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HomeContentsThemes > Architecture

Contents

Introduction
17.01   An introduction to architecture
Early examples
17.02   A world of roofs
17.03   Calvert Richard Jones: Daguerreotype: Margam Castle, Wales
17.04   Mission Héliographique
17.05   Achille Quinet: Restoration of the Royal Chaalis Abbey
Scotland
17.06   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow
17.07   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh
France, Paris
17.08   France: Paris - Notre Dame
17.09   France: Paris - Notre Dame, Facade
17.10   France: Paris - Notre Dame, La Porte Rouge
17.11   Charles Marville: Paris
17.12   Édouard Baldus: Paris
17.13   Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875)
17.14   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris
India, Gaur
17.15   John Henry Ravenshaw: Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions (1878)
Italy, Venice
17.16   Carlo Naya: Venice: Palaces
17.17   Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal
England, London
17.18   Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855)
17.19   The Society for photographing relics of old London
17.20   Roger Mayne: Wapping
Australia, Sydney
17.21   Album of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1870)
USA, New York
17.22   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers
17.23   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives
17.24   Lewis W. Hine: Empire State Building (1929-1931)
17.25   Berenice Abbott: Changing New York
Building types
17.26   Skyscrapers
Survey projects
17.27   Historic American Buildings Survey - HABS
USA, California
17.28   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia
17.29   Robert Adams: The construction of suburbia
Cities in decay
17.30   Roger Mayne: Leeds, slum clearance
Photographers
17.31   Candida Höfer: Architectural space
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
17.01   Architecture >  An introduction to architecture 
  
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Architecture is the art and science of designing and constructing buildings and monuments. Architectural photography in the nineteenth century rarely concerns the designing of structures but it does include the phases of construction.
 
Many notable buildings such as The Crystal Palace (1854-1855)[1] documented by Philip Henry Delamotte or The Paris Opera (1861-1875) was photographed by Louis-Emile Durandelle.[2] Some series such as that by Charles Marville documented the Paris as it underwent urban planning[3] whilst others dealt with the documentation of historic buildings such as the Mission Héliographique[4] in France or the archaeological remains of Gaur in India photographed by John Henry Ravenshaw.[5] In some cases societies were established to use photography as a tool to highlight buildings requiring civic protection and the Society for photographing relics of old London[6] and Historic American Buildings Survey - HABS are examples of this.
 
Private and public buildings, streets and open spaces merge together to create cityscapes and districts with conurbations of wealth and squalor. Cities in the nineteenth century with medieval plans and facing rapid growth employed photography to record the living conditions of the urban poor and we see this with Thomas Annan[7] in Glasgow, Archibald Burns[8] in Edinburgh and the socially motivated journalism of Jacob Riis[9] in New York.
 
Architecture is a many-facetted theme and here examples from a selection of the key series are included. 
  
Early examples 
  
17.02   Architecture >  A world of roofs 
  
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Early photographic methods required light, a place to work and test chemicals and optics. Prior to the preparation of specially designed photographic studios upper floors of buildings particularly in congested urban settings made sense and that is why a number of early photographs show roof details. These photographs are unlikely to have been to show architectural details but rather to test daguerreotype and other techniques. The 1843 daguerreotype by Armand Hippolyte Fizeau of a roof with a chimney in Paris (Toiture et cheminée, rue du Cherche-Midi à Paris and the 1851-53 salt paper print by lawyer Eduard Isaac Asser View from the roof of the photographer's house, Amsterdam are both examples of this. But the most famous is the earliest surviving photograph View from the Window at Le Gras taken in around 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
  
17.03   Architecture >  Calvert Richard Jones: Daguerreotype: Margam Castle, Wales 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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On 9th March 1841 Calvert Richard Jones took a whole-plate daguerreotype of Margam Castle[10] in Wales. Margam was completed in 1840 shortly before this photograph was taken. The owner Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot was a cousin of Henry Fox Talbot. Calvert Richard Jones was in the Talbot family circle and introduced to photography early on and able to learn of both the daguerreotype|and calotype discoveries.[11] 
  
17.04   Architecture >  Mission Héliographique 
  
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Mission Héliographiques was a project initiated by writer Prosper Mérimée in 1851 to document with photography the state of architecturally significant monuments in France so they could be preserved and restored.[12] The photographers were Édouard Baldus, Hippolyte Bayard, Gustave Le Gray, Henri Le Secq and Auguste Mestral. On occasion Le Gray & Mestral travelled and worked together and it is unclear which one took the photographers or if they were taken together. Henri Courmont (1813-1855) was a commissioner for the Mission Héliographiques but did not contribute photographs.
 
The photographers normally worked independently with the exception of Le Gray & Mestral who on occassion both signed the same photograph. The regions surrounding Paris were assigned to the photographers:
North and east (Including the cathedrals of Reims, Laon, Troyes, and Strasbourg) - Henri Le Secq
 
South and east (Palace of Fontainebleau, Lyon and the Roman archaeological sites in Orange, Nîmes and Arles) - Édouard Baldus
 
Southwest (The Loire chateaux of Blois, Chambord, Amboise, and Chenonceaux and the towns of Carcassonne, Albi, Perpignan, Le Puy and Clermont-Ferrand) - Le Gray & Mestral consisting of Gustave Le Gray and Auguste Mestral
 
West (Brittany and Normandy including the towns of Caen, Bayeux, and Rouen) - Henri Le Secq
Prints from the 258 photographs they made are exceedingly rare as they were locked away and not published after they were delivered in the fall of 1851. Of the group works by Gustave Le Gray and Auguste Mestral are more common and this might indicate that they had a second set of negatives but this is not certain. 
  
17.05   Architecture >  Achille Quinet: Restoration of the Royal Chaalis Abbey 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Chaalis Abbey (Abbaye royale de Chaalis) was a Cistercian abbey to the north of Paris in France. This hand-coloured albumen print from the 1850s or later by Achille Quinet was prepared to assist in the restoration of the building. 
  
Scotland 
  
17.06   Architecture >  Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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This section covers the portfolio The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust. With an Introduction by William Young, R.S.W. that was published in 1900 by James MacLehose & Sons of Glasgow. The importance of this work is that it includes photographs taken by Thomas Annan[13] (1829-1887) in 1868 of the squalid slums and closes of the Scottish city. These photographs are amongst the earliest taken specifically as a record of housing conditions prior to urban renewal and as such they are an important milestone in the history of documentary photography.
 
In the introduction to a 1977 reprint of this work Anita Ventura Mozley wrote:
"It is likely that Annan regarded the commission from the Trustees of the Improvements Act as just another he received when his success as a commercial photographer of Glasgow was increasingly recognized. However inadvertently, he did give us the first thorough photographic representation available of the dwelling places and the inhabitants of an urban slum." [14]
The importance of the choices made by the photographer was almost totally ignored in the original work and it was only on page 22 of the Introduction by the historian William Young that he is mentioned:
"The City Improvement Trustees acquired, by act of parliament, in 1866, the right to alter and reconstruct several of the more densely built areas of the city, and these operations, it was foreseen, would remove many old and interesting landmarks. Before entering upon their work, the Trustees arranged with the late Mr. Thomas Annan to take photographs of a series of views of the closes and streets more immediately affected, and a few copies were presented to members of the Corporation and others."[15]
When Martin Parr and Gerry Badger describe this work in their The Photobook: A History - Volume 1 they make an important observation about the camera viewpoint choices that Annan was largely forced into by the nature of the architectural spaces he was attempting to record.
"The Scottish ‘close‘ and ‘wynd‘ - the terms are almost interchangeable - were familiar landmarks in any city with a densely packed medieval street pattern: narrow passageways leading either from one street to another, or into the middle of a building block. It is the consistently narrow form of the alley that gives formal coherency to most of Annan‘s imagery- he simply stood the camera in the middle of the passageway and shot down it."[16]
Thomas Annan was not the first to record architectural subjects. There had been the Mission Héliographiques in France which combined the talents of Edouard Baldus, Hippolyte Bayard, Gustave Le Gray, Henri Le Secq and Auguste Mestral. There were also the wet collodion photographs of Charles Marville (1816-1879) capturing in the 1860s a record of the streets of Paris prior to their destruction to make way for Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann’s urban redesign. The work of Annan pre-dates that of Eugéne Atget (1857-1927) in creating an important record of a 19th century urban slum: a slum that to many Glasgow residents in the 1860s was home all the same.
 
Thomas Annan was not a purist and improved his printed photographs:
"He added clouds, which brighten the skies over Glasgow‘s slums, and he whitened the wash on the line. He did this for pictorial effect, for nice balance. While his taste for the picturesque, for a tradition inherited from painting, and quite in accord with salon practice of the day, may distort to some extent the immediacy of the mise-en-scene, we must appreciate the fact that he did not tidy up the rest of the picture, as his son, James Craig Annan, did when he made the photogravure plates for the 1900 edition. The photogravures are lighter in tone, and consequently in mood, in the sense of the place, than Annan‘s carbon prints. Moving figures, those ghosts who would not stand still for the photographer, are completely excised in the photogravure edition..."[17]
This brings us to the point that there are multiple versions of the portfolio in carbon prints and photogravures and there are differences between them that are not only a part of the processes involved in reproduction but also in the aesthetics of the printer. When James Craig Annan, the son of Thomas Annan, created the photogravure plates for the 1900 edition he did not remove all of the "ghosts" and though lacking in power compared to their unadulterated carbon print counterparts, the plates shown here do not lack in content or feeling in richness of tone.
 
Finally it is worth providing a short background to the different versions that exist of these photographs. A very small number of bound sets of Annan‘s albumen photographs from this endeavor are known to exist: examples are in the Mitchell Library in Glasgow and in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in Edinburgh. Surprisingly, another set of 31 mounted albumen prints with printed caption labels but lacking the title page and enclosed in a contemporary green half morocco portfolio, lettered on upper cover Glasgow Improvements Act. 1866. Photographs of Streets, Closes &c. taken 1868-71 sold at auction for £13,000 (Lyon and Turnbull in Edinburgh - July 11th, 2006).
 
In the introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley (1977) we also learn of a second edition of this work: "Sometime late in 1878 or early in 1879, an edition comprising 40 carbon prints was published in an edition of 100 quarto-sized copies by Annan‘s Lenzie firm for the Glasgow City Improvements Trust." At the Phillips de Pury auction (New York - April 22, 2004) a complete carbon version of this edition was offered for sale and it realized £66,000.
 
The present edition comes from the photogravure edition of 100 copies (not numbered) issued in 1900 by James MacLehose & Sons of Glasgow. The portfolio contains 50 fine photogravures from wet-collodion negatives taken between 1868 and 1899 and engraved and printed by James Craig Annan of T. & R. Annan & Sons. The later pictures added to the 1900 edition done after Thomas Annan‘s death in 1885 were most likely done by Thomas Annan‘s eldest son John Annan (1862-1947). According to the National Library of Scotland, John Annan was "a member of the family firm of photographers. John specialized in architectural photography and was known for his photographs of Glasgow slums." The National Galleries of Scotland online collections website states in part "His son John inherited the project and in 1900, the family firm T.&R. Annan produced a photogravure album with new prints by John Annan".
 
T. & R. Annan & Sons also printed and issued a second 1900 edition of 100 copies under their own imprint. Glasgow historian William Young supplied an introduction (23 pages-dated August of 1900 in portfolio) for both 1900 photogravure editions but only makes a brief reference to the author of these historically important photographs.
 
© Photoseed & Alan Griffiths (2006) - Used with permission 
  
   Thomas  Annan 
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17.07   Architecture >  Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
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Archibald Burns was active in Edinburgh (Scotland) between 1858 and his death in the early 1880s. He provided photographs for the tourist trade and to illustrate books including Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh (1868). In 1871 he was appointed by the Edinburgh Improvement Trust to document an over-crowded slum area of the city after the buildings had been demolished in February 1871.[18] 
  
France, Paris 
  
17.08   Architecture >  France: Paris - Notre Dame 
  
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17.09   Architecture >  France: Paris - Notre Dame, Facade 
  
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The facade of Notre Dame in Paris has been preserved as daguerreotypes by Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours (ca. 1840) and Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (1841), paper negatives by Henri Le Secq (1851-1860), a salt print by Charles Nègre (1853) and albumen prints by Gustave Le Gray (ca. 1858), Francis Frith (ca. 1865) and Édouard Baldus (ca. 1865), and a carbon print by Adolphe Braun (ca. 1880). These are a selection of nineteenth century photographs but there will be many more.
 
The construction of the facade began in 1200 and the North Tower (to the left) was completed in 1240 and the South Tower (to the right) ten years later. The rose window in the centre is an impressive 9.6 metres in diameter and acts seemingly as a halo for a statue of the Virgin with Child. Statues of the Kings of Judea and France were there until monarchies and monarchists were despised during French Revolution. Beneath this monumental facade are the three portals.
 
Each of the photographers has showed similar compositional choices. They work with the vertical frame, they center the subject, most allow a separation between the tops of the two towers and the top of the photograph. These photographs are not tilted, they are not showing sections of the facade and the harmony of the whole is there - no experimentation with composition was necessary or desirable when photographing an architectural icon. There is a beauty and inherent conservativism within the images. 
  
17.10   Architecture >  France: Paris - Notre Dame, La Porte Rouge 
  
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Each architectural feature of a significant building such as the Porte Rouge at Notre Dame in Paris has a temporal sequence of photographs that show not only how the feature has changed but how photographic techniques have changed along with stylistic approaches. The daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey (1841) is the same subject as the salt print by Charles Marville taken a decade later and that is different from the albumen prints by Bisson frères (ca. 1856) and Auguste Rosalie Bisson (ca. 1865).
 
In a magazine article "Why do we like Paris?" that was published in May 1878 in Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science a description of the Porte Rouge was given:
One of the most beautiful bits of Notre Dame is the Porte Rouge on the north side, which may be translated the "Door of Blood," and which was built by John the Fearless, duke of Burgundy, in expiation of the murder of the duke of Orleans in 1407. The valor and other princely qualities of Jean sans Peur and the odious character of his victim, who was the very curse of France, bias us in favor of the former notwithstanding the treachery of his deed. Their enmity had been bitter and of long standing, but they met for formal and public reconciliation, attended mass and received the sacrament together, and ended the day by a banquet. On his way home the duke of Orleans was surrounded and assassinated: the story goes that one wrapped in a mantle and scarlet hood, so as to conceal his face and figure, suddenly came out of a house and struck the final, fatal blow, and that this was the duke of Burgundy. The duke of Orleans had offered him an unpardonable insult by placing the likeness of the duchess of Burgundy among the portraits of his mistresses. It is further said that the duke of Burgundy had received intelligence of a plot to assassinate himself, and merely got the start of his foe. His atonement was splendid, according to the notions of those times. About ten years afterward he paid the natural penalty of his great crime, and was slain in his turn on the bridge of Montereau during a parley with the dauphin, afterward Charles VII. His tomb is at Dijon, the place of his birth, beside that of his father, Philippe le Hardi; his duchess Margaret lies by his side coroneted and in daisy-sprinkled robe; around the base of the monument troops of little monks mourn the death of their prince with every demonstration of grief. But under the rich Gothic canopy which forms the porch of the Porte Rouge the duke and duchess of Burgundy kneel in perpetual repentance amid a crowd of divine and sacred figures.[19]
 
  
17.11   Architecture >  Charles Marville: Paris 
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Charles Marville[20] as an official city photographer for Napoleon III took a series of about 425 images of the older roads of Paris that were to be destroyed by Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann's[21] redesign of the city during the 1860s. Civil engineering on this scale in a bustling capital city was controversial as it involved the relocation of considerable numbers of citizens but it was viewed as an essential part of Napoleon III's modernisation of Paris through the construction of the grand boulevards.  
  
Charles Marville: The rebuilding of Paris 
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A further commission for Charles Marville was to document the street furniture of the city designed by architect Gabriel Davioud for Baron Haussmann. Marville made magnificent albumen prints of the newly installed gas lamps,[22] ironwork, pissoirs , Morris columns[23] for posting advertising, along the streets. When Paris installed gas lighting along the Champs De Elysees in 1828 it was the first European city to do so. The modernisation of under Baron Haussmann added 20,000 gas lamps[24] and Paris was indeed the "City of Light".  
  
Charles Marville: Gas lamps 
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Charles Marville: Colonne Morris 
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Charles Marville: Pissoirs 
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Charles Marville: Ironwork 
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   Charles  Marville 
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17.12   Architecture >  Édouard Baldus: Paris 
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Édouard Baldus (1813-1889)[25] is perhaps best known for his work with the Mission Héliographiques (1851)[26] documenting architectural monuments at risk within France and his work on the Édouard Baldus: Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1860s) in the 1860s. In addition to these Baldus documented the architectural monuments of Paris. Buildings such as La Bourse (The Stock Exchange), The Pantheon and Notre Dame were documented along woth monuments such as the Vendome Column and the L'Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile. The rebuilding of parts of the Louvre was also an important subject for Baldus and he photographed it from the 1850s onwards. 
  
17.13   Architecture >  Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875) 
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The construction of the new Opera House in Paris in the nineteenth century was a statement in quarried stone of civic and national pride. On 29 December 1860 a resolution was passed that commenced a competition for suitable designs and plans. The unanimously chosen winner was Charles Garnier and by July 1861 the site had been selected and the following month the excavation of the foundations commenced. This was far from an ideal time for new public works with both the Franco-Prussian War and the following dark times of the Paris Commune coinciding with the construction. Despite this Garnier completed the project by December 1874 and in January 1875 it opened:
The opening of the New Opera House at Paris took place on Tuesday last. The Government had engaged the entire house for the opening night, which was, therefore, a state festivity, to which the diplomatic corps, the deputies, &c, were invited. The regular performances were to commence last evening with Hamlet.[27]
This vast undertaking was described in a contemporary account as follows:
The historian of the new temple of song rounds off his record with an array of not uninteresting figures, and with a few of these I too shall close. The gas-pipes, if connected, would form a pipe twenty-five kilometres in length; fourteen furnaces and four hundred and fifty grates heat the house; a battery of seventy cups generates electricity for the scenic effects; nine reservoirs and two tanks hold a hundred thousand litres of water, and distribute their contents through six thousand nine hundred and eighteen metres of piping, and there are twenty-five hundred and thirty-one doors, and seven thousand five hundred and ninety-three keys, which latter M. Gamier delivered formally, but figuratively, I imagine, to M. Halanzier when the manager took possession of the premises. [28]
During the process Louis-Emile Durandelle photographed both the construction and the ornamental sculptures that decorated the immense building. His photographs were published in Le Nouvel Opera de Paris par Charles Garnier (1875-81)[29] and in Charles Nuitter's, Le Nouvel Opera (1875)[30]. The project remains as one of the key documentations of a nineteenth century architectural project. Durandelle recorded many other key projects in Paris including the construction of Sacre Coeur, the Hotel de Ville, and the Eiffel Tower
  
   Louis-Emile  Durandelle Paris Opera 
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17.14   Architecture >  Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
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Eugène Atget is best known for his photographs late nineteenth and early twentieth century Paris that detail the streets, architecture, shops, parks and trees of the city.[31] He sold photographs to archives and museum and to artists who used them to develop their painting skills. He lived very close to Man Ray in Paris who knew his work and purchased prints. In his final years his work was promoted by Berenice Abbott[32] and the New York gallery owner Julian Levy
  
India, Gaur 
  
17.15   Architecture >  John Henry Ravenshaw: Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions (1878) 
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John Henry Ravenshaw had a brother in the East India Company, his father had been, as was his grandfather John Goldsworth Ravenshaw. Posthumously his widow edited and altered his work on the archaeological remains at Gaur in India.[33] 
  
Italy, Venice 
  
17.16   Architecture >  Carlo Naya: Venice: Palaces 
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Carlo Naya took many albumen prints of the monuments, palaces and canals of Venice.[34] He photographed the Palazzo Ducale, Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi, Palazzo Pisani Moretta and numerous others. John Ruskin (1819-1900) the British art critic, writer, social reformer, artist and occasional amateur photographer and daguerreotypist wrote about the city.[35] Accounts written about the same time as Carlo Naya was taking his photographs give a flavour of the city.[36] 
  
17.17   Architecture >  Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal 
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Carlo Naya[37] and his onetime publisher Carlo Ponti[38] made many of the classic photographs of the canals of Venice that were bought as souvenirs by those who travelled to the great cities of Italy in the nineteenth century. Edward Wilson wrote at the time of Naya's death in 1882:
‘the largest establishment we think we ever saw devoted to photography, in an old palace on the other side of the grand canal‘.
The canals and alleys of Venice were also documented in the 1890s by Ferdinando Ongania.[39] 
  
England, London 
  
17.18   Architecture >  Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
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Elizabeth Creveling
P. H. Delamotte Photograph of the Interior of the Crystal Palace
Courtesy of the University of Maryland, Digital Collections
A Treasury of World's Fair Art & Architecture
 
After a successful year of housing the Great Exposition, the Crystal Palace[40] by Joseph Paxton[41] was disassembled and moved to Sydenham, where it stood for the next 85 years[42]. The Palace, built for the 1851 World's Fair in London, was an architectural and engineering wonder modeled after the bridge and train shed construction of the mid-nineteenth century. The structure had been designed to be quickly assembled out of prefabricated members and easily rebuilt elsewhere. Its light construction was made possible to use of thin cast iron prefabricated elements combined with wood and a glazed outer shell.
 
The Crystal Palace housed the most spectacular collection of artistic and industrial wonders ever assembled in one place thus far. Visitors came from all over the world to see this display of power at the "Exhibition of the Works of All Nations" which was organized by Prince Albert and Henry Cole[43]. The success of the Crystal Palace that cost "a penny per cubic foot"[44] brought Joseph Paxton much praise as well as a knighthood. The structure at Hyde Park was designed as a temporary building, able to be constructed and disassembled easily. During the Great Exposition the Crystal Palace housed the works of craftsmen, engineers and artists. The most popular of these exhibits was a crystal fountain made especially for the exhibition.[45] The full 33,000,000 cubic feet of Crystal Palace was filled with displays and people crowding the aisles examining these wonders.[46]
 
When the Fair closed the fate of the Crystal Palace was a topic of extreme importance. Its popularity was obvious and Paxton suggested transforming it into a "Winter Park and Garden Under Glass" where visitors could see displays of botany, ornithology, and geology and at the same time enjoy the building as an indoor park.[47] This proposal was opposed by Colonel Sibthorpe, a member of the Metropolitan Police Force who vehemently disapproved of the nature of the Exposition and the preservation of the building as a cultural icon. Knowing it would take some work to save his masterpiece, Paxton began raising money and eventually came up with over 500,000 pounds. He formed a company to purchase the building from its initial builders, the engineering firm of Fox and Henderson. The site selected to re-erect the Palace was 200 acres of wooded parkland on the summit of Sydenham Hill. Rebuilding began in August 1852.
 
By rebuilding the famous Crystal Palace and making it a permanent symbol of England's success and role in the Industrial Revolution, the government created a cultural icon that would forever stand in testament to the grand nature of the first International World's Fair. A decision was made to alter the original plans and enlarge the structure, making the Sydenham Palace more massive than its predecessor. The most characteristic portion of the Hyde Park structure, the arched transept, was emulated throughout when the whole structure was rebuilt, creating an entirely arched nave and transept system).[48] These same arched transepts were considered awe-inspiring by the Victorians, who were deep in the Romantic Age and well versed in the eighteenth-century notion of the Sublime. The lunettes with the familiar spoke pattern provided a terminus for the long nave and served as an element of continuity between the Hyde Park building and the one rebuilt in Sydenham.
 
The new Crystal Palace became a museum of world cultures, with "style courts" such as the Nineveh, Roman and Egyptian courts depicting ancient and modern civilizations for visitors. Matthew Digby Wyatt and architect Owen Jones were "sent abroad to ransack the world's great art collections" and find ideas for the courts.[49] Aside from the great courts, Joseph Paxton also "envisioned a system of fountains that would rival Versailles".[50] To accommodate this great waterworks two large towers were erected further distancing the Sydenham structure from its predecessor in Hyde Park.
 
Photography had been invented thirteen years before the erection of the Crystal Palace. By 1851 this new medium had gone through many improvements, and quickly became a documentary and artistic tool for all people. Photographs were used for artistic endeavors, documentation, and souvenirs. Many photographers flocked to the Great Exposition to record the feats in architecture and engineering. William Henry Fox Talbot (1820-1877) recorded the interior of the Crystal Palace while it was still in Hyde Park and did so on Sundays while the Exhibition was closed.[50] Another photographer, Philip Henry Delamotte (1820-1889) recorded the building after its move to the Sydenham location.[52] He also photographed many English landmarks such as Yorkshire abbeys and Strawberry Hill.
 
Delamotte produced several sets of prints documenting the Crystal Palace, which he sold at a profit. A set of nine original albumen reprints is housed in the Special Collections room of the University of Maryland Architecture Library. One print titled "View up Nave from Gallery at North End" displays the vast interior of the new structure. It is approximately eight by ten inches mounted professionally for the set published by Crystal Palace Art Union. Printed on the paper surrounding the photograph are captions including Delamotte's name and documentation attributing the printing to "Negretti and Zambra."
 
The print on the screen [Referring to a photograph in the University of Maryland Collection] exhibits the deep purple hues achieved through the albumen process and gold chloride solution. The characteristic color was protected from fading on the edges by mounting the prints and keeping them in a darkened collectible box. There is little tonal separation, due to the nature of albumen printing. The geometric complexity of the structure is clearly shown, as well as its numerous galleries and the roof structure displaying the beautiful arched nave. Delamotte positioned his tripod along a side of the nave to achieve a perspective view that would capture the great depth of the building and convey the grand nature of the space. In the foreground Delamotte captured a large amount of detail in the vegetation and supports. The photograph reflects the impression that the exhibits "inhabit" the building, allowing the viewer to see how replete the Palace was with displays. Delamotte did not need to use supplementary lighting; the building itself was perfect for photographs, a virtual skylight. All that was needed was a sunny day. Patches of sun can be seen on the floor. Delamotte could clearly sense the architectural beauty in his subject and captured it artfully. The hustle and bustle of the original building is not conveyed in this print, which possesses a serene quality due to the lack of human presence.
 
Delamotte was able to capture the character of the Crystal Palace, and provided the public a peek into the famous structure. The Crystal Palace will live forever in his beautiful prints helping to influence artists and architects into the future. During its 85 years standing, the Crystal Palace appeared in millions of photographs, establishing it as a symbol of English power from both a political and architectural standpoint.
This text is freely available for the purpose of academic teaching and research provided the text is distributed with the header information provided. Courtesy of the University of Maryland, Digital Collections, A Treasury of World's Fair Art & Architecture 
  
   Documentary 19thc Delamotte Crystal Palace 
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17.19   Architecture >  The Society for photographing relics of old London 
  
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The Society for Photographing Relics of Old London was established in 1875 and photographers Henry Dixon, William Strudwick and A[lfred]. & J[ohn]. Bool documented the buildings that were at risk of demolition in London. The project was published in annual parts over twelve years from 1875 onwards and included a total of 120 photographs.
 
The Publisher's Circular in 1879 commented on their worK:
The Society for Photographing Relics of Old London is about to issue a fresh selection of views in permanent photography, carrying on the series of publications which illustrate many of the fast-vanishing historical and picturesque buildings of the metropolis. Canonbury Tower, Barnard's Inn, old houses in Aldersgate-street, Christ's Hospital, the churchyard of St. Laurence Pountney, and a house in Great Queen-street supply subjects for this issue.[53]
In 1886 the following letter from George H. Birch was published in Walford's Antiquarian:
OLD LONDON RELICS.
 
Sir,—Some of the newspapers have been calling attention to the Society for Photographing Relics of Old London, deploring the necessity of its collapse, and attributing the same to a want of interest on the part of the general public, and of its necessary support in the form of subscriptions. This is scarcely a correct statement of the actual facts, although one which might very justly be deduced from the notice of this last issue being the final one of the "Society." In one sense, a society it never has been ; for its management, the choice of subjects, the excellent letterpress accompanying each issue, and the various details and complicated work and trouble attached to it, have been the labour of love of one man only, Mr. Alfred Marks, the originator, director, and manager from the first, the funds derived from subscriptions having been expended entirely upon its publications; and the fortunate subscribers have received their photographs, not mere sun pictures, as evanescent and as fleeting as the very sunshine itself, but permanent memorials of an "Old London" fast disappearing from our view in our own times, here preserved to those that come after by the taste, energy, and forethought of one man, to whom others like myself will be for ever indebted. These labours have ended from lack not of support, but of material; 120 pictures of Old London practically exhaust the subject. But there is a moral attached. The first issue of these photographs was in 1875, and in the decade just elapsed nearly one-half have disappeared or are threatened with probable demolition. In the next decade to come how many of the remainder will be left? The subject is "too dismal to contemplate "—a wealthy city, not altogether without taste, and with such lovely memorials of the past, thus deliberately to denude itself of every atom, of every spark of its antiquity.
 
Devereux Chambers, Temple. GEORGE H. BIRCH, F.S.A.[54]
 
  
17.20   Architecture >  Roger Mayne: Wapping 
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The architecture of cities resides not only in the present but in an ever-changing cityscapes that reflects, social, commercial and industrial requirements. Areas of cities are locked within their own pasts which no longer meet the requirements of the present - the vast docks of the East End of London became increasingly surplus to requirements as container ports grew in significance requiring new technologies, differing warehousing requirements and a greatly reduced labour force. Roger Mayne[55] is most noted for his photographs of street life such as his series on "Southam Street" in London which has similarities to the photographs of Helen Levitt[56] in New York but he also documented the cliff like brick walls of the docks and warehouses of Wapping in 1959. Wapping had been intensively bombed during the Second World War (1939-1945) [57] but it was changes in patterns of commerce that would really change the area.
 
The collapse of industrial cities along with the decline of once great architecture is a common photographic theme for example the book The Ruins of Detroit (2011)[58] by Yves Merchand and Romain Meffre:  
  
Yves Merchand and Romain Meffre: Detroit 
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Australia, Sydney 
  
17.21   Architecture >  Album of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1870) 
  
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USA, New York 
  
17.22   Architecture >  Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
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Towards the end of the nineteenth century in the United States Jacob Riis (1849-1914) and Lewis Hine (1874-1940) were committed to social change. When Jacob Riis published his first book, How the Other Half Lives on the overcrowded New York slums in 1890 it was a damning statement on societal ills.[59] The book included seventeen halftone illustrations from photographs and a further nineteen hand drawings.
 
The journalist and novelist Stephen Crane (1871-1900) published Maggie: A Girl of the Streets[60] in 1893 and the following year he wrote the article Experiment in Misery when he dressed as a bum and spent a night in a flophouse.[61] 
  
   Documentary 19thc Jacob Riis 
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17.23   Architecture >  Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
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To publicize the social ills that would be described in his book How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (1890) Jacob A. Riis[62] gave lectures using lantern slides of his photographs and here is an account of one he gave on 25th January 1888 in New York:
THE SOCIETY OF AMATEUR PHOTOGRAPHERS OF NEW YORK.
Lantern Exhibition.
 
The regular monthly lantern exhibition was given at the rooms of the Society. 123 West 30th Street, on Wednesday evening, January 25th, and was very largely attended.
 
The subject was, "The Other Half How it lives and dies in New York," and was explained in an informal way by Mr. Jacob A. Riis, who for ten years past has been the police reporter of the New York Press. The object of the exhibition was to picture to the audience the exact condition of the lowest phases of life as it at present exists in New York City. Many of the pictures were obtained by the aid of flash magnesium light.
 
The exhibition opened with a view of a well-known alley in Cherry Street, around which, it was said, 1,000 persons lived.
 
Other views included the "Bandit's Alley," near Mott and Hester Streets, where murderers and thieves congregate and enjoy life in what is known as the "stale beer dives."
 
"Bottle Alley," near Baxter Street, contained many children. A capital picture was that of an old tramp and thief in front of his broken-down shanty. About this Mr. Riis said he obtained the consent of the tramp to stand for ten cents, but he put his pipe in his pocket. So the tramp struck for higher pay, and on giving him five cents more he posed with his pipe as Mr. Riis desired. Another excellent picture illustrated how young boys first practice picking pockets.
 
The object of attack was a drunken man lying down in a stupor. The two boys were on each side overhauling the pockets with decided energy. They term the pickings their winnings, never call it stealing. At a place called "Hell's Kitchen," near Eleventh Avenue on Thirty-ninth Street, they experienced considerable difficulty, were attacked by some of the women with brickbats, which broke one of the plate-holders. The Italian rag-pickers' alley in South Fifth Avenue was shown; the women at work were suddenly dispersed by one word from the Italian proprietor before their pictures could be caught. An Italian tea-kettle was shown, somewhat large in size, stuffed with dirty linen. In the morning the kettle was used as boiler for boiling the clothes; at night it was employed for making tea.
 
A typical group of New York toughs called "The Growlers," was exhibited, hidden away under one of the dump docks on the East Side. They were factory hands, and got young boys to go after beer which they would drink in these places. A single picture of a young lad eight years old carrying a large pail of beer was quite effective. Other views of the back of tenement-houses showing the multiplicity of clothes-lines; of Baxter Street, crowded with humanity; of Mott and Pell Streets, showing Chinese life; the interior of a Chinese opium den, with the Chinamen laying off in their bunks under its influence: of the Chinese altar in the Joss-house, some of the latter being taken by aid of flash-light, were extremely interesting. Also pictures of the interior of the cheap lodging-houses, the Tombs, the Five Points House of Industry, the Catholic Protectory, with children playing around and Sister Irene in the foreground, who is said to have saved 13,003 children; also the exterior and interior of an uptown branch of the Boys' Lodging House of the Children's Aid Society, established through the beneficence of the late Mrs. Robert L. Stuart. All of the above were exceedingly interesting as showing the beneficent power which these institutions exert in this city.
 
Portraits of children side by side, of how they looked when taken from their hovels, and cruel and wretched parents, and after they were cleaned and cared for by Mr. E. Gerry's "Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children," illustrated more forcibly than any word picture the necessity and usefulness of that institution.
 
Several interesting portraits of noted thiefs and forgers, both male and female, taken from the Rogues' Gallery, were shown; Ex-Governor Moses, of South Carolina, had the handsomest looking face.
 
A fine picture, showing four or five detectives holding a refractory thief while he was having his photograph taken, was quite comical.
 
A good interior of a police office, showing the sergeant recording the facts, with the policeman standing near the rail, holding a foundling wrapped up in a black shawl, and messenger and others looking on, was quite effective and well lighted.
 
Several views of the Arabs in their hovels in Washington Street were exhibited. The women lay around on the floor without any bedding, and were completely embedded and begrimed with dirt. These were secured by aid of the flash-light. There were also two or three excellent interiors of the School for Blind Children.
 
The exhibition terminated with several excellent views of the New York Morgue, interior of Bellevue Hospital, exterior and interior of the Penitentiary on Blackwell's Island, of the Lunatic Asylum on Ward's Island, and of the burying ground on Hart's Island.
 
Mr. Riis related many interesting episodes and facts. It was hard to realize the enormity of the degradation and poverty constantly present in the great city. He remarked that four thousand children were barred out from the public schools, because there was not room enough to accommodate all who could attend.
 
At 10 o'clock the entertainment terminated.[63]
 
  
   Documentary 19thc Jacob Riis 
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17.24   Architecture >  Lewis W. Hine: Empire State Building (1929-1931) 
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Lewis W. Hine, who had already documented the use of child labour in America [64], photographed the construction of the Empire State Building in New York City (1929-1931) and his series was published in his book Men at Work.[65] In this book Hine summed up his position:
Cities do not build themselves, machines cannot make machines....We call this the Machine Age. But the more machines we use the more do we need real men to make and direct them....I will take you into the heart of modern industry...where the character of the men is being put into the motors, the airplanes, the dynamos upon which the life and happiness of millions of us depend.[66]
 
  
17.25   Architecture >  Berenice Abbott: Changing New York 
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Berenice Abbott had known Eugène Atget in Paris and admired and promoted his work after his death in 1927. She saw the significance of detailed documentary projects that preserved the architectural heritage of changing urban centers. In 1935 she proposed her project "Changing New York" to the Federal Art Project (FAP) which was to support unemployed artists and those with related skills during the Great Depression. Berenice Abbott's work resulted in the book Changing New York (1939) with an introduction by art critic Elizabeth McCausland.[67] 
  
   Berenice  Abbott NY 
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Building types 
  
17.26   Architecture >  Skyscrapers 
  
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The term skyscrapers has had multiple meanings going back to the late eighteenth century and in the 1880s is started to be used to describe tall buildings.
 
Cheap steel, the introduction of elevators from 1853[68], limited space in downtown city centers and the architectural innovation of using an internal load-bearing steel lattice rather than the exterior walls[69] led to the skyscraper[70] - which became a tangible symbol of American growth. Although there is disagreement over which building is the first "skyscraper" the Tacoma Building (1889) in Chicago and the Flatiron Building (1902) in New York are iconic early examples and the race was on for ever taller structures to house commercial businesses.[71]
 
The first period of skyscraper construction in America was the first two decades of the twentieth century and this was a period of flux in the world of art photography. The main centers for building them were in Chicago and New York though the architectural style soon spread and New York was where Alfred Stieglitz was based publishing Camera Notes[72] between July 1897 and December 1902 and Camera Work[73] between 1903 and 1917. Alfred Stieglitz photographed The Flatiron in 1903 and in around 1904 Edward Steichen would photograph it in a classic of American Pictorialiam (The Flatiron) a photograph that would be produced using multiple techniques creating a range of colour palettes.[74] The Flatiron was photographed by many photographers including Jessie Tarbox Beals (1905) and Alvin Langdon Coburn (1910) and it continues to be an iconic American landmark.  
  
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The concrete canyons of New York were outside the muted romanticism and nostalgia so prevalent in the Pictorialism of the 1890s and yet in 1910 Alvin Langdon Coburn's book New York was published.[75] Although it uses the soft tones of the photogravure here is an architectural study that uses it to capture the intense brooding of the urban landscape. The inhabitants of this urban forest of concrete and steel are like trolls lost in a cave - this is a world where man has conquered the environment and at the same time diminished himself.  
  
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In 1915 just five years after the publication of the photographs by Coburn Paul Strand photographed in New York and we see the same dislocation between the human and the man-made world.  
  
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This was the same period that Paul Strand was experimenting with abstraction[76] and moving towards the study of patterns and shapes which would be a part of Modernism.
 
By the time the Empire State Building (1929-1931) was built the world of photography had changed. Camera Work had closed down in 1917 and Pictorialism was intellectually bankrupt after the First World War. When Lewis W. Hine photographed the construction of the Empire State Building[77] the workers were emphasized along with the steel - this was the period of Modernism where man and the machine met with clarity.  
  
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Every style of architecture and type of building has its own distinct photographic history and the architecture will undoubtedly influence the photography but the photography has its own style which influences how architecture has been seen by the public in magazines and books. 
  
Survey projects 
  
17.27   Architecture >  Historic American Buildings Survey - HABS 
  
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During the Great Depression the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) was established in December 1933 as a make-work project for photographers, draftsmen and architects.[78] It started with a proposal by Charles E. Peterson of the National Parks Service to hire a thousand out-of-work architects to research and document buildings of historic significance. In his original November 1933 proposal Peterson was clear about the cultural value of his plan:
The plan I propose is to enlist a qualified group of architects and draftsmen to study, measure and draw up the plans, elevations and details of the important antique buildings of the United States. Our architectural heritage of buildings from the last four centuries diminishes daily at an alarming rate. The ravages of fire and the natural elements together with the demolition and alterations caused by real estate 'improvements' form an inexorable tide of destruction destined to wipe out the great majority of the buildings which knew the beginning and first flourish of the nation. The comparatively few structures which can be saved by extraordinary effort and presented as exhibition houses and museums or altered and used for residences or minor commercial uses comprise only a minor percentage of the interesting and important architectural specimens which remain from the old days. It is the responsibility of the American people that if the great number of our antique buildings must disappear through economic causes, they should not pass into unrecorded oblivion.
 
The list of building types . . . should include public buildings, churches, residences, bridges, forts, barns, mills, shops, rural outbuildings, and any other kind of structure of which there are good specimens extant . . . . Other structures which would not engage the especial interest of an architectural connoisseur are the great number of plain structures which by fate or accident are identified with historic events.[79]
The staff involved were sent out to document historic architecture throughout the USA to establish an archive of representative buildings. The project gained a level of stability when it was authorized by Congress as part of the Historic Sites Act of 1935.[80] 
  
USA, California 
  
17.28   Architecture >  William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
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William Garnett (1916-2006)[81] was an American photographer who takes abstract aerial photographs of the Californian landscape from a light plane.[82][83] Garnett had studied at Art Center College of Design in Los Angeles and during the Second World War he had his first opportunity of view the world from above. This experience changed his life and he learnt to fly and eventually acquired a Cessna which allowed him to fly low and use handheld cameras out of the window to capture aerial photographs of California. In 1950 he took a series at Lakewod in California that show the phases of a suburb under development from the grading, trenching, foundations and slabs, framing, platering and roofing right through to the finished housing. This series gives the sense of the optimism of the 1950s with houses for all in new suburbs but also the imposed uniformity and environmental wastelands that would develop out of a lifestyle that was only possible with private transportation and cheap oil. 
  
17.29   Architecture >  Robert Adams: The construction of suburbia 
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Robert Adams has had a long career exposing the intersections between human activity and the natural environment in the American West. While Ansel Adams, no relation, was documenting the pristine and sublime,[84] Robert Adams was recording the human-altered parts of America. Here the parking lots, strip malls and the tract homes of an ever-expanding suburbia that William Garnett was taking from light planes in California[85] Robert Adams was taking at eye-level. Bill Owens[86] recorded the social lives in these developments but with Robert Adams it is not so much about the people but about the architecture, material culture of society - the fragmentary traces that a human has passed through - and the loss of the natural.[87] As Robert Adams has said in an interview:
I’d like to document what’s glorious in the West and remains glorious, despite what we’ve done to it. I’d like to be very truthful about that. But I also want to show what is disturbing and what needs correction.[88]
This is the architectural world that songwriter Malvina Roberts wrote about in the song "Little Boxes" (1962):
Little boxes on the hillside,
Little boxes made of ticky tacky,
Little boxes on the hillside,
Little boxes all the same.
There's a green one and a pink one
And a blue one and a yellow one,
And they're all made out of ticky tacky
And they all look just the same.[89]
 
  
Cities in decay 
  
17.30   Architecture >  Roger Mayne: Leeds, slum clearance 
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Photographers 
  
17.31   Architecture >  Candida Höfer: Architectural space 
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Perhaps this minimalist excerpt from an email interview with Candida Höfer by Carolyn Yerkes
Yerkes: Why always interiors?
Höfer: I am not good at landscapes.
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Christopher Hobhouse, 1950, 1851 and the Crystal Palace; being an account of the Great Exhibition and its contents; of Sir Joseph Paxton; and the erection, the subsequent history and the destruction of his masterpiece, (London: Murray) 
      
  2. Λ 1875-81, Le Nouvel Opera de Paris par Charles Garnier, (Paris: Ducher et Cie) 
      
  3. Λ For Charles Marville and Paris - Jacqueline Chambord (ed.), 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris, 1852-1878, (French Inst/Alliance Francaise); Charles Marville, 1994, Marville Paris, (Hazan); Charles Marville, 1997, Charles Marville, (Centre National de Photo) 
      
  4. Λ Philippe Néagu, et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851, (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés) [Exhibition catalogue]; Anne de Mondenard, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux) 
      
  5. Λ John Henry Ravenshaw, 1878, Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions. By the late John Henry Ravenshaw, B.C.S., Edited with considerable additions and alterations, by his widow, (C. Kegan, Paul & Co.) 
      
  6. Λ George H. Birch, July-December, 1886, "Old London Relics", Walford's Antiquarian, vol. X, pp. 47-48 
      
  7. Λ Thomas Annan is well known for his Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry (1870) and for The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust which has gone through multiple editions and is a classic of documentary photography.
     
    For studies on the work of Thomas Annan - Roy McKenzie, 1992, ‘Thomas Annan and the Scottish Landscape: Among the Gray Edifices‘, History of Photography, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 40; Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [With a supplement of 15 related views) with a new introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley. Published through the Cooperation of The International Museum of Photography / George Eastman House]; Ian Spring, 1996, ‘Midnight Scenes and Social Photographs: Thomas Annan's Glasgow‘, in Mancoff, Debra N. & Trela, DJ (eds.), Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and Its Contexts, pp. 195-213; Sara Stevenson, 1990, Thomas Annan 1829-1887, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland)
     
    The book by Thomas Annan is included in - Martin Parr & Gerry Badger (2004) The Photobook: A History, volume 1, (Phaidon Press Limited) 
      
  8. Λ Archibald Burns & Thomas Henderson, 1868, Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh: A Series of Photographs, (Edomonston and Douglas, publishers to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Company) 
      
  9. Λ For a background to Jacob Riis - Alexander Alland Sr, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture); Janet B. Pascal, 2005, Jacob Riis: Reporter and Reformer, (Oxford University Press, USA); Bonnie Yochelson & Daniel Czitrom, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press)
     
    For the books of Jacob Riis - Jacob A.Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company) 
      
  10. Λ Margam Castle - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 20 November 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margam_Castle 
      
  11. Λ For Calvert Richard Jones - Roger Taylor & Larry J. Schaaf, 2007, Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840-1860, (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) 
      
  12. Λ Philippe Néagu, et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851, (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés) [Exhibition catalogue]; Anne de Mondenard, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux) 
      
  13. Λ Thomas Annan is well known for his Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry (1870) and for The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust which has gone through multiple editions and is a classic of documentary photography.
     
    For studies on the work of Thomas Annan - Roy McKenzie, 1992, ‘Thomas Annan and the Scottish Landscape: Among the Gray Edifices‘, History of Photography, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 40; Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [With a supplement of 15 related views) with a new introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley. Published through the Cooperation of The International Museum of Photography / George Eastman House]; Ian Spring, 1996, ‘Midnight Scenes and Social Photographs: Thomas Annan's Glasgow‘, in Mancoff, Debra N. & Trela, DJ (eds.), Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and Its Contexts, pp. 195-213; Sara Stevenson, 1990, Thomas Annan 1829-1887, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland)
     
    The book by Thomas Annan is included in - Martin Parr & Gerry Badger (2004) The Photobook: A History, volume 1, (Phaidon Press Limited) 
      
  14. Λ Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.), p. xii 
      
  15. Λ William Young, (1900) The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust, With an Introduction by William Young, R.S.W., (Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons) 
      
  16. Λ Martin Parr & Gerry Badger (2004) The Photobook: A History, volume 1, (Phaidon Press Limited), p. 49 
      
  17. Λ Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.), pp. xi-xii 
      
  18. Λ Archibald Burns & Thomas Henderson, 1868, Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh: A Series of Photographs, (Edomonston and Douglas, publishers to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Company)
     
    The National Library of Scotland has a collection of salted paper prints by Archibald Burns. 
      
  19. Λ "Why do we like Paris?", 1878, May, Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science, vol. 23, p. 528 
      
  20. Λ For Charles Marville and Paris - Jacqueline Chambord (ed.), 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris, 1852-1878, (French Inst/Alliance Francaise); Charles Marville, 1994, Marville Paris, (Hazan); Charles Marville, 1997, Charles Marville, (Centre National de Photo)
     
    The work of Charles Marville is highly regarded and exhibitions of his work are mounted such as - "Charles Marville: Photographer of Paris" (The Metropoltan Museum of Art, NY, 29 January - 4 May 2014) 
      
  21. Λ For the work of Baron Haussmann and the urban design of Paris - Stephane Kirkland, 2013 , Paris Reborn: Napoléon III, Baron Haussmann, and the Quest to Build a Modern City, (St. Martin's Griffin); Patrick Camiller & Michel Carmona, 2002, Haussmann: His Life and Times, and the Making of Modern Paris, (Ivan R Dee) 
      
  22. Λ For the public lighting photographed by Charles Marville - Marie de Thézy, 1993, Charles Marville: Réverberes, (Paris: Paris Tête d'Affiche) 
      
  23. Λ In France advertising columns are called Colonne Morris taking their name from Gabriel Morris, a printer, with held the concession for advertising in 1868.
    (Accessed: 4 April 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising_column 
      
  24. Λ "Charles Marville: Photographer of Paris" (The Metropoltan Museum of Art, NY, 29 January - 4 May 2014)
    (Accessed: 4 April 2014)
    ww.metmuseum.org/en/exhibitions/listings/2014/charles-marville 
      
  25. Λ Malcolm R. Daniel, 1994, The Photographs of Édouard Baldus, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Montreal: Canadian Centre for Architecture)
     
    He is commonly referred to as "Edouard-Denis Baldus" but there is no trace of this name having been used during his lifetime. He was born "Eduard" and adopted the French spelling "Edouard" after moving to Paris. [Thanks to Malcolm Daniel for this information.] 
      
  26. Λ Philippe Néagu et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851. (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés), Exhibition catalogue; Anne de Mondenard, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux) 
      
  27. Λ The Academy, Issue 7, Jan 9, 1875, p. 51 
      
  28. Λ Frederick A. Schwab, "A Temple of Song", Scribners Monthly, May, 1875, Volume X, no. 1, p. 20 
      
  29. Λ 1875-81, Le Nouvel Opera de Paris par Charles Garnier, (Paris: Ducher et Cie) 
      
  30. Λ Charles Nuitter, 1875, Le Nouvel Opera (Paris: Libraire Hachette et Cie) 
      
  31. Λ There are a large number of monographs on Eugène Atget and the standard by which all others are judged are the four volumes published by the Museum of Modern Art (1981-1985):
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1981, The Work of Atget. vol. 1: Old France, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1982, The Work of Atget. vol. II: The Art of Old Paris, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1983, The Work of Atget. vol. III: The Ancien Regime, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1985, The Work of Atget. vol. IV: Modern Times, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
      
  32. Λ Clark Worswick, 2002, Berenice Abbott & Eugene Atget, (Santa Fe: Arena Editions) 
      
  33. Λ John Henry Ravenshaw, 1878, Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions. By the late John Henry Ravenshaw, B.C.S., Edited with considerable additions and alterations, by his widow, (C. Kegan, Paul & Co.). Review: E. Vesey Westmacott, 1879, ‘Art. IV Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions. By the late John Henry Ravenshaw, B.C.S., Edited with considerable additions and alterations, by his widow. [C. Kegan, Paul & Co., 1878]‘, The Calcutta Review, vol. 69, no. 137, pp. 68-83 
      
  34. Λ Italo Zannier & Alberto Moravia, (foreword), 1981, Venice, The Naya Collection, (Venice: O. Bohm) 
      
  35. Λ Karen Burns, 1997, ‘Topographies of Tourism: Documentary Photography and "The Stones of Venice"‘, Assemblage, vol. 32, pp. 22-44; Brian Hanson, 1981, ‘Carrying off the Grand Canal: Ruskin’s Architectural Drawings and the Daguerreotype‘, The Architectural Review, pp. 104-109 
      
  36. Λ William Henry Davenport Adams, 1869, The Queen of the Adriatic, Or, Venice Past and Present, (Boston: D. Lothrop), [Available on Google Books). The works of John Ruskin are a further source. 
      
  37. Λ Italo Zannier & Alberto Moravia, (foreword), 1981, Venice, The Naya Collection, (Venice: O. Bohm) 
      
  38. Λ 1996, Carlo Ponti: Un magicien de l'image, (Vevey: Kameramuseum), [Exhibition at the Kameramuseum / Musee suisse de l'appareil photographique, Vevey: 31 octobre 1996 au 2 fevrier 1997] 
      
  39. Λ Ferdinando Ongania (1842-1911) was an Italian photographer who in the 1890s issued the two volume Calli e Canali in Venezia (Streets and Canals in Venice) containing one hundred photogravures of the canals, streets and inhabitants of Venice. 
      
  40. Λ Asa Briggs, ca. 1979, Iron Bridge to Crystal Palace: impact and images of the Industrial Revolution, (London: Thames and Hudson in collaboration with the Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust) 
      
  41. Λ Arts Council of Great Britain, 1965, Sir Joseph Paxton, 1803-1865: a centenary exhibition organized in association with the Victorian Society [by the] Arts Council of Great Britain, (London: The Arts Council) 
      
  42. Λ Christopher Hobhouse, 1950, 1851 and the Crystal Palace; being an account of the Great Exhibition and its contents; of Sir Joseph Paxton; and the erection, the subsequent history and the destruction of his masterpiece, (London: Murray), p. 32 
      
  43. Λ Patrick Beaver, 1970, The Crystal Palace, 1851-1936: a portrait of Victorian enterprise, (London: Hugh Evelyn Ltd.), p. 12 
      
  44. Λ Christopher Hobhouse, 1950, 1851 and the Crystal Palace; being an account of the Great Exhibition and its contents; of Sir Joseph Paxton; and the erection, the subsequent history and the destruction of his masterpiece, (London: Murray), p. 39 
      
  45. Λ Patrick Beaver, 1970, The Crystal Palace, 1851-1936: a portrait of Victorian enterprise, (London: Hugh Evelyn Ltd.), p. 47 
      
  46. Λ Christopher Hobhouse, 1950, 1851 and the Crystal Palace; being an account of the Great Exhibition and its contents; of Sir Joseph Paxton; and the erection, the subsequent history and the destruction of his masterpiece, (London: Murray), p. 39 
      
  47. Λ Patrick Beaver, 1970, The Crystal Palace, 1851-1936: a portrait of Victorian enterprise, (London: Hugh Evelyn Ltd.), p. 69 
      
  48. Λ Henry Russell Hitchcock, 1952, The Crystal Palace: the structure, its antecedents and its immediate progeny: and exhibition, (Northampton, Massachusetts: Smith College Museum of Art), p. 27 
      
  49. Λ Patrick Beaver, 1970, The Crystal Palace, 1851-1936: a portrait of Victorian enterprise, (London: Hugh Evelyn Ltd.), p. 79 
      
  50. Λ Patrick Beaver, 1970, The Crystal Palace, 1851-1936: a portrait of Victorian enterprise, (London: Hugh Evelyn Ltd.), p. 79 
      
  51. Λ Patrick Beaver, 1970, The Crystal Palace, 1851-1936: a portrait of Victorian enterprise, (London: Hugh Evelyn Ltd.), p. 37 
      
  52. Λ Beaumont Newhall, 1982, The History of Photography: from 1839 to the present, (New York: Museum of Modern Art), p. 110 
      
  53. Λ May 16, 1879, The Publisher's Circular, vol. 42, p. 366 
      
  54. Λ George H. Birch, July-December, 1886, "Old London Relics", Walford's Antiquarian, vol. X, pp. 47-48 
      
  55. Λ For Roger Mayne in the UK - Roger Mayne, 1996, Street Photographs of Roger Mayne, (Art Books Intl Ltd); Roger Mayne, 2001, Roger Mayne Photographs, (Random House) 
      
  56. Λ Helen Levitt, 1965, A Way of Seeing, (New York: The Viking Press) [Essay by James Agee] 
      
  57. Λ Bombs dropped in the ward of: St Katherine's and Wapping - Bomb Sight: Mapping the WW2 bomb census
    (Accessed: 5 April 2014)
    www.bombsight.org/explore/greater-london/tower-hamlets/st-katherines-and-wapping/ 
      
  58. Λ Yves Merchand and Romain Meffre, 2011, The Ruins of Detroit, (Steidl) 
      
  59. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company) 
      
  60. Λ Stephen Crane, 1893, Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, (Self-published); Stephen Crane, 1986, Maggie, a Girl of the Streets: And Other Short Fiction, (A Bantam classic) 
      
  61. Λ Stephen Crane, April 1894, "An Experiment in Misery", New York Press 
      
  62. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company).
     
    For the socio-political context and biographical details on Jacob A. Riis - Alexander Alland Sr, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture); Janet B. Pascal, 2005, Jacob Riis: Reporter and Reformer, (Oxford University Press, USA); Bonnie Yochelson, & Daniel Czitrom, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press) 
      
  63. Λ For a lantern lecture by Jacob Riis - "The Society of Amateur Photographers of New York, Lantern Exhibition",The Photographic Times and American Photographer, vol. XVIII, February 3, 1888, no. 333, pp. 58-59. 
      
  64. Λ For the context of Lewis Hine's work with the NCLC there are multiple studies including - Judith Mara Gutman, 1967, Lewis W. Hine and the American Social Conscience, (New York: Walker); Walter Rosenblum et al., 1977, America and Lewis Hine: Photographs, 1904–1940, (New York: Aperture); Daile Kaplan (ed.), 1992, Photo Story: Selected Letters and Photographs of Lewis Hine, (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press); Alison Nordström & Elizabeth McCausland, 2012, Lewis Hine, (D.A.P./Distributed Art Publishers, Inc.) 
      
  65. Λ For Lewis Hines work at the Empire State Building - Lewis W. Hine, 1932, Men at Work, (New York: The Macmillan Company); Lewis Hine, 1997, Men at Work, (Dover Publications); Freddy Langer, 2001, Lewis W. Hine: The Empire State Building, (Prestel Publishing) 
      
  66. Λ Lewis W. Hine, 1932, Men at Work, (New York: The Macmillan Company); 
      
  67. Λ Elizabeth McCausland & Berenice Abbott, 1939, Changing New York, (New York: E. P. Dutton). The book included 97 illustrations by Berenice Abbott and larger sets of 302 photographs were distributed by FAP to High schools, libraries and public institutions. 
      
  68. Λ Otis - A Visual Timeline
    (Accessed: 30 March 2014)
    www.otisworldwide.com/d31-timeline.html 
      
  69. Λ The use of structural iron and steel for architectural framing was introduced by George A. Fuller (1851-1900) who built the Tacoma Building (1889) 
      
  70. Λ Early skyscrapers - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 18 August 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_skyscrapers 
      
  71. Λ Carol Willis, 1995, Form Follows Finance: Skyscrapers and Skylines in New York and Chicago, (New York, UK: Princeton Architectural Press) 
      
  72. Λ Christian A. Peterson, 1993, Alfred Stieglitz’s “Camera Notes”, (New York: W. W. Norton) 
      
  73. Λ For Camera Work - Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) 
      
  74. Λ There is a variant of "The Flatiron" and this photograph was printed in a more common blue/green (gum bichromate over platinum print) and a rarer red/brown. If you have further information on collections that include this version, the date and the process used please pass them along. 
      
  75. Λ Alvin Langdon Coburn, 1910, New York, (London: Duckworth and New York: Brentano‘s) [Introductory essay by H.G. Wells]
     
    There were twenty photogravures by Alvin Langdon Coburn (1882-1966) within New York and was introduced with an essay by H.G. Wells "the famous novelist". 
      
  76. Λ In 1916 Paul Strand took his "Still Life with Pear and Bowls, Twin Lakes, Connecticut" and his "Abstraction, Twin Lakes, Connecticut" which, with good reason, are held to be turning points in photography.
     
    Paul Strand, 1971, Paul Strand: A Retrospective Monograph, the Years 1915–1968, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [2 vols] 
      
  77. Λ For Lewis Hines work at the Empire State Building - Lewis W. Hine, 1932, Men at Work, (New York: The Macmillan Company); Lewis Hine, 1997, Men at Work, (Dover Publications); Freddy Langer, 2001, Lewis W. Hine: The Empire State Building, (Prestel Publishing) 
      
  78. Λ Background to The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS)
    www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/background.html 
      
  79. Λ Charles E. Peterson, October 1957, Charles E. Peterson to the Director, United States Department of the Interior, Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations, Washington, D.C., November 13, 1933. Reprinted in the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 29-31 
      
  80. Λ The photographic collection of HABS is housed in the Library of Congress. 
      
  81. Λ William A. Garnett - J. Paul Getty Trust
    (Accessed: 21 August 2013)
    www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artMakerDetails?maker=1580 
      
  82. Λ William Garnett, 1996, William Garnett, Aerial Photographs, (University of California Press) 
      
  83. Λ Garnett Photographs - The Jay M. Garnett and Nancy J. Garnett Rev. Trust website.
    (Accessed: 21 August 2013)
    www.garnettphotographs.org 
      
  84. Λ Ansel Adams, 1981, Ansel Adams: Images, 1923–1974, (Boston: New York Graphic Society); Nancy Newhall, 1963, Ansel Adams: The Eloquent Light, (San Francisco: Sierra Club); Andrea G. Stillman, 2012, Looking at Ansel Adams: The Photographs and the Man, (Little, Brown and Company) 
      
  85. Λ William Garnett, 1996, William Garnett, Aerial Photographs, (University of California Press) 
      
  86. Λ Bill Owns has documented the American way of life in a number of books - Bill Owens, 1973, Suburbia, (San Francisco: Straight Arrow Books) [Reprinted in 2004, by Fotofolio Inc.]; Bill Owens, 1975, Our Kind of People: American Groups and Rituals, (San Francisco: Straight Arrow Books); Bill Owens, 1977, Working: I Do It for The Money, (New York: Simon and Schuster); Bill Owens, 1978, Documentary Photography: a personal view by Bill Owens, (Danbury, NH: Addison House, Publishers); Bill Owens, 1999, Suburbia, (New York: Fotofolio Inc.) 
      
  87. Λ Robert Adams: What We Bought: the New World - Scenes from the Denver Metropolitan Area 1970-1974 
      
  88. Λ "Robert Adams: Photography, Life, and Beauty" - Undated interview with ART21
    (Accessed: 21 August 2013)
    www.art21.org/texts/robert-adams/interview-robert-adams-photography-life-and-beauty 
      
  89. Λ Little Boxes - Full lyrics (Accessed: 21 August 2013)
    people.wku.edu/charles.smith/MALVINA/mr094.htm
    This webpage provides the context:
    Malvina and her husband were on their way from where they lived in Berkeley, through San Francisco and down the peninsula to La Honda where she was to sing at a meeting of the Friends’ Committee on Legislation (not the PTA, as Pete Seeger says in the documentary about Malvina, "Love It Like a Fool"). As she drove through Daly City, she said "Bud, take the wheel. I feel a song coming on."
     
      
  90. Λ Candida Höfer interviewed by Carolyn Yerkes (201)
    (Accessed: 10 April 2014)
    www.museomagazine.com/CANDIDA-HOFER 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
1875, Les Chateau Historiques - Chambord - Photographie by Mieusement, (Paris: Ducher & Co) [Avec un Texte Descriptif et Historique par Auguste Millot] [Δ
  
Baldwin, Gordon, 2013, Architecture in Photographs, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 1606061526 isbn-13: 978-1606061527 [Δ
  
Bramsen, H.; Brøns M. & Ochsner, B., 1957, Early Photographs Of Architecture And Views In Two Copenhagen Libraries, (Copenhagen: Thaning & Appel) [Δ
  
Bush, Graham, 1975, Old London: Photographed by Henry Dixon and Alfred & John Bool for the Society for Photographing Relics of Old London, (Academy Editions Ltd) isbn-10: 0856701505 isbn-13: 978-0856701504 [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth, 2012, The Camera as Historian: Amateur Photographers and Historical Imagination, 1885–1918, (Duke University Press) isbn-10: 0822351048 isbn-13: 978-0822351047 [Δ
  
Foote, Kenneth E., 1987, ‘Relics of Old London: Photographs of a Changing City‘, History of Photography, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 133-153 [Δ
  
Hellman, Karen, 2013, The Window in Photographs, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 1606061445 isbn-13: 978-1606061442 [Δ
  
Herschdorfer, Nathalie & Umstatter, Lada (ed.), 2013, Le Corbusier And The Power Of Photography, (Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 0500544220 isbn-13: 978-0500544228 [Δ
  
Howitt, William, 1865, The Ruined Abbeys of Yorkshire [6 photo illustrations by Sedgfield and Ogle] [Δ
  
Meyer, Rudolf, 1985, Albrecht Meydenbauer: Baukunst in historischen Fotografien, (Leipzig: VEB Fotokinoverlag) [Δ
  
Mondenard, Anne de, 1994, Photographier L'Architecture 1851-1920, (Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux) [Δ
  
Mondenard, Anne de, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux) [Δ
  
Néagu, Philippe, et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851. Exhibition catalogue, (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés) [Δ
  
Nilsen, Micheline, 2011, Architecture in Nineteenth-Century Photographs: Essays on Reading a Collection, (Ashgate) isbn-10: 140940904X isbn-13: 978-1409409045 [Δ
  
Pare, R., 1982, Photography And Architecture: 1839-1939, (Montreal: Callaway Editions) [Δ
  
Rice, Shelley, 1999, Parisian Views, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262681072 isbn-13: 978-0262681070 [Δ
  
Robinson, Percy, 1896, Relics of Old Leeds, (Leeds: Percy Robinson; London: B. T. Batsford) [Δ
  
Siren, Osvald, 1924, The Walls and Gates of Peking, (London: John Lane and the Bodley Head) [Δ
  
Spring, Ian, 1990, Phantom Village: The Myth of the New Glasgow, (Edinburgh: Polygon) [Δ
  
Stamp, Gavin, 1984, The Changing Metropolis: Earliest Photographs of London, 1839-79, (Hammondsworth: Penguin) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Berenice Abbott 
  
McCausland, Elizabeth & Abbott, Berenice, 1939, Changing New York, (New York: E. P. Dutton) [Δ
  
Van Haaften, Julia (ed.), 1989, Berenice Abbott, Photographer: A Modern Vision, (New York: New York Public Library) [Δ
  
Yochelson, Bonnie, 1997, Berenice Abbott: Changing New York, (New York: The New Press; New York: Museum of the City of New York) [Δ
  
Thomas Annan 
  
Annan, Thomas, 1870, Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry [Δ
  
Annan, Thomas, 1977, Photographs of the Old Closes and Streets of Glasgow, 1868–1877, (New York: Dover Publications) [Introduction by Anita Ventura Mozeley. Reprint] [Δ
  
Mozley, Anita Ventura, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [With a supplement of 15 related views) with a new introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley. Published through the Cooperation of The International Museum of Photography / George Eastman House] [Δ
  
Spring, Ian, 1996, ‘Midnight Scenes and Social Photographs: Thomas Annan's Glasgow‘, in Debra N. Mancoff & D.J. Trela (eds.), 1996, Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and Its Contexts, (New York: Garland), pp. 195-213 [Δ
  
Stevenson, Sara, 1990, Thomas Annan 1829-1887, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland) [Δ
  
Young, William (introduction), 1900, The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust, (Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons) [Δ
  
Amy Arbus 
  
Arbus, Amy, 1999, The Inconvenience of Being Born, (Fotofolio) [Δ
  
Eugène Atget 
  
Atget & Proust, 2012, Paris du temps perdu, (Paris: Editions Hoëbeke) [Δ
  
Szarkowski, John & Hambourg, Maria Morris, 1981, The Work of Atget. Vol. 1: Old France, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Édouard Baldus 
  
Daniel, Malcolm R., 1994, The Photographs of Édouard Baldus, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Montreal: Canadian Centre for Architecture) [Δ
  
Lewis Baltz 
  
Baltz, Lewis, 1974, The New Industrial Parks near Irvine, California, ([New York]: [Leo Castelli/Castelli Graphics]) [Δ
  
Rian, J., 2001, Lewis Baltz, (New York: Phaidon Press) [Δ
  
Bernd & Hilla Becher 
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1988, Water Towers, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 026202277X isbn-13: 978-0262022774 [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1991, Bernd & Hilla Becher: Pennsylvania Coal Mine Tipples, (Dia Art Foundation) isbn-10: 0944521231 isbn-13: 978-0944521236 [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 1997, Fördertürme, (Munich: Schirmer) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2001, Framework Houses, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262024993 isbn-13: 978-0262024990 [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2002, Industrial Landscapes, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2004, Typologies of Industrial Buildings, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262025655 isbn-13: 978-0262025652 [Edited by Armin Zweite] [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2006, Cooling Towers, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262025981 isbn-13: 978-0262025980 [Δ
  
Becher, Bernd & Becher, Hilla, 2013, Stonework and Lime Kilns, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597112526 isbn-13: 978-1597112529 [Δ
  
Becher, Bernhard & Becher, Hilla, 1970, Anonyme Skulpturen - Eine Typologie technischer Bauten, (Düsseldorf: ART-PRESS Verlag) [Exhibition catalogue of the gallery Konrad Fischer, Düsseldorf] [Δ
  
Becher, Bernhard & Becher, Hilla, 1970, Anonyme Skulpturen, A Typology of Technical Constructions, (New York: Wittenborn and Co.) [Δ
  
Heckert, Virginia Ann, 1987, May, A Photographic Archive of Industrial Architecture: The Work of Bernd and Hilla Becher, (M.A. thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara) [Δ
  
Lange, Susanne, 2006, Bernd and Hilla Becher: Life and Work, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262122863 isbn-13: 978-0262122863 [Δ
  
Peter Bialobrzeski 
  
Bialobrzeski, Peter, 2004, NeonTigers: Photographs of Asian Megacities, (Hatje Cantz Publishers) isbn-10: 3775713948 isbn-13: 978-3775713948 [German] [Δ
  
Bialobrzeski, Peter & Glasmeier, Michael, 2008, Lost in Transition, (Hatje Cantz Publishers) isbn-10: 3775720499 isbn-13: 978-3775720496 [Δ
  
Bisson frères 
  
Bisson frères, 1853-1862, Reproductions photographiques des Plus Beaux Types d'Architecture [Published in installments] [Δ
  
Archibald Burns 
  
Burns, Archibald & Henderson, Thomas, 1868, Picturesque Bits from Old Edinburgh: A Series of Photographs, (Edomonston and Douglas, publishers to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, London: Simpkin, Marshall, and Company) [Δ
  
Edward S. Curtis 
  
Solomon, Mary & Solomon, Dan, 2000, Sites and Structures: The Architectural Photographs of Edward S. Curtis, (Chronicle Books) isbn-10: 0811829383 isbn-13: 978-0811829380 [Δ
  
Louis-Emile Durandelle 
  
Baillargeon, C., 2011, ‘Construction Photography and the Rhetoric of Fundraising: The Maison Durandelle Sacre-Coeur Commission‘, Visual resources: an international journal of documentation, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 113-128 [Δ
  
Garnier, Charles, 1878, Le Nouvel Opera de Paris par Charles Garnier, (Paris: Ducher et Cie) [Illustrations are based on photographs by Louis-Emile Durandelle] [Δ
  
Nuitter, Charles, 1875, Le Nouvel Opera, (Paris: Libraire Hachette et Cie) [Illustrations are based on photographs by Louis-Emile Durandelle] [Δ
  
Frederick H. Evans 
  
Hammond, Anne (ed.), 1992, Frederick H. Evans: Selected Texts and Bibliography, (Boston: G. K. Hall) [World Photographers Reference Series, vol. 1] [Δ
  
Marcel Gautherot 
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 1956, Modern Architecture in Brazil, (Amsterdam/Rio de Janeiro: Colibri) [Δ
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 1965, Rio de Janeiro, (Munique: W. Anderman) [Δ
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 2001, O Brasil de Marcel Gautherot, (São Paulo: Instituto Moreira Salles (IMS)) isbn-10: 8586707058 [Δ
  
Gautherot, Marcel, 2010, Building Brasilia: Photographs by Marcel Gautherot, (Thames & Hudson) isbn-10: 0500515425 isbn-13: 978-0500515426 [Δ
  
Lewis W. Hine 
  
Hine, Lewis W., 1932, Men at Work, (New York: The Macmillan Company) [Δ
  
Langer, Freddy, 2001, Lewis W. Hine: The Empire State Building, (Prestel Publishing) isbn-10: 3791324918 isbn-13: 978-3791324913 [Δ
  
Candida Höfer 
  
Hofer, Candida, 2005, Architecture Of Absence, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1931788480 isbn-13: 978-1931788489 [Δ
  
Hofer, Candida, 2006, Libraries, (Schirmer/Mosel) isbn-10: 3829601867 isbn-13: 978-3829601863 [Δ
  
Hofer, Candida, 2006, Paris Opera, (Schirmer/Mosel) isbn-10: 3829602308 isbn-13: 978-3829602303 [Δ
  
Hofer, Candida, 2007, In Portugal, (Schirmer/Mosel) isbn-10: 382960279 isbn-13: 978-3829602792 [Δ
  
Hofer, Candida, 2010, Napoli, (Schirmer/Mosel) isbn-10: 3829604246 isbn-13: 978-3829604246 [Δ
  
Hofer, Candida, 2011, Spaces of Their Own, (Schirmer/Mosel) isbn-10: 3829605145 isbn-13: 978-3829605144 [Δ
  
Clarence John Laughlin 
  
Brady, P. & Lawrence, J. H. (eds.), 1997, Haunter of Ruins: The Photography of Clarence John Laughlin, (Boston: Bulfinch Press) [Δ
  
Laughlin, Clarence J, 1987, Ghosts Along the Mississippi, (New York: American Legacy Press) [Δ
  
Juan Laurent 
  
Gil-Díez Usandizaga, Ignacio (ed.), 2011, Las fotografias de J. Laurent (1816–1886) y La Rioja, (Logroño) [Δ
  
Rodríguez, Francisco Javier & José María Coronado (eds.), 2003, Obras públicas de España: Fotografías de J. Laurent, 1858–1870, (Ciudad Real) [Teixidor, Carlos, Carlos Nárdiz, José Ramón Navarro, Ignacio González, José Aguilar, Dora Nicolás, and José María de Ureña] [Δ
  
Tuda, Isabel (ed.), 2005, Jean Laurent en el Museo Municipal de Madrid, vol. 1., (Madrid) [Teixidor, Carlos, Carlos Nárdiz, José Ramón Navarro, Ignacio González, José Aguilar, Dora Nicolás, and José María de Ureña] [Δ
  
Cesare Leonardi 
  
Leonardi, Cesare, 1985, Il Duomo di Modena: Atlante fotografico, (Modena: Panini) [Italian] [Δ
  
Edwin Hale Lincoln 
  
Lincoln, Edwin Hale; Scott, Walter Hilton & Oakes, Donald Thomas, 1981, A pride of palaces: Lenox summer cottages, 1883-1933 - sixty photographs, (Lenox Library Association) [Δ
  
Frederick Anthony Stansfield Marshall 
  
Marshall, Frederick Anthony Stansfield, 1855, Photography: The Importance of Its Application in Preserving Pictorial Records of the National Monuments of History and Art, (London: Hering and Remington) [Δ
  
Charles Marville 
  
Marville, Charles, 1997, Charles Marville, (Centre National de Photo) isbn-10: 286754100X isbn-13: 978-2867541001 [French] [Δ
  
Thézy, Marie de, 1994, Marville: Paris, (Hazan) [Δ
  
Merchand & Meffre 
  
Marchand, Yves & Meffre, Romain, 2011, The Ruins of Detroit, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869300426 isbn-13: 978-3869300429 [Δ
  
Marchand, Yves & Meffre, Romain, 2013, Gunkanjima, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869305460 isbn-13: 978-3869305462 [Δ
  
Richard Banner Oakely 
  
Oakeley, Richard Banner, 1859, The Pagoda of Hallibeed, illustrated by fifty-six photographic views, with descriptive letter-press, (London: Thomas M'Lean) [Δ
  
Edward Ruscha 
  
Ruscha, Edward, 1965, Some Los Angeles Apartments, (Los Angeles: Anderson, Ritchie & Simon) [Δ
  
Ruscha, Edward, 1966, Every Building on the Sunset Strip, (Los Angeles: Edward Ruscha) [Δ
  
John Ruskin 
  
Jacobson, K. & J., 2014, Carry Off the Palaces: John Ruskin's Lost Daguerreotypes, (Quaritch) [Δ
  
Charles Sheeler 
  
Millard III, Charles W., 1967, ‘Charles Sheeler, American Photographer‘, Contemporary Photographer, vol. 6, no. 1 [Entire issue on Charles Sheeler] [Δ
  
Stebbins Jr, Theodore E. & Keyes Jr, Norman, 1987, Charles Sheeler: The Photographs, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
Stebbins Jr, Theodore E. et al., 2002, The Photography of Charles Sheeler: American Modernist, (Boston: Bulfinch Press) [Δ
  
Ezra Stoller 
  
Rappaport, Nina & Stoller, Erica, 2012, Ezra Stoller, Photographer, (Yale University Press) isbn-13: 978-0300172379 [Introduction by Andy Grundberg; With contributions by Akiko Busch and John Morris Dixon] [Δ
  
William Strudwick 
  
Strudwick, William, 1860 (ca), Old London - views by W. Strudwick [Δ
  
Hiroshi Sugimoto 
  
Bonami, Francesco et al., 2003, Sugimoto: Architecture, (Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Architecture and Interior Design for 20th Century America: Photographs by Samuel Gottscho and William Schleisner, 1935-1955 
http://memory.loc.gov ... 
  
Photographs of Dogon, Niger, and Lobi (including sculpture and architecture) by Huib Blom 
http://www.dogon-lobi.ch ... 
  
Man Ray 
http://www.pbs.org ... 
This is part of the excellent American Masters series of television programs broadcast by PBS in the USA. 
  
Andy Warhol 
http://www.pbs.org ... 
This is part of the excellent American Masters series of television programs broadcast by PBS in the USA. 
  
Andrew White - Architectural Photographs Collection 
http://cidc.library.cornell.edu ... 
The Andrew Dickson White Architectural Photographs Collection at Cornell University includes approximately 13,000 nineteenth- and early twentieth-century photographs of architecture, decorative arts and sculpture. 
  
The Hill Collection: Architectural Photography in the 19th Century 
http://www.hillcollection.com 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Berenice Abbott  (1898-1991) • James Anderson  (1813-1877) • Amy Arbus  (1954-) • Eugène Atget  (1857-1927) • Lewis Baltz  (1945-) • Bernd & Hilla Becher • Peter Bialobrzeski • Bisson frères • A. & J. Bool • Bill Burke  (1943-) • Delmaet & Durandelle • Lucinda Devlin  (1947-) • Götz Diergarten  (1972-) • Henry Dixon  (1820-1893) • Dixon & Son • Louis-Emile Durandelle  (check) • Frederick H. Evans  (1853-1943) • Walker Evans  (1903-1975) • Andrew Freeman • Lee Friedlander  (1934-) • William W. Fuller  (1948-) • Marcel Gautherot  (1910-1996) • Pedro E. Guerrero  (1917-2012) • Antje Hanebeck • Lucien Hervé  (1910-2007) • Candida Höfer  (1944-) • Francis Benjamin Johnston  (1864-1952) • Thomas Kellner  (1966-) • Nikolay Khomoutetski  (1905-1973) • Shinchiro Kobayashi • Juan Laurent  (1816-1886) • Cesare Leonardi  (1935-) • Albert Levy  (check) • Andreas Magdanz • Werner Mantz  (1901-1983) • Michael Massaia  (1978-) • Gordon Matta-Clark  (1943-1978) • Merchand & Meffre • Albrecht Meydenbauer  (1834-1921) • Séraphin Médéric Mieusement  (1840-1905) • Grant Mudford  (1944-) • Richard Nickel  (1928-1972) • Sean Perry  (1968-) • Robert Polidori  (1951-) • Albert Renger-Patzsch  (1897-1966) • Martin Rosswog  (1950-) • John Ruskin  (1819-1900) • Charles Shepherd • Julius Shulman  (1910-2009) • William Strudwick  (1834-1910) • Thomas Struth  (1954-) • Roger Sturtevant • Hiroshi Sugimoto  (1948-) • Adolphe Terris  (1820-1900) • Terris & Vitigliano • Philip Trager  (1935-) • Camilo José Vergara  (1944-)
HomeThemes > Architecture 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Cityscapes - Urban 
Civil engineering 
Mission Héliographiques 
Photographic surveys movement 
Society for Photographing Relics 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Architecture

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailArchitecture: Bridges 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 4, 2008)
ThumbnailArchitecture: Christian 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 27, 2011)
ThumbnailArchitecture: Islamic 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 27, 2011)
ThumbnailArchitecture: Masters of Architectural Photography - Exteriors 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 29, 2010)
ThumbnailArchitecture: Missions Héliographiques 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 6, 2010) CLARIFICATION: This exhibition is of works by the photographers who participated in the Missions Héliographiques and NOT the photographs taken specifically for the survey. Further advice is welcome.
ThumbnailArchitecture: Skyscrapers 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 15, 2012) I am interested in adding a number of contemporary examples to this exhibition.
ThumbnailCharles Marville 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 5, 2010)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Architectural Studies 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 28, 2006)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Charles Nègre and the Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 23, 2010)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Jacob Riis and How the Other Half Live 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 23, 2010) As the quality of the images in the nineteenth century books of Jacob Riis are so poor I'm seeking scans of the photographs.
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Louis-Emile Durandelle and the Paris Opera (1860-1874) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 30, 2010)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Philip Henry Delamotte and The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 16, 2010) Who has scans of the 1851/1852 Crystal Palace building in Hyde Park taken by William Henry Fox Talbot and Benjamin Brecknell Turner?
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century William Notman and the Victoria Bridge, Montreal, QC, Canada (1858-1860) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 23, 2010)
ThumbnailDocumentary: Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 8, 2011)
ThumbnailÉdouard Baldus (1813–1889): 19th Century French Photographs 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 13, 2007) To coincide with the exhibition at the Lee Gallery (September 1 - October 29, 2007).
ThumbnailEugène Atget (1857-1927) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 3, 2006)
ThumbnailFrederick H. Evans: Cathedrals 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 10, 2011)
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - A Pictorialist Perspective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 22, 2012)
ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban - Urbanscapes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 22, 2012)
ThumbnailLondon, The Streets, Buildings and Monuments 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 11, 2010)
ThumbnailSean Perry: Transitory 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 17, 2007)
ThumbnailSteven Evans: Still Life 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 23, 2007)
ThumbnailThe Hill Collection: Architectural Photography in the 19th Century 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 11, 2008)
ThumbnailThomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow (1900) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 18, 2006)
ThumbnailThomas Kellner: Dancing Walls 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 8, 2008)
ThumbnailVenice 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 10, 2011)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Architecture

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailBaron Georges Haussmann 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAchille Quinet: Restoration of the Royal Chaalis Abbey 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAdolphe Terris and Fred Vitigliano: Construction of the Church of Saint Vincent de Paul, Marseille 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAdolphe Terris: France: Marseille 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: Architecture 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAugust Sander: Cologne 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBenjamin Brecknell Turner: Crystal Palace, Hyde Park 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBerenice Abbott: Changing New York 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBerenice Abbott: Flatiron Building 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBernd & Hilla Becher: Blast furnaces 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBernd & Hilla Becher: Cooling towers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBernd & Hilla Becher: Water towers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCalvert Richard Jones: Daguerreotype: Margam Castle, Wales 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCandida Höfer: Architectural space 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCarlo Naya: Venice: Palaces 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Marville: The rebuilding of Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Steichen: The Flatiron 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailElsbeth Struijk van Bergen: Gerrit Rietveld’s Robijnhof 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Atget: Architecture: Doorways 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Atget: Architecture: Staircases 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Atget: Paris: Streets and buildings 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugene Piot: Italy (1849-1852) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Benjamin Johnston: Architecture 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederick H. Evans: A Sea of Steps, Wells Cathedral 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederick H. Evans: York Minster 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHippolyte-Auguste Collard: Les Travaux Publics de la France 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Henry Ravenshaw: Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions (1878) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Plumbe Jr.: Buildings of Washington 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Ruskin: Italy: Pisa: Santa Maria della Spina - Chapel of St. Mary of the Thorn 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJosef Sudek: Saint-Guy 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJuan Laurent: Architecture: Islamic 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulius Shulman: Case Study House #22 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLewis W. Hine: Empire State Building 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLucien Hervé: Architecture 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMarie Theophile Louis Rousselet: Mausoleum of Houmayoun 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNeil Folberg: Synagogues 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPierre-Ambroise Richebourg: Architectural designs of Hippolyte Durand 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoger Mayne: Wapping 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSebah and Joaillier: Islamic architecture: Mosque interiors 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSheila Metzner: New York 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Biggs: Architecture at Ahmedabad 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTimothy Soar: Faces of British Architecture 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: Kodak album of domestic interiors (ca. 1910) 
ThumbnailWilliam A. Pumphrey: York Cathedral 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailYves Merchand and Romain Meffre: Detroit 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailCharles Marville - Unidentified photographer 
ThumbnailClem Albers - William A. Garnett 
ThumbnailFrancis Frith - Henri Bechard - Frank Good 
ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard - Adolphe Braun - Robert Capa - Peter Keetman 
ThumbnailHenri Le Secq - Bisson frères - Charles Marville - Charles Nègre 
ThumbnailPierre Dubreuil - André Kertész - Berenice Abbott 
ThumbnailRobert Rive - Le Gray & Mestral - Édouard Baldus - Giorgio Sommer - Neurdein Frères - Léon Gérard - Francis Frith 
ThumbnailSylvester Dutton & Vincent Michaels - W.P. Floyd 
ThumbnailThomas Annan - Charles Marville - Eugène Atget - August Sander 
ThumbnailWilliam A. Pumphrey - Roger Fenton 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailArchitecture: Aqueducts 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Arches 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Bridges 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Bridges: Internal geometry 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Bridges: Under construction 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Ceilings 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Christian 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Dams 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Doorways 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Forts, Fortresses and castles 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Fountains 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Gasoline stations 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Grain silos and elevators 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Ice palaces 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Islamic 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Jewish 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Lighthouses and beacons 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Mausoleums 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Pagodas 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Piers 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Porches 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Shops: Interior 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Shops: Exterior 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Skyscrapers 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Staircases 
ThumbnailArchitecture: The country house 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Train stations 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Tunnels 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Watertowers 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Windmills 
ThumbnailArchitecture: Windows 
ThumbnailBerlin: Building conditions 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Historic American Buldings Survey - HABS 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Mission Héliographique 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: The Society for photographing relics of old London 
ThumbnailRooms: Bathrooms 
ThumbnailRooms: Bedrooms 
ThumbnailRooms: Kitchens 
ThumbnailRooms: Sitting, living and dining rooms 
ThumbnailRooms: Studios 
ThumbnailRooms: Toilets 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAlbum of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1870) 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 11 April 2014, 20:51
 
  
 
  
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