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HomeContentsThemes > Industrial

Contents

Introduction
203.01   Introduction to industrial photography
Humanity and the machine
203.02   Lewis W. Hine: Power house mechanic working on steam pump
203.03   Lewis W. Hine: Coal mines
203.04   Lewis W. Hine: Cotton mills
Albert Renger-Patzsch
203.05   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Machine parts
203.06   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Ruhrchemie factory, Oberhausen-Holten, Germany
203.07   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Schubert & Salzer - Textile machinery - Ingolstadt
W. Eugene Smith
203.08   W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project
Robert Yarnell Ritchie
203.09   Robert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial Modernist
Health and safety
203.10   Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (25 March 1911)
203.11   Health and safety
Environmental issues
203.12   The landscapes of industry
Industrial sites
203.13   Timothy O'Sullivan: The mines of Nevada (ca. 1868)
203.14   USA: Nevada: Comstock Mine
203.15   J.C. Burrow: Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light (1893)
203.16   Darius Kinsey: Forestry and logging in the American North-West (1906-1940)
203.17   Mannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (ca. 1929)
203.18   Margaret Bourke-White: Otis Steel Co. (1928-1929)
203.19   Peter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953)
203.20   Roger Mayne: Wapping
203.21   Bernd & Hilla Becher: Typologies
203.22   Edward Burtynsky: Quarries
203.23   Edward Burtynsky: China
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
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Introduction 
  
203.01   Documentary >  Introduction to industrial photography 
  
The documentation of Industry through photography can divided into a number of sub-themes as an aid to understanding.
 
Exploitation of the natural world
With industrialization came the ability to cut down vast forests, push whales and bison almost to extinction. The bounty of the earth was seen as a seemingly limitless resource available for exploitation. Early photographs show pride in the ability of man to tame the environment with loggers standing on immense piles of lumber or proudly beside souvenirs made from buffalos.  
  
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Industrial sites
Every photograph of an industrial site tells us as much about the motivations of the photographer and prevailing photographic styles as it does about the industry concerned. When a series is commissioned by a company the resulting photographs are a reflection on the values of a company but those are not necessarily viewed in the same way today as they were when the photographs were taken. Margaret Bourke-White's assignment on The Otis Steel Company - Pioneer, Cleveland. Ohio (1928-1929) is a good example of this it manifests a Pictorialist soft-muted tone along with the brooding power of industry.  
  
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Adolf Fassbender's photograph Industry of the West was taken in around 1935 during the Great Depression it has a brooding melancholy with silhouetted smokestacks, plumes of belching smoke and a silo. Industry is not viewed as a positive in this view of the world and if we contrast it with the clean Modernist lines of Albert Renger-Patzsch's Ruhrchemie factory, Oberhausen-Holten, Germany (1934) taken at around the same time the impressions they leave on us are different because the motivations of the photographers for taking the photographs was different.  
  
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Industrial processes
Every product since the division of the production process into distinct tasks carried out by different people has a workflow that can be documented. Industrial photography was largely excluded from photohistory as it fell into the theme of commercial photography which was not "pure". There were exceptions to this, such as Albert Renger-Patzschs and Peter Keetman, but it was largely ignored in the same way that "grey literature", company brochures, manuals and annual reports were ignored by most libraries. With Peter Keetman's study of the Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953)[1] it was a commercial project done for a client but the clarity of his vision transcends the original purpose.  
  
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Industrial products
The photography of individual products falls into the themes of commercial photography and possibly market-driven advertising. During the nineteenth century products were viewed at the World's Fairs and International Exhibitions starting with the Crystal Palace (1851)[2] in London and photographers such as Claude-Marie Ferrier photographed them.  
  
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Sets of albumen prints, often mounted on card as carte de visites and stereocards, were sold as souvenirs along with guides and catalogues[3] listed the of the wonders of the age. Photographers such as Negretti & Zambra had booths there to sell photographs and related products.  
  
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Photographs of products were used by salesmen to entice customers and highlight features.  
  
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In rarer cases there are city trade directories by Isiah Taber and others with tipped-in photographs showing locally manufactured products - the "Yellow Pages" of their day  
  
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The massing of products within a single image creates fascinating typologies of shapes.  
  
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Relationships between people and industry
The relationship between the industry and the worker cover all ranges of emotions and socio-political contexts. A photograph of a single industrialist such as Isambard Kingdom Brunel can be used to represent the whole of Victorian industry and the might of the machine-driven British Empire on a book cover because the size of the chain links dwarf the man and yet he is their designer and has conquered the engines of power.[4]  
  
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With Arnold Newman's 1963 darker portrait of Alfred Krupp taken inside one of his factories is Essen, Germany, the impact it has on us is both different and menacing. Krupp ran the family company that supplied weapons and supplies during the Second World War, ran worker camps of slaves and used slave labour - he was sent to jail for three years after the war for crimes against humanity.[5]  
  
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Beneath the industrialists and the managers are the workers and our visual memory is based on cultural connections that are so ubiquitous that they are icons of an entire class. Sadie Pfeiffer, Spinner in Cotton Mill, North Carolina (1910)[6] does this as it shows a small girl tending a mammoth machine and carrying out a task that was, and remains perilous, and we know that all over the world children are still doing the same task a hundred years later. Around forty years after Lewis Hine took the photograph of Sadie Albert Renger-Patzsch took a photograph without operators of the Spinning machines, Schubert & Salzer Factory, Ingolstadt[7] and the two photographs are taken from almost the same angle. Although the context is almost identical the two photographs have totally different motivations and meanings - Lewis Hine's as about the impact of industrialization on people and their humanity whilst that of Albert Renger-Patzsch is about efficiency and the commercial aspects of industry  
  
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Environmental impact and industry
Our raising awareness of our interconnections with nature sing the 1950s and our understanding of environmental issues has influenced the ways we see industry. It is no longer so simple to see it as the saviour of a post-war generation when DDT and pesticides[8] were a solution to health issues and agricultural production. Photographers such as Robert Adams[9], David Maisel[10], Edward Burtynsky[11] and a host of others compile evidence to show how industry has altered the landscape and the risks of it.  
  
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We live in a world of constant marketing - barrages of advertising showing what we do and don't need supported by media consultants and analysts. At the other end of a rainbow of many gradations there are photographers who try to raise the awareness of the public on the implications of human activity. 
  
Humanity and the machine 
  
203.02   Documentary >  Lewis W. Hine: Power house mechanic working on steam pump 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The photograph of the "Powerhouse Mechanic" or "Power House Mechanic" taken in 1920 by Lewis Hine[12] is one of the emblematic photographs of the early 1920s has many meanings - it is a tangible visual representation of manual labour in the age of the machine, a transitional image as photography was embracing changes in the post-First Word War period from Pictorialism to Modernism[13], it is an image of a documentary subject and yet it was posed, and the "vintage" nature of some of the surviving prints is questionable. The image of man controlling a massive machine exists in other photographs such as A komsomol at the wheel (1931) by Arkadii Shaikhet and is a common element of literature with disastrous consequences in Lord of the Dynamos (1894) by H.G. Wells[14], and film where the example of Metropolis (1927)[15] is an obvious case of the relationships between humanity and mechanisation. With Hine's photograph there is the dignity of the relationship and this is also true of the photograph by Arkadii Shaikhet but Hine's work with the NCLC was about exploitation and he was acutely aware of the nuances of the forces at play.  
  
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The curatorial description for "The Power House Mechanic" at the Brooklyn Museum says:
The clean muscularity and precise industrial order presented by Lewis Hine in Power House Mechanic demonstrates the photographer’s shift, in 1919, from a gritty documentary style to what he called “interpretive photography”—an approach intended to raise the stature of industrial workers, who were increasingly diminished by the massive machinery they operated. Despite his concern for the worker, Hine’s use of hand-selected and precisely posed models actually helped to cement the pictorial formulas employed by burgeoning corporate public-relations departments.[16]
On Wikipedia the caption for this famous photograph by Lewis Hine is:
Lewis Hine's 1920 Power house mechanic working on steam pump, one of his "work portraits", shows a working class American in an industrial setting. The carefully posed subject, a young man with wrench in hand, is hunched over, surrounded by the machinery that defines his job. But while constrained by the machinery (almost a metal womb), the man is straining against it—muscles taut, with a determined look—in an iconic representation of masculinity.[17]
In September 2008 Paul Messier, conservator and expert on photographic papers and dating prints, carried out analysis of different versions of the print held at George Eastman House to link the paper types to the various stamps on Lewis Hines prints. This was a part of a project to investigate if some of the prints were originals or later copies as there has been an issue with "questionable" prints. Analysis of handwriting, wet stamps, manufacturing logos on the papers and the characteristics of the papers themselves such as the use of optical brighteners which came into use in the 1950s and paper fibre analysis showed that a number of the prints within the collection at George Eastman House were unlikely to be vintage prints made by Lewis Hine.[18] 
  
203.03   Documentary >  Lewis W. Hine: Coal mines 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Lewis W. Hine is remembered as one of the key people in American documentary photography with his work for the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) between 1911 and 1917 [19] and the construction of the Empire State Building.[20] Hine photographed children working in mines in Tennessee, Maryland, West Virginia and Pennsylvania who had jobs working with anthracite and bituminous coal.[21][22]
 
Hine was hired by the NCLC for a purpose and he was a sociologist who was committed to social reform - his bias would be towards the interests and protection of the children rather the preservation of low cost labour for their employers. His captions of the breaker-boys, coupling-boys, greasers and those who minded doors in the dark, describe the dangers of the working environment. For example from October 1916:
National Child Labor Committee. No. 191. Frank, a Miner Boy, going home. About 14 years old: has worked in the mine helping father pick and load for three years: was in hospital one year, when leg had been crushed by coal car.[23]  
  
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The perils of the jobs were pointed out to add weight to his visual truths as this one from January 1911 pointed out:
A lonely job. Waiting all alone in the dark for a trip[?] to come through. It was so damp that Willie said he had to go to the doctor for his cough. A short distance from here, the gas was pouring into the mine so rapidly that it made a great torch when the foreman lit it.[24]  
  
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203.04   Documentary >  Lewis W. Hine: Cotton mills 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Cotton is a part of racial memory, a part of the economics of the southern States, at times it has been emblematic of povery, segregation and oppression. As a commodity it is not neutral and can not be removed from its history in America just as it can't be from the mills of industrial England. Not all images by a photography carry equal power and Lewis Hine took mediocre pictures as well as iconic ones. When photographing at a cotton mill in Lancaster, North Carolina in November 1908 he had one of those moments where the quality of the light, the immensity of the spinning machine and the small size of Sadie Pfeiffer come together with a harmonious unity.[25] Is the other girl behind Sadie a distraction or does she indicate that Sadie is one child representing vast numbers of unseen children? The depth of field is on Sadie and she has the emphasis within the shot and the machine itself leads us to her left to right. There she stands four foot tall in her shabby and worn clothing.  
  
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Lewis Hine used deception to access workplaces as if he stated his true purpose, working for the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), he would not have been admitted. Taking notes as he worked he was a compiler of facts and images building up an irrefutable body of documentary photography that would show the reality of child labour to those who would ignore it or deny its existence.
 
The photograph is evidence of an injustice that a single child, but representing a whole group, is not at school or having a childhood - she has been deprived of youth by family and her own necessity. To emphasize groupings of children Hine made some composite pictures where he printed together multiple portraits of children - an unusual way of highlighting the singlificance of the individual within the group.[26]  
  
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Albert Renger-Patzsch 
  
203.05   Documentary >  Albert Renger-Patzsch: Machine parts 
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   Albert  Renger-Patzsch 
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203.06   Documentary >  Albert Renger-Patzsch: Ruhrchemie factory, Oberhausen-Holten, Germany 
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   Albert  Renger-Patzsch 
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203.07   Documentary >  Albert Renger-Patzsch: Schubert & Salzer - Textile machinery - Ingolstadt 
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   Albert  Renger-Patzsch 
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W. Eugene Smith 
  
203.08   Documentary >  W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project 
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W. Eugene Smith (1918-1978)[27] is justifiably remembered as a master of the photo-essay and left a legacy with LIFE magazine of memorable pieces that will be found in any significant history of photography. His photo-essays in LIFE included "Spanish Village" (9 April 1951), "Country Doctor" (20 Sept 1948), "Schweitzer" (15 Nov 1954) and the environmental catastrophe of "Minamata" (2 June 1972) and on the last of these he did a book with his second wife Aileen.[28]
 
In March 1955 Eugene Smith, now with Magnum commenced a project for Stefan Lorant[29] to take a hundred photographs for the book project "Pittsburgh: Story of an American City" to commemorate the bicentennial of the industrial city.[30] The project was supposed to take three weeks but it lasted until August and instead of the 100 photographs required Eugene Smith had taken between 11,000, 17,000 or possibly 21,000 negatives.[31] The need to make darkroom prints to assist in the editing process was immediate and James Karales and Howard Feinstein[32] performed the monumental task working day and night. The Smith's house in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, was filled with boards covered with prints as an attempt the edit the debt-laden project continued with the help of two Guggenheim fellowships.
 
Sam Stephenson, biographer of Eugene Smith, said:
"He really thought that when he finished his Pittsburgh project people were going to look at it and change their behaviour. You know, a culture was going to be changed by what he was showing. When he came here to Pittsburgh he saw nature, this extraordinary geographic environment and the heaviest industry America ever had. Immigrants from all over Europe were here. There was destruction and construction. There was wealth and poverty. There were these beautiful rivers. And it all came together in this one bundle in Pittsburgh."[33]
The "Pittsburgh Project" was published in an incomplete form in Popular Photography's Photography Annual in late 1958 but it was far from the all-embracing vision Eugene Smith desired. The project had grown from a three week assignment for Magnum into a three year project that was never completed to his satisfaction.
 
In 1964 the book edited by Stefan Lorant Pittsburgh: The Story of An American City was published including over 1,000 photographs by Eugene Smith, Margaret Bourke-White and others.[34] 
  
Robert Yarnell Ritchie 
  
203.09   Documentary >  Robert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial Modernist 
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Health and safety 
  
203.10   Documentary >  Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (25 March 1911) 
  
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203.11   Documentary >  Health and safety 
  
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Environmental issues 
  
203.12   Documentary >  The landscapes of industry 
  
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Industrial sites 
  
203.13   Documentary >  Timothy O'Sullivan: The mines of Nevada (ca. 1868) 
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203.14   Documentary >  USA: Nevada: Comstock Mine 
  
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203.15   Documentary >  J.C. Burrow: Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light (1893) 
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In 1893 the subterranean photographs of J.C. Burrow were published in a book on mining in Cornwall, England.[35] 
  
203.16   Documentary >  Darius Kinsey: Forestry and logging in the American North-West (1906-1940) 
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In 1906 Darius Kinsey and his wife Tabitha gave up their photographic studio in Seattle (WA, USA) and decided to concentrate on documenting the logging industry and the landscapes of the American northwest. Darius took the photographs and Tabitha developed and printed them.[36] 
  
203.17   Documentary >  Mannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (ca. 1929) 
  
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Photographic histories and commemorative volumes produced by industrial companies and institutions are largely unstudied as the books were often presented as gifts to business associates rather than placed in libraries.
 
The Mannesmann industrial group was founded by the brothers Reinhard and Max Mannesmann in the town of Komotau (Bohemia) in 1888 and specialized in the production of steel piping. A commemorative photographically illustrated two volume set Mannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (ca. 1929) show the modernization of the processes within the factory.[37]
 
Although for this volume the name of the photographer is not identified Albert Renger-Patzsch, known for his Die Welt ist schön [The World is Beautiful] (1928)[38] did studies on the Ruhrchemie factory, Oberhausen-Holten (1934), Günther & Haussner KG, Chemnitz - Soap and perfumes (1957)[39] and Schubert & Salzer, Ingolstadt - Textile machinery (1950s).[40] Each series done with a clarity well-suited to the machined edges of an industrial setting. 
  
203.18   Documentary >  Margaret Bourke-White: Otis Steel Co. (1928-1929) 
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Margaret Bourke-White studied photography at the Clarence H. White School of Photography and was prepared to carry out assignments that were normally male-dominated. Her publication on the The Otis Steel Company - Pioneer, Cleveland. Ohio is an outstanding example of the use of a Pictorialist style applied to documentary photography.[41] The same approach was used by Doris Ulmann, who also studied at the Clarence H. White School of Photography, when she took the photographs for Roll, Jordan, Roll that was published in 1933.[42]
One of Bourke-White's clients was Otis Steel Company. Her success was due to her skills with both people and her technique. Her experience at Otis is a good example. As she explains in Portrait of Myself, the Otis security people were reluctant to let her shoot for many reasons: First, steel making was a defense industry, so they wanted to be sure national security was not affected. Secondly, she was a woman and in those days people wondered if a woman and her delicate cameras could stand up to the intense heat, hazard, and generally dirty and gritty conditions inside a steel mill. When she got permission, the technical problems began. Black and white film in that era was sensitive to blue light, not the reds and oranges of hot steel—she could see the beauty, but the pictures were coming out all black. She solved this problem by bringing along a new style of magnesium flare (which produces white light) and having assistants hold them to light her scenes. Her abilities resulted in some of the best steel factory pictures of that era, and these earned her national attention.[43]
 
  
   Margaret  Bourke-White Otis 
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203.19   Documentary >  Peter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953) 
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Peter Keetman (1916-2005) spent a week in 1953 at the Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg in Germany (1953) and produced a documentary study of the plant that goes logically through the manufacturing process.[44] The project was commercial and as such was excluded from early photohistorical studies but the clarity in the way the work was completed transcends the original purpose of the photographs. 
  
203.20   Documentary >  Roger Mayne: Wapping 
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The architecture of cities resides not only in the present but in an ever-changing cityscapes that reflects, social, commercial and industrial requirements. Areas of cities are locked within their own pasts which no longer meet the requirements of the present - the vast docks of the East End of London became increasingly surplus to requirements as container ports grew in significance requiring new technologies, differing warehousing requirements and a greatly reduced labour force. Roger Mayne[45] is most noted for his photographs of street life such as his series on "Southam Street" in London which has similarities to the photographs of Helen Levitt[46] in New York but he also documented the cliff like brick walls of the docks and warehouses of Wapping in 1959. Wapping had been intensively bombed during the Second World War (1939-1945) [47] but it was changes in patterns of commerce that would really change the area.
 
The collapse of industrial cities along with the decline of once great architecture is a common photographic theme for example the book The Ruins of Detroit (2011)[48] by Yves Merchand and Romain Meffre:  
  
Yves Merchand and Romain Meffre: Detroit 
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203.21   Documentary >  Bernd & Hilla Becher: Typologies 
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The German husband and wife team of Bernd and Hilla Becher[49] are renown for their austere black and white typological studies of architectural forms.[50] From the 1950s they worked on showing the diversity of the "anonymous sculptures" that are essential to industrial processes with each photograph taken in black and white at a similar scale and in the same lighting conditions. When shown together the extraordinary range of industrial structures for what is the same function becomes apparent and comprehension emerges from the subtle, and not the so subtle, differences.
 
The range of buildings is considerable and includes blast furnaces, grain elevators, gas tanks, cooling towers, water towers, coal mine tipples, stonework and lime kilns and to add a slightly more human touch framework houses.[51]
 
Blast furnaces  
  
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Hilla Becher in 2008 shortly after the death of Bernd commented in an interview with Süddeutsche Zeitung Magazin on their need for the comprehension of functional diversity.
"We studied this anonymous architecture, object after object, until we understood the enormous variety of the subject. At some stage we realized that in England such objects looked slightly different. And then we asked ourselves: Why do they look different? We learned why they looked the way they did. We learned how blast furnaces worked, how they were constructed, what parts they had. And then it was easier to find out whether there was a front and back."[52]
Cooling towers  
  
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Water towers  
  
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In an interview at Paris Photo 2012 Hilla Becher reflected on her work with her husband.
"We didn't really see it as artists, we saw it as something like natural history. So we also used the methods of natural history books, like comparing things, having the same species in different versions. The Typology is nothing but comparing and giving it a shape, giving it some sort of possibility to be looked at otherwise it would just be heaps of paper."[53]
 
  
203.22   Documentary >  Edward Burtynsky: Quarries 
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In the first published book of the work of Edward Burtynsky on Manufactured Landscapes he included the fractured terrain of quarries.[54] This is a theme that he would return to later when he would do a whole book just on Quarries.[55] Mineral extraction was perhaps the earliest way that human activity scarred the natural landscape - the quantities of charcoal to obtain the temperatures required for the smelting of copper and later iron would be a factor in widespread deforestation in prehistory.
 
Mines and quarries, abandoned and in operation, can be on a vast scale but in the nineteenth century it was photographers like Thomas H. O'Sullivan in the silver mines of Nevada (ca. 1868) or Charles Marville at the Carrières d’Amérique (the America quarries), one of the last working gypsum quarries on the outskirts of Paris that he photographed sometime before 1871. Photographers such as J.C. Burrow documented the deep mines of Cornwall in England flashlight[56] and Lewis Hine photographed the child labour and the "breaker boys" in American mines working in appalling conditions.[57]
 
So what is different about the photographs of Edward Burtynsky? It is not about the nature of human labour but about the environmental consequences of human activity. There is an undeniable beauty in the abstractions of scale of vast walls of granite in Vermont or marble in Italy indicators of human ingenuity and the regularities of extraction but there is a cost to the land. Edward Burtynsky's projects continue to address these issues, as he has written in a brief manifesto "Exploring the Residual Landscape":
Nature transformed through industry is a predominant theme in my work. I set course to intersect with a contemporary view of the great ages of man; from stone, to minerals, oil, transportation, silicon, and so on. To make these ideas visible I search for subjects that are rich in detail and scale yet open in their meaning. Recycling yards, mine tailings, quarries and refineries are all places that are outside of our normal experience, yet we partake of their output on a daily basis.
 
These images are meant as metaphors to the dilemma of our modern existence; they search for a dialogue between attraction and repulsion, seduction and fear. We are drawn by desire - a chance at good living, yet we are consciously or unconsciously aware that the world is suffering for our success. Our dependence on nature to provide the materials for our consumption and our concern for the health of our planet sets us into an uneasy contradiction. For me, these images function as reflecting pools of our times.[58]
Whilst we mine, quarry and frack photography gives a nudge to our sleeping consciousness that all is not without consequences.[59] 
  
   Edward  Burtynsky 
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203.23   Documentary >  Edward Burtynsky: China 
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Edward Burtynsky in his 2012 book China[60] captured the vast scale of the industrial plants of China where humanity is lost within organisations. 
  
   Edward  Burtynsky 
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Peter Keetman, 1993, Volkswagen: A Week at the Factor, (Chronicle Books)
    In 1953, photographer Peter Keetman spent a week at a Volkswagen factory in Wolfsburg, Germany, emerging with a collection of remarkable images that, although rejected by the Volkswagen publicists, transform the parts of the popular car into works of abstract art gleaming stacks of hoods and fenders trace sinuous lines reminiscent of Edward Weston's seashells; bolts of cable look like exotic plants; sheet metal takes on a life of its own. Arranged in the order of the car's manufacturing process, accompanied by three essays on photography and Volkswagen production, Volkswagen: A Week at the Factory is a landmark in the history of industrial photography and a timeless look at a contemporary icon.
     
      
  2. Λ Crystal Palace Exhibition (1851) - Philip Henry Delamotte & Janet E. Buerger (ed.), 1980, The Crystal Palace, (Rochester, New York: International Museum of Photography) [Exhibition based on Delamotte's photographs of the rebuilt Crystal Palace at Sydenham, originally published 1854]; James Glaisher, [1851]-1852, Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851. Reports by the Juries on The Subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the Exhibition was Divided, (Spicer Brothers...W. Clowes & Sons) [4 vols, 154 Mounted calotypes, captioned on the mounts, images 175 x 224mm., 3 chromolithographed plates by Day & Son]; Nancy B. Keeler, 1982, ‘Illustrating the 'Reports of the Juries' of the Great Exhibition of 1851: Talbot, Henneman, and their Failed Commission‘, History of Photography, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 257-272; John Kenworthy-Browne, 2006, ‘Plaster casts for the Crystal Palace, Sydenham‘, Sculpture Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 173-198 
      
  3. Λ James Glaisher, [1851]-1852, Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851. Reports by the Juries on The Subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the Exhibition was Divided, (Spicer Brothers...W. Clowes & Sons) [4 vols, 154 Mounted calotypes, captioned on the mounts, images 175 x 224mm., 3 chromolithographed plates by Day & Son] 
      
  4. Λ Robert Howlett took multiple photographs of Isambard Kingdom Brunel during the construction of the Great Eastern. One photograph was used on the front cover of John McIlwain, 2005, Brunel, (Pitkin Unichrome Ltd) 
      
  5. Λ William Manchester, 1968, The Arms of Krupp: The Rise and Fall of the Industrial Dynasty That Armed Germany at War, (Bantam)
     
    Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 30 August 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfried_Krupp_von_Bohlen_und_Halbach 
      
  6. Λ Lewis W. Hine, "Sadie Pfeiffer, Spinner in Cotton Mill, North Carolina", 1910, Gelatin silver print, J. Paul Getty Museum, © J. Paul Getty Trust [84.XM.967.15] 
      
  7. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, "Spinning machines, Schubert & Salzer Factory, Ingolstadt", 1950s, Gelatin silver print, on Agfa-Brovira paper, 16.5 x 22.5 cm, Bassenge Photography Auctions, Courtesy of Bassenge, 19th-21st Century Photography, 6 June 2012, Lot: 4271 
      
  8. Λ Silent Spring by Rachel Carson was initially serialized in three parts in the June 16, June 23, and June 30, 1962 issues of The New Yorker magazine.
     
    Rachael Carson, 1962, Silent Spring, (Houghton Mifflin). This book was important in invigorating the environmentalist movement and raising the issue of the indescriminate use of pesticides.
     
    in 1993 Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, a documentary in the PBS "American Experience" series, was shown examining the significance of her book. 
      
  9. Λ Robert Adams: What We Bought: the New World - Scenes from the Denver Metropolitan Area 1970-1974 
      
  10. Λ David Maisel, 2006, Oblivion, (Nazraeli Press) [Essay by William L. Fox and poem by Mark Strand] 
      
  11. Λ Lori Pauli (ed.) & Edward Burtynsky, 2003, Manufactured Landscapes: The Photographs of Edward Burtynsky, (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada in association with Yale University Press) 
      
  12. Λ For the context of Lewis Hine's work with the NCLC there are multiple studies including - Judith Mara Gutman, 1967, Lewis W. Hine and the American Social Conscience, (New York: Walker); Walter Rosenblum et al., 1977, America and Lewis Hine: Photographs, 1904–1940, (New York: Aperture); Daile Kaplan (ed.), 1992, Photo Story: Selected Letters and Photographs of Lewis Hine, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Alison Nordström & Elizabeth McCausland, 2012, Lewis Hine, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) 
      
  13. Λ It would be grossly simplistic and naive to state that changes in photographic styles embraced everybody. There are many photographers today who use Pictorialist styles and techniques which had largely died out by 1920. With photography new styles do not necessarily replace styles that already existed they just extend the overall range of styles available to choose from. The overall popularity of a visual style, taken as a totality of all ones prevalent at a specific time, may fluctuate but it never disappears and exists as a cultural memory to be drawn on when required. 
      
  14. Λ "The Lord of the Dynamos" is a British short story by H.G. Wells. It was originally published in the Pall Mall Budget (6 September 1894) and thereafter published in collections of short stories. 
      
  15. Λ Metropolis (1927) dir. Fritz Lang
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0017136/ 
      
  16. Λ Power House Mechanic - Brooklyn Museum
    (Accessed: 3 September 2013)
    www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/112132/Power_House_Mechanic 
      
  17. Λ Power house mechanic working on steam pump - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 3 September 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_picture_candidates/Power_house_mechanic_working_on_steam_pump 
      
  18. Λ Lewis Hine: Materials and Research Analysis with Paul Messier [A study of the Powerhouse Mechanic]
    Variants of Lewis Hine’s ‘’Powerhouse Mechanic’’ in the George Eastman House collection have been examined using a variety of approaches as part of a larger collaborative research project to explore and refine the methods by which the caretakers of photographs articulate, document, and share meaningful information about the material characteristics of photographic prints.
    (Accessed: 3 September 2013)
    notesonphotographs.org/index.php?title=Lewis_Hine:_Materials_and_Research_Analysis_with_Paul_Messier 
      
  19. Λ For the context of Lewis Hine's work with the NCLC there are multiple studies including - Judith Mara Gutman, 1967, Lewis W. Hine and the American Social Conscience, (New York: Walker); Walter Rosenblum et al., 1977, America and Lewis Hine: Photographs, 1904–1940, (New York: Aperture); Daile Kaplan (ed.), 1992, Photo Story: Selected Letters and Photographs of Lewis Hine, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Alison Nordström & Elizabeth McCausland, 2012, Lewis Hine, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) 
      
  20. Λ For Lewis Hines work at the Empire State Building - Lewis W. Hine, 1932, Men at Work, (New York: The Macmillan Company); Lewis Hine, 1997, Men at Work, (Dover Publications); Freddy Langer, 2001, Lewis W. Hine: The Empire State Building, (Prestel Publishing) 
      
  21. Λ John McClymer, 25 January 2011, "Using Lewis Hine Child Labor Photographs, Part Two: Miners". The Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era Online
    (Accessed: 3 September 2013)
    www.jgape.org/node/123 
      
  22. Λ Coal mines. Child labor at coal and zinc mines in the United States - LIbrary of Congress
    (Accessed: 3 September 2013)
    www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004674300/ 
      
  23. Λ Library of Congress, Call Number: LOT 7477, no. 0191 [P&P] 
      
  24. Λ Library of Congress, Call Number: LOT 7477, no. 1920 [P&P] LC-H5- 1920 
      
  25. Λ This print "Sadie Pfeiffer, Spinner in Cotton Mill, North Carolina" is in multiple collections including:
     
    Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LOT 7479, v. 1, no. 0362 / LC-DIG-nclc-01455 - color digital file from b&w original print
    Getty Museum, 84.XM.967.15
    Art Institute of Chicago, 1959.859 
      
  26. Λ For composite (combination) prints by Lewis W. Hine:
     
    Lewis W. Hine, "Composite photograph of child laborers made from cotton mill children" [National Child Labor Committee (U.S.)], 1913, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02737 (color digital file from b&w original print) LC-USZ62-107782 (b&w film copy negative)
     
    Lewis W. Hine, "Composite photograph of child laborers made from cotton mill children", [National Child Labor Committee (U.S.)], 1913, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-nclc-02738 (color digital file from b&w original print) 
      
  27. Λ For W. Eugene Smith - Jim W. Hughes, 1989, W. Eugene Smith: Shadow and Substance: The Life and Work of an American Photographer, (New York: McGraw-Hill); William S. Johnson (ed.), 1981, W. Eugene Smith: Master of the Photographic Essay, (Millerton, NY: Aperture); B. Maddow, 1985, Let Truth Be the Prejudice, W. Eugene Smith, His Life and Photographs, (Millerton, NY: Aperture); Gilles Mora, 1998, W. Eugene Smith: Photographs 1934-1975, (New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams); W. Eugene Smith, 1993, W. Eugene Smith: His Photographs and Notes, (New York: Aperture); W. Eugene Smith & Aileen M. Smith, 1975, Minamata: Words and Photographs, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston); Alan Trachtenberg & Sam Stephenson (eds.), 2003, Dream Street: W. Eugene Smith’s Pittsburgh Project, (New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company); Glenn G. Willumson, 1992, W. Eugene Smith and the Photographic Essay, (New York: Cambridge University Press) 
      
  28. Λ W. Eugene Smith & Aileen M. Smith, 1975, Minamata: Words and Photographs, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) 
      
  29. Λ Stefan Lorant was asked to do the project by Edgar Kaufmann owner of the department store. 
      
  30. Λ Alan Trachtenberg & Sam Stephenson (eds.), 2003, Dream Street: W. Eugene Smith’s Pittsburgh Project, (New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company) 
      
  31. Λ In the Darkroom with W. Eugene Smith - The Paris Review
    Posted November 20, 2013 - Sam Stephenson
    (Accessed: 4 December 2013)
    www.theparisreview.org/blog/2013/11/20/in-the-darkroom-with-w-eugene-smith/
     
    On the Magnum website the number of negatives is given as 17,000. Portfolio - USA. 1955-1957. Pittsburg, W. Eugene Smith
     
    On the BBC FOUR - Genius of Photography website the number of negatives is given as 21,000
    www.bbc.co.uk/photography/genius/gallery/smith.shtml 
      
  32. Λ Gene Smith, James Karales and me: Remembering the Pittsburgh Project Posted by Harold Feinstein on Dec 3, 2013
    (Accessed: 4 December 2013)
    www.haroldfeinstein.com/gene-smith-james-karales-remembering-pittsburgh-project/ 
      
  33. Λ Sam Stephenson quotations from 'Right Time, Right Place', Genius of Photography (Wall to Wall)
    The Genius of Photography" was a BBC television series.
    www.bbc.co.uk/photography/genius/gallery/smith.shtml 
      
  34. Λ Stefan Lorant Collection - Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
    Finding aid for 14 boxes, containing extensive notes and drafts for each chapter of Pittsburgh: The Story of an American City and more than 1,000 images that were used in the book. (Accessed: 7 December 2013)
    www.carnegielibrary.org/locations/oliver/archivalfindingaids/StefanLorantCollection.pdf 
      
  35. Λ J.C. Burrow & William Thomas, 1893, Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light: a series of photographs, with explanatory letterpress, illustrating methods of working in Cornish mines, (London: Simpkin, Hawitter, Kent and Co) [Part I.-An account of the photographic experiences, by J. C. Burrow, Part II.-A description of the subjects photographed, by William Thomas. Reprinted by D.B. Barton, 1965] 
      
  36. Λ A collection of over 4,700 of negatives and 600 prints by Darius and Tabitha Kinsey is in the Whatcom Museum (121 Prospect St., Bellingham, WA 98225). 
      
  37. Λ n/a, 1929 (ca), Mannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (NP , ca. 1929), 2 volume set 
      
  38. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1928, Die Welt ist schön: Ein Hundert photographische Aufnahmen, (Munich: Kurt Wolff Verlag) 
      
  39. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1937, Festschrift Günther & Haussner KG; Chemnitz. 75 Jahre Fabrik für Seifen und Parfümerien, (Chemnitz: Günther & Haussner KG) 
      
  40. Λ 1958, Schubert & Salzer. Maschinenfabrik. Aktiengesellschaft Ingolstadt. 75 Jahre Textilmaschinen bau. Das Portrait eines Industriebetriebes, (Ingolstadt) 
      
  41. Λ Margaret Bourke-White, 1929, The Otis Steel Company - Pioneer, Cleveland. Ohio, (Privately printed) 
      
  42. Λ Judith Peterkin & Doris Ulmann, 1933, Roll, Jordan, Roll, (New York: Robert O. Ballou) 
      
  43. Λ Wikipedia - Accessed: 30 October 2010
    Margaret Bourke-White, 1963, Portrait of Myself, (Simon Schuster) 
      
  44. Λ Peter Keetman, 1993, Volkswagen: A Week at the Factory, (Chronicle Books)
    In 1953, photographer Peter Keetman spent a week at a Volkswagen factory in Wolfsburg, Germany, emerging with a collection of remarkable images that, although rejected by the Volkswagen publicists, transform the parts of the popular car into works of abstract art gleaming stacks of hoods and fenders trace sinuous lines reminiscent of Edward Weston's seashells; bolts of cable look like exotic plants; sheet metal takes on a life of its own. Arranged in the order of the car's manufacturing process, accompanied by three essays on photography and Volkswagen production, Volkswagen: A Week at the Factory is a landmark in the history of industrial photography and a timeless look at a contemporary icon.
     
      
  45. Λ For Roger Mayne in the UK - Roger Mayne, 1996, Street Photographs of Roger Mayne, (Art Books Intl Ltd); Roger Mayne, 2001, Roger Mayne Photographs, (Random House) 
      
  46. Λ Helen Levitt, 1965, A Way of Seeing, (New York: The Viking Press) [Essay by James Agee] 
      
  47. Λ Bombs dropped in the ward of: St Katherine's and Wapping - Bomb Sight: Mapping the WW2 bomb census
    (Accessed: 5 April 2014)
    www.bombsight.org/explore/greater-london/tower-hamlets/st-katherines-and-wapping/ 
      
  48. Λ Yves Merchand and Romain Meffre, 2011, The Ruins of Detroit, (Steidl) 
      
  49. Λ Susanne Lange, 2006, Bernd and Hilla Becher: Life and Work, (The MIT Press). For the more diligent researcher - Virginia Ann Heckert, May 1987, A Photographic Archive of Industrial Architecture: The Work of Bernd and Hilla Becher, (M.A. thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara) 
      
  50. Λ Bernd & Hilla Becher, 2004, Typologies of Industrial Buildings, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) 
      
  51. Λ There are numerous monographs by Bernd and Hilla Becher on the different types of industrial buildings.
     
    Bernd & Hiller Becher, 1988, Water Towers, (The MIT Press)
    Bernd & Hiller Becher, 1991, Pennsylvania Coal Mine Tipples, (Dia Art Foundation)
    Bernd & Hiller Becher, 2006, Cooling Towers, (The MIT Press)
    Bernd & Hiller Becher, 2006, Grain Elevators, (The MIT Press)
    Bernd & Hiller Becher, 2013, Stonework and Lime Kilns, (Aperture)
     
    For domestic architecture:
     
    Bernd & Hiller Becher, 2001, Framework Houses, (The MIT Press) 
      
  52. Λ The original interview was published in German in Süddeutsche Zeitung Magazin (2008) Joerg Colberg translated the article with the headline ‘Of course we were freaks’ - An interview with Hilla Becher on his blog Conscientious (23 July 2008).
    (Accessed: 12 November 2013)
    jmcolberg.com/weblog/2008/07/of_course_we_were_freaks_-_an_interview_with_hilla_becher_complete_translation/ 
      
  53. Λ Hilla Becher interviewed at Paris Photo 2012
    (Accessed: 12 November 2013)
    ca.phaidon.com/agenda/photography/articles/2012/november/21/hilla-becher-interviewed-at-paris-photo/ 
      
  54. Λ Edward Burtynsky & Lori Pauli (ed.), 2003, Manufactured Landscapes: The Photographs of Edward Burtynsky, (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada in association with Yale University Press) 
      
  55. Λ Edward Burtynsky, 2009, Quarries, (Steidl) 
      
  56. Λ J.C. Burrow & William Thomas, 1893, Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light: a series of photographs, with explanatory letterpress, illustrating methods of working in Cornish mines, (London: Simpkin, Hawitter, Kent and Co) [Part I.-An account of the photographic experiences, by J. C. Burrow, Part II.-A description of the subjects photographed, by William Thomas. Reprinted by D.B. Barton, 1965] 
      
  57. Λ For the context of Lewis Hine's work with the NCLC there are multiple studies including - Judith Mara Gutman, 1967, Lewis W. Hine and the American Social Conscience, (New York: Walker); Walter Rosenblum et al., 1977, America and Lewis Hine: Photographs, 1904–1940, (New York: Aperture); Daile Kaplan (ed.), 1992, Photo Story: Selected Letters and Photographs of Lewis Hine, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Alison Nordström & Elizabeth McCausland, 2012, Lewis Hine, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) 
      
  58. Λ Edward Burtynsky: Exploring the Residual Landscape
    (Accessed: 5 April 2014)
    www.edwardburtynsky.com/site_contents/About/introAbout.html 
      
  59. Λ As Al Gore aptly described this issue it is "An Inconvenient Truth".
    (Accessed: 5 April 2014)
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0497116/ 
      
  60. Λ Edward Burtynsky, 2012, China, (Steidl) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Black, Brian, 1997, Summer, ‘Recalling the Unalterable Order of Nature: Photographs and Pennsylvania's Oil Boom‘, Pennsylvania History [Δ
  
Buchloh, Benjamin & Wilkie, Robert (eds.), 1983, Mining Photographs and Other Pictures, 1948–1968: Photographs by Leslie Shedden, (NSCAD University / Cape Breton University Press) isbn-13:  978-0919616257 [Essays by Donald Macgillivary and Allan Sekula] [Δ
  
Burrow, J.C. & Thomas, William, 1893, Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light: a series of photographs, with explanatory letterpress, illustrating methods of working in Cornish mines, (London: Simpkin, Hawitter, Kent and Co) [Part I.-An account of the photographic experiences, by J. C. Burrow, Part II.-A description of the subjects photographed, by William Thomas. Reprinted by D.B. Barton, 1965] [Δ
  
Glaisher, James, [1851]-1852, Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851. Reports by the Juries on The Subjects in the Thirty Classes into which the Exhibition was Divided, (Spicer Brothers...W. Clowes & Sons) [4 volumes, 154 Mounted calotypes, captioned on the mounts, images 175 x 224mm., 3 chromolithographed plates by Day & Son] [Δ
  
Jackson, Donald C., 2013, Pastoral and Monumental: Dams, Postcards, and the American Landscape, (University of Pittsburgh Press) isbn-10: 082294426X isbn-13: 978-0822944263 [Δ
  
Pugh, Francis, 1986, ‘Industrial Image 1843-1918‘, in Sur Davies & Caroline Collier (eds.), The Industrial Image: British Industrial Photography 1843-1986, (London: Photographers' Gallery) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Lewis Baltz 
  
Baltz, Lewis, 1974, The New Industrial Parks near Irvine, California, ([New York]: [Leo Castelli/Castelli Graphics]) [Δ
  
Bernd & Hilla Becher 
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1993, Gasbehälter, (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1994, Fabrikhallen, (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1997, Fördertürme, (Munich: Schirmer) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1997, Fördertürme, (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1997, Grundformen: Industrieller Bauten, (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2002, Industrial Landscapes, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2004, Typologies of Industrial Buildings, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262025655 isbn-13: 978-0262025652 [Edited by Armin Zweite] [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2013, Stonework and Lime Kilns, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597112526 isbn-13: 978-1597112529 [Δ
  
Becher, Bernhard & Becher, Hilla, 1970, Anonyme Skulpturen - Eine Typologie technischer Bauten, (Düsseldorf: ART-PRESS Verlag) [Exhibition catalogue of the gallery Konrad Fischer, Düsseldorf] [Δ
  
Becher, Bernhard & Becher, Hilla, 1970, Anonyme Skulpturen, A Typology of Technical Constructions, (New York: Wittenborn and Co.) [Δ
  
Heckert, Virginia Ann, 1987, May, A Photographic Archive of Industrial Architecture: The Work of Bernd and Hilla Becher, (M.A. thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara) [Δ
  
Margaret Bourke-White 
  
Bourke-White, Margaret, 1929, The Otis Steel Company - Pioneer, Cleveland. Ohio, (Privately printed) [Δ
  
Bourke-White, Margaret, 1976, Margaret Bourke-White, the Cleveland years, 1927-1930, (Cleveland, Ohio: New Gallery of Contemporary Art) [Δ
  
Edward Burtynsky 
  
Burtynsky, Edward, 2009, Quarries, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865214568 isbn-13: 978-3865214560 [Δ
  
Burtynsky, Edward, 2011, Oil, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865219438 isbn-13: 978-3865219435 [Δ
  
Burtynsky, Edward, 2012, China, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865211305 isbn-13: 978-3865211309 [Δ
  
Burtynsky, Edward & Pauli, Lori (ed.), 2003, Manufactured Landscapes: The Photographs of Edward Burtynsky, (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada in association with Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Robert Doisneau 
  
Doisneau, Robert, 1951, L'automobile de France, (Régie Nationale des Usines Renault-Draeger Frères) [Δ
  
Doisneau, Robert, 1988, Doisneau - Renault, (Paris: Édition Hazan et Robert Doisneau) [Δ
  
Hans Finsler 
  
Finsler, Hans, 1935, Heberlein 1835-1935, (Wattwil: Heberlein & Co A.G.) [Δ
  
Bruce Haley 
  
Haley, Bruce, 2003, Bruce Haley: 13 Million Tons of Pig Iron, (Siletz) [Δ
  
Peter Keetman 
  
Keetman, Peter, 1993, Volkswagen: A Week at the Factory, (Chronicle Books) isbn-10: 081180268X isbn-13: 978-0811802680 [Δ
  
Keetman, Peter, 2003, Volkswagenwerk 1953, (Wolfsburg: Kerber Verlag) [Δ
  
Keetman, Peter, 2004, Peter Keetman: Volkswagenwerk 1953, (Kerber) isbn-10: 3936646287 isbn-13: 978-3936646283 [Δ
  
Darius Kinsey 
  
Bohn, Dave & Petschek, Rodolfo, 1975, Kinsey Photographer: A half century of negatives by Darius and Tabitha May Kinsey, (Scrimshaw Press) isbn-10: 0912020350 [Δ
  
Bohn, Dave & Petschek, Rodolfo, 1995, Kinsey Photographer, (Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers) isbn-10: 1884822223 isbn-13: 978-1884822223 [Δ
  
Josef Koudelka 
  
Koudelka, Josef, 2012, Lime, (Xavier Barral) isbn-10: 2915173850 isbn-13: 978-2915173857 [Δ
  
John A. Mather 
  
Miller, Ernest C., 1972, ‘Oildom's Photographic Historian‘, Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1-54 [Δ
  
Stewart, Anne W., 1995, John A. Mather: The Legacy of Pennsylvania's Oil Region Photographer, (Titusville, PA: The Colonel Inc.) [Δ
  
Stewart, Anne W., 1995, ‘Mather's Lens: The Unerring Eye of History‘, Pennsylvania Heritage, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 4-11 [Δ
  
Richard Misrach 
  
Misrach, Richard & Orff, Kate, 2012, Petrochemical America, (Aperture) isbn-13: 978-1597111911 [Δ
  
Albert Renger-Patzsch 
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1927, Die Halligen: Das Gesicht der Landschaft, (Berlin: Albertus-Verlag) [Δ
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1931, Eisen und Stahl [Iron and Steel], (Berlin: Hermann Reckendorf) [Δ
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1937, Festschrift Günther & Haussner KG; Chemnitz. 75 Jahre Fabrik für Seifen und Parfümerien, (Chemnitz: Günther & Haussner KG) [Δ
  
Sebastião Salgado 
  
Salgado, Sebastião, 1993, Workers: An Archeology of the Industrial Age, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
W. Eugene Smith 
  
Smith, W. Eugene & Smith, Aileen M., 1975, Minamata: Words and Photographs, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) [Δ
  
Trachtenberg, Alan & Stephenson, Sam (eds.), 2003, Dream Street: W. Eugene Smith’s Pittsburgh Project, (New York, NY: W. W. Norton and Company) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
John A. Mather Historical Marker 
http://explorepahistory.com ... 
Mather worked from 1860 documenting the Oil Creek area of Pennsylvania as the oil boom took place. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Margaret Bourke-White  (1904-1971) • Joachim Brohm • J.C. Burrow • Edward Burtynsky  (1955-) • Harold Haliday Costain  (1895-1994) • John Darwell  (1955-) • Emile de Montgolfier  (1842-1896) • John Joseph Dwyer  (1869-1928) • Andreas Feininger  (1906-1999) • John B. Ganis  (1951-) • Andrew Garn  (1957-) • Bruce Haley  (1957-) • William Heinemann • Chen Jiagang  (1962-) • Peter Keetman  (1916-2005) • Willy Kessels  (1898-1974) • Darius Kinsey  (1869-1945) • John A. Mather  (1829-1915) • Walter Niedermayr  (1952-) • Louie Palu  (1968-) • I.C. Rapoport • Robert Yarnall Ritchie  (1908-1984) • Thomas Ruff  (1958-) • Allan Sekula  (1951-2013) • Charles Sheeler  (1883-1965) • W. Eugene Smith  (1918-1978) • Jakob Tuggener  (1904-1988) • Stephen Wilkes
HomeThemesDocumentary > Industrial 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Modernism 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Industrial

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAlfons Himmelreich: Industrial photographer in Palestine and Israel 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 8, 2007)
ThumbnailAndrew Garn: Magnitogorsk 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 1, 2009)
ThumbnailBolivian mining photography (1870s – 1930s) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 16, 2007)
ThumbnailCarl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 22, 2007)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 20th Century Margaret Bourke-White and the Otis Steel Company (1928-1929) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 30, 2010)
ThumbnailDocumentary: Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 8, 2011)
ThumbnailEdward Burtynsky 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 30, 2006)
ThumbnailRobert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial Modernist 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 31, 2012)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Industrial

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlfons Himmelreich: Industrial photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBernd & Hilla Becher: Blast furnaces 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBernd & Hilla Becher: Cooling towers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBernd & Hilla Becher: Water towers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCecil Beaton: Tyneside Shipyards 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Sheeler: Criss-Crossed Conveyors, River Rouge Plant, Ford Motor Company 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDarius Kinsey: Forestry and logging in the American North-West (1906-1940) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Burtynsky: China: Factories 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Burtynsky: Quarries 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank B. Gilbreth: Efficient Work Operation 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Robbins: Views of the Penna. Oil Region 
ThumbnailHenry Moulton: Rays of Sunlight from South America (1865) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.C. Burrow: Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light (1893) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLawrence & Houseworth: Gould & Curry Mine 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLewis Baltz: New Industrial Parks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLewis W. Hine: Coal mines 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLewis W. Hine: Cotton mills 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (ca. 1929) 
ThumbnailMargaret Bourke-White: Otis Steel Co. 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Howlett and George Downes: The Leviathan, Steam Ship 
ThumbnailRobert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial colour 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial monochrome 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTimothy O'Sullivan: The mines of Nevada (ca. 1868) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW. Eugene Smith: Pittsburgh 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalter B. Woodbury: Gold digging in Australia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailE.O. Hoppé - Charles Sheeler - Michael Kenna 
ThumbnailF. Corte - Stephen F. Adams 
ThumbnailSouthworth & Hawes - Joseph James Forrester - Paul-Émile Miot - Emile de Montgolfier 
ThumbnailWilliam Constable - Arkadii Shaikhet - Man Ray 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Automobiles 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Factories 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Forestry 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Machines 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Mining 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Oil 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Shipyards and ship building 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Industrial: Whaling 
ThumbnailNature: Pollution 
ThumbnailThe Leviathan - The Great Eastern 
ThumbnailThe Leviathan, Steam Ship (Full length view) 
ThumbnailThe Leviathan, Steam Ship (Stern view) 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailFemale aircraft worker 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 17 August 2014, 21:11
 
  
 
  
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