brady, the daguerreotypist, who shared with the sun the honour of having taken it, and on his part objects to be considered a humbug. Our meaning will be understood from the following :
Mdlle. Jenny Lind, who, in the first place, was averse to having her likeness taken, and, in the second, did not wish to have it exhibited, has permitted Mr. Brady to show it to the public, who have importuned him for the last week, many telling him it was all humbug, and that she did not sit for her likeness at all. On Monday there was a great rush to see it, and all who had seen her pronounced it to be an admirable likeness. It is a beautiful specimen of the perfection of the photogenic art. There were eight likenesses taken in all, and every one differed from the rest, so changeable is the expression of the countenance of the great cantatrice. There were three preserved, of which Mr. Brady has two, and one is in the possession of Jenny Lind herself. The two at Mr. Brady's gallery differ very much, one of them being far superior to the other. In looking at those likenesses of Jenny Lind, we saw some exquisite portraits done on ivory, which is a new invention of. Mr. Brady, and exceedingly creditable to him.
217.05 Portrait > Robert Howelett: Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1857)
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
217.06 Portrait > Charles Darwin
217.07 Portrait > Samuel Morse
217.08 Portrait > Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi was the hero of the Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871) which was in need of a popular hero and he was perfect for the part. In the following account from 1866 we get a sense of the cult of personality that surrounded him on his travels to secure the Unification of Italy. Photography played a part in the the promotion of his personality and resolve.
Photography And Garibaldi. Mr. G. A. Sala, in a recent letter in the Telegraph, has a graphic word-photograph on Garibaldi, in commenting on the sun-pictures of the Italian hero. He says: "Photography has not done him justice. The sun, like calumny and the calumniator's favourite weapon, the frying-pan, blackens all with whom his rays, through the medium of the camera, come in contact. In the cartes de visite Garibaldi looks sombre, meagre, and worn. I was surprised to see a hearty, jovial man, with a great blonde beard. But for the eyeglass he used, and the stick he carried, there were no traces visible of the waves of time which have dashed against him, or of the cruel bullet which struck him at Aspromonte. He gave me his hand, and a hearty, sailor-like grip into the bargain; and if it be snobbish to have wished to kiss that horny paw, I am glad to have been, for once in my life at all events, a snob most egregious. A thousand times must it have been remarked in print that the aspect of Garibaldi is as that of a Lion. But no other simile will serve. ' Sorriso di madre, riguardo di leone,' the Italians say of him. His port and mien are, of a truth, thoroughly leonine ; but the ' sorriso di madre,' the ' mother's smile,' comes ever him when he converses familiarly, when he calls to some member of his staff, or, best of all, when he sees the boy volunteers, the hope and promise of Italy, passing before him. And there surely was never a countenance so thoroughly translucent, and from whose eyes there beamed so strongly the light of tho soul within the soul of a just and upright man, quietly striving to do his duty."
Galleries of celebrities
217.09 Portrait > Ernest Edwards: Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science and Art, with Biographical Memoirs (1863)
The book Portraits of men of eminence in literature, science, and art, with biographical memoirs: the photographs from life was published in six volumes from 1863 with portraits taken by Ernest Edwards.
217.10 Portrait > Thompson Cooper, Lock & Whitfield: Men of Mark (1876-1883)
Thompson Cooper (1837-1904), Men of Mark, a Gallery of Contemporary Portraits of Men Distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in Science, Literature and Art, the Army, Navy, Law, Medicine, etc. [Woodburytyped] from Life by Lock and Whitfield (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1876-1883).
This important work was a collaboration between the photographers Samuel Robert Lock (1822-1881) and George Carpe Whitfield (born 1833) and the journalist Thompson Cooper (1837-1904) who prepared the brief biographies for the individuals featured. Lock and Whitfield prepared 36 oval woodburytypes for publication each year and when Lock died in 1881 Whitfield continued the project alone. The total number plates is 254, including the two frontispiece illustrations in volumes 1 and 4. Some photographic plates were acquired from other photographers, e.g. the portrait of Victor Hugo is by Etienne Carjat (1828-1906), the one of Jules Verne by Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon (1818-1881), both of Paris, the one of Tennyson by London photographer John Jabez Edwin Paisley Mayall (1813-1901).
The “series” was distributed as seven bound volumes, in an unknown but probably low edition. A short biographical sketch of usually one page is followed by a page carrying a mounted woodburytypes portrait. There are about 36 portraits per volume, each of them in an excellent printing quality. Though the sitters – exclusively male – are the same, e.g. in different copies of vol. 1 some slight variations of posing and cropping can be observed in a few of the portraits published. This could be due to the relatively low print run which the woodburytypes technique allowed. The later volumes seem to be progressively rarer as they have probably seen a lower print run than the introductory volumes. The images are mounted to the pages succeeding the letterpress printed biographies. - The selection of personalities described and depicted would be another matter for future research. They are either British upper class and/or nobility, or have risen to some prominence as members of the military, lawyers, clergymen, artists or writers. Their names were selected when they were alive, though some did not live to see themselves published. If Cooper knew about a death he included this information in his biographical sketch. Were the more prominent invited to the Lock & Whitfield’s studio to be portrayed for free while less prominent but more vain persons where asked to contribute to the substantial costs of this major production?
Usually a text page or two by Cooper containing biographical data is followed by a woodburytype portrait mounted to the next page. Some introductory texts, e.g. on especially well-known personalities like Gladstone (vol. 6, 1882) are longer. The image size is c. 11.4 x 91 cm with a printed ornamental surround, the name of the model, the photographer’s name or names, and the identification as “Woodbury Process”. In some volumes the page with the mounted portrait preceeds the page of printed biographical information; this might be due to a bookbinder’s whim.
From the preface by George C. Whitfield (vol. 1, 1876):
“The photographs, taken from life, expressly for this publication, are produced in an absolutely permanent form by means of the Woodbury Process. – Whilst modifying on the one hand the crudeness which more or less is inseparable from the camera image, and correcting the untruthful rendering of colour which occasionally occurs, I have endeavoured on the other to retain the character and individuality of each subject […].”
The subjects are as follows [in brackets: additional names, life dates completed from later sources]:
First series (1876)
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales [Albert Edward, 1901-1910 King Edward VII; 1841-1910], frontispiece
The Earl of Dufferin, Governor-General of Canada [Frederick Hamilton-Temple Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava; 1826-1902], pl. 1
Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy, M.A., Late Chief Justice of Ceylon [1812-1878], pl. 2
Sir Richard Baggallay, Judge of the Supreme Court of Appeal [1816-1888], pl. 3
Captain Richard [Francis] Burton [African explorer, diplomat, etc.; 1821-1890], pl. 4
The Right Hon. Spencer Horatio Walpole, M.P. [1806-1898], pl. 5
Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, [Bart.] Chief Secretary for Ireland [1st Earl St Aldwyn; The Viscount St Aldwyn; 1837-1916], pl. 6
Lord Lytton, Viceroy of India [Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton; 1831-1891], pl. 7
Sir John Walker Huddleston, Baron of the Exchequer [1817-?], pl. 8
Samuel Plimsoll, M.P., “The Sailor’s Friend” [1824-1898], pl. 9
Sir Garnet Joseph Wolseley, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., Major-General [1833-1913], pl. 10
The Right Rev. John Jackson, D.D., Lord Bishop of London [1811-1886], pl. 11
Lord James [4th Baron] Talbot de Malahide, President of the Royal Archaeological Institute [1805-1883], pl. 12
His Eminence Cardinal Henry Edward Manning, Archbishop of Westminster [1808-1892], pl. 13
James Anthony Froude, M.A., LL.D, Historian [1818-1894], pl. 14
Henry Fawcett, M.P., Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge [1833-1884], pl. 15
The Right Hon. Lord Chelmsford [Sir Frederic Thesiger, 1st Baron Chelmsford; 1794-1879], pl. 16
The Right Rev. Charles J. [John] Ellicott, D.D., Lord Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol [1819-1905], pl. 17
The Right Hon. Henry Bouverie William Brand, Speaker of the House of Commons [1st Viscount Hampden; 1814-1892], pl. 18
John Everett Millais, Royal Academician [1829-1896], pl. 19
The Rev. F. W. [Frederick William] Farrar, D.D., F.R.S., Canon of Westminster [1831-1903], pl. 20
Lord George [Francis] Hamilton, Under-Secretary of State for India [M.P.; 1845-1927], pl. 21
The Right Hon. Lord Selbourne, Ex-Lord High Chancellor of England [Roundell Palmer, 1st Earl of Selbourne; 1812-1895], pl. 22
The Right Hon. Bartle Edward Frere, Bart., G.C.B. [1815-1884], pl. 23
The Hon. Sir Charles Hall, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1814-1883], pl. 24
The Right Rev. Edward Harold Browne, D.D., Lord Bishop of Winchester [1811-1891], pl. 25
Charles Jean Marie Loyson, “Père Hyacinthe” [1827-1912], pl. 26
Sir James Macnaghten [McGarel] Hogg, K.C.B., Chairman of the Metropolitan Board of Works [1823-1890], pl. 27
The Right Hon. The [7th] Earl of Shaftesbury, K.G. [Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley; 1801-1885], pl. 28
The Right Hon. Lord Redesdale, Charman of Committees of the House of Lords [John Thomas Freeman Mitford; 1805-1886], pl. 29
The Ven. George Anthony Denison, Archdeacon of Taunton [1805-1896], pl. 30
The Right Hon. John Bright, M.P. for Birmingham [1811-1889], pl. 31
The Right Rev. Monsignor [Thomas John] Capel, D.D., Rector of the Catholic University College [1836-1911], pl. 32
The Right Hon. William Francis Cowper-Temple, M.P. for South Hampshire [1811-1888], pl. 33
His Grace The Duke of Abercorn, K.G., Lord Lieutnant of Ireland [James Hamilton, 1811-1885], pl. 34
The Most Reverend Archibald Campbell Tait, D.D., Archbishop of Canterbury [1811-1882], pl. 35
W. H. [William Howard] Russell, Esq., LL.D. [1820-1907], pl. 36
Second series (1877)
Frederick Leighton, Esq., Royal Academician [1st Baron Leighton; 1830-1896], pl. 1
Richard Durnford, D.D., Bishop of Chichester [1802-1895], pl. 2
John Tyndall, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Royal Institution [1820-1893], pl. 3
The Right Hon. Sir Robert J. [Joseph] Phillimore, D.C.L., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1st Baronet; 1810-1885], pl. 4
The Rev. Newman Hall, LL.B. [clergyman, 1816-1902], pl. 5
The Right Hon. Lord Winmarleigh [Col. John Wilson-Patten, 1st Baron Winmarleigh; 1802-1892], pl. 6
Comte Victor Marie Hugo, poet, dramatist, and novelist [1802-1885.- Portrait photograph is by Etienne Carjat ], pl. 7
Sir John Hawkshaw, F.R.S., Civil Engineer [1811-1891], pl. 8
Mr. William Black, novelist [1841-1898], pl. 9
The Most Noble The Marquis of Salisbury, Secretary of State for India [Lord Robert (Gascoyne-) Cecil, Viscount Cranborne; 1830-1903], pl. 10
The Late Sir William Ferguson, Bart., F.R.S., Serjeant-Surgeon to the Queen [1st Baronet; 1808-1877], pl. 11
Admiral Sir Richard Collinson, K.C.B., F.R.G.S., Deputy-Master of The Trinity House [1811-1883], pl. 12
The Right Hon. Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, Bart., M.P., Chancellor of the Exchequer [1818-1887], pl. 13
The Right Hon. Lyon Playfair, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. [1819-1898], pl. 14
Sir George Biddell Airy, K.C.B., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal [1801-1892], pl. 15
The Right Hon. Austen Henry Layard, D.C.L., Ambassador at Constantinople [1817-1894], pl. 16
Sir William Vernon Harcourt, Q.C., M.P., Professor of International Law at Cambridge [1827-1904], pl. 17
James Nasmyth, Engineer and Astronomer [1808-1890], pl. 18
Sir Joseph Bazalgette, C.B., Engineer to the Metropolitan Board of Works [1819-1891], pl. 19
The Hon. Sir William R. Grove, D.C.L., F.R.S., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1811-1896], pl. 20
Sir Henry Cole, K.C.B. [1808-1882], pl. 21
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. [1834-1913], pl. 22
James Sant, Esq., R.A., Principal Painter in ordinary to the Queen [1820-1916], pl. 23
M. Jules [Gabriel] Verne, French novelist [1828-1905; photo by Antoine Samuel Adam-Salomon], pl. 24
Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B., D.C.L., President of the Royal Geographical Society [1809-1897], pl. 25
The Right Rev. George Moberly, D.C.L., Lord Bishop of Salisbury [1803-1885], pl. 26
Thomas Woolner, Esq., R.A., Professor of Sculpture in the Royal Academy [1825-1892], pl. 27
Sir John Gilbert, R.A., President of the Society of Painters in Water-Colours [1817-1897], pl. 28
Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, the Homeric archaeologist [1822-1890], pl. 29
The Hon. Sir Henry Hawkins, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1st Baron Brompton; 1816 (correct: 1817)-1907], pl. 30
The Right Hon. Sir William Baliol Brett, Judge of the Court of Appeal [1st Viscount Esher; 1817-1899], pl. 31
The Rev. Robert Gregory, M.A., Canon residentiary of St. Paul’s [1819-1911], pl. 32
Captain Frederick Burnaby, of the Royal Horse Guards [1842-1885], pl. 33
The Right Rev. William Connor Magee, D.D., Bishop of Peterborough [1821-1891]. pl. 34
The Right Hon. George Joachim Goschen, M.P. for the City of London [1st Viscount Goschen; 1831-1907], pl. 35
M. Paul Gustave Doré [1832-1883], pl. 36
Third series (1878)
The Most Reverend William Thomson, D.D., Archbishop of York [1819-1890], pl. 1
Anthony Trollope, Esq. [1815-1882], pl. 2
Sir George Strong Nares, K.C.B. [1831-1915], pl. 3
The Right Hon. Lord John [James Robert] Manners, M.P., Postmaster-General [7th Duke of Rutland; 1818-1906], pl. 4
Richard Redgrave, Esq., R. A. [1804-1888], pl. 5
The Right Hon. Stephen Cave, M.P., Paymaster-General [1820-1880], pl. 6
The Right Hon. Lord Airey, G.C.B. [General Richard Airey, 1st Baron Airey; 1803-1881], pl. 7
The Right Hon. [William] Edward Forster, M.P. [1818-1886], pl. 8
Joseph Durham, Esq., A.R.A., sculptor [1813 (1814?)-1877] , pl. 9
The Right Hon. [1st] Viscount Cardwell [Edward Cardwell; 1813-1886], pl. 10
The Right Rev. Alfred Ollivant, D.D., Bishop of Llandaff [1798-1882], pl. 11
Edward Matthew Ward, Esq., Royal Academician [1816-1879], pl. 12
Frederick Goodall, Esq., R.A. [1822-1904], pl. 13
The Right Hon. Viscount Sandon, M.P., President of the Board of Trade [Dudley Francis Stuart Ryder, 3rd Earl of Harrowby; 1831-1900], pl. 14
John Scott Russell, Esq., F.R.S., Civil Engineer and Naval Architect [1808-1882], pl. 15
The Right Rev. James Fraser, D.D., Bishop of Manchester [1818-1885], pl. 16
The Right Hon. George [Limbrey] Sclater-Booth, M.P., President of the Local Government Board [1826-1894], pl. 17
Thomas Webster, Esq., R.A. [1800-1886], pl. 18
Vice-Admiral Sir Francis Leopold McClintock [Francis Leopold M'Clintock], Kt., F.R.S., D.C.L., LL.D., &c. [explorer who three times went in search of Franklin's expedition in the Arctic; 1819-1907], pl. 19
Goldwin Smith, LL.D., M.A. [1823-1910], pl. 20
Henry Tanworth Wells, Esq., R.A. [1828-1903], pl. 21
Richard Owen, Esq., C.B., M.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. [1804-1892], pl. 22
Frederick [Friedrich] Max Müller, M.A., LL.D., Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford [1823-1900], pl. 23
George Edmund Street, Esq., R.A., F.S.A., Architect [1824-1881], pl. 24
Lord Napier of Magdala, G.C.B., G.C.S.I. [Field Marshall Robert Cornelis Napier; 1810-1890] , pl. 25
William Calder Marshall; R.A., Sculptor [1813-1894], pl. 26
The Rev. Charles Old Goodford, D.D., Provost of Eton College [1812-1884], pl. 27
The Right Hon. Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, M.P., F.R.S. [1827-1896], pl. 28
Andrew Clark, M.D., Senior Physician to the London Hospital [1st Baronet; 1826-1893], pl. 29
John Stainer, M.A., Mus.Doc., Organist of St. Paul’s Cathedral [1840-1901], pl. 30
The Right Rev. James Atlay, D.D., Bishop of Hereford [1817-1894], pl. 31
Commander Verney Lovett Cameron, C.B., D.C.L., African Explorer [1844-1894] , pl. 32
Edward Armitage, R.A., Professor and Lecturer on Painting to the Royal Academy [1817-1896], pl. 33
The Right Hon. Robert Lowe [1st Viscount Sherbrooke], M.P. [1811-1892] , pl. 34
Sir William Withey Gull, Bart., M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. [1816-1890], pl. 35
Charles Robert Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S. [1809-1882], pl. 36
Fourth series (1880)
His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince of Germany [Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl von Hohenzollern; in 1888 Friedrich III, German Emperor; 1831-1888], frontispiece
The Right Hon. Richard Assheton Cross, M.P., Secretary of State for the Home Department [1st Viscount Cross; 1823-1914], pl. 1
The Right Rev. Edward White Benson, D.D., Lord Bishop of Truro [1829-1896], pl. 2
William Gifford Palgrave [F.R.G.S, RAS; 1826-1888], pl. 3
The Very Reverend Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., F.R.S., Dean of Westminster [1815-1881], pl. 4
The Hon. Sir John Mellor, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1809-1887], pl. 5
John Hall Gladstone, Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the Chemical Society [1827-1902], pl. 6
The Reverend Joseph Barber Lightfoot, D.D., Bishop Designate of Durham [1828-1889], pl. 7
Sir Samuel White Baker, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.S.A., F.R.G.S., African Explorer [1821-1893], pl. 8
Erskine Nicol, Esq., A.R.A. [1825-1904], pl. 9
James Russell Woodford, D.D., Bishop of Ely [1820-1885], pl. 10
The Right Hon. Sir Fitz-Roy [Fitzroy] Edward Kelly, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer [1796-1880], pl. 11
Edward Frankland, D.C.L., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry in the Royal School of Mines [1825-1899], pl. 12
Sir Charles Reed, LL.D., F.S.A., Chairman of the London School Board [1819-1881], pl. 13
Rev. Charles Haddon Spurgeon, Pastor of the Metropolitan Tabernacle [1834-1892], pl. 14
The Right Hon. Sir William Milbourne James, Lord Justice of the Court of Appeal [1807-1881], pl. 15
The Right Hon. and Right Rev. Lord Arthur Charles Hervey, D.D., Bishop of Bath and Wells [1808-1894], pl. 16
Edward John Poynter, Esq., Royal Academician [1836-1919], pl. 17
Kuo Sung-Tao [Kuo Tajen; Guo Songtao], First Chinese Envoy to Great Britain [1818-1891], pl. 18
The Right Hon. Lord Penzance, Judge of the Court of Arches [James Plaisted Wilde, 1st Baron Penzance; 1816-1899], pl. 19
Sir Francis Philip Cunliffe-Owen, K.C.M.G., C.B., Director of the South Kensington Museum [1828-1894], pl. 20
William Powell Frith, Esq., Royal Academician [1819-1909], pl. 21
Henry Morton Stanley, Esq., African Explorer [1840 (correct: 1841)-1904], pl. 22
The Right Hon. Lord Augustus Loftus, G.C.B., Governor of New South Wales [Augustus William Frederick Spencer; 1817-1904], pl. 23
Walter William Ouless, Esq. A.R.A., Portrait Painter [1848-1933], pl. 24
Thomas Henry Huxley, LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Natural History in the Royal School of Mines [1825-1895], pl. 25
The Hon. Sir Henry Manisty, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1808-1890], pl. 26
[Myles] Birket [Birkett] Foster, Member of the Water-Colour Society [1825-1899], pl. 27
The Right Hon. Alfred Henry Thesiger, Lord Justice of Appeal [1838-1880], pl. 28
William Bowman, F.R.S. [1st Baronet; 1816-1892], pl. 29
Thomas Faed, R.A. [1826-1900], pl. 30
The Hon. Sir Anthony Cleasby, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1804-1879], pl. 31
James Clark [Clarke] Hook, R.A. [1819-1907], pl. 32
The Right Hon. Sir Robert Porrett Collier [1st Baron Monkswell], Judge of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council [1817-1886], pl. 33
The Right Honourable The [4th] Earl of Carnarvon, [Henry Howard Molyneux Herbert], President of the Society of Antiquaries [1831-1890], pl. 34
Thomas Hughes, Q.C. [1823 (?1822)-1896], pl. 35
The Very Rev. Edward Meyrick Goulburn, D.D., Dean of Norwich [1818-1897], pl. 36
Fifth series (1881)
The Right Hon. The [1st] Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G., Prime Minister of England [Benjamin Disraeli; 1804-1881], pl. 1
Charles Rivers Wilson, Esq., C.B. [1831-1916], pl. 2
Major John Rouse Merriott Chard, R.E., V.C. [1847-1897], pl. 3
William Hepworth Dixon, Historian and traveller [1821-1879], pl. 4
The Right Hon. [1st] Earl Cairns, Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain [Hugh McCalmont Cairns; 1819-1885], pl. 5
The Right Hon. John Arthur Roebuck, M.P. [1801 (correct: 1802) -1879], pl. 6
His Grace The [7th] Duke of Marlborough, K.G., Lord Lieutnant of Ireland [John Winston Spencer-Churchill, 1822-1883], pl. 7
William Harrison Ainsworth [1805-1882], pl. 8
The Hon. Sir Henry Charles Lopes [1st Baron Ludlow], Judge of the High Court of Justice [1828-1899], pl. 9
The Hon. Sir Charles Edward Pollock, Senior Baron of the Exchequer Division, and a Judge of the High Court of Justice [1823-1897], pl. 10
Wikie Collins, Esq., Novelist and Dramatist [1824-1889], pl. 11
Sir Julius Benedict, Musical Composer [1804-1885], pl. 12
The Right Hon. Sir George Jessel, Master of the Rolls [1824-1883], pl. 13
Vicat Cole, A.R.A., Landscape Painter [1833-1893], pl. 14
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, K.C.S.I, C.B., M.D., F.R.S., etc., Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew [1817-1911], pl. 15
The Right Hon. Sir Robert Lush, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1807-1881], pl. 16
Robert Browning, M.A., LL.D., Poet and Dramatist [1812-1889], pl. 17
William Charles Thomas Dobson, Royal Aacdemician [1817-1898], pl. 18
William Dalrymple Maclagan, D.D., Bishop of Lichfield [1826-1910], pl. 19
The Rev. Henry Parry Liddon, D.D., D.C.L., Canon of St. Paul’s [1929-1890], pl. 20
Joseph Cowen, M.P. [1831 (1829?)-1900], pl. 21
Sir Charles Wentworth Dilke, Bart., M.P., Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affiars [2nd Baronet; 1843-1911], pl. 22
Tom Taylor, Dramatist and Critic [1817-1880], pl. 23
Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Royal Academician [1836-1912], pl. 24
The Right Hon. [1st] Viscount Cranbrook, G.C.S.I. [Earl of Cranbrook (1892), Gathorne Gathorne-Hardy; 1814-1906], pl. 25
The Hon. Sir Edward Fry, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1827-1918], pl. 26
Hormuzd Rassam, F.R.G.S. [1826-1910], pl. 27
The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., President of the Board of Trade [1836-1914], pl. 28
Sir Henry Bessemer, C.E., F.R.S. [1813-1898], pl. 29
George Alexander Macfarren, Mus.Doc. [1813-1887], pl. 30
The Right Hon. William Henry Smith, M.P. [1825-1891], pl. 31
The Right Hon. Sir Henry Cotton, Lord Justice of Appeal [1821-1892], pl 32
Alfred Elmore, Royal Academician [1815-1881], pl. 33
The Right Hon. The [15th] Earl of Derby [Edward Henry Stanley; 1826-1893], pl. 34
The Right Rev. Anthony Wilson Thorold, D.D., Bishop of Rochester [Winchester] [1825 (1826?)-1895], pl. 35
Sir Theodore Martin, K.C.B. [1816-1909], pl. 36
Sixth series (1882)
The Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone, M.P., Prime Minister [1809-1898], pl. 1
The Very Rev. Charles John Vaughan, D.D., Dean of Llandaff, and Master of the Temple [1816-1897], pl. 2
Sir Henry Thompson [entry incomplete; 1820-1904], pl. 3
Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, K.C.B., F.R.S., LL,D., and D.C.L. [1810-1895], pl. 4
Sir John Fowler, Esq., Past President of the Institution of Civil Engineers [1817-1898], pl. 5
William Quiller Orchardson, Esq., Royal Academician [1838 (correct: 1832)-1910], pl. 6
The Right Hon. Major-General Lord Chelmsford, G.C.B. [Frederic Augustus Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford; 1827-1905], pl. 7
John Pettie, Royal Academician [1839-1839], p. 8
The Right Rev. James Colquhoun Campbell, DD., Bishop of Bangor [1813-1895], pl. 9
The Right Hon. [2nd] Earl Granville, K.G., Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs [Granville George Leveson-Gower; 1815-1891], pl. 10
The Very Rev. Richard William Church, M.A., Dean of St. Paul’s [1815-1890], pl. 11
George Dunlop Leslie, Royal Academician [1835-1921], p. 12
Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart., M.P. for Carlisle [2nd Baronet of Brayton; 1829-1906], pl. 13
The Hon. Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, K.C.S.I., D.C.L., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1st Baronet Stephen; 1829-1894], pl. 14
Philip Hermogenes Calderon, Esq., Royal Academician [1833-1898], pl. 15
The Hon. George Denman, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1819-1896], pl. 16
General Sir Daniel Lysons, K.C.B. [1816-1898], pl. 17
Samuel Morley, M.P. [1809-1886], pl. 18
Sir William George Armstrong, F.R.S. [1st Baron Armstrong; 1810-1900], pl. 19
George Frederick Watts, Esq., Royal Academician [1817-1904], pl. 20
Sir George Job Elvey, Mus. Doc., Musical Composer [1816-1893], pl. 21
[6th] Duke of Richmond and [1st Duke of] Gordon, K.G. [Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox, Earl of March; 1818-1903], pl. 22
Thomas Hutchinson Tristram, Q.C., D.C.L., Judge of the Consistory Court of London [1825-1912], p. 23 [attn.: marked 24]
The Right Hon. Sir Richard Malins [Q.C., M.P., Vice-Chancellor; 1805-1882], p. 24
General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts, G.C.B., V.C. [1st Earl Roberts; 1832-1914], p. 25
Warren De la Rue, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S. [1815-1889], p. 26
Briton Riviere, Royal Academician [1840-1920], p. 27
Sir William Nathan Wright [Wrighte] Hewett, K.C.B., V.C., Rear-Admiral [1834-1888], pl. 28
The Very Rev. John Saul Howson, D.D., Dean of Chester [1816-1885], pl. 29
John Calcott Horsley, Royal Academician [1817-1903], pl. 30
Léon Gambetta, President of the French Chamber of Deputies [1838-1882], pl. 31
William Ballantine, Serjeant-at-Law [1812-1887], pl. 32
Marcus Stone, Associate of the Royal Academy [1840-1921], pl. 33
The Right Hon. Lord Abderdare [Henry Austin Bruce, 1st Baron Aberdare; 1815-1895], pl. 34
Hobart Pacha [Pasha], Marshal of the Ottoman Empire [Augustus Charles Hobart-Hampden; 1822-1886], pl. 35
Frederick Richard Pickersgill, Royal Academician [1820-1900], pl. 36
Seventh series (1883)
Admiral Sir A. [Astley] Cooper Key, K.C.B., F.R.S. , D.C. L. (Oxon.), First Sea Lord of the Admiralty [1821-1888], pl. 1
The Hon. Sir Lewis William Cave, Judge of the High Court of Judicature [1832-1897], pl. 2
Richard Norman Shaw, R.A., Architect [1831-1912], pl. 3
The Right Hon. Lord Carlingford, Lord Privy Seal [Chichester Samuel Parkinson-Fortescue, 2nd Baron Clermont and 1st Baron Carlingford; 1823-1898], pl. 4
William Benjamin Carpenter, C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S. [1813-1885], pl. 5
The Very Reverend Edward Hayes Plumptre, D.D., Dean of Wells [1821-1891], pl. 6
The Honourable Sir James Charles Mathew, LL.D., Judge of the High Court of Justice [1830-?], pl. 7
The Right Hon. George Osborne Morgan, Q.C., M.P., Judge Advocate-General [1st Baronet; 1826-1897], pl. 8
Lumb Stocks, R.A. [1812-1892], pl. 9
Major General Sir Henry Evelyn Wood, V.C., K.C.B. [1838-1919], pl. 10
Henry Baker Tristram, M.A., F.R.S., LL.D., Canon of Durham [1822-1906], pl. 11
Sir Michael [Andrew Angus] Costa, Musical Composer [Michele Andrea Agnello Costa; 1810 (correct: 1808)-1884], pl. 12
Sir John Edmund Commerell, K.C.B., V.C., Vice Admiral [1829-1901], pl. 13
William Frederick Yeames, Royal Academician [1835-1918], pl. 14
Admiral Sir Sydney Colpoys Dacres, Governor of Greenwich Hospital [G.C.B.; 1804 (1805?)-1884], pl. 15
His Grace The [8th] Duke of Argyll, K.T. [George John Douglas Campbell, Marquess of Lorne; 1823-1900], pl. 16
Alfred Tennyson, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., poet laureate [1809-1892; Photograph by John Jabez Edwin Mayall], pl. 17
The Very Rev. George Granville Bradley, D.D., Dean of Westminster [1821-1903], pl. 18
Henry Irving, Actor [1838-1905], pl. 19
Benjamin Ward Richardson, M.D., LL:D., F.R.S., F.S.A. [1828-1896], pl. 20
The Right Rev. John Charles Ryle, D.D., Bishop of Liverpool [1810 (correct: 1816?)-1900], pl. 21
The Rev. Alfred Barry, D.D., D.C.L., Principal of King’s College, London [1826-1910], pl. 22
The Hon. Sir Edward Ebenezer Kay, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1822-1897], pl. 23
Richard Ansdell, Royal Academician [1815-1885], pl. 24
Lord Charles William Delapoer [de la Poer] Beresford, Captain, R.N. [1846-1919], pl. 25
Henry Hugh Armstead, Royal Academician [1828-1905], pl. 26
Captain Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan Pim, R.N. [1826-1886], pl. 27
Hon. Sir Joseph William Chitty, Judge of the High Court of Justice [1828-1899], pl. 28
Joseph Edgar Boehm, R.A. [1834-1890], pl. 29
Frank Dicksee, A.R.A. [1853-1928], pl. 30
Frank Holl, Associate of the Royal Academy. [1845-1888], pl. 31
Charles Thomas Newton, C.B., D.C.L., Professor of Archaeology at University College, London [1816-1894], pl. 32
John MacWhirter, A.R.A., H.R.S.A. [1839-1911], pl. 33
Dr. Charles William [Carl Wilhelm] Siemens, D.C.L., F.R.S. [industrialist; 1823-1883], pl. 34
The Right Rev. Alfred Blomfield, D.D., Bishop of Colchester [1833-1894], pl. 35
Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., Professor of Music in the University of Oxford [1825-1889], pl. 36
The British Journal of Photography, Vol.XXIII, No.865, December 1, 1876, p.571-572.
Men Of Mark. By George C. Whitfield.
London: Samson Low And Co.
We now redeem the promise made in the course of our notices of the pictures at the recent Exhibition, and devote a short space to giving a more detailed account of Men of Mark than was possible at that time. Those who desire to see what the Woodbury process is capable of producing when worked at its best can certainly have their wish gratified by a perusal of this work. It will be remembered that the Woodbury Company exhibited a series of portraits of men who had achieved eminence in various walks of life in politics, theology, and soforth; and it will also be remembered by those who saw these portraits that the brilliancy, depth, purity, and perfection of half-tone were such as to have induced several spectators to observe that it was impossible that works so charming could have been produced by a mechanical printing process; yet such is the case.
Men of Mark form a gallery of contemporary portraits of men "distinguished in the senate, the church, in science, literature and art, the army, navy, law, medicine, &c." In the present work the first of a consecutive series of volumes there are thirty-six portraits of men coming under the above voluminous category, each portrait accompanied by a page of descriptive text, by Thompson Cooper, F.S.A. It is, however, in the photographs we are more particularly interested. They have all been photographed from life by Messrs. Lock and Mr. G. C. Whitfield, under whose superintendence this volume has been produced, deserves great credit for the felicitous manner in which he has managed to associate in one "happy family" the distinctive characters of which it is composed; for, as no special attempt at classification seems to have been intended, so there are no invidious distinctions observable in regard to priority of place. Churchmen and catholics, liberals and conservatives, and people holding the most diverse phases of opinion all are mixed together very harmoniously.
This volume, so replete with gems of portraiture, should find a place on the reception-room table of every photographer, as well as take a distinguished position among the pictorial treasures usually found on the table of the private drawing-room.
The British Journal of Photography, Vol.XXIV, No.919, December 14, 1877, p.594-595.
Men of Mark. (Second series).
London ; Sampson Low And Co.
If we were asked to indicate any special collection of portraits we should recommend to photographers as containing the most perfect studies of light and shade and breadth combined with sharpness, we should unhesitatingly name Men of Mark as that which fulfilled best these conditions. This work was commenced last year under the superintending care of Mr. George C. Whitfield, a member of the firm of Lock and Whitfield, and the first series having been concluded at the close of 1876 a second series was commenced, and is now completed under the same management. The present series of Men of Mark contains thirty-six portraits of "men distinguished in the senate, the church, in science, literature, and art, the army, navy, law and medicine." With two exceptions all these portraits have been taken by Messrs. Lock and Whitfield, these exceptions being Jules Verne (by M. Adam-Salomon) and Victor Hugo (by M. Carjat). The introduction of such portraits affords an opportunity of comparing the works of distinguished foreign artists with those of equal distinction in this oountry, with a result which must be gratifying to those good patriots who cannot discover anything abroad which surpasses "our own glorious constitution and institutions." Among the thirty-six portraits here presented there are indeed many "men of mark." Opening with Mr. Frederick Leighton, R.A, whose portrait is in profile, we soon come upon the open, honest face of Professor Tyndall, by which we are reminded that "once upon a time" it was our good fortune to receive a volume of portraits of men who were famous in the world of science, that of Professor Tyndall forming one of the number. These portraits of a former period are now "faded and withered;" most of them, in fact, seem to have been bleached out of the paper upon which they were printed. With the "men of mark" in the volume now under review no such fading can possibly take place, these portraits being printed by the Woodbury process, which is a guarantee not only for the faithful rendering of a negative but of absolute permanence. The portraits respectively of Mr. William Black, the Right Hon. Sir Stafford Northcote, Sir George Biddell Airy, the Hon. Sir William R, Grove, and Sir John Lubbock are exceedingly striking for their lifelike fidelity. Captain Burnaby, of Asiatic celebrity, Mr. Gustave Dore, Sir John Gilbert, the Right Hon. Lyon Playfair, Mr. James Nasmyth, and others of equal celebrity, are all here assembled, forming, out of elements of a diversified character, one harmonious whole. It need scarcely be said that a page of descriptive and biographical text accompanies each portrait, written by Mr. Thompson Cooper, F.S. A. The characteristics of these portraits are singular clearness, perfection of detail, skilful posing, and light and shade rendered in the most unexceptionable manner. We commend Men of Mark as a study to photographers.
[Hans Christian Adam]
217.11 Portrait > Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique
Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique (1876-1884) was a periodical printed by the French printer Goupil et Cie and included woodburytypes of notable figures in French society.
Biographies of those included were accompanied by portraits taken by some of the finest French photographers of the period:
217.12 Portrait > Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
Numerous portraits by Parisian photographer Nadar were included in the Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique
217.13 Portrait > Herbert Rose Barraud: Portraits
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
Herbert Rose Barraud (1845-1896) was a prominent late 19th century London portrait photographer with studios at various locations including 96 Gloucester Place, Portman Square (1883); 263 Oxford Street (1883-91); 73 Piccadilly (1893-96) and 126 Piccadilly (1897). Some of his photographs were published in his two volume Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture (1888-1889). The first volume included such luminaries as Robert Browning, Joseph Chamberlain, Lord Alfred Tennyson, Ellen Tracy, Henry Irving and John Sims Reeves.
Note: Sometimes the prints in Men and Women of the Day are listed as woodburytypes but other sources list them as carbon prints.
217.14 Portrait > Alvin Langdon Coburn: Men of Mark (1913)
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
Alvin Langdon Coburn's book Men of Mark (1913) followed the idea of Thomas Coopers' Men of Mark (1876-1883) by showing a collection of portraits of those deemed to be notable. included 33 photogravure portraits that he printed himself in a book that was limited to 300 copies.
The portraits were:
217.15 Portrait > Alvin Langdon Coburn: More Men of Mark (1922)
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
In 1922 a further book of the portraits of Alvin Langdon Coburn following on from his Men of Mark (1913). With the imagination of a Hollywood blockbuster it was entitled More Men of Mark and this time it included collotypes rather than the higher quality photogravure portraits of the earlier volume.
The portraits included:
Photographs of the stars
217.16 Portrait > Benjamin Strauss and Homer Peyton: Celebrity portraits
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
The most regarded partnership in American photographic history is that of Southworth and Hawes, two Boston daguerreotypists. Working as a team, they brought together artistic and technical aspects of photography. Their photographs have long been deemed in a class by themselves. But partnerships like theirs have been mostly short lived or non-existent in the 150 years since the beginnings of photography.
In this online exhibit, the public has been given an opportunity to view the work of two great 20th century photographic artists, Benjamin Strauss and Homer Peyton. They, like Southworth and Hawes, worked as partners, and they also specialized in the portrait. The partners did for Kansas City in the early part of the 20th century what Southworth and Hawes had done for Boston fifty years earlier.
Benjamin Strauss trained with his brother, the artist-photographer, Julius Caesar Strauss at his atelier in St. Louis in the 1890s. After years of apprenticeship, working in his brother’s shadow, Strauss moved on to Kansas City where he bought a portrait studio.
Around 1907, he met another artist and fellow bachelor, Homer Peyton. Soon they became partners, sharing their lives and their art. Together they produced some of the most exciting and intriguing portraits of the day. For several years they also ran a studio in New York City.
Strauss and Peyton associated with celebrities who played the Orpheum Circuit coming through Kansas City year after year. The partners ran two studios, one in town for the local blue bloods, and another studio after 1914 in the lobby at the Hotel Muehlebach, for famous out-of-towners. This allowed the two photographers to mingle with and photograph such legends as Al Jolson, Fanny Brice, Caruso, and Evelyn Nesbit.
The celebrities loved the artistic and flattering results of the portraits. The sitting cards still exist, located in the Jackson County Historical Society, and they verify that artists as famous as Pickford or Jolson would order publicity and personal portraits from Strauss-Peyton for up to four or five hundred dollars at a time.
Homer Peyton often added flamboyant touches to the large portraits. He would draw on the finished print with crayon or pencil, and he would manipulate the negative to create unusual backgrounds. He succeeded in producing dramatic chiaroscuro effects that were popular during that time in the movies and on stage but effects that rarely had been seen in photographs until now. Making copies or studio prints for themselves, Strauss-Peyton had them inscribed by the sitters who were more than willing to praise the talents of the two photographers.
Strauss-Peyton worked together from 1908 to 1927. After the end their partnership, Strauss moved back to Cleveland, where he opened another photo studio. Soon after, Peyton sold the studio in Kansas City to his employees and headed out west
For decades the collection of Strauss-Peyton lay undiscovered. First it sat in the drawers of their studio; then in the home of one of the employees; then it passed on to a son of an employee. Finally, at the beginning of the 21st century, the portraits surfaced again.
This significant discovery of the collaborative work between Strauss and Peyton allows the public an opportunity to see the genius of two master photographers and artists working and creating in their prime during a fascinating and early time of American theatre and movie history.
217.17 Portrait > Celebrity portrait photographers
In the earliest days of photography one of the key marketing tools of a photographer was to have a series of celebrity portraits that they had completed. When the carte de visite was patented in 1854 by André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri photographers competed with each other to take the notable personalities of the age, royalty, politicians and actors were all highly sought after. Sets of photographs of the celebrities of the age were widely produced and sold. Some photographers, who saw themselves as amateurs, had the contacts to seek out the famous amongst their friends and preserve them for a chemical posterity. When Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) photographed the leading men of Victorian British society - Lord Tennyson, Thomas Carlyle, Sir John Frederick William Herschel and William Holman Hunt it was for this reason.
There have been many famous photographers who have made celebrity portraiture their speciality:
217.18 Portrait > Celebrity photographers who became celebrities
One intriguing facet of photographing celebrities is that the photographers themselves can become celebrities by association. Within decades there are photographers who become celebrities in specific geographical regions on this basis.
- Λ Saturday, October 19, 1850, "Jenny Lind in New York", The Musical World, vol. 25, no. 42, p. 671
- Λ Wladimiro Settimelli, 1982, Garibaldi: L'Album Fotografico, (Alinari)
- Λ Lucy Riall, 2007, Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero, (Yale University Press). Yale University Press book description:
Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian revolutionary leader and popular hero, was among the best-known figures of the nineteenth century. This book seeks to examine his life and the making of his cult, to assess its impact, and understand its surprising success.
For thirty years Garibaldi was involved in every combative event in Italy. His greatest moment came in 1860, when he defended a revolution in Sicily and provoked the collapse of the Bourbon monarchy, the overthrow of papal power in central Italy, and the creation of the Italian nation state. It made him a global icon, representing strength, bravery, manliness, saintliness, and a spirit of adventure. Handsome, flamboyant, and sexually attractive, he was worshiped in life and became a cult figure after his death in 1882.
Lucy Riall shows that the emerging cult of Garibaldi was initially conceived by revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the status quo, that it was also the result of a collaborative effort involving writers, artists, actors, and publishers, and that it became genuinely and enduringly popular among a broad public. The book demonstrates that Garibaldi played an integral part in fashioning and promoting himself as a new kind of “charismatic” political hero. It analyzes the way the Garibaldi myth has been harnessed both to legitimize and to challenge national political structures. And it identifies elements of Garibaldi’s political style appropriated by political leaders around the world, including Mussolini and Che Guevara.
- Λ The Photographic News, June 29, 1866, pp. 311-312.
- Λ Lovell Reeve (ed.), 1863, Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science and Art, with Biographical Memoirs. The Photographs from Life by Ernest Edwards, B.A., (London: Lovell Reeve & Co.) Six volumes published. Vols. 1-2 edited by Lovell Reeve, vols. 3-6 by Edward Walford.
- Λ Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique was issued between 1876 and 1884 - year 1 (1st/2nd half, 1876), year 2 (1st/2nd half, 1876/1877), year 3 (1st/2nd half, 1878), year 4 (1st/2nd half, 1879), year 5 (1st half, 1880) with a New Series, year 5-8 (1881-1884).
- Λ For Nadar - Jean Prinet & Antoinette Dilasser, 1966, Nadar, (Paris: Armand Colin); Nigel Gosling, 1976, Nadar, (Alfred A. Knopf); Nadar, 1979, Nadar, (Milan: Electa Editrice); Maria Morris Hambourg; Francoise Heilburn & Philippe Neagu, 1995, Nadar, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art)
- Λ You should check the date of his last studio at 126 Piccadilly which is down as 1897 but he died in 1896.
- Λ Herbert Rose Barraud, 1888, Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture, (London: Richard Bentley & Son). A further volume was published in 1889. Each volume contained 36 carbon prints.
- Λ Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture - Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas at Austin
(Accessed: 27 January 2014)
- Λ Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1913, Men of Mark, (London: Duckworth & Co.)
- Λ Thompson Cooper, Men of Mark, a Gallery of Contemporary Portraits of Men Distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in Science, Literature and Art, the Army, Navy, Law, Medicine, etc. [Woodburytyped] from Life by Lock and Whitfield, (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1876-1883).
- Λ Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1913, Men of Mark, (London: Duckworth & Co.)
- Λ Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1922, More Men of Mark, (London: Duckworth & Co.)
- Λ Charles LeRoy Moore, 1975, Two Partners in Boston: The Careers and Daguerreian Artistry of Albert Southworth and Josiah Hawes, (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms); Grant B. Romer & Brian Wallis (eds.), 2005, Young America: The Daguerreotypes of Southworth & Hawes, (New York: International Center of Photography; Rochester, NY: George Eastman House; Göttingen, Germany: Steidl); Robert Sobieszek & Odette M. Appel, 1976, The Spirit of Fact: The Daguerreotypes of Southworth and Hawes, 1843–1862, (Boston: David R. Godine)
- Λ Stephen White (ed.) & Gail Buckland, 2006, Strauss-Peyton: Celebrity and Glamour, (Stephen White Editions)
- Λ Text courtesy of Stephen White.
Cooper, Thompson, 1876-1883, Men of Mark, (London: S. Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington) [Δ]
Lyden, Anne M., 2014, A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 1606061550 isbn-13: 978-1606061558 [Δ]
Reeve, Lovell (ed.), 1863, Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science and Art, with Biographical Memoirs. The Photographs from Life by Ernest Edwards, B.A., (London: Lovell Reeve & Co.) [Six volumes published. Vols. 1-2 edited by Lovell Reeve, vols. 3-6 by Edward Walford] [Δ]
Readings on, or by, individual photographers
Avedon, Richard, 1976, Portraits, (Farrar Straus & Giroux) [Also published by Noonday Press (1976)] [Δ]
Avedon, Richard, 2005, Women in the Mirror: 1945-2004, (Harry N. Abrams, Inc) [Δ]
Avedon, Richard & Capote, Truman (essay), 1959, Observations, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ]
Avedon, Richard; Hambourg, Maria Morris & Fineman, Mia, 2002, Richard Avedon Portraits, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art; New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Foreword by Philippe de Montebello] [Δ]
Herbert Rose Barraud
Barraud, Herbert Rose, 1888-1889, Men and Women of the Day: A Picture Gallery of Contemporary Portraiture, (London: Richard Bentley & Son) [Two volumes containing photographs by Herbert Rose Barraud] [Δ]
Julia Margaret Cameron
Cameron, Julia Margaret, 1926, Victorian Photographs of Famous Men and Fair Women, (New York: Harcourt, Brace) [Δ]
Alvin Langdon Coburn
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1913, Men of Mark, (London: Duckworth & Co.) [Includes 33 photogravures printed by Alvin Langdon Coburn. Limited edition of 300 copies] [Δ]
Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 1922, More Men of Mark, (London: Duckworth & Co.) [Includes collotypes by Alvin Langdon Coburn] [Δ]
Karsh, Yousuf, 1996, A Sixty-Year Retrospective, (Boston: Little, Brown) [Δ]
Leibovitz, Annie, 1984, Annie Leibovitz: Photographs, (New York: Pantheon/Rolling Stone) [Introduction by T. Wolfe] [Δ]
Leibovitz, Annie, 1999, Women, (New York: Random House) [Introduction by S. Sontag] [Δ]
Leibovitz, Annie, 2006, A Photographer's Life: 1990-2005, (Random House) isbn-10: 0375505091 isbn-13: 978-0375505096 [Δ]
Leibovitz, Annie, 2008, Annie Leibovitz at Work, (Random House) isbn-10: 0375505105 isbn-13: 978-0375505102 [Δ]
Leibovitz, Annie & Sischy, I., 1992, Photographs, Annie Leibovitz, (New York: Harper Collins) [Δ]
Newman, Arnold, 1979, The Great British, (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson) [Δ]
Newman, Arnold, 1986, Arnold Newman: Five Decades, (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) [Δ]
Hunter-Salomon, Peter, 1967, Erich Salomon: Portrait of an Age, (New York: Macmillan) [Δ]
White, Stephen (ed.) & Buckland, Gail, 2006, Strauss-Peyton: Celebrity and Glamour, (Stephen White Editions) isbn-10: 097688044X isbn-13: 978-0976880448 [Δ]
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - firstname.lastname@example.org
Richard Avedon (1923-2004) • David Bailey (1938-) • Jason Bell • William Claxton (1927-2008) • D'Ora (1881-1963) • Andy Gotts • Jocelyn Bain Hogg • Lotte Jacobi (1896-1990) • Yousuf Karsh (1908-2002) • Annie Leibovitz (1949-) • Nadar (check) • Arnold Newman (1918-2006) • Pyotr Otsup (1883-1963) • Irving Penn (1917-2009) • Francesco Scavullo (1921-2004) • Martin Schoeller (1968-) • Athol Shmith (1914-1990) • Lord Snowdon (1930-) • Strauss-Peyton
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