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HomeContentsThemes > Erotica and nudes

Contents

Introduction
2.01   Introduction to erotica and nudes
2.02   Sculpture and the nude
Erotica and photographic innovation
2.03   Erotica and innovation
The female nude
2.04   The female nude
2.05   Oil paintings by Gustave Courbet based upon photographs
2.06   Académies and the use of artist studies of nudes to assist artists
2.07   Studie - Etude and the avoidance of obscenity charges
2.08   Artistic studies of nude women
2.09   Early female nude studies
2.10   Erotica: Comment me preferez vous? [How would you like to see me?]
2.11   Pictorialism, the nude and erotica
2.12   Different approaches to the female nude
2.13   Shadow patterns on nudes
2.14   Body stockings
Photographers of the female nude
2.15   Auguste Belloc: Nudes
2.16   Jacques Moulin: Nude studies
2.17   Louis-Camille d'Olivier: Nudes
2.18   Eugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies
2.19   Wilhelm von Gloeden: The women and girls of Sicily
2.20   G.L. Arlaud: Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air (1920)
2.21   Walery: Nus - Cent photographies originales de Laryew (ca. 1924)
2.22   Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes
2.23   Germaine Krull: Nudes
2.24   Alfred Cheney Johnston: Nudes
2.25   Rudolf Koppitz: Nude studies
2.26   Man Ray: 1929
2.27   Strand Studios: Glamour portraits
2.28   Frantisek Drtikol: Nudes
2.29   Frantisek Drtikol: Les Nus de Drtikol (1929)
2.30   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Nudes
2.31   Bill Brandt: Nudes
2.32   André Kertész: Distortions
2.33   Ruth Bernhard: Nudes
2.34   Edward Weston: Nudes
2.35   Brett Weston: Underwater nudes
2.36   Lucien Clergue: Nudes
2.37   Thomas Ruff: Nudes
The male nude
2.38   The male nude
2.39   Artistic studies of nude men
2.40   Strong men
2.41   Studies of naked men
Photographers
2.42   Wilhelm von Gloeden: The men and boys of Sicily
Erotica
2.43   Gelatin silver prints: Erotica
Fetishism
2.44   Count Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet
Ethnographic nudity
2.45   Ethnographic nudity
Voyeurism
2.46   Voyeurism
Obscenity and pornography
2.47   Pornography
2.48   Obscenity
Conclusions
2.49   Conclusions to erotica and nudes
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
2.01   Erotica and nudes >  Introduction to erotica and nudes 
  
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The representation of nude form in art is as old as art itself with the small statues of the Women of Willendorf[1] and the Venus of Dolní Vestonice dating back to over 25,000 BCE. Through the Ancient and Classical Worlds nudity was a common theme[2] and it resurfaced during the Renaissance. By the time photography was announced in 1839 the nude in both painting and sculpture was both controversial and accepted.[3] The emphasis from the heroic male nude to the submissive female form changed over time just as our own attitudes have changed. The purity of the naked form was seen by some as a sign of divine design whilst by others it was an indication of moral corruption. The nude is associated with sex, titillation, obscenity and pornography and photography has been the medium for each of these.  
  
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Beefcake studios - Bruce of LA 
  
 
  
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Sexually-explicit 
  
 
  
2.02   Erotica and nudes >  Sculpture and the nude 
  
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Nude photography and erotica are filled with contradictions. From Classical times the nude was a well accepted form in sculpture and painting and the erotic wall paintings at Pompeii and Herculaneum attest to that.[4] The nude during the Renaissance was a common theme and because of this it became accepted in Salon painting where it was acceptable to show mythological or historical scene with nudity but the showing of nudes in contemporary settings was not. The outcry over Manet's "The Luncheon on the Grass" (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) (1862-1863) shown at the Salon des Refusés (1863) and over "Olympia" (1863) exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1865 was the combination of undressed women in the paintings along with dressed characters - the women looking directly at the viewer were seen at confrontational and there was a critical outcry.
 
The least controversial approach to nudity for photography was sculpture - after all if the Classical nude was already accepted within art who could object to images of those sculptures? The superb daguerreotype by Southworth & Hawes of The Greek Slave, by Hiram Powers (1848)[5] can be used as a case study in differing views to nudity in the nineteenth century.[6]  
  
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Southworth & Hawes: The Greek Slave, by Hiram Powers (1848) 
  
Carved in 1844 by American neoclassical sculptor Hiram Powers (1805-1873) "The Greek Slave" was a political statement about Greece under the Ottoman empire, a scandalous attack on decency and a Christian statement on purity and chastity. The viewing of the artwork was then, as it is now, dependent on the perspective of the viewer. The difficulty with a photograph is that it is one step removed from the original sculpture and gallery context so how would a daguerreotype showing nudity be critically viewed and by whom? Would a photograph of a statue be seen differently than a photograph of a nude woman? Nineteenth century records leave us little to go on to understand differing perspectives.
 
Addressing stories from the Classical period such as "The Rape of the Sabine Women", an event which occurs in the writings of Livy[7] and Plutarch,[8] is more problematic. Here not only nudity is shown but the violation of the female form at its most brutal. Episodes from the story have been addressed in numerous paintings including by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld, Nicolas Poussin, Peter Paul Rubens and Jacques-Louis David. In marble the sculpture by Giambologna (1529-1608) of "The Rape of the Sabine Women" with two men and a raised women is a dynamic representation of the event. The fact that such an event was worthy of representation by male artists is outside of this discussion but how was a photograph of the sculpture viewed?  
  
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Fratelli Alinari: Firenze, Il Ratto della Sabina (Giovanni Bologna) (ca. 1870) 
  
The statue by Giambologna was completed between 1574 and 1582 and it was mounted in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence. Around 300 years later Fratelli Alinari, who were one of the leading Italian photographic companies and also based in Florence, photographed the statue.[9] They took the photograph in around 1870 when it would have been a site on the Grand Tour - the image would be useful to artists and those interested in art and at the same time a travel souvenir. Obviously a photograph is not a three dimensional form and therefore the photographer has made a conscious choice from 360 degrees of possibility on what to concentrate on and it is in the Fratelli Alinari photograph the anguish of the woman. An earlier photograph of a statuette of this work was taken between 1840 and 1844 by Henry Fox Talbot.[10] It is interesting to note that Talbot selected a viewpoint that did not show the woman's face.  
  
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Henry Fox Talbot: Statuette: "The Rape of the Sabines" by Giovanni da Bologna (1840-1844) 
  
If the issues portraying nudity in photographs of statues are complex we can see how any depiction using life models would be more so. 
  
Erotica and photographic innovation 
  
2.03   Erotica and nudes >  Erotica and innovation 
  
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Erotica and the nude, with their graduated scale of overlapping artistic appreciation, titillation, obscenity and pornography, have been at the forefront of the acceptance of new technologies. From the earliest days of photography it was being used to create daguerreotypes of naked ladies but there were also beautifully hand-coloured daguerreotypes available. There were also stereo daguerreotypes and so by the 1840s we have stereo hand-coloured photographs available which was a remarkable feat. For each technology as it became commercially available it was applied to Erotica and the nude for example the Autochrome was the first commercially available colour process, released in 1907, and we can find stereo Autochromes designed to titillate.  
  
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Daguerreotypes 
  
 
  
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Stereo daguerreotypes 
  
 
  
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Stereo Autochromes 
  
 
  
The female nude 
  
2.04   Erotica and nudes >  The female nude 
  
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Daguerreotypes of naked women were almost entirely taken in France between the 1840's and the 1850's and were often claimed to be for the purposes of artists models. The French painter Eugéne Delacroix (1798-1863) knew of Daguerreotype studies of the male nude taken by the artist Jules-Claude Ziégler in about 1850 and by 1853 he obtained photographic prints taken by Eugène Durieu (1800-1874). He used these studies as the basis for a series of sketches. Not surprisingly following the advent of the camera painting changed in France and in the 1850's there was a movement towards a new Realism with painters such as Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) using photographs of female nudes by Julien Vallou de Villeneuve (1795-1866) as the basis for paintings such as L'Atelier (1853) and Les Baigneuses (1853).
 
Many other influential artists including Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) and Alphonse Marie Mucha (1860-1939)[11] used photographs as the basis for their designs. 
  
  Erotica Women 
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Erotica Women 
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2.05   Erotica and nudes >  Oil paintings by Gustave Courbet based upon photographs 
  
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Both of these oil paintings by Gustav Courbet are based upon known photographs by Julien Vallou de Villeneuve (1795-1866).
In Les Baigneuses (The Bathers) 1853 (The Musée Fabre, Montpellier) also used a Villeneuve print now in the Biblioteque Nationale (Paris).  
  
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Gustave Courbet: Les Baigneuses / The Bathers (1853) 
  
 
  
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Julien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses 
  
In L'Atelier (The Artist's Studio) 1855 (Musée d'Orsay) the woman partially concealed by the towel has been copied from a nude study by Villeneuve now in the Biblioteque Nationale (Paris).  
  
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Gustave Courbet: L'Atelier / The Artist's Studio (1855) 
  
Aaron Scharf's book Art and Photography (1969)[12] discusses these similarities and landscape paintings by Gustave Courbet that used photographs by Gustave Le Gray and Adolphe Braun
  
2.06   Erotica and nudes >  Académies and the use of artist studies of nudes to assist artists 
  
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The use of life models[13] has a long history in art with artists like Michelango, Leonardo da Vinci and the sculpture Donatello using them to understand figure, posture, gesture and movement. As artists have at times been seen as social outsiders with dubious morals their association with nudity was frowned upon and the models who would pose were often from the lower classes where eating took priority over modesty. This had the issue that the bodies of the poor were not generally well nourished or cared for and using them to study perfect form was not ideal.  
  
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Gaudenzio Marconi: Ecole des Beaux Arts (ca. 1871) 
  
The use of naked life models was frowned on by those who held that it was a corrupting practise and J.C. Horsley raised the issue at an 1885 Church Congress held at Portsmouth in England:
Now, it is an extraordinary fact, that from the day in the last century, when Porteus, Bishop of London, animadverted on the practice of having naked women to sit in Art Schools, until this moment, no one has specially called public attention to the principal evil connected with the subject. Commendable anxiety has often been shown for the morals of artists, and the avoidance of offence to frequenters of Art Exhibitions; but no thought or word of sympathy, as far as I have heard or read, has been publicly expressed for that poor creature, the artists' model, through whose degradation these representations of nakedness are alone possible. To put the case plainly from a Christian point of view—if pictures or statues of naked women are to be executed, living naked women must be employed as models. But where is the justification in God's sight for those who induce women so to ignore their natural modesty, and quench their sense of true shame, as to expose their nakedness before men and thus destroy all that is pure and lovely in their womanhood?[14]
There are references to life models in nineteenth century diaries and letters of artists such as those of Sir David Wilkie using both naked male and female models. [15] The novel Trilby by George du Maurier (1894) tells the tale of Trilby O'Ferrall an artist's model and laundress in Bohemian Paris.[16] Magazine articles[17] and advertisements for "Life Model" classes were published in the popular press.[18]
 
Over time the role of the artists model became accepted and there are contemporary accounts, such as one in the 1887 The Magazine of Art, that refer to this:
The position of the artists' model is improving every day. With the spread of art-knowledge and the increase of art-education the important and lofty part played by the model is gradually winning the appreciation that it deserves. There is no reason why the profession of a model should be less respectable than that of a dealer in pictures or artists' materials. It is part of the art-system and as such deserves respect. Without good models there is no good art possible, and every thinking artist must needs realize that it is his duty to assist in developing the idea of the model. It is not very long since it was difficult to procure models of any kind, even in New York, the great art-centre of the country. Today there are plenty of men and women who are not ashamed to be classed as professional models, and the progress made in recent years by some of our strongest young artists is partly due to the increased facilities for obtaining good human subjects.[19]
Photographers such as Gaudenzio Marconi, Louis Igout, Julien Vallou de Villeneuve, Eugène Durieu, Oscar Gustave Rejlander, Vincenzo Galdi,[20] Wilhelm Plüschow[21] and Nadar all took portraits of the naked human form. At different times attitudes to the naked form have changed with it being viewed by the authorities as obscene or pornographic. In 1907 Italian police closed down the studios of Vincenzo Galdi and Wilhelm Plüschow and the controversy over series by Robert Mapplethorpe continues to trouble the curatorial community and the authorities when they are shown. 
  
   Erotica Artist studies 
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2.07   Erotica and nudes >  Studie - Etude and the avoidance of obscenity charges 
  
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There are blurred areas between nudity, art, eroticism, obscenity and pornography that are culturally-determined, have changed over time, are difficult to define within laws related to "public morals" and these smudged areas of desire, fascination and guilt are made even more challenging by our own fluctuating attitudes.[22] It is next to impossible to understand the mindsets of photographers and few leave diaries or accounts that provide any indications of how they felt. The surviving material tends to come from law cases and that is rarely a fair judge of the inner motivations of a person. Within nineteenth century there were photographers whose names are linked to Artist studies or Académies which were photographs to assist in drawing and painting where a life model was not available - Louis Igout, Eugène Durieu and Julien Vallou de Villeneuve did nude studies. The vast majority of nineteenth century nude studies were done in France by French photographers.  
  
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Louis Igout 
  
 
  
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Eugène Durieu 
  
 
  
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Julien Vallou de Villeneuve 
  
Many artists including Alphonse Marie Mucha[23], Thomas Eakins[24], Edgar Degas[25] and Georg Hendrik Breitner either took photographs of nudes to assist their work or purchased photographs.  
  
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Studie - Etude 
  
To reduce the liklihood of brushes with the law photographers chose Classical poses and settings for their nudes - after all the nude had been revived as a subject for art in the Renaissance and could therefore not be obscene. The words "Etude", "Studie" or "Study" on the card mounts of carte de visite[26][27] and cabinet cards was used to associate the photograph with art rather than titillation. 
  
2.08   Erotica and nudes >  Artistic studies of nude women 
  
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The nude is one of the most popular forms of art and has been so since Classical times. Closely linked to erotica the ways in which women have been portrayed in a gradation from the pious virgin to the depraved harlot depending on ever-changing social mores. A difficulty with photographic representation is that it can be difficult to access the intentions of the photographer and so the only means of judging is the image itself. With the removal of social context and where the portrayal is not obviously pornographic the viewer has to their own decisions on acceptability based on their personal preferences and a sliding scale of purity to obscenity. 
  
 Erotica Artist studies 
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Erotica Men 
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Erotica Women 
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2.09   Erotica and nudes >  Early female nude studies 
  
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France was the center for the production of nude photographs and distinction between photographs that were taken to further art and those designed for more dubious purposes was blurred. In the middle of the nineteenth century the French photographer Auguste Belloc had his negatives confiscated by the authorities and in 1851 Felix Jacques Antoine Moulin was sent to prison for a month.
 
The oil paintings of nude women and children that lined the walls of salons and galleries were accepted as art but photographs were not. Similar confusion over what is art and what is obscene continues today. 
  
2.10   Erotica and nudes >  Erotica: Comment me preferez vous? [How would you like to see me?] 
  
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This French album from around 1890 displays a sequence of 12 albumen prints of a woman disrobing. Each photograph is taken through a frame providing an implied link to art and in the final photograph of a naked woman a classical pose is assumed. The album was presumably for titillation rather than education but the links to artistic traditions would help avoid accusations of obscenity. 
  
   Erotica Women 
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2.11   Erotica and nudes >  Pictorialism, the nude and erotica 
  
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During the height of the Pictorialist period which ran from the middle of the 1890s until the First World War (1914-1918) a number of the leading exponents took nudes and they were reproduced as photogravures in publications such as Camera Work, Die Kunst in der Photographie and the catalogues of the Photo-Club de Paris. Masters of the period such as René Le Begue, Robert Demachy,[28] Emile Joachim Constant Puyo,[29] George Berteaux, Paul Bergon, Clarence H. White,[30] Georg Einbeck, Anne Brigman,[31] Edward Steichen,[32] George H. Seeley and Frank Eugene all took nudes and the misty softness of the pictorialist style was appropriate to contemporary taste.
 
The titles of the photographs Figure Decorative, Etude, Act-Studie were often those of the Académies of fifty years earlier the intention being to show that they were artistic studies rather than depraved exhibitions of indecency. Frank Eugene entitled one of his photographs Adam and Eve. The mix of Biblical innocence and purity with temptation summed up the conservatism of the Pictorialistsblended with a hint of the forbidden.
 
Photographs of naked children do occur in Pictorialism to portray innocence in themselves or maternal love as in Amour maternel (1894) by .[33]  
  
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Michel Bovi (Naples): Amour maternel (1894) 
  
 
  
   Erotica Pictorialist 
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2.12   Erotica and nudes >  Different approaches to the female nude 
  
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The naked form has been one of the dominant artistic themes since classical times. In painting and sculpture there can be the illusion of a separation between a real person and the work itself and this makes it more acceptable to polite society and allowed it access to the prudish salons of the nineteenth century. With photography there is no separation and it is, in most cases, a real person we are seeing and this raises artistic and moral questions. We find it difficult to ignore nagging fears about the exploitation of the participants even when they are willing and this is made all the more difficult when the motivations and morals of the photographer are unclear.
 
The examples selected highlight different sensitivities and approaches of the photographers. The unashamed full frontal pride in the body is the hallmark of Helmut Newton in this image which comes from his series "Big Nudes".[34]  
  
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Helmut Newton 
  
The wonderfully curved and rounded back shot taken by Edward Weston[35] looks more like a piece of fruit with all the symbolism that goes with that.  
  
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Edward Weston 
  
The 1951 photograph by Bill Brandt[36] is masterful for the depth of field and context. Here we do not need to see the entire form and two legs are sufficient to give us a sense of mystery. What is hidden is often far more sensual than what is shown.  
  
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Bill Brandt 
  
The vast scale of the public interest in the naked form is exemplified by the sales figures of magazines and of books that cater for this form of desire. When Kishin Shinoyama published the book Santa-Fe that contained "hair-nude" photographs of actress Rie Miyazawa it sold over a million copies.[37] 
  
  Erotica Women 
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Erotica Women 
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2.13   Erotica and nudes >  Shadow patterns on nudes 
  
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2.14   Erotica and nudes >  Body stockings 
  
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A leotard[38] is a single piece of light clothing that covers the body from the neck to the feet and was usually warn of dancers and entertainers. Frequently the morals of entertainers were viewed as suspect in polite society and so a photograph of a woman in a body stocking was scandalous. 
  
Photographers of the female nude 
  
2.15   Erotica and nudes >  Auguste Belloc: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Auguste Belloc (1800-1867) took remarkable stereo Daguerreotypes and albumen prints of nudes in Paris
  
2.16   Erotica and nudes >  Jacques Moulin: Nude studies 
  
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2.17   Erotica and nudes >  Louis-Camille d'Olivier: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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2.18   Erotica and nudes >  Eugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Eugène Durieu (1800-1874) was a French lawyer, artist and photographer credited with taking some of the first nude studies in the early 1850s. Many of his nude studies of both genders were posed for his friend the artist Eugène Delacroix.[39] The friendship between Delacroix and Durieu[40] was a creative collaboration as Gerry Badger has pointed out:
The evidence of letters and journals suggests that this was a partnership in the Hill/Adamson mould, Durieu providing the necessary technical expertise while Delacroix arranged the models’ poses and stamped his artistic authority upon the sessions, utilising nature’s ‘free design’ not so much to elevate but to enliven.[41]
 
  
2.19   Erotica and nudes >  Wilhelm von Gloeden: The women and girls of Sicily 
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2.20   Erotica and nudes >  G.L. Arlaud: Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air (1920) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Photographer G.L. Arlaud is remembered for a series of outdoor nude studies he took in the South of France that were printed as photogravures in Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air (1920).[42] 
  
   G L  Arlaud 
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2.21   Erotica and nudes >  Walery: Nus - Cent photographies originales de Laryew (ca. 1924) 
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Walery (1863-1935) was born Stanislaw Julian Ignacy and used a number of pseudonyms. In 1920s Paris he was a photographer of the rich and famous. During this period, using the pseudonym Laryew, he produced a portfolio of nudes (NUS) in Art Deco settings using the girls of the Follies Bergere nightclub as his models. 
  
   Walery 
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2.22   Erotica and nudes >  Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes 
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Anne Brigman (1869-1950)[43] was a famous Pictorialist photographer and a member of Alfred Stieglitz's inner circle of the Photo-Secession.[44] Her blending of female nudes amidst the blasted pines of California were unusual in the 1920s for their unashamed praise of ethereal but erotic forms. These are the naked spirits of A Midsummer Night's Dream - inhabitants of a primordial world and the title of her book Songs of a Pagan (1949)[45] hints at this otherworldliness. 
  
2.23   Erotica and nudes >  Germaine Krull: Nudes 
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2.24   Erotica and nudes >  Alfred Cheney Johnston: Nudes 
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Alfred Cheney Johnston[46] photographed high society, the showgirls of the Zeigfeld Follies[47] and nudes
  
2.25   Erotica and nudes >  Rudolf Koppitz: Nude studies 
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During the 1920s Austrian Pictorialist Rudolf Koppitz took his first nude studies with his preferred models being dancers. His Movement Study (Bewegungsstudie) of 1925, was used as an illustration in Encyclopædia Britannica as the most prominent example of "Art Photography".[48]  
  
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Rudolf Koppitz: Movement Study (Bewegungsstudie) with a variant 
  
 
  
2.26   Erotica and nudes >  Man Ray: 1929 
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The book 1929 included poems by Benjamin Peret and Louis Aragon accompanied by erotic photographs by Man Ray.[49] 
  
2.27   Erotica and nudes >  Strand Studios: Glamour portraits 
  
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Some studios have specialized in the production of photographs semi-clad beauties as marketing tools for models, performers, theatrical and burlesque shows. This has not changed much as actors headshots and bodyshots are still widely used for self promotion. These photographs taken by Strand Studios in New York in the 1920s give a good example of the genre of glamour portraits. 
  
2.28   Erotica and nudes >  Frantisek Drtikol: Nudes 
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The photographs of Bohemian photographer Frantisek Drtikol (1993-1961) were included in two of his books Le nus de Drtikol (1929) and Zena ve Svetle (1930)[50] and his work has been well studied.[51] Active approximately from 1907 until 1935 his worked covered the transitions between Pictorialism, Modernism, and Art Deco. An exponent of the Czech avant-garde his female nudes embraced these changes with their geometric sets of stairs, cubes, balls and hoops with the posed bodies taking on symbolic, if not spiritual, poses. His later paintings would include elements of philosophical and Buddhist beliefs. 
  
2.29   Erotica and nudes >  Frantisek Drtikol: Les Nus de Drtikol (1929) 
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2.30   Erotica and nudes >  Heinz Hajek-Halke: Nudes 
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2.31   Erotica and nudes >  Bill Brandt: Nudes 
  
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2.32   Erotica and nudes >  André Kertész: Distortions 
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André Kertész (1894-1985) was a master of light who experimented with Modernist approaches to photography including using diverse viewpoints, reflections, close-ups and abstraction of scale and distortions.[52]
 
In around 1928-1930 Kertész made a number of distorted portraits of caricaturist Carlo Rim (1905-1989)[53] in the funfair mirrors at Luna Park.[54] The French magazine Le Sourire gave Kertész an assignment to take distortions and he bought two distorting mirrors and had them placed in his studio.
 
Kertész wrote:
A Hungarian friend of mine introduced me to the editor of the magazine "Le Sourire," a very French sort of magazine–satiric, risqué. Many artists worked for this publication. They had never published photos before. The editor asked me to do something. I bought two distorting mirrors in the flea market–the kind of thing you find in amusement parks. With existing light and an old lens invented by Hugo Meyer, I achieved amusing impressions. Some images like sculptures, others grotesque and frightening. I took about 140 photographs in a month, working two or three times a week. “Le Sourire” published a couple of them, and we planned a book, but it had to wait forty years to be published–but that is another story.[55]
The possibilities for experimentation with the distortions and he made a series of around 200 nude distortions using the models Najinskaya Verackhatz and Nadia Kasine which remain imaginative and witty.[56] 
  
2.33   Erotica and nudes >  Ruth Bernhard: Nudes 
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Ruth Bernhard was an advertising photographer before she moved to California. Her nude studies of women composed in her studio have a classical beauty.[57] 
  
2.34   Erotica and nudes >  Edward Weston: Nudes 
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Edward Weston is one of very few photographers who has left a partial, but highly detailed, set of diaries - the "daybooks" - that explain his fluctuating relationships and emotions.[58] His nudes include portraits of his lovers including photographer Tina Modotti[59] and Charis Wilson who never seems to have been interested in taking photographs.  
  
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Edward Weston: Nude backs 
  
 
  
2.35   Erotica and nudes >  Brett Weston: Underwater nudes 
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One of the books on Brett Weston was entitled Out of the Shadows (2008)[60] and the message from the title was clear that his work had been unfairly compared to and overshadowed by the work of his father Edward Weston. Brett had gone to Mexico with his father and Tina Modotti and mixed in the circle of the muralists Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco. Brett Weston was a masterful printer but more than that he had an incredible eye and his work was included in the Film und Foto - FiFo (1929) in Germany when he was only seventeen. Perhaps this was partially due to his father who was selecting American photographers to be included but given the exacting standards of Edward Weston it was praise indeed. The underwater nudes of Brett Weston, which mimic the ripples you see in his earlier photographs of sand dunes, have a dreallike quality. 
  
2.36   Erotica and nudes >  Lucien Clergue: Nudes 
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2.37   Erotica and nudes >  Thomas Ruff: Nudes 
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The male nude 
  
2.38   Erotica and nudes >  The male nude 
  
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Just as there are issues with the taking of female nudes by male photographers there are issues in the portrayal of men. Here it is difficult to separate out the beauty from the underlying messages of the homoeroticism.
 
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, naked self portrait was taken by the French pioneer Hippolyte Bayard (1801-1887). The Self Portrait as a Drowned Man[61] is significant for multiple reasons, firstly it produced in 1840 using a paper process invented by the photographer, secondly it was created as a direct propaganda piece to highlight the unfairness of the decision of the French authorities to promote and financially support Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre but at the same time ignored Hippolyte Bayard.[62] The 1840 portrait Bayard took of himself as a drowned man the victim of a suicide because of a lack of official recognition is strange indeed and it is the earliest use of political propaganda as he wrote a message on the back of the print that said in French and there are a variety of versions in different sources:
The corpse which you see here is that of M. Bayard, inventor of the process that has just been shown to you. As far as I know this indefatigable experimenter has been occupied for about three years with his discovery. The Government, which has been only too generous to Monsieur Daguerre, has said it can do nothing for Monsieur Bayard, and the poor wretch has drowned himself. Oh the vagaries of human life...![63]
 
  
   Erotica Men 
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2.39   Erotica and nudes >  Artistic studies of nude men 
  
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With the early male photographs of men they appear to be less ambiguous than those of women but this has to be a personal opinion. They do seem to be predominantly artist studies rather than erotic. 
  
  Erotica Artist studies 
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Erotica Men 
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2.40   Erotica and nudes >  Strong men 
  
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Herb Ritts in his 1984 series Fred with Tires took a sequence of shots of a well muscled body moving tires around in an auto repair shop - here strength and independence are the messages. The image by Arthur Tress is rather more tame than some of his but the placing of naked animals together in a misty forest glade takes us back to a timeless Eden of innocence when anything is possible. Robert Mapplethorpe produced a wide variety of images from exquisite flowers to powerful portraits but it was his studies of the naked male form that shocked and provoked outrage at some of his exhibitions. The outrage was simplistic and was sometimes based on little more than the fact the images were of well formed naked black men - it would seem that naked women were acceptable but naked men, especially black, were not. There are difficult images here but they are not exploitative and they make us question our values and taboos. 
  
  Erotica Men 
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Erotica Artist studies 
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2.41   Erotica and nudes >  Studies of naked men 
  
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There are numerous to photographing naked man:  
  
  Erotica Men 
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Photographers 
  
2.42   Erotica and nudes >  Wilhelm von Gloeden: The men and boys of Sicily 
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Erotica 
  
2.43   Erotica and nudes >  Gelatin silver prints: Erotica 
  
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Fetishism 
  
2.44   Erotica and nudes >  Count Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet 
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Count Theodore Zichy (1908-1983) was an actor, a racing driver of Bugattis, pilot, playboy and a photographer. In 1948 his portfolio Chiaroscuros, contained fetishistic photographs of feet and shoes. By the standard of the day his autobiography made him out to be a cad and a bounder.[69] 
  
Ethnographic nudity 
  
2.45   Erotica and nudes >  Ethnographic nudity 
  
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Motivations and desires can be difficult to determine without evidence and our preconceptions of exploitation of the subject are not necessarily correct.[70] If we understand the background of the photographer and how a photograph was taken, disseminated and the context within which it was displayed we have a partial framework, however incomplete, to place it. Blunt statements such as "all photographs are exploitative" or "photographs of ethnic nudity display a power relationship between the photographer and the subject within which the subject has little control" do not address the complex nuances. Ethnographic photography has at times been used to support theories of racial differences and Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)[71] was a proponent of that approach but it would be naive to say that all ethnographers have similar motivations.
 
The photographs anthropologist G.E. Dobson took of a photograph of the naked Maia Biala, the chief of Rutland Island and his wife whom was of a man he, and others, admired.[72]  
  
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With the anthropological photographs of Maurice Vidal Portman[73] the use of the scaled backgrounds required for scientific measurement removes ambiguity but doesn't get around ethnic exploitation.  
  
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Some photographs have the appearance of erotica or even pornography and the taboos associated with those in western society were partially reduced by the sense of the exotic. Other portraits were taken for sale to the tourist trade and the bare-breasted North African ladies in the Lehnert & Landrock[74] were exotic images in the Orientalist style where the motivation was presumably pecuniary.  
  
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Photographs change their meaning and usage over time and anthropologists purchased commercial photographs and postcards to construct racial typologies. 
  
Voyeurism 
  
2.46   Erotica and nudes >  Voyeurism 
  
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The use of hidden cameras within street photography has been well established by photographers such as Paul Martin[75] with his captured moments in British seaside towns and beaches or with the subway portraits of Walker Evans.[76] Erich Salomon[77] also used a hidden camera concealed in a briefcase with a hole for the lens to photograph a sensational murder trial.[78] These are well accepted within the history of photography even though there is concern about the lack of consent of those photographed. This can be justified to a certain extent by the knowledge that when a camera is present it changes the dynamic and some degree of posing will take place removing the naturalism of a scene.
 
When the photographer and those being photographed are of different genders or there is a disparity in age such as an older person photographing a young child our sensitivities become more acute and laws are increasingly being made and enforced to outlaw the activity. These laws are increasingly flouted as ever-smaller cameras are embedded into mobile devices and have become almost invisible.
 
So how should the work of photographers like Miroslav Tichý[79] be viewed?
 
Miroslav Tichý (1926-2011) was a Czech photographer with a somewhat eccentric style recording with homemade cameras the women of his home town of Kyjov. His use of strange cameras made out of cardboard tubes and old tin cans along with his poorly printed voyeuristic works has made him highly regarded by a certain section of the fine photography community. His work has been collected and preserved by a neighbour, Roman Buxbaum, and since 2004 has gained reputation through international exhibitions as a subversive rebellion against communist repression. The question of voyeurism still remains.
 
The same unease occurs with the voyeuristic surveillance-like night photographs of groping heterosexual and homosexual lovers in three Tokyo parks (Shinjuku, Yoyogi, and Aoyama) by Kohei Yoshiyuki. [80] The situation gets even worse with Ikko Kagari's books showing sexual molestation on the Japanese subway system.[81]
 
In 2013 photographer Arne Svenson had an exhibition at the Julie Saul Gallery in New York which showed his series Neighbors which used a telephoto lens to photograph the daily life of unaware participants in apartments opposite his own in Tribeca.[82] Whilst faces are not shown the series provoked an outcry for privacy from some of those viewed. Reading comments on the websites where these have been posted ranges from they are good art right through to voyeurism with all shades in-between. Legal judgements will do little to provide clear boundaries of what is "acceptable" within society. 
  
Obscenity and pornography 
  
2.47   Erotica and nudes >  Pornography 
  
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The definition of what is a pornographic image is subjective and changes through time. At time there has been a public outcry, protests and the damaging of displayed artworks during exhibitions. Robert Mapplethorpe's powerful images have led to legal action and the cancellation of exhibitions.[83] The purpose of this site is not to provide titillating images but to encourage a deeper understanding of what makes a truly memorable image.
 
How we see and understand nudity changes within ourselves and in the cultural sphere we inhabit. We are influenced by others and there can be a herd mentality in the moral outrage that is applied to art. The issue of child nudity has become linked to exploitation rather than innocence and so photographs from different periods with different standards are grouped together as being exploitative, obscene or pornographic.  
  
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Clarence H. White: Mother and children in a woodland setting (1919) 
  
In current society the unclothed body has become removed from a Classical ideal of purity and entered into a soiled world in incest and abuse. Although there may be no evidence of either of these the taint of sin is applied. The play of children which was a freedom is now constrained by respectability and fear.  
  
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Lady Ottoline Morrell: Children cavorting at Garsington (ca. 1916) 
  
Taking a naked photograph of your own child in a bath tub is now a risky proposition. Current Puritanical attidudes raise questions how the photographs of Lewis Carroll, Sally Mann and Jock Sturges should be studied and exhibited. 
  
2.48   Erotica and nudes >  Obscenity 
  
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The British Journal of Photography, October 24, 1879, p.514.
Offensive Photographs. At the Marylebone Police Court, on Wednesday last, the 22nd hist., Alfred Paul de Witt, 32, photographer, of 103, St. John's-wood-terrace, was brought up on a warrant by Chief Inspector Shore, of Scotland-yard, and charged with unlawfully, wickedly, and maliciously uttering and selling certain obscene, wicked, and scandalous prints and photographs. Mr. Collette prosecuted for the Society for the Suppression of Vice, Mr. S. B. Abrahams defending. Mr. Collette, in opening the case, said the prisoner was a photographer, and, besides carrying on a legitimate business, it was notorious that he received women from all parts of London, whom he photographed, and he also reproduced photographic pictures from negatives sent to him for the purpose. This case originated under a warrant under Lord Campbell's Act, and a warrant was also obtained to take the prisoner's body under the ordinary criminal law. St. Ledger Lousada, an officer of the Criminal Investigation Department at Scotland-yard, said he received instructions from Chief Inspector Shore, and also from Mr. Collette, and then proceeded to No. 103, St. John's-wood-terrace, on the 13th instant. He there saw the prisoner and stated his wish to have his photograph taken. The light being indifferent it was postponed until the following day, when he went again and sat for his portrait. He asked the prisoner if he had any photographs of women taken a la mode, and he said he had a few negatives, but he seldom kept them, generally destroying them after he had taken them. Witness said he should like to see them, and the prisoner showed him the negative (produced). Witness ordered some copies from that and other negatives that the prisoner showed him, and also purchased a photograph and then left, the prisoner telling him the others would be ready by the Friday. He called on that day, and the prisoner told him he would have to reprint them, as he had met with an accident with them. Witness called on the Saturday, but they were not printed, and the prisoner told him if he could call on the Sunday they would be finished. Witness called on the Sunday afternoon, but the prisoner was out. He went again on the Monday and saw the prisoner, who handed him six photographs (produced). Witness had paid him £1 9s. 6d. For them and his own photograph on the previous Tuesday. Witness took the pictures to Scotland-yard, and handed them to Chief Superintendent Williamson, and by his instructions he called on Mr. Collette the next morning. He was present that morning at the prisoner's house, with Chief Inspector Shore, when the negatives produced were seized. They corresponded with the pictures he had bought. He recognised among other parcels of negatives now handed to him, and which were seized that morning, two negatives the prisoner had shown him. Cross-examined: He went to the prisoner's once or twice on horseback. The prisoner told him the negatives did not belong to him. The payment of £1 9s. 6d., for which the receipt was now produced, was not solely for his photographs it included the others. His photographs were 17s. 6d. Per dozen. The prisoner, that morning, made no effort of concealment. He told them where the negatives were. John Shore, chief inspector of Scotland-yard, having also given evidence, the prisoner reserved his defence, and Mr. Mansfield committed him for trial. Mr. Collette applied for a summons for the destruction of the negatives and photographs, which Mr. Mansfield granted. Mr. Abrahams asked that the prisoner be allowed to go out on bail, and Mr. Mansfield agreed to accept two sureties in £40 each.
 
  
Conclusions 
  
2.49   Erotica and nudes >  Conclusions to erotica and nudes 
  
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Venus of Willendorf - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 11 December 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venus_of_Willendorf 
      
  2. Λ The literature on the nude in art history is considerable but a few examples will be sufficient here - Kenneth Clark, 1956, The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form, (New York: Pantheon); Gill Saunders, 1989, The Nude: A New Perspective, (Cambridge, Mass.: Harper & Row) 
      
  3. Λ Alison Smith, ed., with contributions by Robert Upstone and others, 2001, Exposed: The Victorian Nude, (London: Tate Publishing) 
      
  4. Λ Erotic art in Pompeii and Herculaneum - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 13 April 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erotic_art_in_Pompeii_and_Herculaneum 
      
  5. Λ Southworth & Hawes, "The Greek Slave, by Hiram Powers", 1848, Daguerreotype, 3 1/4 x 2 9/16 ins, J. Paul Getty Museum, 84.XT.1582.1 
      
  6. Λ Lauren Lessing, 2010, "Ties that Bind: Hiram Powers’ Greek Slave and Nineteenth-century Marriage", American Art, vol. 24, pp. 41–65 
      
  7. Λ Livy, History of Rome, 1.9. 
      
  8. Λ Plutarch, Parallel Lives, chapter 14 
      
  9. Λ For Fratelli Alinari which went on to become a highy significant publisher and image library in Italy - Filippo Zevi, 1978, Alinari: Photographers of Florence, 1852–1920, (Florence and London: Idea Editions and Alinari Edizioni in association with the Scottish Arts Council); Alinari [firm], 1985, Gli Alinari fotografi a Firenze, 1852-1920, (Fratelli Alinari spa); Arturo Carlo Quintavalle, 2003, Gli Alinari, (Fratelli Alinari spa) 
      
  10. Λ Henry Fox Talbot, "Statuette: 'The Rape of the Sabines' by Giovanni da Bologna", 1840-1844 (ca), Salted paper print, 22.5 x 18.5 cm (sheet) 19.7 x 15.3 cm (image), National Gallery of Canada, Purchased 1975, no. 33487.25 
      
  11. Λ Graham Ovenden, 1974, Alphonse Mucha Photographs, (Academy Editions Ltd) 
      
  12. Λ Aaron Scharf, 1974, Art and Photography, (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books). The literature on the connections between art and photography is vast with early books including - Van Deren Coke, 1964, The Painter and the Photograph, from Delacroix to Warhol, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press); Henrich Schwarz & William Parker, 1987, Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press); Eugenia Parry Janis, 1991, The Kiss of Apollo, Photography & sculpture, 1845 to the present, (San Francisco: Fraenkel Gallery) 
      
  13. Λ For a contemporary analysis - Wendy Steiner, 2010 , The Real Real Thing: The Model in the Mirror of Art, (University of Chicago Press)
     
    There should be a history of the use of life models in art providing accounts from studios, diaries etc but I have not come across one. If there is please let me know - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  14. Λ J.C. Horsley, 1885, "Religion and Art", The Official Report of the Church Congress held at Portsmouth, October, 1885, (London: Bemrose & Sons), p. 188 
      
  15. Λ Allan Cunningham, 1843, The Life of Sir David Wilkie: With His Journals, Tours, and Critical Remarks on Works of Art; and a Selection from His Correspondence, (Lomdon: John Murray) - "Went to the Royal Academy, and did a good deal to the sketch from the life model" (vol. 1, p. 183), "Went to the Academy, where I continued painting from the naked figure till 7 o'clock" (vol. 1, p. 184) 
      
  16. Λ George du Maurier, 1894, Trilby, (London: Osgood, McIlvaine) [Published serially in Harper's Monthly in 1894.] 
      
  17. Λ Margaret B. Wright, 1878, "An Atelier des Dames", Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science, vol. 22, pp. 21-29
    "Do you dislike to pose for male artists?" asked Paletta.
     
    "Dislike? Why should I with so fine a figure as this?" answered the woman, throwing off her cloak to resume her pose. "I'd like it better if I had a handsome face, but I'd like it much worse if I had flabby flesh or buniony feet."
     
    Paletta saw that no question of modesty entered the model's mind, and she went back to her easel to paint...
     
      
  18. Λ There are numerous adverts - for example, 1 October 1881, The Artist and Journal of Home Culture, p. 304 
      
  19. Λ 1887, "Monthly Record of American Art", The Magazine of Art, vol. 10, p. xxxviii 
      
  20. Λ Lambert M. Surhone; Mariam T. Tennoe & Susan F. Henssonow, 2011, Vincenzo Galdi, (Betascript Publishing, print on demand) 
      
  21. Λ Wilhelm Plüschow, 1995, Guglielmo Plüschow (1852-1930): ein Photograph aus Mecklenburg in Italien, (NWM-Verlag) 
      
  22. Λ Lynda Head, 1992, The Female Nude: Art, Obscenity and Sexuality, (Routledge) 
      
  23. Λ Graham Ovenden, 1974, Alphonse Mucha Photographs, (Academy Editions Ltd) 
      
  24. Λ Gordon Hendricks, 1972, The Photographs of Thomas Eakins, (New York: Grossman Publishers); David Sewell (ed.), 2001, Thomas Eakins, (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale University Press) 
      
  25. Λ Malcolm Daniel, 1998, Edgar Degas: Photographer, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [With essays by Eugenia Parry & Theodore Reff] 
      
  26. Λ William Culp Darrah, 1981, Cartes De Visite In Nineteenth Century Photography, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah); Thomas Harris, 2013, ‘The Mighty, Yet Diminutive, Carte de Visite‘, in Bryan & Page Ginns, 2013, Antique Photographica: The Collector's Vision (Schiffer), pp. 100-120; Elizabeth Anne McCauley, 1985, A. A. E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait, (New Haven: Yale) 
      
  27. Λ Mark S. Chalabala, 2013, American Backmark: The Art and Artistry of the Carte de Visite Imprint 1860-1890, (Privately printed) 
      
  28. Λ Bill Jay, 1974, Robert Demachy, 1859–1936, (New York: St. Martin’s Press); Robery Demachy, 1990, Robert Demachy: Pictorialist, ( Paris: Bookking International) 
      
  29. Λ Emile Joachim Constant Puyo, 1896, Notes sur la Photographie Artistique. Texte et Illustrations par C. Puyo, (Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils Editeurs) 
      
  30. Λ Marianne Fulton et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  31. Λ For the photographs of Anne Brigman - Anne Brigman, 1949, Songs of a Pagan, (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers); Susan Ehrens, 1995, A Poetic Vision: The Photographs of Anne Brigman, (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Art) 
      
  32. Λ Edward Steichen, 1985, A Life In Photography, (New York: Bonanza Books); J. Steichen (ed.), 2000, Steichen’s Legacy: Photographs, 1895–1973, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) 
      
  33. Λ Michel Bovi (Naples), "Amour maternel", [Photo-Club de Paris / 1894, Pl. XXXIII bis / XXXIII], 1894, Heliogravure / Photogravure, 11.1 x 8.1 cm, Photoseed, Photograph courtesy PhotoSeed.com
     
    This photograph by Michel Bovi is similar stylistically to the 1897 Gertrude Kasebier's photograph "Mother and Child or Adoration and The Vision" - Barbara L. Michaels, 1992, Gertrude Kasebier: The Photographer and her Photographs, (Harry N. Abrams), p. 47 
      
  34. Λ Newton, Helmut, 1981, Big Nudes, (Paris: Xavier Moreau Inc.) [Text by K. Lagerfeld] 
      
  35. Λ Nancy Newhall, 2007, Edward Weston's Book of Nudes, (Oxford University Press, USA); Amy Conger, 2006, Edward Weston: The Form of the Nude, (Phaidon Press) 
      
  36. Λ Bill Brandt, 1961, Perspective of Nudes, (London: The Bodley Head); Bill Brandt, 1980, Bill Brandt: Nudes 1945-1980, (London: Gordon Fraser) 
      
  37. Λ Kishin Shinoyama, 1991, Santa Fe, (Tokyo: Asahi Shuppansha). The book is called "Santa Fe" as the photographs were taken in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. The book was shocking in Japanese society as it showed pubic hair. 
      
  38. Λ The leotard takes its names from French acrobat Jules Léotard (1838–1870).
     
    For an account of the performances of Jules Léotard in a children's book - George Forest, 1864, "The Trapeze: Single and Double", Routledge's Every Boy's Annual, (Routledge, Warne & Routledge), p. 360-370 where he is described as "Clad in a tightly fitting suit of elastic tissues, so as to present as little resistance as possible to the air..., p. 361 
      
  39. Λ Van Deren Coke, 1962 Spring, "Two Delacroix Drawings Made from Photographs", Art Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 172–174 
      
  40. Λ Eugène Durieu is mentioned on multiple occassions in the diaries of Delacroix - Eugène Delacroix, Paul Flat, René Piot, 1893, Journal de Eugène Delacroix ...: 1850-1854, (E. Plon, Nourrit et cie) 
      
  41. Λ Eugène Durieu and Eugène Delacroix - Gerry Badger (blog)
    (Accessed: 11 November 2013)
    www.gerrybadger.com/eugene-durieu-and-eugene-delacroix/ 
      
  42. Λ G.L. Arlaud, 1920, Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air, (Paris, Horos Editions) 
      
  43. Λ S. Ehrens, 1995, A Poetic Vision: The Photographs of Anne Brigman, (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Art) 
      
  44. Λ William Innes Homer, 1983, Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession, (New York: Little, Brown) 
      
  45. Λ Anne Brigman, 1949, Songs of a Pagan, (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers) 
      
  46. Λ For the photographs of Alfred Cheney Johnston - Alfred Cheney Johnston, 1987, September, Alfred Cheney Johnston: Women of talent and beauty 1917 to 1930, (Malvern, PA: Charles Isaacs Photographs) [Sales catalogue]; Alfred Cheney Johnston, 1990, Alfred Cheney Johnston: Woman of Talent and Beauty, (Light Impressions); Robert Hudovernik, 2006, Jazz Age Beauties: The Lost Collection of Ziegfeld Photographer Alfred Cheney Johnston, (Universe) 
      
  47. Λ The Ziegfeld Follies were elaborate Broadway productions that ran from 1907 until 1931. 
      
  48. Λ Biography provided by (Bonartes Photo Institute): Monika Faber / (Moravská galerie): Petra Medríková, Supplied to Luminous-Lint by: Magdalena Vukovic (11 July 2013) 
      
  49. Λ Man Ray, 1929, 1929, (Paris) 
      
  50. Λ Books by Frantisek Drtikol: Frantisek Drtikol, 1929, Le nus de Drtikol, (Paris: Libraire des Arts Decoratifs), Preface de Claude de Santeul. Includes 30 photogravure reproductions of Drtikol's nude studies; Frantisek Drtikol, 1930, Zena ve Svetle, (Prague: E. Beaufort) 
      
  51. Λ Book on Frantisek Drtikol include - Vladimir Birgus, 1988, Frantisek Drtikol, (Praha: Odeon) [Czech]; Vladimer Birgus, 2002, The Photographer Frantisek Drtikol, (Kant); Anna Farova, 1993, Frantisek Drtikol: Photograph des Art Deco, (München: Schirmer / Mosel); Anna Farova, 2012, Frantisek Drtikol, (Hatje Cantz); Josef Moucha, 2007, Frantisek Drtikol 1883-1961, (Prague: Torst) 
      
  52. Λ André Kertész, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chêne) 
      
  53. Λ Carlo Rim was a pseudonym of Jean Marius Richard. 
      
  54. Λ Luna Park was an amusement park in Paris that operated from around 1907 until 1931. 
      
  55. Λ André Kertész, 1985, Kertész on Kertész: A Self-Portrait, (Abbeville Press) 
      
  56. Λ One series of twelve distortions by André Kertész was published in Le Sourire, 12 March 1933.
     
    In September 1933 André Kertész published five of his distortions with the headline “Kertész et son miroir” in Arts et Métiers Graphiques.
     
    The book published over forty years later was - André Kertész, 1976, Distortions, (Paris, Editions du Chêne) 
      
  57. Λ James Alinder, 1979, Collecting light: The Photographs of Ruth Bernhard (Untitled 20), (Friends of Photography); Ginny Williams, 1993, Ruth Bernhard The Collection of Ginny Williams, (Tallgrass Press); Margaretta Mitchell, 2000, Ruth Bernhard: Between Art and Life, (Chronicle Books) 
      
  58. Λ To better understand the thinking of Edward Weston his Daybooks are the best source - Nancy Newhall (ed.), 1973, The Daybooks of Edward Weston: Volume 1, Mexico, (Millerton, NY: Aperture); Nancy Newhall, (ed.), 1973, The Daybooks of Edward Weston: Volume 2, California, (Millerton, NY: Aperture). The immortality of any photographer is strongly linked to having a good editor and a biographer - Nancy Newhall had that ability. 
      
  59. Λ Tina Modotti was the companion of Edward Weston when he was in Mexico and he mentored her in photography. There are a large number of books on her life and work including - Mildred Constantine, 1983, Tina Modotti: A Fragile Life, (New York: Rizzoli); Andrea Noble, 2001, Tina Modotti: Image, Texture, Photography, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press); Letizia Argenteri, 2003, Tina Modotti: Between Art & Revolution, (New Haven: Yale University Press); Sam Stourdze (ed.); Patricia Albers & Karen Cordero Reiman, 2000, Tina Modotti and the Mexican Renaissance, (Paris: Jean Michel Place Editions) 
      
  60. Λ Stephen Bennett Phillips (ed.) & Brett Weston, 2008, Brett Weston: Out of the Shadow, (Oklahoma City Museum of Art) 
      
  61. Λ Hippolyte Bayard, "Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man", 1840, Direct paper positive, Société Française de Photographie 
      
  62. Λ Eugenia Parry, 2010, Hippolyte Bayard, (Daniel Blau) 
      
  63. Λ Hippolyte Bayard - The J. Paul Getty Museum
    (Accessed: 24 April 2014)
    www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artMakerDetails?maker=1876 
      
  64. Λ Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden is well published - Jean-Claude Lemagny, 1977, Photographs of the classic male nude, Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden, (New York: Camera/Graphic Press); Charles Leslie, 1977, Wilhelm Von Gloeden Photographer. A Brief Introduction to His Life and Work, (New York: Soho Photographic Publishers); 1979, Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856–1931), (Kunsthalle Basel) [Exhibition catalogue]; Jack Woody (ed.), 1986, Taormina: Wilhelm von Gloeden, (Pasadena: Twelvetrees Press); Peter Weiermair, 1994, Wilhelm Von Gloeden: Erotic Photographs, (Cologne: Taschen Verlag); Peter Weiermair, 1996, Wilhelm von Gloeden, (Cologne: Taschen Verlag); Ulrich Pohlmann, 1998, Wilhelm von Gloeden: Taormina, (Munich: Schirmer Mosel); Roger Peyrefitte, 2008, Wilhelm von Gloeden, (Paris: Editions Textes Gais); Italo Zannier (ed.), 2008, Wilhelm von Gloeden: fotografie, nudi, paesaggi, scene di genere, (Florence: Alinari) 
      
  65. Λ For Minor White - Peter Bunnell, 1989, Minor White: The Eye That Shapes, (Princeton: Princeton University Art Museum); Minor White, 1982, Mirrors, Messages, Manifestations: Minor White, (Millerton, NY: Aperture; distributed in the U.S. by Viking Penguin); Minor White, 1992, Minor White: Rites & Passages, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Reissue edition] 
      
  66. Λ Paul Martineau, 2012, Herb Ritts: L.A. Style, (J. Paul Getty Museum) 
      
  67. Λ There was the first exhibition of his work outside Brazil ""Alair de Oliveira Gomes, photographs"" held at the Fondation Cartier, Paris (15 March 2001-17 May 2001)
    (Accessed: 12 August 2013)
    www.absolutearts.com/artsnews/2001/03/14/28235.html 
      
  68. Λ Vera Friederich & Christopher Schwarz, 1998, Men Defined: Nudes, (Edition Stemmle) 
      
  69. Λ Theodore Zichy, 1974, That Was No Gentleman, That Was Zichy, (London: Polybooks) 
      
  70. Λ For examining sexuality in a colonial context - Malek Alloula, 1986, The Colonial Harem, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press); Raymond Corbey, 1988, "Alterity: The Colonial Nude", Critique of Anthropology, vol. 8, pp. 75-92; Kelly Dennis, 1994, ‘Ethnopornography: Veiling the Dark Continent‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-28; Thomas Hendriks, 2013, "Erotics of Sin: Promiscuity, Polygamy and Homo-Erotics in Missionary Photography from the Congolese Rainforest", Visual Anthropology, Special Issue: Records of the Subaltern in Colonial and Imperial Societies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 355-382 
      
  71. Λ Christoph Irmscher, 2013, Louis Agassiz: Creator of American Science, (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt) 
      
  72. Λ G.E. Dobson, 1875, "On the Andamans and Andamanese", The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, vol. IV, plate xxxi; See also - Sita Venkateswa, 2004, Development and Ethnocide: Colonial Practices in the Andaman Islands, (IWGIA), p. 108
     
    Note that the genitalia of Maia Biala have been scratched out on one of these versions - presumably a prudish defacing. In the versions at the Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, PRM. B30. Misc.Ic; RAI 5758 and in the private collection collection of Jan Weijers the genitalia are shown.  
      
  73. Λ M.V. Portman, 1899, A history of our relations with the Andamanese, (Calcutta: Office of the Government Printing) [2 volumes] 
      
  74. Λ Michel Mégnin, 2005, La Tunisie de Lehnert et Landrock, (Paris: Méditerranée & Tunis: Apollonia) 
      
  75. Λ Paul Martin, 1939, Victorian Snapshots, (London: Country Life); Paul Martin, n.d. [1978?], A Yarmouth Holiday, (London: Nishen Photography) [Introduction by Mark Haworth-Booth];Bill Jay, 1973, Victorian Candid Camera: Paul Martin 1864-1944, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles) 
      
  76. Λ Sarah Greenough, 1991, Walker Evans: Subways and Streets, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art) 
      
  77. Λ There is a film The Candid Image: A Portrait of Erich Salomon (1992) on Erich Salomon. Description of this documentary:
    His camera hidden in his hat, he sat in a courtroom and photographed two accused murderers being sentenced; photographed Von Hindenburg from a bathroom window across from the presidential palace; hid his camera in a music stand to photograph Toscanini in performance. But he had artistic talent as well as nerve. This program tells Salomon’s story, the famous photos augmented by some of the negatives hidden from the Nazis and now restored. Salomon was killed in Auschwitz, but his astonishing documentation of the 20th century survives.
     
      
  78. Λ Tim Gidal, 1973, Modern Photojournalism: Origin and Revolution 1910-1933, (New York: Macmillan) 
      
  79. Λ Miroslav Tichy, 2012, L'homme a La Mauvaise Camera, (Presses du Reel) 
      
  80. Λ Kohei Yoshiyuki & Yossi Milo (ed.), 2007, The Park, (Hatje Cantz/Yossi Milo). The book description says:
    Kohei Yoshiyuki's nighttime photographs, taken with infrared film and flash in Japan's Shinjuku, Yoyogi and Aoyama Parks during the 1970s, capture the illicit sexual encounters, both heterosexual and homosexual, that frequently occurred there under the cloak of darkness. The Park's images not only reveal hidden sexual exploits but also uncover many spectators ardently lurking in the darkness, waiting to join in--and quickly raise issues of voyeurism and surveillance. In The Photobook: A History, Volume II, Martin Parr speaks to the societal relevance of this series, calling it, "A brilliant piece of social documentation, catching perfectly the loneliness, sadness and desperation that so often accompany sexual or human relationships in a big, hard metropolis like Tokyo."
     
    As exhibition organizer and editor Yossi Milo writes in his introduction, "With each viewing, I noticed something that had eluded me before: the photos' rigorous compositions They are provocative photographs, and unsettling as well: one is both chilled and thrilled by Yoshiyuki's boldness, by how close he crept to his unaware subjects, by the hours he spent late at night crouched in bushes and against trees, waiting for his perfect shot."
     
      
  81. Λ Ikko Kagari, 1982, Document Tsuken Densha, (Hama Shobo). These photographs may have been taken using infrared flash photography. 
      
  82. Λ arnesvenson.com/theneighbors.html
    (Accessed: 17 July 2013)
    With Arne Svenson's new series, Neighbors, he has turned outward from his usual studio based practice to study the daily activities of his downtown Manhattan neighbors as seen through his windows into theirs. Svenson has always combined a highly developed aesthetic sense viewed from the perspective of social anthropology in his eclectic projects with subjects ranging from prisoners to sock monkeys. His projects are almost always instigated by an external or random experience which brings new objects or equipment into his life- in this case he inherited a bird watching telephoto lens from a friend.
     
    The grid structure of the windows frame the quotidian activities of the neighbors, forming images which are puzzling, endearing, theatrical and often seem to mimic art history, from Delacroix to Vermeer. The Neighbors is social documentation in a very rarified environment. The large color prints have been cropped to various orientations and sizes to condense and focus the action.
    Jonny Weeks, 19 August 2013, "The art of peeping: photography at the limits of privacy - New York photographer Arne Svenson snapped his neighbours in their homes without permission – and has just won a court case under his First Amendment rights. Should snooping be allowed in the name of art?", The Guardian (UK) (Accessed: 28 August 2013)
    www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/photography-blog/2013/aug/19/art-peeping-photography-privacy-arne-svenson 
      
  83. Λ Press release for "Robert Mapplethorpe: Photographs from The Kinsey Institute Collection" (10 Oct 2014 - 22 Nov 2014, Indiana University's Grunwald Gallery)
    (Accessed: 12 October 2014)
    www.indiana.edu/~grunwald/exhibitions.php?pid=robert-mapplethorpe-photographs-from-the-kinsey-institute-collection
    In 1989, a retrospective of Mapplethorpe's work, "The Perfect Moment," helped ignite a fierce culture war after Republican Sen. Jesse Helms discovered that the National Endowment for the Arts had awarded the Institute of Contemporary Art in Philadelphia $30,000 toward the exhibition. A battle ensued over the government's role in funding for the arts.
     
    One year later, the same exhibition provoked local law enforcement in Cincinnati, Ohio, to accuse Cincinnati's Contemporary Arts Center and its director of pandering pornography and promoting obscenity. A famous trial resulted in which the definition of art itself was the essential issue. Art and the exhibition prevailed, as all charges were dismissed.
     
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Alloula, Malek, 1986, The Colonial Harem, (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) isbn-10: 0816613842 isbn-13: 978-0816613847 [Δ
  
Bertolotti, Alessandro, 2007, Books of Nudes, (Abrams) isbn-10: 0810994445 isbn-13: 978-0810994447 [Δ
  
Bright, Deborah (ed.), 1998, The Passionate Camera: Photography and Bodies of Desire, (London and New York: Routledge) [Δ
  
Callahan, Sean & Olschewski, P. (eds.), 1995, Nudes, (Edition Stemmle) isbn-10: 390551401X isbn-13: 978-3905514018 [Δ
  
Corbey, Raymond, 1988, ‘Alterity: The Colonial Nude‘, Critique of Anthropology, vol. 8, pp. 75-92 [Δ
  
Dennis, Kelly, 1994, ‘Ethnopornography: Veiling the Dark Continent‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-28 [Δ
  
Dupouy, Alexandre, 1993, Torture garden: Vintage erotica archives, (Tokyo: Treville: Distributed by Libro Port Co.) isbn-13: 978-4845708659 [Δ
  
Dupouy, Alexandre, 2003, Erotic art photography, (London: Parkstone) isbn-13: 978-1859958193 [Δ
  
Dupouy, Alexandre & Dupouy, Chloé, 2007, Les éditions Ostra: l’Âge d’Or du Fétichisme, (Paris: Astarte) isbn-13: 978-2909607191 [Δ
  
Dupouy, Alexandre; Esteban, Anne-Marie & Monsieur X, 1996, Collection privée de Monsieur X, (Paris: Astarte) isbn-13: 978-2909607092 [Δ
  
Edwards, Susan H., 1994, ‘Pretty Babies: Art, Erotica or Kiddie Porn‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 38-46 [Δ
  
Ewing, William A., 1994, The Body: Photographs of the Human Form, (San Francisco: Chronicle Books) [Δ
  
Field, Genevieve. (ed.), 2000, Nerve: The New Nude, (Chronicle Books) isbn-10: 081182957X isbn-13: 978-0811829571 [Δ
  
Hanson, Dian, 2013, Dian Hanson's History of Pin-up Magazines Vol. 1-3, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836539705 isbn-13: 978-3836539708 [Slipcase, English / French / German] [Δ
  
Hanson, Dian (ed.), 2014, The Big Book of Pussy 3D, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836551624 isbn-13: 978-3836551625 [3-D edition] [Δ
  
Hanson, Dian (ed.), 2014, The Big Butt Book 3D, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836551632 isbn-13: 978-3836551632 [3-D edition] [Δ
  
Herbert, Stephen, 1989, January / March, ‘Animated Portrait Photography‘, History of Photography, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 65-78 [Δ
  
Jay, Bill, 1971, Views on Nudes, (Focal Press) isbn-10: 0240507312 isbn-13: 978-0240507316 [Δ
  
Kelly, Jain. (ed.), 1979, Nude Theory, (Lustrum Press) isbn-10: 0912810335 isbn-13: 978-0912810331 [Δ
  
Kroll, Eric (ed.), 1995, Elmer Batters. From the tip of the toes to the top of the hose, (Taschen) isbn-13: 978-3836539296 [Δ
  
Kuhn, Annette, 1985, The Power of the Image: Essays on Representation and Sexuality, (New York: Routledge) [Δ
  
Köhler, Michael, 1986/1995, The Body Exposed: Views of the Body: 150 Years of the Nude in Photography, (Zurich: Edition Stemmle) [Δ
  
Linderman, Jim, 2011, Secret History of the Black Pin Up: Women of Color from Pin Up to Porn, (Blurb (Self-published, print-on-demand)) [Blurb id: 2488194] [Δ
  
Linderman, Jim, 2011, Smut by Mail: Vintage Graphics from the Golden Age of Obscenity, (Blurb (Self-published, print-on-demand)) [Blurb id: 1957996] [Δ
  
Martineau, Paul, 2014, The Nude in Photography, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 1606062662 isbn-13: 978-1606062661 [Δ
  
Mavor, Carol, 1995, Pleasures Taken: Performances of Sexuality and Loss in Victorian Photographs, (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press) [Δ
  
Mitchell, M. & Bernhard, R., 1986, The Eternal Body, (Carmel: Photography West Graphics) [Δ
  
Mlcoch. Jan & Birgus, Vladimir (eds.), 2001, The Nude In Czech Photography, (Kant) isbn-10: 8086217353 isbn-13: 978-8086217352 [Δ
  
Nazarieff, Serge, 1993, Early Erotic Photography, (Taschen) [Δ
  
Nead, Lynda, 1992, The Female Nude: Art, Obscenity and Sexuality, (London and New York: Routledge) [Δ
  
Ovendon, Graham, 1972, Victorian Erotic Photography, (New York: St. Martin's Press) [Δ
  
Pulz, John, 1995, The Body and the Lens: Photography 1839 to the Present, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
Richter, Peter-Cornell (ed.), 1998, Nude Photography: Masterpieces from the Past 150 Years, (Prestel Publishing) isbn-10: 3791319981 isbn-13: 978-3791319988 [Δ
  
Smith, Todd D., 1994, ‘Gay Male Pornography and the East: Re-Orienting the Orient‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 13-21 [Δ
  
Stirrat, Betsy et. al, 1997, The Art of Desire: Erotic Treasures from the Kinsey Institute, (Indiana University Press) isbn-10: 0966032004 isbn-13: 978-0966032000 [Δ
  
Weiermair, Peter; Pohlmann, Ulrich, et al., 2004, The Nude: Ideal and Reality - Photography, (Skira) isbn-10: 8884918308 isbn-13: 978-8884918307 [Δ
  
Wolin, Jeffrey A. & Stirratt, Betsy, 2000, Peek: Photographs from the Kinsey Institute, (Arena editions) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Araki Nobuyoshi 
  
Nobuyoshi, Araki, 1990, Tokyo Lucky Hole 1983-1985, Shinjuku Kabuki-cho District, (Tokyo: Ohta Shuppan) [Δ
  
G.L. Arlaud 
  
Arlaud, G.L., 1920, Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air, (Paris, Horos Editions) [Δ
  
Hans Bellmer 
  
Bellmer, Hans, 1934, Die Puppe, (Karlsruhe: Privately published) [Δ
  
Bellmer, Hans, 1949, Les Jeux de la Poupée, (Paris: Les Éditions premières) [Δ
  
Bellmer, Hans, 1962, Die Puppe, (Berlin: Editions Gerhardt Verlag) [Δ
  
Bellmer, Hans, 2004, Hans Bellmer: The Doll [Japanese] [Δ
  
Bellmer, Hans, 2004, Little Anatomy of the Physical Unconscious: Or the Anatomy of the Image, (Dominion Press) isbn-10: 097120442X isbn-13: 9780971204423 [Δ
  
Haenlein, Carl (ed.), 1984, Hans Bellmer, (Hannover: Kestner Gesellschaft) [Exhibition catalogue - Katalog Kestner-Gesellschaft Hannover 17. Februar - 11. März 1984] [Δ
  
Semff, Michael & Spira, Antony (eds.), 2006, Hans Bellmer, (Hatje Cantz) isbn-13: 978-3775717939 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Webb, Peter, 2006, Death, Desire and the Doll: The Life and Art of Hans Bellmer, (London: Solar Books) isbn-10: 0971457867 isbn-13: 978-0971457867 [Δ
  
Webb, Peter & Short, Robert, 1985, Hans Bellmer, (London) isbn-10: 0704324377 [Δ
  
E.J. Bellocq 
  
Bellocq, E.J., 1996, Bellocq: Photographs from Storyville. The Red-Light District of New Orleans, (New York: Random House) [Introduction by Susan Sontag. Interviews by John Szarkowski. Preface by Lee Friedlander] [Δ
  
Szarkowski, J. (ed.), 1970, E. J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits: Photographs from the New Orleans Red-Light District, circa 1912, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Bill Brandt 
  
Brandt, Bill, 1961, Perspective of Nudes, (London: The Bodley Head) [Δ
  
Brandt, Bill, 1980, Bill Brandt: Nudes 1945-1980, (London: Gordon Fraser) [Δ
  
Brandt, Bill, 2004, Brandt Nudes: A New Perspective, (Bill Brandt Archive) [Limited edition. Republished by Thames and Hudson 2013] [Δ
  
Haworth-Booth, Mark & Durrell, Lawrence, 2013, Brandt Nudes: A New Perspective, (Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 0500970424 isbn-13: 978-0500970423 [A reprint of the limited edition 2004 book published by the Bill Brandt Archive] [Δ
  
Lucien Clergue 
  
Clergue, Lucien, 1999, Grands nus, (Marval) [Δ
  
Frantisek Drtikol 
  
Drtikol, Frantisek, 1929, Le nus de Drtikol, (Paris: Libraire des Arts Decoratifs) [Preface de Claude de Santeul. Includes 30 photogravure reproductions of Drtikol's nude studies] [Δ
  
Farova, Anna, 1993, Frantisek Drtikol: Photograph des Art Deco, (München: Schirmer / Mosel) [Δ
  
Eugène Durieu 
  
Coke, Van Deren, 1962, Spring, ‘Two Delacroix Drawings Made from Photographs‘, Art Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 172-174 [Δ
  
Vera Friederich 
  
Friederich, Vera & Schwarz, Christopher, 1998, Men Defined: Nudes, (Edition Stemmle) isbn-10: 3908161444 isbn-13: 978-3908161448 [Δ
  
Lee Friedlander 
  
Friedlander, Lee, 1991, Lee Friedlander: Nudes, (Random House UK) isbn-10: 0224032178 isbn-13: 978-0224032179 [Δ
  
Friedlander, Lee, 2013, Lee Friedlander The Nudes: A Second Look, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) isbn-10: 193892200X isbn-13: 978-1938922008 [Δ
  
Vincenzo Galdi 
  
Janssen, Volker (ed.), 1991, Wilhelm von Gloeden, Wilhelm von Plüschow, Vincenzo Galdi. Italienische Jünglings-Photographien um 1900, (Berlin) [Δ
  
Surhone, Lambert M.; Tennoe, Mariam T. & Henssonow, Susan F., 2011, Vincenzo Galdi, (Betascript Publishing, print on demand) isbn-10: 6135137204 isbn-13: 978-6135137200 [Δ
  
Ikko Kagari 
  
Kagari, Ikko, 1980s, Tokyo Chikan Moyo / Tokyo Pervert Report, (Tokyo: Outo Shobo) [Japanese] [Δ
  
Kagari, Ikko, 1982, Adult Shashinjutsu Nozoki Part 2., (Tokyo: Hama Shobo) [Japanese] [Δ
  
Kagari, Ikko, 1982, Document Tsuken Densha [Document Tsuken Express Train], (Hama Shobo) [Japanese] [Δ
  
Kagari, Ikko, 1994, Chikan Rush, (Tokyo: Heart Deluxe) [Japanese] [Δ
  
Kagari, Ikko & Mutsuki, Kagerou, 1980s, Chikan Densha / Sekigaisen Shashin Documents, (Tokyo: Ohto Shobo) [Japanese] [Δ
  
Kohei Yoshiyuki 
  
Yoshiyuki, Kohei, 1980, Document Koen / Document Park, (Tokyo, Seven Sha) [Δ
  
George Platt Lynes 
  
Crump, J., 1993, George Platt Lynes, Photographs from the Kinsey Institute, (Boston: Bulfinch Press) [Δ
  
Kirstein, L., 1960, George Platt Lynes Portraits 1931–1952, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago) [Δ
  
Woody, J., 1981, George Platt Lynes: Photographs, 1931–1955, (Pasadena, CA: Twelvetrees Press) [Δ
  
Manassé Studio (Vienna) 
  
Faber, Monika, 1998, Divas and lovers: the erotic art of Studio Manassé, (Universe) isbn-10: 0789302349 isbn-13: 978-0789302342 [Δ
  
Faber, Monika, 1998, Eine Frau wie du sie willst: Glamour, Kult und korrigierte Körper. Atelier Manassé 1922-1938, (Vienna / Munich) [Δ
  
Robert Mapplethorpe 
  
Danto, A. C., 1996, Playing With the Edge: The Photographic Achievement of Robert Mapplethorpe, (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press) [Δ
  
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 1978, X [Portfolio] [Homosexual and sadomasochistic imagery] [Δ
  
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 1980, Robert Mapplethorpe: Black Males, (Amsterdam: Galeria Jurka) [Text by Edmund White] [Δ
  
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 1983, Lady: Lisa Lyon, (New York: St. Martins) [Δ
  
Mapplethorpe, Robert, 1999, Pictures: Robert Mapplethorpe, (New York: Arena Editions) [Edited by D. Levas] [Δ
  
Marshall, R.; Howard, R. & Sischy, I., 1988, Robert Mapplethorpe, (New York: Whitney Museum of Art) [Δ
  
Morrisroe, P., 1995, Mapplethorpe, (New York: Papermac) [Δ
  
Mary Ellen Mark 
  
Mark, Mary Ellen, 1981, Falkland Road: Prostitutes of Bombay, (New York: Knopf) [Δ
  
Daniel Masclet 
  
Masclet, Daniel, 1933, Nus: La Beauté de la Femme [Δ
  
Susan Meiselas 
  
Meiselas, Susan, 2001, Pandora’s Box, (London and New York: Trebruk) [Δ
  
Meiselas, Susan, 2008, Carnival Strippers, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3882439548 isbn-13: 978-3882439540 [2nd revised edition] [Δ
  
Boris Mikhailov 
  
Mikhailov, Boris, 1999, Boris Mikhailov: Case History, (Scalo Publishers) isbn-10: 3908247098 isbn-13: 978-3908247098 [Δ
  
Martin Munkácsi 
  
Munkácsi, Martin, 1951, Nudes, (New York: Greenberg Publisher) [Δ
  
Nancy Newhall 
  
Newhall, Nancy, 2007, Edward Weston's Book of Nudes, (Oxford University Press, USA) isbn-10: 0892369035 isbn-13: 978-0892369034 [Δ
  
Helmut Newton 
  
Newton, Helmut, 1976, White Women, (London: Quartet Books) [Δ
  
Newton, Helmut, 1981, Big Nudes, (Paris: Xavier Moreau Inc.) [Text by K. Lagerfeld] [Δ
  
Newton, Helmut, 2000, Sumo, (Cologne: Taschen) [Δ
  
Irving Penn 
  
Hambourg, Maria Morris, 2002, Earthly Bodies: Irving Penn's Nudes, 1949–50, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Boston: Bulfinch Press) [Δ
  
Wilhelm Plüschow 
  
Janssen, Volker (ed.), 1991, Wilhelm von Gloeden, Wilhelm von Plüschow, Vincenzo Galdi. Italienische Jünglings-Photographien um 1900, (Berlin) [Δ
  
Plüschow, Wilhelm, 1995, Guglielmo Plüschow (1852 - 1930): ein Photograph aus Mecklenburg in Italien, (NWM-Verlag) isbn-10: 398043740X isbn-13: 978-3980437400 [Δ
  
Sasha Stone 
  
Stone, Sasha, 1930, Femmes, (Paris: Editions Arts et Metiers Graphiques) [Δ
  
Larry Sultan 
  
Sultan, Larry, 2005, The Valley, (Scalo) isbn-10: 3908247799 isbn-13: 978-3908247791 [Δ
  
Miroslav Tichý 
  
Tichy, Miroslav, 2012, L'homme a La Mauvaise Camera, (Presses du Reel) isbn-10: 2916067655 isbn-13: 978-2916067650 [French] [Δ
  
Wilhelm von Gloeden 
  
1979, Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden (1856–1931), (Kunsthalle Basel) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Janssen, Volker (ed.), 1991, Wilhelm von Gloeden, Wilhelm von Plüschow, Vincenzo Galdi. Italienische Jünglings-Photographien um 1900, (Berlin) [Δ
  
Lemagny, Jean-Claude, 1977, Photographs of the classic male nude, Baron Wilhelm von Gloeden, (New York: Camera/Graphic Press) isbn-10: 0918696038 [Δ
  
Leslie, Charles, 1977, Wilhelm Von Gloeden Photographer. A Brief Introduction to His Life and Work, (New York: Soho Photographic Publishers) [Δ
  
Peyrefitte, Roger, 2008, Wilhelm von Gloeden, (Paris: Editions Textes Gais) isbn-13: 978-2914679305 [Δ
  
Pohlmann, Ulrich, 1998, Wilhelm von Gloeden: Taormina, (Munich: Schirmer Mosel) isbn-10: 388814406X [Δ
  
Von Gloeden, Wilhelm, 1975, Taormina. Début de siecle. Photographies du Baron de Gloeden, (Paris: Editions du Chêne) [Δ
  
Von Gloeden, Wilhelm & Pluschow, Guglielmo, 2000, Et in Arcadio Ego, (Janssen Verlag) isbn-10: 3905597209 isbn-13: 978-3905597202 [Bilingual, English & German] [Δ
  
Weiermair, Peter, 1994, Wilhelm Von Gloeden: Erotic Photographs, (Cologne: Taschen Verlag) isbn-10: 3822893153 [Δ
  
Weiermair, Peter, 1996, Wilhelm von Gloeden, (Cologne: Taschen Verlag) isbn-10: 388288314X [German, English, French] [Δ
  
Woody, Jack (ed.), 1986, Taormina: Wilhelm von Gloeden, (Pasadena: Twelvetrees Press) isbn-10: 0942642228 [2nd edition 1990, 3rd 1997] [Δ
  
Zannier, Italo (ed.), 2008, Wilhelm von Gloeden: fotografie, nudi, paesaggi, scene di genere, (Florence: Alinari) isbn-13: 978-8863020045 [Δ
  
Michael von Graffenried 
  
Graffenried, Michael von & Coleman, A.D., 2002, Naked in Paradise, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) isbn-10: 189923585X isbn-13:  978-1899235858 [Δ
  
Walery 
  
Laryew (Stanislaus Walery), 1924 (ca), Nus - Cent photographies originales de Laryew, (Paris: Librairie des Arts Decoratis) [Δ
  
Edward Weston 
  
Conger, Amy, 2006, Edward Weston: The Form of the Nude, (Phaidon Press) isbn-10: 0714845736 isbn-13: 978-0714845739 [Δ
  
Newhall, Nancy, 2007, Edward Weston's Book of Nudes, (Oxford University Press, USA) isbn-10: 0892369035 isbn-13: 978-0892369034 [Δ
  
Weston, Edward, 1977, Edward Weston: Nudes, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Frank Rodick: Sub Rosa series of nude studies. 
http://www.frankrodick.com ... 
  
Robert Farber 
http://www.farber.com 
  
Eric Boutilier-Brown 
http://www.evolvingbeauty.com 
This site has two sections a free site and a patron site with an annual subscription that allows access to a far larger resource of images. 
  
Robert Mapplethorpe: Male Nudes 
http://www.mapplethorpe.org ... 
  
Sexist/Girlie 
http://www.geh.org ... 
  
Robert Mapplethorpe: Female Nudes 
http://www.mapplethorpe.org ... 
  
Art Forum 
http://www.art-forum.org 
Hans de Roos has put together a site with high quality scans of work exploring the relationship between the nude and art. 
  
Robert Mapplethorpe - the Cincinnati case 
http://www.enquirer.com ... 
The showing of photographs by Robert Mapplethorpe and legal case that was bought against Dennis Barrie and the Contemporary Arts Center in Cincinnati. The argument concerned the right to use photographs that were deemed by some to be offensive. Although the jury affirmed the right to show the work it did affect public funding for the arts in America. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Albert Arthur Allen • Araki Nobuyoshi  (1940-) • G.L. Arlaud  (1869-1944) • Davide Armando • Emilian David Armstrong  (1966-) • Jane Evelyn Atwood  (1947-) • Marc Baptiste • Juliana Beasley • Hans Bellmer  (1902-1975) • Auguste Belloc  (1800-1868) • E.J. Bellocq  (1873-1949) • Ruth Bernhard  (1905-2006) • Erwin Blumenfeld  (1897-1969) • Guy Bourdin  (1928-1991) • Eric Boutilier-Brown  (1969-) • Bruno Braquehais  (1823-1875) • Bruce of LA • J.M. Cañellas • François-Rupert Carabin  (1862-1932) • Lewis Carroll  (1832-1898) • Fiona Clark  (1954-) • Lucien Clergue  (1934-2014) • Judy Dater  (1941-) • Frantisek Drtikol  (1883-1961) • Eugène Durieu  (1800-1874) • Evergon  (1946-) • Rotimi Fani-Kayode  (check) • Robert Farber • Gerard Fieret  (1924-2009) • Trude Fleischmann  (1895-1990) • Vera Friederich • Greg Friedler • Vincenzo Galdi  (1871-1961) • Nan Goldin  (1953-) • Alair de Oliveira Gomes  (1921-1992) • Greg Gorman  (1949-) • David Hamilton  (1933-) • Henry Horenstein  (1947-) • Timothy Hursley • Tetsuya Ichimura  (1930-) • Irina Ionesco  (1935-) • Alfred Cheney Johnston  (1885-1971) • Ikko Kagari • Richard Kern • Richard Kirstel  (check) • Kohei Yoshiyuki • Rolf Koppel  (1937-) • Mona Kuhn  (1969-) • Herbert List  (1903-1975) • Pierre Louÿs  (1870-1925) • George Platt Lynes  (1907-1955) • Manassé Studio (Vienna) • Robert Mapplethorpe  (1946-1989) • Gaudenzio Marconi  (1841-1885) • Mary Ellen Mark  (1940-) • Susan Meiselas  (1948-) • Monsieur X • Jacques Moulin  (check) • Helmut Newton  (1920-2004) • Paul Outerbridge  (1896-1958) • Irving Penn  (1917-2009) • Jack Pierson  (1960-) • Wilhelm Plüschow  (1852-1930) • Bettina Rheims  (1952-) • Gerhard Riebicke  (1878-1957) • Leni Riefenstahl  (1902-2003) • Herb Ritts  (1952-2002) • Jan Saudek  (1935-) • Arnold Skolnick • Studio Biederer • Arthur Tress  (1940-) • Julien Vallou de Villeneuve  (1795-1866) • Wilhelm von Gloeden  (1856-1931) • Michael von Graffenried • Walery  (check) • Edward Weston  (1886-1958) • Vicky Wetherill • Minor White  (1908-1976) • Joel-Peter Witkin  (1939-) • Bunny Yeager  (1929-2014) • Count Theodore Zichy  (1908-1983) • Heinrich Zille  (1858-1929)
HomeThemes > Erotica and nudes 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Artist studies - Académies 
Domination 
Erotica and staged photography 
Fetish 
Gender 
Naturism 
Prostitution 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Erotica and nudes

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailErotica: A Pictorialist perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 2, 2007) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailErotica: Artist studies / Académies 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 10, 2007) We welcome examples of additional artists studies - particularly those that were used as the basis for known artworks.
 
Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailErotica: Comment me preferez vous? [How would you like to see me?] 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 19, 2010) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailErotica: Daguerreotypes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 7, 2007) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailErotica: Men 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 22, 2010) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailErotica: Women 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 22, 2010) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailG.L. Arlaud: Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 13, 2007) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailWalery: NUS 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006) Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Erotica and nudes

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA. Calavas (editor): Artist studies - Académies 
ThumbnailAlbert Arthur Allen: The Female Figure 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbert Arthur Allen: The Model 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfred Cheney Johnston: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAndré Kertész: Distortions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAnne Brigman: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAraki Nobuyoshi: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAuguste Belloc and Félix Jacques Antoine Moulin: Femme sur un lit 
ThumbnailAuguste Belloc: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBill Brandt: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBrett Weston: Underwater nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCount Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailE. Aubin: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Steichen: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Weston: Nude backs 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailErgy Landau: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Atget: Brothels, prostitutes and nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Chauvassaigne: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Horvat: Le Sphynx, rue Pigalle, Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrantisek Drtikol: Les Nus de Drtikol (1929) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrantisek Drtikol: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailG.L. Arlaud: Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGaudenzio Marconi: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge Platt-Lynes: Celebration of the male form 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGermaine Krull: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustave Le Gray: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinz Hajek-Halke: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHelmut Newton: Sie Kommen 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.M. Cañellas: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJack Smith: The Beautiful Book 
ThumbnailJacques Moulin: Nude studies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJan Saudek 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulien Vallou de Villeneuve: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulien Vallou de Villeneuve: Reclining nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKarl Struss: Nude female with fan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKarl Struss: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKohei Yoshiyuki: Document Koen [Document Park] (1980) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKurt Reichert: Naturism 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLarry Clark: Teenage Lust 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLarry Sultan: The Valley 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLehnert & Landrock: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLeni Riefenstahl: Olympia 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLeni Riefenstahl: The Young Athlete 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis Igout: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis-Camille d'Olivier: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLucien Clergue: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMan Ray: 1929 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMan Ray: Solarized nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMarcel Natkin's book "Le Nu" (Editions Tiranty-Paris) 
ThumbnailPesme: Artist studies - Académies 
ThumbnailRené Le Begue: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRudolf Koppitz: Movement study (Bewegungsstudie) and variant 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRudolf Koppitz: Nude studies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRuth Bernhard: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSheila Metzner: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailStrand Studios: Girls 
ThumbnailStudio Biederer: Domination 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Eakins: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Ruff: Nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailVincenzo Galdi: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalery: Portraits with bodystockings 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilhelm Plüschow: Young male nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailJosef Vetrovsky - Frantisek Drtikol 
ThumbnailWynn Bullock - Harry Callahan 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailDomination 
ThumbnailErotica: A Pictorialist perspective 
ThumbnailErotica: Artist studies - Académies 
ThumbnailErotica: Comment me preferez vous? 
ThumbnailErotica: Ethnographic nudity 
ThumbnailErotica: Men 
ThumbnailErotica: The sex industry 
ThumbnailErotica: Women 
ThumbnailFashion: Costume: Body stockings 
ThumbnailJapanese courtesans 
ThumbnailNaturism and nudism 
 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Themes: Erotica 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Erotica and nudes 
ThumbnailGelatin silver prints: Themes: Erotica 
ThumbnailPhotogravures: Themes: Erotica 
ThumbnailSalt prints: Themes: Erotica 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailFront and back erotic card 
ThumbnailObscenity 
 
  
Refreshed: 16 December 2014, 01:48
 
  
 
  
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