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HomeContentsThemes > New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit

Contents

Introduction
202.01   An introduction to New Objectivity
Karl Blossfeldt
202.02   Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952)
202.03   Karl Blossfeldt: Books
202.04   Karl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature"
August Sander
202.05   August Sander (1876-1964)
Albert Renger-Patzsch
202.06   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Books
202.07   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Die Welt ist schön
202.08   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Blüte der Hainbuche
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
202.01   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  An introduction to New Objectivity 
  
The New Objectivity is a widely used translation of the German Neue Sachlichkeit that was adapted within the artistic community of Weimar Germany to imply a "practical engagement with the world"[1]
 
The title came from an art exhibition "Die neue Sachlichkeit" in 1926 curated by Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub, the director of the Kunsthalle in Mannheim, that showed post-expressionist artworks.[2] The term has been applied to diverse forms of cultural expression including art, architecture, literature, music and photography. Within painting and drawing there was the unsentimental work of Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, and George Grosz. Within photography the use of sharp focus was a rejection of the Pictorialist approaches that were so common in intellectual attitudes towards the linking photography to art in both Europe and America prior to the First World War (1914-1918). Candy box soft focused romantic images were not appropriate to an age of mechanized warfare were millions died.
 
Within Germany the ideas of New Objectivity within photography[3] were shown by the documentary projects of August Sander[4] and the clean lines of Albert Renger-Patzsch.[5] 
  
Karl Blossfeldt 
  
202.02   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Early in his working life the German photographer Karl Blossfeldt worked as a sculptor in iron foundries but he became interested in the relationships between natural forms and decorative art - an endeavor that was supported by the Prussian government. From 1898 he taught at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin and built up an archive of plant photographs each meticulously detailed and on a plain background to remove any distractions. In 1928 he published Urformen Der Kunst. Photographische Pflanzenbilder (Berlin) which has become one of the seminal photobooks.[6] 
  
   Karl  Blossfeldt 
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202.03   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  Karl Blossfeldt: Books 
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   Karl  Blossfeldt 
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202.04   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  Karl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The magnificent, modernist botanical studies of Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1932) were first published in his Urformen der Kunst in 1928. The work contains 120 single-sided rotary gravure plates, prefaced with an introductory text and list of plate subjects. (Although printed in 1928, the first edition apparently listed no date of publication on the title page.) A second edition of the work was published in 1929, containing the same images and text as the first edition. The 1929 edition was printed in Germany in German, American, English, and perhaps other national versions, which seem to differ only in the publisher‘s imprint and opening text. English printings of the 1929 edition were given the title "Art Forms in Nature".
 
While the 1929 second edition of "Urformen der Kunst" contains the same images as the first, these seem to have been printed from a different set of printing plates. Having had the opportunity to examine a copy cataloged as first edition from the Yale Library, along with American, German and British 1929 editions, the following differences were noted: First edition plates are neutal in tone, while those from the second edition have a slightly green tone. First edition plates are sometimes more "contrasty" than second edition plates (although this was not the case for all plates in the series) and first edition plates are often of slightly narrower dimensions. Along with these differences in dimension, plates from the two editions show a variety of differing printing flaws which indicate that each edition was printed from a different set of printing plates. In contrast, aside from small variations which probably stem from the nature of rotogravure printing, the three 1929 editions examined appeared identical in the dimensions, coloration, and imperfections of the plates. The photographs on plates 62 and 118 appear to have been rotated 180 degrees in the second edition.
 
A second work "Wundergarten der Natur" was published with a new set of 120 images in 1932. After Blossfeldt‘s death in 1932 a number of works were published with his images, which continue to the present day. A different "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" was published with 96 gravures in various editions circa 1935-1941, and a "Wunder in der Natur" with 120 gravures was printed circa 1942, during WWII in Leipzig.
 
This exhibition includes all 120 plates of the first version of "Urformen der Kunst," taken from the 1929 second edition (German and American printings). The gravures measure roughly 10.25 x 7.5 inches (26x19 cm) and are printed on sheets 12.25 x 9.5 inches (31x24 cm) with plate number printed in the lower right corner. Images illustrated in horizontal format have been rotated 90 degrees clockwise. Plate descriptions are transcribed from the American printing (E. Weythe, New York, 1929)[7] 
  
   Karl  Blossfeldt 
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August Sander 
  
202.05   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  August Sander (1876-1964) 
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August Sander is known for his monumental work Citizens of the Twentieth Century (Menschen des 20. Jahrhunderts)[8] which consists of face-on portraits of all classes of German society during the first half of the nineteenth century. The portraits are highly detailed and show people in their working or everyday clothes sometimes accompanied by the tools or symbols of their trade. In 1909 in an advertising brochure he wrote:
I am not concerned with providing commonplace photographs like those made in the finer large-scale studios of the city, but simple, natural portraits that show the subjects in an environment corresponding to their own individuality, portraits that claim the right to be evaluated as works of art and to be used as wall adornments.[9]
In 1929 sixty of his portraits were published in the book Antlitz der Zeit (Face of our Time)[10] but the veracity of the portraits was at odds with the propaganda myths of the Aryan super race that the Nazi party was seeking to promote. In November 1936 the Reich Chamber of Visual Arts banned the book, seized any copies they could and destroyed the printing plates. This was a difficult period for Sander as his son, Erich, was imprisoned for left-wing sympathies and the production of pamphlets, and as the Nazi party gained influence his work on cataloguing the German peoples was out of step with the times and so he concentrated on landscapes[11] and the architecture of Cologne.[12]
 
Sander attempted at various times to create classifications of archetypes and there were far from consistent and flexed over time but even with the difficulties of groupings the work of August Sander is now regarded as one of the key projects in photographic portrait history and his style has been widely copied. 
  
   August  Sander 
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Albert Renger-Patzsch 
  
202.06   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  Albert Renger-Patzsch: Books 
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Die Welt ist Schon (1928)[13] (The World is Beautiful) is the best known of the photobooks by Alber Renger-Patszch but it is by no means the only one. In the 1920s and 30s he also published Orchideen: Die Welt der Pflanze (1924),[14], Die Halligen: Das Gesicht der Landschaft (1927),[15] Hamburg (1930)[16] and Eisen und Stahl (1931)[17] (Iron and Steel). Albert Renger-Patszch was a commercal photographer where his direct approach to the subject matter is clear from the commissioned works he created.[18] This influenced all forms of his work and at the time he would not have seen it as fine art photography and the labelling of his work as a part of New Objectivity was applied later. 
  
   Albert  Renger-Patzsch 
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202.07   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  Albert Renger-Patzsch: Die Welt ist schön 
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Albert Renger-Patzsch (1897-1966)[19][20] was a technically brilliant photographer who took a wide range of subject matter from industrial, still lives, landscapes and flowers. One of the medium‘s great realists, Renger-Patzsch brought a razor sharp, analytical vision to his photography, also working as a press, advertising and industrial photographer and war correspondent. His book Die Welt ist Schon[21] (The World is Beautiful) of 1928 is a testament to his clarity of vision and breadth of subject matter.
 
The style of some of his photography seems dated now but we need to view it through the eyes of the those in the 1920s when Pictorialism was still and influential force.[22] During the Weimar Republic in economically-depressed Germany the vision of Albert Renger-Patzsch with his precise gears and clearly selected landscapes was a break with previous photography and more allied to , Modernism and what was happening at the Bauhaus. His work concerned the accurate portrayal of reality and that separated him from the more experimental work in Germany with its photomontages, multiple exposures and solarizations. His work was about the honest portrayal of the subject rather than pushing the boundaries of what photography could do. 
  
   Albert  Renger-Patzsch 
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202.08   New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit >  Albert Renger-Patzsch: Blüte der Hainbuche 
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   Albert  Renger-Patzsch 
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ New Objectivity - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 2 November 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Objectivity 
      
  2. Λ The 1926 exhibition "Die neue Sachlichkeit" was exhibited at the Kunsthalle in Mannheim and travelled to to Chemnitz and Dresden through 1927. The advocacy of modern art by Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub, director of the Kunsthalle, led to Mannheim being the first museum forced by the Nazis to have a Schandausstellung (Shame Exhibition).
     
    Karoline Hille, 1992, "Mit heißen Herz und kuhlem Verstand: Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub und die Mannheimer Kunsthalle, 1913-1933." in, Henricke Junge (ed.), 1992, Avantgarde und Publikum: zur Rezeption avantagardistischer Kunst in Deutschland, 1905-1933, (Vienna: Böhler), pp. 129-130 
      
  3. Λ A. Ahrens, 1932-3, ‘Meinungsaustausch: Kunstphotographie und neue Sachlichkeit‘, Camera, vol. 11 
      
  4. Λ For the links between August Sander and artists - Dorothy C. Rowe, 3 April 2013, "August Sander and the Artists: Locating the Subjects of New Objectivity", Tate Papers Issue 19
    (Accessed: 2 November 2013)
    www.tate.org.uk/research/publications/tate-papers/august-sander-and-artists-locating-subjects-new-objectivity
     
    Books on August Sander - August Sander, 1986, August Sander: Citizens of the Twentieth Century: Portrait Photographs 1892–1952, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Edited by Gunther Sander]; August Sander, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer]; Manfred Heiting (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) 
      
  5. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1928, Die Welt ist schön: Ein Hundert photographische Aufnahmen, (Munich: Kurt Wolff Verlag); Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1957, Bilder aus der Landschaft zwischen Ruhr und Möhne, (Belecke (Möhne): Privatdruck der Siepmann-Werke, AG); Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1979, Albert Renger-Patzsch: 100 Photographs, (Köln: Schürmann and Kicken; Paris: Créatis); A. Wilde, J. Wilde & T. Weske, 1997, Albert Renger-Patzsch: Photographer of Objectivity, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  6. Λ Karl Blossfeldt, 1929, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [Second German edition]; Karl Blossfeldt, 1998, Natural Art Forms: 120 Classic Photographs, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications). The photographs of Karl Blossfeldt have continued popularity and nemerous editions of his books and selections from his work have been published. 
      
  7. Λ © Christopher Wahren - Christopher Wahren Fine Photographs - www.cwfp.biz 
      
  8. Λ August Sander, 1986, August Sander: Citizens of the Twentieth Century: Portrait Photographs 1892–1952, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Edited by Gunther Sander]; August Sander, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer]; Manfred Heiting (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) 
      
  9. Λ Cited in: George Steeves, 2013, August Sander: Objective Romantic, (Halifax, NS, Canada: Mount St. Vincent Art Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, September 7 - October 20, 2013], p. 11 
      
  10. Λ August Sander, 1929, Antlitz der Zeit, (Munich: Transmare and Kurt Wolff). The preface Faces, Images, and Their Truth was written by Alfred Döblin whose novel Berlin Alexanderplatz was published the same year. 
      
  11. Λ August Sander, 2004, August Sander: Photographs of the German Landscape, (Washingon: The Phillips Collection) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  12. Λ August Sander created sixteen portfolios of photographs of the city of Cologne which were purchased by the city administration for 25,000 marks. George Steeves, 2013, August Sander: Objective Romantic, (Halifax, NS, Canada: Mount St. Vincent Art Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, September 7 - October 20, 2013], p. 15.
     
    The work of August Sander on Cologne would later be published in 1952 as Cologne: As It Was which has been republished as Kölnisches Stadtmuseum (ed.), 1995, August Sander: Köln wie es war, (Cologne) 
      
  13. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1928, Die Welt ist schön: Ein Hundert photographische Aufnahmen, (Munich: Kurt Wolff Verlag) 
      
  14. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1924, Orchideen: Die Welt der Pflanze, (Berlin: Auriga-Verlag) 
      
  15. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1927, Die Halligen: Das Gesicht der Landschaft, (Berlin: Albertus-Verlag) 
      
  16. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1930, Hamburg (Hamburg: Gebrüder Enoch Verlag) 
      
  17. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1931, Eisen und Stahl (Berlin: Verlag Hermann Reckendorf) 
      
  18. Λ His commissioned work for industries included - 1937, Festschrift Günther & Haussner KG; Chemnitz. 75 Jahre Fabrik für Seifen und Parfümerien, (Chemnitz: Günther & Haussner KG); 1958, Schubert & Salzer. Maschinenfabrik. Aktiengesellschaft Ingolstadt. 75 Jahre Textilmaschinen bau. Das Portrait eines Industriebetriebes, (Ingolstadt) 
      
  19. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1928, Die Welt ist schön: Ein Hundert photographische Aufnahmen, (Munich: Kurt Wolff Verlag); Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1957, Bilder aus der Landschaft zwischen Ruhr und Möhne, (Belecke (Möhne): Privatdruck der Siepmann-Werke, AG); Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1979, Albert Renger-Patzsch: 100 Photographs, (Köln: Schürmann and Kicken; Paris: Créatis); A. Wilde, J. Wilde & T. Weske, 1997, Albert Renger-Patzsch: Photographer of Objectivity, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  20. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch papers, 1890-1980 - Getty
    Collection number: 861187
    (Accessed: 11 February 2014)
    archives2.getty.edu:8082/xtf/view?docId=ead/861187/861187.xml 
      
  21. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1928, Die Welt ist schön: Ein Hundert photographische Aufnahmen, (Munich: Kurt Wolff Verlag)
     
    In 1997 an issue of History of Photography included articles on Albert Renger-Patzsch. 
      
  22. Λ Ulrich Rüter, Autumn 1997, "The Reception of Albert Renger-Patzsch's Die Welt ist schön", History of Photography, vol. 21 no. 3, p. 192-196 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Ahrens, A., 1932-3, ‘Meinungsaustausch: Kunstphotographie und neue Sachlichkeit‘, Camera, vol. 11 [Δ
  
Lugon, Olivier (ed.), 1997, La Photographie en Allemagne: anthologie de textes 1919-39, (Jacqueline Chambon) isbn-10: 2877111741 isbn-13: 978-2877111744 [Δ
  
Mellor, David (ed.), 1978, Germany: The New Photography 1927-33, (Arts Council of Great Britain) isbn-10: 0728701855 isbn-13: 978-0728701854 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Karl Blossfeldt 
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1928, Urformen der Kunst: Photographische Pflanzenbilder, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [First German edition] [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1929, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [Second German edition] [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1932, Wundergarten der Natur. Neue Bilddokumente schöner Pflanzenformen, (Berlin: Verlag für Kunstwissenschaften) [Included 120 images. German] [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1935, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth) [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1942 (ca), Wunder in der Natur, (Leipzig: H. Schmidt & C. Günther. Pantheon-Verlag für Kunstwissenschaft) [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1967, Urformen der Kunst, (Tübingen, Germany: Ernst Wasmuth Verlag) [Δ
  
Blossfeldt, Karl, 1998, Natural Art Forms: 120 Classic Photographs, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications) [Δ
  
Albert Renger-Patzsch 
  
Heckert, Virginia, 1997, Autumn, ‘Albert Renger-Patzsch as Educator, "Learn to See the World"‘, History of Photography, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 179-181 [Δ
  
Heckert, Virginia Ann, n.d.Albert Renger-Patzsch: Contextualizing the early work, 1920-1933 [Available online: http://getebook.org/?p=309261] [Δ
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1928, Die Welt ist schön: Ein Hundert photographische Aufnahmen, (Munich: Kurt Wolff Verlag) [Δ
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1931, Eisen und Stahl [Iron and Steel], (Berlin: Hermann Reckendorf) [Δ
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1979, Albert Renger-Patzsch: 100 Photographs, (Köln: Schürmann and Kicken; Paris: Créatis) [Δ
  
Renger-Patzsch, Albert, 1997, Autumn, ‘Heretical Thoughts on Artistic Photography‘,  [Translated by Virginia Heckert] [Δ
  
Rüter, Ulrich, 1997, Autumn, ‘The Reception of Albert Renger-Patzsch's Die Welt ist schön‘, History of Photography, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 192-196 [Δ
  
Wilde, A., Wilde, J. & Weske, T., 1997, Albert Renger-Patzsch: Photographer of Objectivity, (London: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
  
August Sander 
  
Heiting, Manfred (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) [Δ
  
Sander, August, 1973, Men Without Masks: Faces of Germany, 1910–1938, (Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
  
Sander, August, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer] [Δ
  
Sander, August, 1986, August Sander: Citizens of the Twentieth Century: Portrait Photographs 1892–1952, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Edited by Gunther Sander] [Δ
  
Sander, August, 2003, Antlitz der Zeit, (Munich: Schirmer/Mosel) [Δ
  
Christian Schad 
  
Lloyd, J. & Peppiatt, M., 2003, Christian Schad and the Neue Sachlichkeit, (New York: W.W. Norton & Co.) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Erich Angenendt  (1894-1962) • Aenne Biermann  (1898-1933) • Karl Blossfeldt  (1865-1932) • Alfred Ehrhardt  (1901-1984) • Hein Gorny  (1904-1967) • Ruth Hallensleben  (1898-1977) • Adolf Lazi  (1884-1955) • Werner Mantz  (1901-1983) • Walter Peterhans  (1897-1960) • Albert Renger-Patzsch  (1897-1966) • August Sander  (1876-1964) • Paul Wolff  (1887-1951) • Willy Zielke  (1902-1989)
HomeStyles and movements > New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Germany 
Weimar Germany (1919-1933) 
f/64 
 
Key dates 
  
Weimar Germany (1919-1933) 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAlbert Renger-Patzsch 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 9, 2006)
ThumbnailAugust Sander: People of the 20th Century: Portraits of German Citizens 1910-1940 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 27, 2007)
ThumbnailKarl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 3, 2006)
ThumbnailNew Objectivity 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 1, 2012)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlbert Renger-Patzsch: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbert Renger-Patzsch: Die Welt ist schön 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbert Renger-Patzsch: Machine parts 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbert Renger-Patzsch: The rise of Modernism 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbert Renger-Patzsch: Trees 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: Architecture 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: Landscapes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: People of the 20th Century 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: Persecution 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKarl Blossfeldt: The Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalter Peterhans: New Objectivity 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailExhibitions: 1929 Film und Foto 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 11 April 2014, 20:53
 
  
 
  
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