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HomeContentsThemes > African Americans

Contents

Introduction
205.01   Introduction to photography by and of African Americans
Slavery
205.02   Slavery in America
205.03   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves
205.04   The scourged back
205.05   Southworth and Hawes: The Branded Hand of Captain Jonathan Walker
205.06   Abolitionists
205.07   Roles and representation of African Americans in nineteenth century photography
205.08   Emancipated slaves in the USA
Photo postcards
205.09   Real photo postcards: African Americans
Photographers
205.10   Francis Benjamin Johnston: Hampton Album (1899-1900)
205.11   James Van der Zee: Harlem
205.12   Julian Dimock: African-Americans in South Carolina (1904-1905)
205.13   Doris Ulmann: Roll Jordan Roll (1933)
Race hatred and prejudice
205.14   The Klu Klux Klan and race hated in America
205.15   A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America
Civil rights
205.16   Martin Luther King Jr.
205.17   Ernest Withers: The struggle for civil rights in the USA
Robert Mapplethorpe and the black body
205.18   Robert Mapplethorpe: Black bodies
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
205.01   Documentary >  Introduction to photography by and of African Americans 
  
This theme will address both photography by African Americans and photography of African Americans. [1] There are multiple ways of addressing this subject - African American photographers who were active from the earliest days of the Daguerreotype in America until today[2], how photography was used to portray slavery and the abolitionist movements, the struggle for civil rights, how the community is seen from within and without. There are subjects that are perhaps not as well researched as they deserve to be - snapshots, family photograph albums, African American subjects in scientific resarch. The bigger issue is how this material becomes integrated right through the history of photography to ensure balanced perspdctives. This is not a uniquely African American experience and similar issues affect other groups within society.
 
The following quotes from Frederick Douglas should make us pause before commencing any study of African American photography:
Negroes can never have impartial portraits at the hands of white artists": "[It is] next to impossible for white men to take likenesses of black men, without most grossly exaggerating their distinctive features. And the reaon is obvious. Artists, like all other white persons, have adopted a theory dissecting the distinctive features of Negro physiognomy.[3]
Negroes can never have impartial portraits at the hands of white artists. If the very best type of European is always presented, I insist that justice, in all such works, demands that the very best type of Negro should be taken. The importance of this criticism may not be apparent to all; to the black man it is very apparent.
 
  
Slavery 
  
205.02   Documentary >  Slavery in America 
  
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205.03   Documentary >  J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Joseph T. Zealy was a daguerreotypist and photographer in South Carolina who took a number of daguerreotypes of slaves for Dr. Robert Wilson Gibbes who was having them taken for Louis Agassiz.[4][5] 
  
205.04   Documentary >  The scourged back 
  
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An albumen print taken in March or April 1963 shows Gordon, a runaway African American slave, with his back scourged by whip marks. There are few photographs that show the reality of slave live in the American South and the horrors are increasing shown in film.[6]
 
Gordon ran away a Mississippi plantation to a Union camp in Baton Rouge about 80 miles away during the American Civil War. He enlisted into the Union Army and his medical exam showed his appallingly scared back. The whipping to his back had taken place in the fall of 1862 for undisclosed reasons was so extreme that it was photographed. The photograph is generally known by two titles The Scourged Back and Gordon, A Runaway Mississippi Slave and the photograph is attributed to William D. McPherson & Oliver who were itinerant photographers operating out of New Orleans and Baton Rouge in Louisiana who were in the camp at the time. Samuel K. Towle, a surgeon with the 30th Regiment of the Massachusetts Volunteers, sent a copy to the Surgeon-General of the State of Massachusetts with the accompanying text:
Few sensation writers ever depicted worse punishments than this man must have received, though nothing in his appearance indicates any unusual viciousness—but on the contrary, he seems INTELLIGENT AND WELL-BEHAVED.[7]
The photograph had propaganda significance to the Abolitionist movement in America as it was undeniable evidence of inhuman cruelty. On the 4th July 1863, which was the day Vicksburg fell, a wood engraving was published in the widely distributed magazine Harper's Weekly[8]. It was also printed as part of the title page of Fanny Kemble's book The Views of Judge Woodward and Bishop Hopkins on Negro Slavery at the South.[9] The power of the photograph was appreciated at the time as one source said:
This Card Photograph should be multiplied by 100,000, and scattered over the States. It tells the story in a way that even Mrs. [Harriet Beecher] Stowe [author of the 1852 book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin] can not approach, because it tells the story to the eye.[10]
Photographers, including Mathew Brady, in the North copied the photograph and included it on their own carte de visite mounts. Little is known about Gordon's subsequent life but this photograph and the way it was used was evidence of the injustice, and barbarity, that was a part of slavery. 
  
205.05   Documentary >  Southworth and Hawes: The Branded Hand of Captain Jonathan Walker 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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On 14 November 1844 shipwright, sea captain and abolitionist Captain Jonathan Walker (1799-1878) was arrested at Key West in Florida and branded on the hand at Pensacola for assisting slaves escape from the American South[11]:
After the expiration of the hour, I was taken back of the court-house, and water given me to wash with, and then conducted into court again, to receive the remainder of my sentence. When about to be branded, I was placed in the prisoner's box. The marshal, Ebenezer Dorr, formerly of Maine, proceeded to tie my hand to a part of the railing in front. I remarked that there was no need of tying it, for I would hold still. He observed that it was best to make sure, and tied it firmly to the post, in fair view; he then took from the fire the branding-iron, of a slight red heat, and applied it to the ball of my hand, and pressed it on firmly, for fifteen or twenty seconds. It made a spattering noise, like a handful of salt in the fire, as the skin seared and gave way to the hot iron. The pain was severe while the iron was on, and for some time afterwards. There appeared to be but few that wished to witness the scene; but my friend, George Willis, placed himself where he could have a fair view, and feasted his eyes upon it, apparently with great delight.[12]
In Boston Southworth & Hawes took a daguerreotype of the branded hand of Captain Walker in 1845 and it was reproduced on the cover and title page for the book Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker, At Pensacola, Florida, for Aiding Slaves To Escape From Bondage.[13] 
  
205.06   Documentary >  Abolitionists 
  
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Abolitionists in America were committed to the unconditional, immediate and total abolition from slavery.[14] Laws provented the importation of slaves into United states came into force in 1808[15] but progress on freeing the vast numbers already enslaved was a slow process. Photography was used by the Abolitionists in a number of ways:
To raise awareness and show support  
  
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A button showing a white and black hands in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is a rare case of a surviving photographic object with an abolitionist message. [16]
 
To highlight the conditions and abuses of slaves  
  
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The scourged back is one of the best known examples of a photograph highlighting the physical abuse of slaves in the American South.[17]
 
To raise funds to support abolitionist causes  
  
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Sojourner Truth[18] sold carte de visite portraits of herself to support her abolitionist work. At a convention in New York she said she:
...used to be sold for other people's benefit but now she sold herself for her own.[19]
 
  
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Photographs were taken by Charles Paxton and Myron H. Kimball of emancipated slaves to raise awareness and funds. In one photograph Fannie Virginia Cassiopeia Lawrence is shown with a drum. No doubt to associate the movement with patriotic fervour for the Union during the American Civil War. In another entitled Our Protection - Rosa, Charley, Rebecca. Slave Children from New Orleans the three, very white-looking children,[20] are shown draped in an American flag.
 
To highlight abuses of abolitionists  
  
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A further notorious case was the branding on the hand of Captain Jonathan Walker for assisting slaves escape from servitude in the American South. [21]
Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) was the classic novel of anti-slavery and one of the best selling books of the nineteenth century. 
  
205.07   Documentary >  Roles and representation of African Americans in nineteenth century photography 
  
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PLEASE NOTE: This requires analysis and I would welcome collaboration. Alan Griffiths (1 September 2012) 
  
205.08   Documentary >  Emancipated slaves in the USA 
  
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The reverse of one of the carte de visites of Charles Paxson says:
The nett[sic] proceeds from the sale of these Photographs will be devoted to the education of Colored People in the department of the Gulf, now under the command of Major General Banks.
 
  
Photo postcards 
  
205.09   Documentary >  Real photo postcards: African Americans 
  
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   Portrait Postcards African American 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Photographers 
  
205.10   Documentary >  Francis Benjamin Johnston: Hampton Album (1899-1900) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1899 Francis Benjamin Johnston was commissioned by Hollis Burke Frissell to photograph the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute in Hampton, Virginia.[22] This school of African Americans and Native Americans students had been founded in 1868 following the American Civil War (1861-1865) to provide education to freedmen. This series of photographs captures the everyday life of the school and was shown at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1900. 
  
205.11   Documentary >  James Van der Zee: Harlem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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205.12   Documentary >  Julian Dimock: African-Americans in South Carolina (1904-1905) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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205.13   Documentary >  Doris Ulmann: Roll Jordan Roll (1933) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Between 1901 and 1903 Doris Ulmann did teaching training with Lewis Hine and she later took photography classes with Clarence H. White who was a significant figure in the teaching of Pictorialism but who also appreciated the trend towards Modernism. Doris Ulmann, who came from an affluent white New York family, broke the colour barrier at a time when to do so was highly unusual. She took portraits of African Americans living in rural poverty in South Carolina.[23] Her subjects....
"included former slaves and their descendents on the Gullah coastal region of South Carolina." [24]
The photographs were published in Roll Jordan Roll[25] (1933) along with text by Julia Peterkin The photographs were hand-pulled copper photogravures that have the soft tones beloved by Pictorialists. The risk here is that the softness of photogravure has a tendency towards nostalgia for a rural past and this is at variance with a project that was documentary in nature and required detachment. 
  
Race hatred and prejudice 
  
205.14   Documentary >  The Klu Klux Klan and race hated in America 
  
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205.15   Documentary >  A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America 
  
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Lynching was a means of exacting vengeance by a mob outside of the judicial system. Although it is commonly held to be an American activity predominantly linked to race hatred in a prejudice in the South that is far from the case.[26] The unsavoury nature of the events means that surviving photographs are normally snapshots or taken by local photographers and occasionally marketed as real photo postcards
  
Civil rights 
  
205.16   Documentary >  Martin Luther King Jr. 
  
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205.17   Documentary >  Ernest Withers: The struggle for civil rights in the USA 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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   Ernest  Withers 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
Robert Mapplethorpe and the black body 
  
205.18   Documentary >  Robert Mapplethorpe: Black bodies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The photographs of Robert Mapplethorpe in Polaroids, exquisite flowers, studies of people such as his friends singer Patti Smith and bodybuilder Lisa Lyons, and more challenging issues of eroticism, sadism and homoeroticism. Within American society the African American the history of portraiture has been largely, but far from completely, based on the legacy of slavery with photographs like The Scourged Back from the 1860s or the struggles for civil rights. This is a gross simplification but the stereotypes continue.
 
With Robert Mapplethorpe his community included black men and women and he photographed them nude and in homoerotic poses. For viewers his images of sexually active blacks was challenging in the extreme and his Black Males (1980), Portfolio Z (1981) and his Black book (1988) raised issues that most people did not want to address. Robert Mapplethorpe died of AIDS in 1989 and the following year an exhibition of his work was mounted in Cincinnati with obscenity charges. Whilst nudes have been an accepted part of art since Classical times nude photographs of sexually active African Americans were taboo. Explicit photographs can be challenging but we need to question if the controversy would have been the same if a different group was depicted. 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ To complete this requires expertise from specialist in the history of African American photography and I welcome collaborations to ensure that this subject is covered with academic rigour. Please contact me directly if you would like to participate - alan@luminous-lint.com. 
      
  2. Λ The extensive research and writings of Deborah Willis provide a solid foundation for any study of African American photographers. Some of her key writings are listed here in date order - Deborah Willis-Thomas, 1985, An Illustrated Bio-Bibliography of Black Photographers, 1940–1988, (New York: Garland); Deborah Willis (ed.), 1994, Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography, (New York: The New Press); Deborah Willis, 2000, Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present, (New York - London: W.W. Norton & Company); Deborah Willis (ed.), 2007, Let Your Motto Be Resistance: African American Portraits, (Smithsonian Institution Press); Deborah Willis, 2009, Posing Beauty: African American Images from the 1890s to the Present, (W. W. Norton & Company) 
      
  3. Λ Frederick Douglas, 7 April 1849, "A Tribute to the Negro", The North Star.Quoted in - Deborah Willis, 1994, Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography, (New York: The New Press), p. 17 
      
  4. Λ For a biography on Louis Agassiz - Christoph Irmscher, 2013, Louis Agassiz: Creator of American Science, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)
     
    For the daguerreotypes of slaves that were taken for him - Elinor Reichlin, 1977, Summer, ‘Faces of Slavery‘, American Heritage, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4-11; Brian Wallis, 1995, Summer, ‘Black Bodies, White Science: Louis Agassiz's Slave Daguerreotypes‘, American Art, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 38-61  
      
  5. Λ A number of the Joseph T. Zealy daguerreotypes of Renty, Drana and Delia are in the collections at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 
      
  6. Λ Films on the African American slave experience include - Django Unchained (2012), Twelve Years a Slave (2013).
     
    List of films featuring slavery - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 24 January 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_films_featuring_slavery 
      
  7. Λ Quoted in Frank H. Goodyear, III, "Photography changes the way we record and respond to social issues"
    (Accessed: 24 January 2014)
    click.si.edu/Story.aspx?story=297 
      
  8. Λ The photograph of the "Scourged back" was published as a wood engraving in - 4 July 1863, Harper's Weekly, p. 429, bottom.
     
    Library of Congress, "Gordon as he entered our lines. Gordon under medical inspection. Gordon in his uniform as a U.S. soldier", Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-98515 (b&w film copy neg.), Call Number: Illus. in AP2.H32 Case Y [P&P] 
      
  9. Λ The engraving was also used on the title page of Frances Kemble, 1863, The Views of Judge Woodward and Bishop Hopkins on Negro Slavery at the South, Illustrated from the Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation by Mrs Frances Anne Kemble, [Philadelphia? : s.n.]
     
    A film has been made Enslavement: The True Story of Fanny Kemble (2000) on the abolitionist work of Fanny Kemble. 
      
  10. Λ An unidentified writer for the New York Independent - quoted in Frank H. Goodyear, III, "Photography changes the way we record and respond to social issues"
    (Accessed: 24 January 2014)
    click.si.edu/Story.aspx?story=297 
      
  11. Λ Jonathan Walker - National Parks Service
    (Accessed: 6 August 2013)
    www.nps.gov/resources/person.htm?id=119 
      
  12. Λ 1845, Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker, At Pensacola, Florida, for Aiding Slaves To Escape From Bondage, with an Appendix, containing a sketch of his life, (Boston: Published At The Anti-Slavery Office, 25 Cornhill), p. 40, 43 
      
  13. Λ 1845, Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker, At Pensacola, Florida, for Aiding Slaves To Escape From Bondage, with an Appendix, containing a sketch of his life, (Boston: Published At The Anti-Slavery Office, 25 Cornhill), bookcover, title page 
      
  14. Λ There is a three part American Experience series on "The Abolitionists" 
      
  15. Λ Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves of 1807 (2 Stat. 426, enacted March 2, 1807) is a United States federal law that stated that no new slaves were permitted to be imported into the United States. The act took effect in 1808.
    Full text of the Act
    (Accessed: 24 January 2014)
    avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/sl004.asp 
      
  16. Λ [Abolitionist Button], 1840s-1850s, Button, 1.6 cm (5/8 ins) (diameter), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gilman Collection, Purchase, Joyce F. Menschel Gift, 2005, Accession Number: 2005.100.78 
      
  17. Λ The photograph of the "Scourged back" was published as an engraqving in - 4 July 1863, Harper's Weekly. The engraving was also used on the title page of Frances Kemble, 1863, The Views of Judge Woodward and Bishop Hopkins on Negro Slavery at the South, Illustrated from the Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation by Mrs Frances Anne Kemble, [Philadelphia? : s.n.] 
      
  18. Λ Sojourner Truth, 1850, Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave - has been reprinted multiple times.
     
    There are multiple studies on Sojourner Truth - Carleton Mabee with Susan Mabee Newhouse, 1993, Sojourner Truth: Slave, Prophet, Legend, (New York and London: New York University Press); Erlene Stetson and Linda David, 1994, Glorying in Tribulation: The Lifework of Sojourner Truth, (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press); Nell Irvin Painter, 1996, Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol, (New York and London: W. W. Norton & Co.) 
      
  19. Λ Quoted in - Carleton Mabee with Susan Mabee Newhouse, 1993, Sojourner Truth: Slave, Prophet, Legend, (New York and London: New York University Press), p. 216 
      
  20. Λ The appearance here was important and it is likely, though not proven, that the children were selected to show that slave children were very similar to your own children. Given the level of sexual abuse purpotrated by slave owners and white overseers there were considerable numbers of mixed race children. The contested opinions on the relationships and offspring of Thomas Jefferson and his slave Sally Hemings being an example. 
      
  21. Λ 1845, Trial and Imprisonment of Jonathan Walker, At Pensacola, Florida, for Aiding Slaves To Escape From Bondage, with an Appendix, containing a sketch of his life, (Boston: Published At The Anti-Slavery Office, 25 Cornhill) 
      
  22. Λ Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hampton, Virginia - Library of Congress
    [Photographs by Francis Benjamin Johnston] Afro-American students in laboratories and liberal arts and agricultural science classes. Vocational education, including shipbuilding at Newport News, farming, carpentry, and home economics activities. Whittier Primary School classes. Group portraits of student organizations and band. Buildings, campus, and rural life in surrounding area.
    (Accessed: 12 May 2014)
    www.loc.gov/pictures/item/86706170/ 
      
  23. Λ Doris Ulmann, 1933, Roll Jordan Roll, (New York: Robert O. Ballou). Illustrated with 90 fill-page photogravures. 
      
  24. Λ Swann Galleries (Auction May 20, 2010, Sale 2215 Lot 22) - Doris Ulmann, 1933, Roll Jordan Roll, (New York: Robert O. Ballou) 
      
  25. Λ The title of the book Roll Jordan Roll is taken from a Negro Spiritual. 
      
  26. Λ James Allen, 2000, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America, (Twin Palms Publishers); Dora Apel & Shawn Michelle Smith, 2008, Lynching Photographs, (University of California Press) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
1973-1976, The Black Photographers Annual, (NY: Black Photographers Annual, Inc.) [4 volumes] [Δ
  
Allen, James, 2000, Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photography in America, (Twin Palms Publishers) isbn-10: 0944092691 isbn-13: 978-0944092699 [John Lewis (Foreword), Leon F. Litwack (Contributor), Hilton Als (Contributor)] [Δ
  
Apel, Dora & Smith, Shawn Michelle, 2008, Lynching Photographs, (University of California Press) isbn-10: 0520253329 isbn-13: 978-0520253322 [Δ
  
Asanta, Molefi K. & Mattson. Mark, T., 1998, The African American Atlas: Black History & Culture an Illustrated Reference, (New York: Simon & Schuster) isbn-10: 0028649842 [2nd edition] [Δ
  
Blair, Sara, 2007, Harlem Crossroads: Black Writers and the Photograph in the Twentieth Century, (Princeton University Press) isbn-13: 978-0691130873 [Δ
  
Coar, Valencia Hollins (ed.), 1983, A Century of Black Photographers, 1840–1960, (Providence: Rhode Island School of Design) [Δ
  
Coddington, Ronald S., 2012, African American Faces of the Civil War: An Album, (The Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 142140625X isbn-13: 978-1421406251 [Forward by J. Matthew Gallman] [Δ
  
Collins, Kathleen, 1985, July-September, ‘Portraits of Slave Children‘, History of Photography, vol. 9, pp. 187-210 [Δ
  
Easter, Eric et al. (eds.), 1992, Songs of My People: African-Americans, A Self-Portrait, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
Lamm, Kimberly, 2008, ‘Portraits of the Past: Imagined Now: Reading the work of Lorna Simpson and Carrie Mae Weems‘, in Christa Davis Acampora & Angela L. Cotten (eds.), 2008, Unmaking Race, Remaking Soul: Transformative Aesthetics and the Practice of Freedom, (SUNY Press) isbn-10: 0791471624 isbn-13: 978-0791471623 [Δ
  
Linderman, Jim, 2011, Secret History of the Black Pin Up: Women of Color from Pin Up to Porn, (Blurb (Self-published, print-on-demand)) [Blurb id: 2488194] [Δ
  
Mitchell, Mary Niall, 2008, Raising Freedom's Child: Black Children and Visions of the Future after Slavery, (New York University Press) [Δ
  
Mitchell, Mary Niall, 2011, ‘Rosebloom and Pure White, Or So It Seemed‘, in Miriam Forman-Brunell & Leslie Paris (eds.), 2011, The Girls' History and Culture Reader: The Nineteenth Century, (University of Illinois Press), pp. 120-148 [Δ
  
Moutoussamy-Ashe, Jeanne, 1993, Viewfinders: Black Women Photographers, (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1986. Reprint. New York: Writers and Readers Publishing) [Δ
  
Reichlin, Elinor, 1977, Summer, ‘Faces of Slavery‘, American Heritage, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 4-11 [Δ
  
Smith, Shawn Michelle, 2004, Photography on the Color Line: W. E. B. Du Bois, Race, and Visual Culture, (Duke University Press Books) isbn-10: 0822333430 isbn-13: 978-0822333432 [Δ
  
Wallis, Brian, 1995, Summer, ‘Black Bodies, White Science: Louis Agassiz's Slave Daguerreotypes‘, American Art, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 38-61 [Δ
  
Willis, Deborah, 2000, Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present, (New York - London: W.W. Norton & Company) isbn-10: 0393048802 [Δ
  
Willis, Deborah, 2009, Posing Beauty: African American Images from the 1890s to the Present, (W. W. Norton & Company) isbn-10: 0393066967 isbn-13: 978-0393066968 [Δ
  
Willis, Deborah & Krauthamer, Barbara, 2012, Envisioning Emancipation: Black Americans and the End of Slavery, (Temple University Press) isbn-10: 1439909857 isbn-13: 978-1439909850 [Δ
  
Willis, Deborah (ed.), 1994, Picturing Us: African American Identity in Photography, (New York: The New Press) [Δ
  
Willis, Deborah (ed.), 2007, Let Your Motto Be Resistance: African American Portraits, (Smithsonian Institution Press) isbn-10: 1588342425 isbn-13: 978-1588342423 [Δ
  
Willis-Thomas, Deborah, 1985, An Illustrated Bio-Bibliography of Black Photographers, 1940–1988, (New York: Garland) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
James Presley Ball 
  
Willis, Deborah (ed.), 1993, J.P. Ball: Daguerrean and Studio Photographer, (New York & London: Garland) isbn-10: 0815307160 isbn-13: 978-0815307167 [Δ
  
Julian Dimock 
  
Johnson. Thomas L.; Root, Nina J. & Dimock, Julian, 2002, Camera Man's Journey: Julian Dimock's South, (University of Georgia Press) isbn-10: 0820324248 isbn-13: 978-0820324241 [Δ
  
Leonard Freed 
  
Freed, Leonard, 2013, This is the Day: The March on Washington, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 1606061216 isbn-13: 978-1606061213 [Introduction by Michael Eric Dyson, foreword by Julian Bond, afterword by Paul Farber] [Δ
  
Goodridge Brothers 
  
Jezierski, John Vincent, 2002, Enterprising Images: The Goodridge Brothers, African American Photographers, 1847-1922, (Wayne State University Press) isbn-10: 0814324517 isbn-13: 978-0814324516 [Δ
  
Chester Higgins 
  
Higgins Jr., Chester, 1994, Feeling the Spirit: Searching the World for the People of Africa, (Bantam) isbn-10: 0553095560 isbn-13: 978-0553095562 [Δ
  
Higgins Jr., Chester, 2004, Echo of the Spirit: A Photographer’s Journey, (Doubleday) isbn-10: 0385509782 isbn-13: 978-0385509787 [Δ
  
Higgins Jr., Chester & Coombs, Order (author), 1974, Drums of Life: A Photographic Essay on the Black Man in America, (Anchor Press) isbn-10: 0385071345 isbn-13: 978-0385071345 [Δ
  
Higgins, Chester & Angelou, Maya (Foreword), 2000, Elder Grace: The Nobility of Aging, (Bulfinch) isbn-10: 0821226878 isbn-13: 978-0821226872 [Δ
  
Francis Benjamin Johnston 
  
Kirstein, Lincoln (ed.) & Johnston, Frances Benjamin, 1966, The Hampton Album, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Przyblyski, Jeanne M., 1998, Autumn, ‘American Visions at the Paris Exposition 1900: Another Look at Frances Benjamin Johnston’s Hampton Photographs‘, Art Journal, vol. 57, no. 3 [Δ
  
Russell Lee 
  
Strange, Maren (ed.), 2003, Bronzeville: Black Chicago in Pictures, 1941-1943, (New Press) isbn-10: 1565846184 isbn-13: 978-1565846180 [Δ
  
Danny Lyon 
  
Lyon, Danny, 1981, Memories of the Southern Rights Movement, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
  
Robert Mapplethorpe 
  
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 1981, Z [Portfolio] [Nude portraits of African-American men] [Δ
  
Wayne Miller 
  
Miller, Wayne F., 2000, Wayne F. Miller: Chicago's South Side, 1946-1948, (University of California Press) isbn-10: 0520223160 isbn-13: 978-0520223165 [Δ
  
Gordon Parks 
  
Johnson, Charles, 2011, Fields of Vision: The Photographs of Gordon Parks, (Giles in association with the Library of Congress) isbn-13: 978-1904832874 [Δ
  
Kunhardt, Peter & Roth, Paul (eds.), 2012, Gordon Parks: Collected Works, (Steidl / The Gordon Parks Foundation) isbn-13: 978-3869305301 [Five volumes] [Δ
  
Parks, Gordon, 1990, Voices in the Mirror, An Autobiography., (New York: Nan A. Talese) [Δ
  
Parks, Gordon, 2005, Voices in the Mirror: An Autobiography, (New York: Harlem Moon) [Δ
  
P.H. Polk 
  
Higgins, Chester & Chapp, Belena, 1998, Through These Eyes: The Photographs of P. H. Polk, (University Gallery / University of Delaware) isbn-10: 1887421033 isbn-13: 978-1887421034 [Δ
  
Polk, P.H., 1986, P.H. Polk: Southern Photographer, (Atlanta, Ga.: Nexus Contemporary Art Center) [Δ
  
Edwin Rosskam 
  
Strange, Maren (ed.), 2003, Bronzeville: Black Chicago in Pictures, 1941-1943, (New Press) isbn-10: 1565846184 isbn-13: 978-1565846180 [Δ
  
Flip Schulke 
  
Schulke, Flip, 1986, King Remembered, (New York: W.M. Norton) [Δ
  
Schulke, Flip, 1995, He had a Dream: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Civil Rights Movement, (New York: W.M. Norton) isbn-10: 0393037290 isbn-13: 978-0393037296 [Δ
  
Schulke, Flip, 2003, Witness to Our Times: My Life as a Photojournalist, (Cricket Books/Marcato) isbn-10: 0812626826 isbn-13: 978-0812626827 [Δ
  
Schulke, Flip & King, Coretta Scott, 1981, Martin Luther King Jr., (New York: W.M. Norton) isbn-10: 0393074927 isbn-13: 978-0393074925 [Δ
  
Addison Scurlock 
  
2009, The Scurlock Studio And Black Washington: Picturing The Promise, (Smithsonian) isbn-10: 158834262X isbn-13: 978-1588342621 [Δ
  
Scurlock Studio 
  
2009, The Scurlock Studio And Black Washington: Picturing The Promise, (Smithsonian) isbn-10: 158834262X isbn-13: 978-1588342621 [Δ
  
Doris Ulmann 
  
Featherstone, D., 1985, Doris Ulmann, American Portraits, (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
Peterkin, J. & Ulmann, D., 1933, Roll, Jordan, Roll, (New York: Robert O. Ballou) [Δ
  
James Van der Zee 
  
Van Der Zee, James, 1968, Harlem on My Mind: Cultural Capital of Black America, 1900–1968., (Metropolitan Museum of Art Exhibition. New York: Random House) [Edited by Allon Schoener. Preface by Thomas P. F. Hoving. Introduction by Candice Van Ellison] [Δ
  
Van Der Zee, James, 1973, James Van Der Zee, (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan and Morgan) [Δ
  
Van Der Zee, James, 1978, The Harlem Book of the Dead: James Van Der Zee, Owen Dodson, Camille Billops, (Dobbs Ferry, NY: Morgan & Morgan) [Foreword by Toni Morrison] [Δ
  
Vanderzee, James; Dodson, Owen & Billops, Camille, 1978, The Harlem Book of the Dead, (Morgan & Morgan) [Δ
  
Willis-Braithwaite, Deborah, 1993, Van Der Zee: Photographer, 1886–1983, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
Carl Van Vechten 
  
Bernard, Emily, 2012, Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance: A Portrait in Black and White, (Yale University Press) isbn-13: 978-0300121995 [Δ
  
Byrd, Rudolph P. & Van Vechten, Carl, 1993, Generations in Black and White: Photographs by Carl Van Vechten from the James Weldon Johnson Memorial Collection, (University of Georgia Press) isbn-10: 0820315583 isbn-13: 978-0820315584 [Δ
  
Augustus Washington 
  
White, David O., 1974, January, ‘Augustus Washington, Black Dagguerreotypist of Hartford‘, The Connecticut Historical Society Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 14-19 [Δ
  
Carrie Mae Weems 
  
Willis, D.; Zeidler, J.; Weems, C. M. & Johnston, F. B., 2001, Carrie Mae Weems: The Hampton Project, (Millerton, N.Y.: Aperture) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
James Allen  (1907-1977) • James Presley Ball  (1825-1904) • C.M. Battey  (1873-1927) • Huestis P. Cook  (1868-1951) • Julian Dimock • Louis Draper  (1935-2002) • W.E.B. Du Bois  (1868-1963) • Toni Frissell  (1907-1988) • Goodridge Brothers • Teenie Harris  (1908-1998) • Chester Higgins  (1946-) • James Karales  (1930-2002) • M.H. Kimball • Jules Lion  (1810-1866) • Wayne Miller  (1918-2013) • Charles Moore • Gordon Parks  (1912-2006) • Charles Paxson • P.H. Polk • Addison Scurlock  (1883-1964) • Scurlock Studio • Harry Shepherd  (check) • Lorna Simpson  (1960-) • L.O. Taylor • Paul Aloysius Twine • James Van der Zee  (1886-1983) • Augustus Washington  (check) • Carrie Mae Weems  (1953-) • Ernest Withers  (1922-2007) • J.T. Zealy  (check)
HomeThemesDocumentaryPeoples of the world > African Americans 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
American struggles for civil rights 
Anthropology and ethnology 
Lynch photography 
Racial issues 
Slavery, abolition and civil rights 
USA 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > African Americans

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailPortrait: The Unknown Sitter - African American Portraits of the 1860s-1880s 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 23, 2010) Any help on identifying the sitters would be appreciated.
ThumbnailReal Photo Postcards: African Americans 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 21, 2007)
ThumbnailSarah Hoskins: The Homeplace 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 30, 2007)
  
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > African Americans

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailBarack Obama 
ThumbnailMalcolm X 
ThumbnailMartin Luther King Jr. 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailCharles Paxson: Learning is Wealth 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Paxson: Our Protection 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDoris Ulmann: Roll, Jordan, Roll 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Benjamin Johnston: Hampton Album (1899-1900) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHubbard & Mix: Negro Quarters on Fripp Place St. Helena’s [sic] Island, S.C. 
ThumbnailHubbard & Mix: Thorpe with the Negros working cotton, St. Helena’s [sic] Island 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: Delia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: Drana 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.T. Zealy: Renty 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulian Dimock: African-Americans in South Carolina (1904-1905) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOsborn & Durbec’s: Portion of Negro burying ground. Jany. 31, 1863. Plantation No. 8. 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: 26th Colored Regt. (26th Regiment, US Colored Infantry, Camp William Penn, Pa.) 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: Freedom on the Plantation 
ThumbnailW. & F. Langenheim: African youth 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailDocumentary: Racial issues 
 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailAlbumen prints: Themes: Portrait: African Americans 
ThumbnailAmbrotypes: Themes: Portrait: African Americans 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Themes: Portrait: African Americans 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Portrait: African Americans 
ThumbnailReal photo postcards: Themes: Portrait: African Americans 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAfrican youth - Dudu Unquay 
ThumbnailBlack power 
ThumbnailJames Van der Zee: Harlem 
ThumbnailKlu Klux Klan 
ThumbnailThe scourged back 
ThumbnailThe White Slave 
 
  
Refreshed: 03 September 2014, 19:59
 
  
 
  
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