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HomeContentsThemes > Art

Contents

Introduction
14.01   An introduction to art and photography
Artists and photographers
14.02   Artists at work
14.03   The encounters between the London Daguerreotypist John Jabez Mayall and the artist John Turner (1847-1849)
14.04   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong
14.05   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists
14.06   How artists have portrayed photographers
Photographs of artists
14.07   Daguerreotypes: Artists
14.08   Albumen prints: Artists
14.09   Carte de visites: Artists
Drawing and optical devices
14.10   Drawing and optical devices
14.11   Camera lucida: Design and use
14.12   The camera lucida
14.13   Camera obscura: Design and use
14.14   Portable camera obscura
Cliché-verre
14.15   Cliché verre
Associating photography with the arts
14.16   Carte de visites: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts
14.17   Cabinet cards: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts
Publications that did, or said they did, use daguerreotypes as the basis for their illustrations
14.18   The influence of the daguerreotype upon art
14.19   Paris et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840)
14.20   Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes : vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe
14.21   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840)
14.22   Bruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855)
Using photography to copy two dimensional artworks
14.23   Joseph Nicéphore Niépce: Cardinal d'Amboise
14.24   Photographing art: Works on paper and canvas
14.25   William Sterling: Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848)
14.26   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Notice of an Illuminated Vellum Manuscript
Printing works for photographic reproductions
14.27   Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard: reproductions of works of art
14.28   Adolphe Braun - A Continental Printing Establishment (1874)
Photomicrographs of art
14.29   Art and photomicrographs
Copyright of photographs of artworks
14.30   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (17 August 1888)
14.31   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (24 August 1888)
14.32   International Copyright of Photographs - Judgement - Messrs. Braun and Co. (21 September 1888)
Photographing sculpture
14.33   Photographing art: Sculpture
Use of photography as an aid to art
14.34   Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843)
14.35   Oil paintings by Gustave Courbet based upon photographs
14.36   Julien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses
14.37   Alphonse Marie Mucha: Artist studies - Académies
14.38   Académies and the use of artist studies of nudes to assist artists
14.39   Artistic studies of nude women
14.40   Eugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies
14.41   Vincenzo Galdi: Artist studies - Académies
14.42   Artistic studies of nude men
14.43   Combining a daguerreotype with a miniature to create a painting (1848)
Painting on photographs
14.44   Introduction to painting on photographs
Visual connections between art and photography
14.45   Paintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa
14.46   Photographs based on known paintings
14.47   Painted photographs by known artists
14.48   Thomas Eakins: The Swimming Hole
14.49   Edgar Degas: After the Bath
14.50   Georg Hendrik Breitner: Using photography as an aid to painting
14.51   Photographs that are stylistically similar to paintings
14.52   Neil Folberg: The French Impressionists
Portraiture and art
14.53   The "artistic" portrait
14.54   Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits
14.55   Oscar Gustave Rejlander: Two Ways of Life
14.56   Mimicing art within Pictorialism
Paints in tubes
14.57   Preserving paint in collapsible tubes
The connections between photography and landscape art
14.58   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The road to Chailly (Forests of Fontainebleau)
14.59   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The Bodmer Oak (Forests of Fontainebleau)
Using Autochromes for early colour art photography
14.60   Autochromes: Art
Artists of the twentieth century and photography
14.61   Salvador Dali
14.62   Photographers who have taken portrait series on artists
Photography as a means of documenting art
14.63   Land art
14.64   Conceptual photography
14.65   Performance art
Looking at art
14.66   Looking at art
Exhibitions
14.67   Exhibitions on the relationships between art and photography
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
14.01   Art >  An introduction to art and photography 
  
The relationships between photography and art have been well studied and are receiving increasing research interest. In 1964 Van Deren Coke's book The Painter and the Photograph, from Delacroix to Warhol was published and it was followed in 1974 by Aaron Scharf's Art and Photography and over the last 50 years there have a vast range of monographs and exhibitions exploring the subject.[1] This section provides key threads through a complex fabric and It becomes evident to all but the visually insensitive that there have always been connections between art and photography and to say that photography is in any way a lesser form of art is naive.
 
Artists who became photographers
Numerous early daguerreotypists and photographers were artists and notable examples include Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre,[2] Eugène Cuvelier, Gustave Le Gray,[3] Johann Baptist Isenring,[4] Carol Szathmari and Julien Vallou de Villeneuve.
Artists who used photography
Artists appreciated that Artist studies - Académies which were life studies, often nudes in Classical poses, were an alternative, or addition to, using life models. Nude photographs could be seen as obscene by the authorities and there was a blurred line between what was acceptable for art and what was titillation or worse. Louis Igout, Eugène Durieu[5] and Julien Vallou de Villeneuve all took nude studies.
 
The vast majority, but not all by any means, of nineteenth century nude studies were taken in France by French photographers. Many artists including Alphonse Marie Mucha[6], Thomas Eakins[7], Edgar Degas[8] and Georg Hendrik Breitner[9] either took photographs of nudes to assist their work or purchased photographs.  
  
Edgar Degas 
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Georg Hendrik Breitner 
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Adolphe Braun, photograph / Gustave Courbet, oil painting 
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Lieutenant Alfred Bastien 
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Photographers who have documented artists
Just as there are artists who have painted photographers at work there at photographers who have documented artists at work and play. We can see Eugène Delacroix in a studio portrait by Nadar taken around 1860 and Camille Corot painting in the open air at Saint-Nicolas-les-Arras photographed by Charles Desavary. The artist Charles Fenu who painted only with his feet can be seen on a carte de visite. We can see sculptors at work, a Japanese tattooist at work on the back and shoulder of a prostitute. Some artists are so iconic that their photographs reflect their artistic styles and this can be seen in portraits of Magritte, Salvador Dali and David Hockney.  
  
How artists paint photographic studios 
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How photographers photograph artists 
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Photographers who copied artworks
Henry Fox Talbot in his Pencil of Nature (1844)[10] was far-sighted when he brought together in a single volume the ways it which he predicted that photography would be useful. He included Fac-simile of an Old Printed Page (pt. 2, pl. 9), Copy of a Lithographic Print (pt. 2, pl. 11) and Hagar in the Desert each of which showed how photographs could be used to copy art. He also included two plates with the same name Bust of Patroclus [1] (pt. 1, pl. 5), Bust of Patroclus [2] (pt. 4, pl. 17) which demonstrated how sculptures could be documented.  
  
Henry Fox Talbot: Plates from The Pencil of Nature 
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In 1848 William Stirling's book Annals of the Artists of Spain was illustrated with Talbotypes.[11] Talbotypes was another name for Calotypes even though Henry Fox Talbot dissapproved of it. In a salted paper print of The Reading Establishment it shows four people working behind the studio run by Nicolaas Henneman in Reading (England) - it is an artwork for Annals of the Artists of Spain that is being copied.  
  
Nicolaas Henneman making the plates for Annals of the Artists of Spain 
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Photographers who painted on photographs
Within a few years of the announcement of photography in 1839 there were patents by Richard Beard in Great Britain for for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses and representations of nature, and of other object (September 1842) which was about colouring daguerreotypes.[12] In January 1846 in the America Frederick Langenheim took out a patent For an Improvement in Coloring Daguerreotype Plates. As calotypes were on paper rather than metal it was an even more straight forward process to paint on them.  
  
Painting on photographs 
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Almost all of metal, glass and paper photographs could be painted on and there are many surviving Hand-painted photographs showing the talented hand of the true artist or the indescribably poor workmanshop of the talent-less. Both can have a charm but it is of a different kind. On occasion there are photographs of Felice Beato showing his Japanese artists at work painting photographs and John Thomson in his book Illustrations of China and Its People (1873-1874)[13] includes an illustration Chinese artist, Hongkong, based on a surviving photograph, of the artist Lumqua at work creating paintings based on photographs.  
  
John Thomson: Chinese artist in Hong Kong, variants 
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Photographers who sought recognition through associating themeselves with art
Association with art has been a marketing tool for photographers right through its history. With card photographs such as carte de visite, cabinet cards and to a lesser extent stereocards the actual card itself could be printed on and the wording and designs could provide a clear link. Paint brushes, artist palettes, easels were common motifs, putti (chubby children associated with the divine) holding brushes included within designs to highlight the abilities of the photographer. There are numerous examples of this on both carte de visite and cabinet cards.  
  
Carte de visites with art motifs 
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Cabinet cards with art motifs 
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Association with art displayed refinement
By creating photographs that included photographic and artistic elements the idea was being reinforced from the earliest days that photography was a sophisticated symbol of refinement in upwardly mobile societies. Knowledge of art in a self-help age was a necessity and photography could provide that. As the caption read on a Kilburn stereocard "No home is complete without this work of art!".  
  
Photography and art show refinement 
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Copyright of photographs
It took time for copyright protection to be afforded to photographers to protect their labours. This was especially important for companies such as Adolphe Braun et Cie / Adolphe Braun and Company[14][15] who specialized in making arrangements with galleries, museums and the Paris Salon to photograph collections and exhibitions in different cities. This required time and expense to accomplish and the market was largely for those teaching art and those who wanted to purchase prints for for their own collections. Pirated copies were made of these prints and sold and in 1888 Adolphe Braun and Company instigated legal proceedings in Lindon under the Copyright Acts (1862 and 1886) to prevent unathorized copying and this was reported in the Photographic News on 17 August 1888, 24 August and the judgement on 21 September.[16] The negatives were destroyed, and damages and costs awarded - this case is important as it provided legal protection against privacy.  
  
Adolphe Baun: Legal case on copyright 
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Artists and photographers 
  
14.02   Art >  Artists at work 
  
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Portraits of artists in the nineteenth century were generally uninteresting compositions. They have the requisite components, the artist and easel and brushes but as static representations they do little to capture the personality of the artist or the traits of their work. Towards the end of the nineteenth century Pictorialist photographers associated themselves with the arts and took photographs of artists to highlight their relationships. After all if they mixed with artists their manipulated photographs would be art or so the logic ran. When a jury was formed for the Première Exposition d‘Art Photographique (The Photo-Cub de Paris) in 1893 or soon after it was headed by Armand Dayot, the Inspecteur des Beaux-Arts, and included five painters, a sculptor, an art-critic and two photographers who were members of the committee for the Société Francaise de Photographie.[17] The makeup of the jury is a clear indication that photographers were attempting to be accepted as artists.  
  
Pictorialist style portraits of artists 
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Later the portrait of The Painter, Gottfried Brockmann made in Cologne in 1924 by August Sander does have a mesmeric edge as has an expression worthy of Nosferatu the lead character of the film of the same name.[18]  
  
August Sander: The Painter, Gottfried Brockmann 
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A portrait of an artist need to capture the essential nature of the personality that links them to their works not only by visual proximity in a photographer but rather by mood, setting and the choice of photographic techniques employed. A bromoil hand-worked print might be appropriate for a pictorialist photographer but only if the subject applied a similar style. One can disagree with this and say that the photograph should stand alone but if that is the case why does the sitter matter if there is no attempt by the photographer to get to the heart of their character?
 
To say that Salvador Dali had a mercurial personality would be an understatement and he was so keen on the commercial side of art that even the Surrealists would not accept him. He understood the cult of personality, marketing and how it could be applied to achieve his goals so the portraits of Dali are explorations of his making no matter who took them.  
  
Salvador Dali 
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14.03   Art >  The encounters between the London Daguerreotypist John Jabez Mayall and the artist John Turner (1847-1849) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The relationship between art and photography has always had nuances - those subtle shapes of meaning - the following account of the encounters between the London daguerreotypist John Jabez Mayall and the artist John Turner in the late 1840s are clues:
CHAPTER XIV.
THIRST FOR KNOWLEDGE IN OLD AGE.
 
One of the most admirable things about Turner's mind was, that it never grew old. It never froze and petrified into unchangeable fixity, but remained to the last thirsty for knowledge, and ready to grow as the world grew.
 
One of the most interesting proofs of the perpetual growth of Turner's mind is the following account of the interest he took in the science of optics and in the science of photography. It is kindly furnished to me by that eminent professor of the progressing and wonderful art, Mr. Mayall, of Regent-street:
 
"Turner's visits to my atelier were in 1847, '48, and '49. I took several admirable daguerreotype portraits of him, one of which was reading, a position rather favourable for him on account of his weak eyes and their being rather bloodshot. I recollect one of these portraits was presented to a lady who accompanied him. My first interviews with him were rather mysterious; he either did state, or at least led me to believe, that he was a Master in Chancery, and his subsequent visits and conversation rather confirmed this idea. At first he was very desirous of trying curious effects of light let in on the figure from a high position, and he himself sat for the studies. He was very much pleased with a figure-study I had just completed of ' This Mortal must put on Immortality;' he wished to bring a lady to try something of the kind himself. This was in 1847; and I believe he did fix a day for that purpose. However, it happened to be a November fog, and I could not work. He stayed with me some three hours, talking about light and its curious effects on films of prepared silver. He expressed a wish to see the spectral image copied, and asked me if I had ever repeated Mrs. Somerville's experiment of magnetizing a needle in the rays of the spectrum. I told him I had.
 
"I was not then aware that the inquisitive old man was Turner, the painter. At the same time, I was much impressed with his inquisitive disposition, and I carefully explained to him all I then knew of the operation of light on iodized silver plates. He came again and again, always with some new notion about light. He wished me to copy my views of Niagara then a novelty in London and inquired of me about the effect of the rainbow spanning the great falls. I was fortunate in having seized one of these fleeting shadows when I was there, and I showed it to him. He wished to buy the plate. At that time I was not very anxious to sell them. I told him I had made a copy for Sir John Herschel, and with that exception did not intend to part with a copy. He told me he should like to see Niagara, as it was the greatest wonder in nature; he was never tired of my descriptions of it. In short, he had come so often, and in such an unobtrusive manner, that he had come to be regarded by all my people as ' our Mr. Turner.'
 
"This went on through 1848, till one evening I met him at the soiree of the Royal Society; I think it was early in May, 1849. He shook me by the hand very cordially, and fell into his old topic of the spectrum. Some one came up to me and asked if I knew Mr. Turner; I answered I had had that pleasure some time. ' Yes,' said my informant, rather significantly, ' but do you know that he is the Turner?' I was rather surprised, I must confess; and later on in the evening I encountered him again, and fell into conversation on our old topic. I ventured to suggest to him the value of such studies for his own pursuits, and at once offered to conduct any experiments for him that he might require, and, in fact, to give up some time to work out his ideas about the treatment of light and shade. I parted with him on the understanding that he would call on me; however, he never did call again, nor did I ever see him again.
 
"I recollected putting aside a rather curious head of him in profile, and, you may be sure, on the following morning after this interview I lost no time in looking up the portrait, which, I regret to say, one of my assistants had without my orders effaced. I am almost certain you will be able to trace some of the daguerreotypes of him, for I made at least four, for which he paid me; and some I rubbed out where we had tried the effect of a sharp, narrow cross light, in which some parts of the face were left in strong shadow.
 
"I need not add, that at that time I was a struggling artist, much devoted to improving my art, and had just bought a large lens in Paris, six inches in diameter. I let Turner look through it, and the expressions of surprise and admiration were such that I ought at once to have known him in his true character; however, he was very kind to me, and by some sort of inuendo he kept up his Mastership in Chancery so well, that I did not. He sent me many patrons. I used to hear about him almost daily. When somewhat desponding of my success one day, I told him London was too large for a man with slender means to get along. He sharply turned round and said, 'No, no; you are sure to succeed; only wait. You are a young man yet. I began life with little, and you see I am now very comfortable.' ' Yes,' I replied; ' and if I were on the same side of Chancery you are, perhaps I might be comfortable also.' I was at that time fighting the battle of the patent rights of the daguerreotype. He smiled and said, ' You'll come out all right, never fear.' My recollection now is, that he was very kind and affable to me, rather taciturn, but very observant and curious; he would never allow me to stop working when he came, but would loiter and watch me polish the plates and prepare them, and take much interest in the result of my labours.
 
"I recollect Mr. Spence, the naturalist, sitting to me, and was much struck at the time with the resemblance of the two heads. I mentioned this to Turner, and I showed him the portrait of Mr. Spence. Mr. Spence was stouter. Turner stooped very much, and always looked down; he had a trick of putting his hand into his coat-pocket, and of muttering to himself.
 
"Whatever others may have said of his parsimonious habits, I cannot recollect one act of his that would lead me to infer he was other than a liberal, kindhearted old gentleman."
 
When Mr. Mayall, the photographer, whose fame is now European, was first known as a young struggling American photographer in a small shop in the Strand, the wonderful art was then uncertain in its results, and few there were who could at that time foresee the influence it would exercise over art. It was one day during that moral epidemic, the railway mania, when Mr. Hudson ruled England, and all the world, from the countess to the costermonger, knelt down and beat their heads on the pavement of Capelcourt, in passionate idolatry to the golden calf. The age of chivalry had indeed gone. At Mr. Mayall's door there were hanging photographs intended to satirize the folly of the day. On one side there was a Stock Exchange man radiant, shares being at a premium; on the other, the same man in maniacal despair at the Great Bubbleton railway shares falling down to nothing. These pictures (almost the earliest attempts to make photography tell a story) attracted crowds, and among them Turner. So interested was he, indeed, that he came into the shop, and asked to see the gentleman who designed them. After this, he came so often, that an Abernethy chair was habitually placed for him, so that he might watch Mr. Mayall, without interrupting him at work. He took great interest in all effects of light, and repeatedly sat for his portrait in all sorts of Rembrandtic positions.[19]
 
  
14.04   Art >  John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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John Thomson in his travel volume Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented (1873-1874) gives an account of a Chinese artist who was highly skilled in painting on photographs and creating artwork of an enlarged size based on a photograph:
A Hong-Kong Artist
 
Lumqua was a Chinese pupil of Chinnery, a noted foreign artist, who died at Macao in 1852. Lumqua produced a number of excellent works in oil, which are still copied by the painters in Hong-Kong and Canton. Had he lived in any other country he would have been the founder of a school of painting. In China his followers have failed to grasp the spirit of his art. They drudge with imitative servile toil, copying Lumqua's or Chinnery's pieces, or anything, no matter what, just because it has been finished and paid for within a given time, and at so much a square foot. There are a number of painters established in Hong-Kong, but they all do the same class of work, and have about the same tariff of prices, regulated according to the dimensions of the canvas. The occupation of these limners consists mainly of making enlarged copies of photographs. Each house employs a touter, who scours the shipping in the harbour with samples of the work, and finds many ready customers among the foreign sailors. These bargain to have Mary or Susan painted on as large a scale and at as small a price as possible, the work to be delivered framed and ready for sea probably within twenty-four hours. The painters divide their labour on the following plan. The apprentice confines himself to bodies and hands, while the master executes the physiognomy, and thus the work is got through with wonderful speed. Attractive colours are freely used; so that Jack's fair ideal appears at times in a sky-blue dress, over which a massive gold chain and other articles of jewellery are liberally hung. These pictures would be fair works of art were the drawing good, and the brilliant colours properly arranged; but all the distortions of the badly taken photographs are faithfully reproduced on an enlarged scale. The best works these painters do are pictures of native and foreign ships, which are wonderfully drawn. To enlarge a picture they draw squares over their canvas corresponding to the smaller squares into which they divide the picture to be copied. The miniature painters in Hong-Kong and Canton do some work on ivory that is as fine as the best ivory painting to be found among the natives of India, and fit to bear comparison with the old miniature painting of our own country, which photography has, now-a-days, in great measure superseded.[20]
 
  
14.05   Art >  Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
  
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From as early as the eighth century woodblock-printed works were seen in Japan. Although initially the technique was used for texts and religious works by the sixteenth century moveable type was being used. Gaining popularity with artists the technique expanded and individual prints became available. With the popularity for prints there became a need for artists who could paint them or had the skills to use multiple woodblocks for different colours. As photography became available within Japan, predominantly with foreign photographers such as Felice Beato[21] and Baron Raimund von Stillfried, most of the prints through the second half of the nineteenth century had the brownish tones of the albumen print. Their skills with woodblock prints were perfect for painting photographs and some of the finest photographs of this type came from Japan
  
14.06   Art >  How artists have portrayed photographers 
  
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Each technology within photography has its own art history.  
  
Camera obscura 
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Diorama 
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Magic lanterns and peepshows 
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Photographs of artists 
  
14.07   Art >  Daguerreotypes: Artists 
  
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14.08   Art >  Albumen prints: Artists 
  
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14.09   Art >  Carte de visites: Artists 
  
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Drawing and optical devices 
  
14.10   Art >  Drawing and optical devices 
  
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The drawing and optical devices that are significant in understanding the early history of photography include:
Camera obscura
Camera lucida
Dioramas
Magic lanterns and Lantern slides
Pantograph
Physionotrace / physiognotrace
Silhouette
Contemporary photographers continue to explore these devices for example Abelardo Morell with Camera obscuras[22] and Hiroshi Sugimoto with Dioramas.[23] 
  
14.11   Art >  Camera lucida: Design and use 
  
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In 1807 William H. Wollaston published his "Description of the Camera Lucida" in The Philsophical Magazine in the following words:
Having, a short time since, amused myself with attempts to sketch various interesting views without an adequate knowledge of the art of drawing, my mind was naturally employed in facilitating the means of transferring to paper the apparent relative positions of the objects before me; and I am in hopes that the instrument which I contrived for this purpose may be acceptable even to those who have attained to greater proficiency in the art, on account of the many advantages it possesses over the common camera obscura.
 
The principles on which it is constructed will probably be most distinctly explained by tracing the successive steps by which I proceeded in its formation.
 
While I look directly down at a sheet of paper on my table, if I hold between my eye and the paper a piece of plain glass inclined from me downwards as an angle of 45¦, I see by reflection the view that is before me in the same direction that I see my paper through the glass. I might then take a sketch of it, but the positions of the objects would be reversed.
 
To obtain a direct view, it is necessary to have two reflections. The transparent glass must for this purpose be inclined to the perpendicular line of sight only the half of 45¦, that it may reflect the view a second time from a piece of looking-glass placed beneath it, and inclined upwards at an equal angle. The objects now appear as if seen through the paper in the same place as before; but they are direct instead of being inverted; and they may be discerned in this manner sufficiently well for determining the principal positions.
 
The pencil, however, and any object which it is to trace, cannot both be seen distinctly in the same state of the eye, on account of the difference of their distances, and the efforts of successive adaptation of the eye to one or to the other would become painful if frequently repeated. In order to remedy this inconvenience, the paper and pencil may be viewed through a convex lens of such a focus as to require no more effort than is necessary for seeing the distant objects distinctly. They will then appear to correspond with the paper in distance as well as direction, and may be drawn with facility, and with any required degree of precision.
 
This arrangement of glasses will probably be best understood from inspection of fig. 1. (Plate VIII.) in which ab is the transparent glass; bc, the lower reflector; bd, a convex lens (of twelve inches focus); e, the position of the eye; fgh, the course of the rays.
 
In some cases, a different construction will be preferable. Those eyes, which without assistance are adapted to seeing near objects alone, will not admit the use of a convex glass, but will, on the contrary, require one that is concave to be placed in front, to render the distant objects distinct. The frame for a glass of this construction is represented at ik, fig. 3, turning upon the same hinge at h, with a convex glass in the frame lm, and moving in such a manner that either of the glasses may be turned alone into its place, as may be wanted to suit an eye that is long- or short-sighted. Those persons, however, whose sight is nearly perfect, may at pleasure use either of the glasses.
 
The instrument represented in that figure differs moreover in other respects from the foregoing, which I have chosen to describe first, because the action of the reflectors there employed would be more generally understood. But those who are conversant with the science of optics will perceive the advantage that maybe derived in this instance from prismatic reflection; for, when a ray of light has entered a solid piece of glass, and falls from within upon any surface at an inclination of only 22 or 23 degrees, as above supposed, the refractive power of the glass is such as to suffer none of that light to pass out, and the surface becomes in this case the most brilliant reflector that can be employed.
 
Fig. 2. represents the section of a solid prismatic piece of glass, within which both the reflections requisite are effected at the surfaces ab,bc, in such a manner that the ray fg, after being reflected first at g and afterwards at h, arrives at the eye in a direction he, at right angles to fg.
 
There is another circumstance in this construction necessary to be attended to, and which remains to be explained. Where the reflection was produced by a piece of plain glass, it is obvious that any objects behind the glass (if sufficiently illuminated) might be seen through the glass as well as the reflected image. But when the prismatic reflector is employed, since no light can be transmitted directly through it, the eye must be so placed that only a part of its pupil may be intercepted by the edge of the prism, as at e, fig. 2. The distant objects will then be seen by this portion of the eye, while the paper and pencil are seen past the edge of the prism by the remainder of the pupil.
 
In order to avoid inconvenience that might arise from unintentional motion of the eye, the relative quantities of light to be received from the object and from the paper are regulated by a small hole in a piece of brass, which, by moving on a centre at c, fig. 3, is capable of adjustment to every inequality of light that is likely to occur.
 
Since the size of the whole instrument, from being so near the eye, does not require to be large, I have on many accounts preferred the smallest size that could be executed with correctness, and have had it constructed on such a scale that the lenses are only three-fourths of an inch in diameter.
 
Although the original design and principal use of this instrument are to facilitate the delineation of objects in true perspective, yet this is by no means the sole purpose to which it is adapted; for the same arrangement of reflectors; may be employed with equal advantage for copying what has been already drawn, and may thus assist a learner in acquiring at least a correct outline of any subject.
 
For this purpose, the drawing to be copied should be placed, as nearly as may be, at the same distance before the instrument that the paper is beneath it; for in that case the size will be the same, and no lens will be necessary, either to the object or to the pencil.
 
By a proper use of the same instrument every purpose of the pentagraph may also be answered, as a painting may be reduced in any proportion required by placing it at a distance in due proportion greater than that of the paper from the instrument. In this case a lens becomes requisite for enabling the eye to see at two unequal distances with equal distinctness; and, in order that one lens may suit for all these purposes, there is an advantage in varying the height of the stand according to the proportion in which the reduction is to be effected.
 
The principles on which the height of the stem is adjusted will be readily understood by those who are accustomed to optical considerations. For, as, in taking a perspective view, the rays from the paper are rendered parallel by placing; a lens at the distance of its principal focus from the paper, because the rays from the distant objects are parallel; so also, when the object seen by reflection is at so short a distance that the rays received from it are in a sensible degree divergent, the rays from the paper should be made to have the same degree of divergency, in order that the paper may be seen distinctly by the same eye; and for this purpose the lens must be placed at a distance less than its principal focus. The stem of the instrument (which slides) is accordingly marked at certain distances, to which the conjugate foci are in the several proportions of two, three, four, &c. to one; so that distinct vision may be obtained in all cases by placing the painting proportionally more distant.
 
By transposing the convex lens to the front of the instrument, and reversing the proportional distances, the artist might also enlarge his smaller sketches in any proportion with every desirable degree of correctness; and the naturalist, by employing a deeper lens, might delineate minute objects in any degree magnified.
 
Since the primary intention of the camera lucida is already, in some measure, answered by the camera obscura, a comparison will naturally be made between them. The objections to the camera obscura are,
 
1st, That it is too large to be carried about wiih convenience; but the camera lucida is as small and portable as can be wished.
 
2d, In the former, all objects that are not situated near the centre of view are more or less distorted.
 
In this there is no distortion; so that every line, even the most remote from the centre of view, is as straight as those that pass through the centre.
 
3dly, In that the field of view does not extend more than 30, or at most 35 degrees, with distinctness.
 
But in the camera lucida as much as 70 or 80 degrees might be included in one view.
 
As it has been thought advisable to secure an exclusive sale by patent, those who are desirous of purchasing the instrument are informed that Mr. Newman, No. 24, Soho Square, has at present the disposal of it.[24]
 
  
  Drawing and optical devices 
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Drawing and optical devices Camera Lucida 
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14.12   Art >  The camera lucida 
  
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The camera lucida[25] is a drafting aid for artists which allows the optical superimposition of the subject being viewed upon the surface upon which the artist is drawing. By the use of a 45 degree tilted half-silvered mirror or a prism the artist sees both scene and drawing surface simultaneously.[26]
 
An 1835 account in the The Dublin Penny Journal gives a contemporary description:
Q. How does the camera lucida act in the formation of pictures ?
 
A. The camera lucida, one of the most elegant of optical instruments, consists of the following arrangement CDFG is a glass prism, having four sides inclined, as seen in the figure. The side CD being exposed to the object to be delineated, rays pass through it and fall upon the sloping side DF; from this they are reflected to the side FG, and finally pass out of the prism to the eye at E. Now, from the direction in which rays enter the eye, it receives them as if coming from an image at A'B'. Accordingly, if a sheet of paper be placed below the instrument, a perfect delineation of the object will be formed upon it, which may be easily traced off with a pencil.
 
The instrument is mounted on a convenient brass frame, which is so constructed as to allow the prism to approach to, or remove from, the paper, according to the size which the picture is required to have.[27]
 
  
   Drawing and optical devices Camera Lucida 
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14.13   Art >  Camera obscura: Design and use 
  
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  Drawing and optical devices 
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Drawing and optical devices Camera Obscura 
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14.14   Art >  Portable camera obscura 
  
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The use of drawing aids was well accepted by artists and in contemporary volumes detailing optical equipment they are described. This account is from 1808...
Painters and architects often make use of a similar contrivance, or portable camera obscura, to take a draught of landscapes or buildings: their glass is fixed in a box, and by means of a mirror, on which the diminished pictures fall, they are reflected upon oiled paper properly placed, upon which the artist sketches his draught. With regard to the contours, or outlines, which this picture gives, nothing can be more exact; but, with regard to the shading and colouring, the artist can expect but little assistance from it: for, as the sun is every moment altering its situation, so is the landscape every moment varying its shade; and so swift is this succession of new shades, that, while the painter is copying one part of a shade, the other part is lost, and a new shade is thrown upon some other object.[28]
and this one from 1835...
The Portable Camera Obscura, which is used chiefly for delineating landscapes, consists of a wooden box, (...) with which is connected a convex lens so exposed to the landscape as to receive the rays of light from the various objects in it, and form a picture of them on a screen placed within the box at the focal distance of the lens. [29]
 
  
   Drawing and optical devices Camera Obscura 
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Cliché-verre 
  
14.15   Art >  Cliché verre 
  
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Cliché-verre[30] [Fr.] literally translated means "glass picture' and is a technique that combines art and photography and was used mainly by French artists including Jean Baptiste Corot, Jean François Millet, and Charles François Daubigny. It was normally done by using a smoking candle to coat a glass plate with soot. The desired picture was then drawn with a sharp instrument directly into the blackened surface and the resulting plate was used as a photographic negative and contact printed. Although mainly used in the 1860s the cliché verre technique has also be used by György Kepes[31] and Abelardo Morell.[32] 
  
Associating photography with the arts 
  
14.16   Art >  Carte de visites: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
  
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Carte de visite[33] were photographs mounted on to card and this allowed the photographer a means of marketing their studio with logos, names and addresses within a small area beaneath the image if the image was a portrait mode and on the back of the card.[34] The entire back of the card ("backmarks") was limited only by the technical abilities of the printer and the imagination and requirtements of the photographer. As photography was viewed as a technical process performed by operators some photographers wanted to provide a direct linkage to the visual arts, particularly painting, and this was done through the symbols of easels, palettes, paint brushes and the wording selected such as "Photographer artist". Photographic studios offered artistic additional services including "portraits in crayon" or "photographs of all sizes taken and finished in India Ink, Oil or Water Colors". 
  
14.17   Art >  Cabinet cards: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
  
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Cabinet cards like their precursors the smaller Carte de visites were card photographs and the back include designs that linked photography to art. Pictures of a painter in Renaissance clothing on the cards of A.S. Barnes (Meridan, Miss.), putti or cherubs holding artists palettes and revealing the photographers address on an easel as if it was a painting, scattered paint brushes were all visual confirmations that the photographer was a person of artistic culture and associated with the visual arts. 
  
Publications that did, or said they did, use daguerreotypes as the basis for their illustrations 
  
14.18   Art >  The influence of the daguerreotype upon art 
  
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The potential of photography as an aid to the creation prints for portfolios and books was appreciated as soon as it was announced in 1839. The approach of Henry Fox Talbot, which created a paper negative, had an immediate advantage over the daguerreotype which was a single positive and therefore inappropriate for publications unless the image could be transferred to a woodcut, engraving, aquatint, lithograph or some other form designed for printing. Having said this there were publications through the 1840s and 1850s that were based on, or implied that they were based on, daguerreotypes.[35] Given the enthusiasm for photography as a means of capturing visible truth and veracity some printers would say on the print that it was from an original daguerreotype but this may have been a marketing statement as certain aspects of the prints, such as billowing waves, could not have been captured on a daguerreotype plate. An additional reason may have been to parody the idea of truth and show that a print was preferable to the mechanically captured image.[36] 
  
14.19   Art >  Paris et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840) 
  
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The book Paris et ses environs : reproduits par le daguerreotype[37] (1840) includes tinted lithographs of Paris and Versailles.[38] 
  
14.20   Art >  Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes : vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe 
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Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours was a French optical instrument maker, photographer and publisher. Soon after the announcement of photography in 1839 he sent Daguerreotypists around the world to photograph the wonders of the globe. The resulting images were converted into engravings and published in Excursions daguerriennes: Vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (1842).[39] Published in parts The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal review of Part V. read:
We recommend this work to our readers. It comes out in numbers containing well executed engravings of scenes and buildings sketched by the Daguerreotype. In this publication the admirable capabilities of photography for architectural delineation is fully shown, and we have no doubt will prove extremely interesting. In this number are the Maison Came at Nismes, the Trajan column at Rome, the Church of Basil the Great at Moscow, and a view of the Mola at Naples.[40]
Engravings based on photographs were becoming close to reality and this would affect the styles used by engravers as they strove to illustrate what had been captured with light. 
  
14.21   Art >  Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
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Adolphe Duperly (1801-1865) arrived in Jamaica in 1830s and established himself as an engraver. The book Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (ca. 1844)[41][42] by Adolphe Duperly included engravings based upon daguerreotypes the location of which is currently unknown. Duperly's firm was a highly successful one in Jamaica and continued through his son and grandson. 
  
14.22   Art >  Bruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855) 
  
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Using photography to copy two dimensional artworks 
  
14.23   Art >  Joseph Nicéphore Niépce: Cardinal d'Amboise 
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Early experiments by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce in 1826 explored how an engraving of artwork, Cardinal Georges d'Amboise, could be copied using a photomechanical process. He was able to capture a copy of a waxed engraving on a pewter plate light sensitized with a coating of Bitumen of Judea[43] and then exposed to light. The exposed areas of the bitumen hardened and the soft areas were washed with a solvent[44] leaving a copy of the original. The pewter plate could now be etched and the remaining bitumen removed resulting in a printing plate from which photoengravings could be made. 
  
14.24   Art >  Photographing art: Works on paper and canvas 
  
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Photographers quickly appreciated that there were opportunities in copying works of art. Henry Fox Talbot had demonstrated the utility of copying artworks within the Pencil of Nature (1844)[45] and William Sterling used Talbotypes to illustrate his volume Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848).[46] Daguerreotypist Richard Beard wrote a letter on 17th April 1848 to the National Gallery in London asking permission to make daguerreotype copies of pictures in the gallery.[47]
 
The copying of artworks for educators and scholars became increasing important through the nineteenth century and certain companies specialized in it such as Adolphe Braun[48] which went through a number of changes in name.[49] One of the most significant legal cases in Britain involving the copyright of photographs in the late 1880s was an action brought by Adolphe Braun and Company for the sale of pirated copies.[50]  
  
George Caleb Bingham: Lighter Relieving the Steamboat Aground (1847) 
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The collection of the White House in Washington includes the oil painting by George Caleb Bingham (1811-1879). This well known painting was made in 1879 and soon afterwards Marcus Aurelius Root made a half plate daguerreotype of the painting.[51] 
  
14.25   Art >  William Sterling: Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848) 
  
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Annals of the Artists of Spain[52] by William Sterling (Sir William Stirling Maxwell) is a rare photographically illustrated book containing 66 Talbotypes (calotypes) taken by Nicolaas Henneman[53] of artworks by El Greco, Velázquez, Murillo, Zurbarán, Ribera and Goya. Only fifty copies of the book were created and their fading and fragility has meant that they are rarely viewed even by scholars.[54] 
  
14.26   Art >  Charles Piazzi Smyth: Notice of an Illuminated Vellum Manuscript 
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Professor Charles C. Piazzi Smyth[55], Notice of an Illuminated Vellum Manuscript, which formerly belonged to Mary Queen of Scots (Edinburgh: Neill and Company, 1862), reprinted from Proceedings of the Antiquaries Society of Scotland, vol. III, plate XXXIII
 
Photograph of Queen Mary's Missal Now at St. Petersburg. 
  
Printing works for photographic reproductions 
  
14.27   Art >  Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard: reproductions of works of art 
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Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard was a cloth merchant from Lille, France who took up the calotype process and in 1847 published a method for a negative/positive paper process.[56] He used this process to print and publish the works of other photographers. By 1851 taking advantage of his own innovations he was able to print two or three hundred prints a day from the same negative and this rapid production allowed the creation of salt paper prints that could be tipped-in[57] to books he published. Key books and albums of prints by John Beasly Greene, Charles Marville and Henri Le Secq were printed by Blanquart-Evrard. In 1856 with Thomas Sutton he founded the magazine Photographic Notes, a journal which continued for eleven years.
 
The ability to make large numbers of copies of works of art allowed institutions and students to obtain high quality and accurate reproductions for the first time. This created a mass market for art reproductions that Adolphe Braun[58] would later make a key part of his printing business. 
  
14.28   Art >  Adolphe Braun - A Continental Printing Establishment (1874) 
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The firm of Adolphe Braun in Switzerland was one of the leading establishment for the photographic copying of artworks in the nineteenth century. An account of an 1873 visit to the works was published in The British Journal of Photography on 23rd October 1874:
A CONTINENTAL PRINTING ESTABLISHMENT. When Mr. Wilson, of the Philadelphia Photographer, visited Europe last spring he devoted two days to the inspection of the famous printing establishment of M. Braun. His account of this visit is described in that journal in the following terms :
 
From the Alps straight to Paris, via Basle, Berne, &c., stopping only at Dornach, on the Rhine, to see Adolphe Braun the great carbon printer and his great manufactory, for such it is, and there is no other just like it or as large in the world. Here the beautiful carbon process, which has been attempted and thrown aside by so many, and which no one in this great country works to any extent, is conducted on an immense scale, and for the two days I was there I found much to interest me in the establishment of M. Braun. The kindness I received from him made me desire to remain two weeks. Photography had already made us familiar with each other's faces, and a long correspondence had made us friends. He employs over one hundred persons constantly, and with him I visited the several departments.
 
Carbon tissue, as you remember, consists of a coating upon paper of gelatine mixed with a pigment, and made sensitive to light by bichromate of potash. It is then printed the same as albumen paper, transferred to a sheet of caoutchouc paper, the picture developed by means of hot water, and then transferred again to the sheet of paper upon which it is to remain permanently.
 
And here we see all these operations in all their details actively engaged in by the hundred or more employees, and be assured it is done on a large scale. Here are the grinding-machines for grinding the pigments, ten in a row, wagging their heads in all directions like so many lunatics who have lost control of their necks, but at the same time accomplishing their purpose; the room where the paper is coated, by allowing it to pass over a tank of the melted gelatine mixture by means of rollers, the paper just taking up enough for the purpose as it passes over; the drying-room, where we see thirty strips of the carbon tissue, fifteen feet long and three feet wide, hung there yesterday evening to dry over night for the consumption of the printers today; the printing-room, where is, indeed, a busy, busy scene men handling negatives, great and small, and tearing off the paper as wanted; the transfer-room, where the caoutchouc paper and the tissue are pressed together, and then, with the aid of the benzine, are separated, and the transfer made; the developing-room, where the great tanks are steaming, and the workmen busy and as attentive as all good printers should be when they tone their prints, for the quality of the carbon print depends much upon the length of time it remains in the warm water; the drying-room, where the prints are dried previous to the second transfer; the mounting-room, where gum arabic is the mountant; the touching-out room, where all defects are obliterated, and where the titles are put upon the pictures, mainly by hand; the press-room, where ponderous presses finish the work; the store-rooms, where the finished pictures are kept; the sample-rooms, where proofs of all the negatives are kept; two skylights, one for copying and the other for portraiture; the offices; the engine-room and engine; and last, but not least, a large basement devoted to the Woodbury process, which M. Braun also uses largely.
 
Photographic printing on such a scale I had never seen before; neither had I ever witnessed such a scene of activity in the interests of photography.
 
M. Braun turns out from two to three thousand pictures every day. Almost everything in the photographic line he makes; but the speciality which has given him fame, and entitles him to the everlasting gratitude of the civilised world, is the reproduction, in indelible form, of the great masterpieces of art which are found in the galleries of Europe. As literature for a thousand years was imprisoned in cloisters, so has art for centuries been imprisoned in the few great museums of Europe. But we have come upon a new dispensation, and it is possible now for every school and college in America to possess faithful copies of the immortal masterpieces of the chisel, the brush, and the pencil, and every boy and girl in their teens may know Phidias, Michael Angelo, Raphael, and the rest of the "great cloud of witnesses," by a sight of their great deeds.
 
How many years had I longed for the privilege of wading through his sample portfolios ! And here I did it, making selection which now not only bring to my mind constantly the original gems among which 1 have been wandering, but also are a continual help and delight to me whenever I can turn aside from work and plunge into the bewitcheries of the beautiful.
 
M. Braun has over 10,000 negatives stored in his works, in strong boxes, as I saw, most systematically numbered and classified, and at his villa near by is a set of duplicates. Some of these negatives on plate glass are of immense weight. I never saw an establishment where all things worked more harmoniously together, or where the results were so beautiful; neither did I ever see a man who seemed so utterly wrapped up in his chosen art as M. Braun. The work he has undertaken alone is a magnificent one, and he has been truly called the "Guttenberg of art." He has placed within the reach of all copies of the works of the old masters, which, heretofore, only the favoured few could go to the galleries of the originals to see.
 
When I think of the days I have spent with him I feel as if I had been with one whose fame is more deserved than that of poet or statesman. It was a privilege not to be overvalued.[59]
 
  
Photomicrographs of art 
  
14.29   Art >  Art and photomicrographs 
  
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Edward Matthew Ward: Dr Johnson Reading 'The Vicar of Wakefield' by Oliver Goldsmith (ca. 1860) - Photomicrograph by Alfred Reeves 
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Sir Edwin Henry Landseer: Islay, Tilco a Macaw and Two Love-Birds (1839) - Photomicrograph by Alfred Reeves 
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John Federick Herring: An English Farmyard (1859) - Photomicrograph by Alfred Reeves 
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Copyright of photographs of artworks 
  
14.30   Art >  International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (17 August 1888) 
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In the section "Talk in the Studio" in The Photographic News, Vol.XXXII, No.1563, August 17, 1888, p.528.
International Copyright Of Photographs. A. E Whitehouse, of the Hyde Park Gallery, 30, St. George's Place, S.W., appeared before Mr. d'Eyncourt, at the Westminster Police Court, yesterday, to answer eighteen summonses under the Copyright Act of 1862 (25 and 26 Vict., chap. 68) at the instance of Sir. Charles Hauff, the London agent of Messrs. Adolphe Braun and Company, of Paris, charging him with selling and multiplying for sale pirated copies of their registered copyright photographs La Longeuse, La Beequee, En Bacchus, and A. Cythere. Mr. Mann (Mann and Taylor) appeared for the prosecution; and Mr. R. C. Glenn was counsel for the defendant. Mr. Maun said that Messrs. Braun and Co., the well known photographers of Paris, had been in the habit of acquiring from artists of celebrated pictures exhibited in the Salon the right to take negatives for the purpose of producing a copyright photograph, copies of which could be sold. Within three months of the opening of the Salon they registered their copyright at Stationers' Hall, England. In 1862 photographs first became the subject-matter of copyright to the author, being a British subject. The author was the person who made the negative, not the mere operator. The Act of 1862 dealt only with the right of a person who was a British subject, but it incorporated the International Copyright Act of 1814, which provided that an Order in Council might be made giving to subjects of foreign countries with whom a treaty or convention might be made the same right of acquiring a full and perfect copyright in their works in this country as an Englishman possessed, subject of course to proper registration. In 1886 the copyright law was amended and consolidated, but it did not take away a foreigner's right of registration in this country, and therefore, by an Order in Council made Jan. 10, 1852, following a treaty or convention with the French Republic, the complainants, who had done everything which the law required to preserve their property rights, complained that the defendant had and still continued to infringe them by selling and exposing for sale the photographs specified in the informations. Mr. D'Eyncourt pointed out that the proceedings were under the Act of 1862 which admittedly only applied to British subjects. It was a case of very great difficulty. Mr. Mann said the complainant was proceeding as if he was a British subject. To all intents and purposes, the Order in Council following the International Copyright Act of 1814 made him one. Mr. Glen stated that his idea of the law was very different from his friend's. This case was of great importance because it raised a large international question, and he thought that it ought to be argued in one of the superior courts. The complainants had no copyright they could register in this country. Mr. d'Enycourt: I confess I should not be sorry to find I have no jurisdiction. Mr. Mann: But you have, sir. You have express jurisdiction conferred by statute. After a great deal of additional argument as to the provisions of the International Copyright Acts, the magistrate adjourned the case, the learned counsel for the defence stating that his client claimed the right to sell the pictures in dispute.[60]
 
  
14.31   Art >  International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (24 August 1888) 
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In the section "Talk in the Studio" in The Photographic News, Vol.XXXII, No.1564, August 24, 1888, p.544.
International Copyright Of Photographs. The case in which A. E. Whitehouse, of the Hyde Park Gallery, was summoned by C. Hauff, the London agent of Adolphe Braun and Co. (see page 528 of our issue of last week), came on again for hearing on Wednesday, at the Westminster Police-court. Mr. Mann appeared for the prosecution, Mr. R. C. Glen was counsel for the defendant. Mr. Mann's contention was that the Act of 1862, which spoke of copyright works of a British subject, incorporated the old Act of 1844, and the Order in Council thereunder, dated 10th January, 1852 (made in consequence of the Convention between the Knglish and French Governments) giving reciprocal rights to authors of both countries. Mr. D'Eyncourt pointed out that if this was the case, the preamble of the 1862 Act was inconsistent. It referred to copyright of British subjects. That was the first Act which alluded to photographs. Mr. Mann said he further relied on the recent Act of 1886, which carried into effect the Convention of Berne incorporated in an Order of Council of November 28th, 1887. This gave to the author of a literary or artistic work, first produced in one of the foreign countries of the Copyright Union, the same right of copyright as if the work had been first produced in the United Kingdom. Mr. William F. Benham, solicitor, gave evidence of the purchase of the alleged pirated photographs, and stated that the defendant did not have them in stock at first, his assertion being that they had not been printed owing to the wet weather. After the sale, and when served with a subpoena to produce the negatives, which he promised to do, he said that all the dealers did very much the same thing, and he supposed Messrs. Braun proceeded against him through spite, an assertion which was denied. He also said that he was only conducting the business for the trustees of the late firm, of which he was a member. A partner in the firm of Braun and Company, from Paris, and Mr. Hauff, the London agent, swore that the photographs put in evidence were piracies, and that they had been copied from reduced negatives. Other formal evidence was given as to registration, and at the conclusion of the case for the prosecution Mr. Glen said the pictures were produced before registration, and upon an authority of a decision in the Court of Appeal no penalties could be taken in respect of the sale of such after registration. The case was further adjourned for evidence on behalf of the defendant.[61]
 
  
14.32   Art >  International Copyright of Photographs - Judgement - Messrs. Braun and Co. (21 September 1888) 
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In the section "Talk in the Studio" in The Photographic News, Vol.XXXII, No.1568, September 21, 1888, p.599.
Mb. A. E. Whitehouse, of the Hyde Park Gallery, St. George's Place, Knightsbridge, attended to an adjourned summons at Westminster Police Court yesterday, charging him with pirating and multiplying for sale the registered copyright photographs of Messrs. Adolphe Braun and Co., of Paris. Mr. Mann appeared for the prosecution, and Mr. R. Cunningham Glen for the defence.
 
The summonses were taken out under the Copyright Act of 1862, and the contention of Mr. Mann was that this statute incorporated the provisions of an Order in Council made ten years before, and the old Copyright Act of 1844, by which reciprocal copyright privilege was given to English and French authors, and producers of works of art.
 
A great deal of argument of a technical character took place as to the rights conferred on foreigners, and the intention and construction of the old statutes on International Copyright, and Mr. Mann urged that the case for the prosecution was strengthened by the recent Copyright Act of 1886, and an Order in Council of Nov. 26, 1887, which carried into effect the agreement of the Convention of Berne, giving an author of a literary or artistic work first produced in one of the foreign countries of the Copyright Union, the same right of copyright as if the work had been first produced in the United Kingdom.
 
The evidence as to fact established the sale by the defendant of alleged pirated photographs of well-known salon pictures. There was, moreover, an admission by the defendant that the printing of the pictures had been delayed by wet weather, and the sworn opinion of experts that the photographs did not emanate from Messrs. Braun's studios, and that they were reproductions from reduced negatives.
 
Mr. Glen urged that no Act or Order in Council anterior to 1862 could affect the issue, as the statute passed in that year first alluded to photographs. Also that the 1887 Order in Council did not come into operation until January of this year, long after the date of registration of Messrs. Braun's photographs. The defence was also set up that the defendant was only a manager of the Hyde Park Gallery business, appointed by a trustee for creditors.
 
Mr. D'Eyncourt at considerable length reviewed the facts, and gave his reasons for coming to a decision adverse to the defendant. For the offence disclosed in one summons he convicted, and ordered defendant to forfeit £10 to the complainant and five guineas costs.
 
Mr. Glen asked that there might be a stay of execution, so that the defendant and his advisers could consider whether his Worship should be asked to state a case.
 
Mr. D'Eyncourt: Yes. It is a sort of civil proceeding, compensation to be given to the prosecutor. There are a good many holes of escape, and my judgment may be reviewed.
 
It was stated that the negatives of the photographs in question had been broken. Daily News, Sept. 14.[62]
 
  
Photographing sculpture 
  
14.33   Art >  Photographing art: Sculpture 
  
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Use of photography as an aid to art 
  
14.34   Art >  Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
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David Octavius Hill was a talented landscape painter and lithographer based in Edinburgh in Scotland. In 1843 when there was the Disruption of the Church of Scotland he vowed to create a painting that would commemorate the occasion and include the portraits of the nearly five hundred church ministers involved.[63] Sir David Brewster proposed that calotypes would reduce the labour of sketches and introduced Hill to Robert Adamson who was a chemist and had recently established a calotype studio on Carlton Hill in Edinburgh. The partnership was fortuitous indeed as their skills were an ideal match until Adamson's early death in January 1848.
 
A surviving letter from David Octavius Hill to the Revd Dr Gordon dated 9 June 1843 provides the context:
9 June 1843
 
Mr D.O.Hill presents his respectful compliments to the Revd Dr Gordon and requests that he will favor him by giving him a sitting for his portrait with a view to its being made use of in Mr Hills prospective Historical Picture of “The First General Assembly of the Free Protesting Church of Scotland” – a work undertaken with the sanction and approval of the Reverend Moderator and a number of the leading members of assembly, and friends of the Church. The preliminary studies of the portraits for this work will in the first instance be made by the use of the Daguerreotype and Calotype – and as Mr Hill has made the necessary arrangements with Mr Adamson a gentleman recommended to him by Sir David Brewster as an adept in the latter process, he requests that Dr Gordon will consent to meet him at Mr Adamson’s house – Calton Stairs (at the top of the first flight of steps leading to the Hill from Waterloo Place) on Saturday the 10th Instant between the hours of 10 A M and 2 P.M. or on the Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday following at the same time. The sitter is detained only a very short time – the whole process being affected in a few minutes. Should none of these days suit Dr Gordon’s convenience, Mr Hill will make it his business to attend any other day and hour he may appoint.[64]
Even using hundreds of calotypes the completion of the painting took many years and carbon prints of the final version were offered for public sale as was announced in The Photographic News on 29th June 1866:
The subject is one full of interest to every one who can admire heroic self-abnegation in the assertion of principle, and to Scotchmen will possess in especial value as an illustration of national character, whatever their especial views on the question at issue. It is a picture commemorative of the Disruption in the Church of Scotland in 1843. The subject is the "Signing of the Deed of Demission," painted by Mr. D. O. Hill, Secretary to the Royal Scottish Academy, a gentleman whoso name has been many years associated with a deep interest in the art capacity of photography, and with some of the most artistic calotype portraits ever produced. The picture contains nearly five hundred portraits of ministers of the Scotch Church, who gave up livings, manses, glebes in short, all the temporalities which their connection with the Church gave them in the assertion of liberty of conscience.[65]
The vast painting hangs the offices of the Free Church of Scotland[66] and amongst the hundreds of faces a small David Octavius Hill can be seen with a camera. 
  
14.35   Art >  Oil paintings by Gustave Courbet based upon photographs 
  
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Both of these oil paintings by Gustav Courbet are based upon known photographs by Julien Vallou de Villeneuve (1795-1866).
In Les Baigneuses (The Bathers) 1853 (The Musée Fabre, Montpellier) also used a Villeneuve print now in the Biblioteque Nationale (Paris).  
  
Gustave Courbet: Les Baigneuses / The Bathers (1853) 
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Julien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses 
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In L'Atelier (The Artist's Studio) 1855 (Musée d'Orsay) the woman partially concealed by the towel has been copied from a nude study by Villeneuve now in the Biblioteque Nationale (Paris).  
  
Gustave Courbet: L'Atelier / The Artist's Studio (1855) 
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Aaron Scharf's book Art and Photography (1969)[67] discusses these similarities and landscape paintings by Gustave Courbet that used photographs by Gustave Le Gray and Adolphe Braun
  
14.36   Art >  Julien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses 
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In 1853 Julien Vallou de Villeneuve made a number of Étude d'après nature showing nudes with towels which were Artist studies - Académies used by artist Gustave Courbet for his oil painting Les Baigneuses (1853).[68] 
  
14.37   Art >  Alphonse Marie Mucha: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939) was born at Ivancice (now in the Czech Republic) and stands out as a leading artist of the Art Nouveau style. As a highly versatile artist he produced murals, portraits, and magazine illustrations but it is his porters that are best remembered. The flowing lines, beautiful young women draped in neoclassical robes were a sensation and widely used for theatrical and advertising posters. For the 1900 Universal Exhibition he decorated the pavilion for Bosnia and Herzegovina and collaborated with the Austrian one and this gave him international recognition. Photographic studies for his work on the Bosnia and Herzegovina pavilion survive.[69] 
  
14.38   Art >  Académies and the use of artist studies of nudes to assist artists 
  
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The use of life models[70] has a long history in art with artists like Michelango, Leonardo da Vinci and the sculpture Donatello using them to understand figure, posture, gesture and movement. As artists have at times been seen as social outsiders with dubious morals their association with nudity was frowned upon and the models who would pose were often from the lower classes where eating took priority over modesty. This had the issue that the bodies of the poor were not generally well nourished or cared for and using them to study perfect form was not ideal.
 
The use of naked life models was frowned on by those who held that it was a corrupting practise and J.C. Horsley raised the issue at an 1885 Church Congress held at Portsmouth in England:
Now, it is an extraordinary fact, that from the day in the last century, when Porteus, Bishop of London, animadverted on the practice of having naked women to sit in Art Schools, until this moment, no one has specially called public attention to the principal evil connected with the subject. Commendable anxiety has often been shown for the morals of artists, and the avoidance of offence to frequenters of Art Exhibitions; but no thought or word of sympathy, as far as I have heard or read, has been publicly expressed for that poor creature, the artists' model, through whose degradation these representations of nakedness are alone possible. To put the case plainly from a Christian point of view—if pictures or statues of naked women are to be executed, living naked women must be employed as models. But where is the justification in God's sight for those who induce women so to ignore their natural modesty, and quench their sense of true shame, as to expose their nakedness before men and thus destroy all that is pure and lovely in their womanhood?[71]
There are references to life models in nineteenth century diaries and letters of artists such as those of Sir David Wilkie using both naked male and female models. [72] The novel Trilby by George du Maurier (1894) tells the tale of Trilby O'Ferrall an artist's model and laundress in Bohemian Paris.[73] Magazine articles[74] and advertisements for "Life Model" classes were published in the popular press.[75]
 
Over time the role of the artists model became accepted and there are contemporary accounts, such as one in the 1887 The Magazine of Art, that refer to this:
The position of the artists' model is improving every day. With the spread of art-knowledge and the increase of art-education the important and lofty part played by the model is gradually winning the appreciation that it deserves. There is no reason why the profession of a model should be less respectable than that of a dealer in pictures or artists' materials. It is part of the art-system and as such deserves respect. Without good models there is no good art possible, and every thinking artist must needs realize that it is his duty to assist in developing the idea of the model. It is not very long since it was difficult to procure models of any kind, even in New York, the great art-centre of the country. Today there are plenty of men and women who are not ashamed to be classed as professional models, and the progress made in recent years by some of our strongest young artists is partly due to the increased facilities for obtaining good human subjects.[76]
Photographers such as Gaudenzio Marconi, Louis Igout, Julien Vallou de Villeneuve, Eugène Durieu, Oscar Gustave Rejlander and Nadar all took portraits of the naked human form. 
  
   Erotica Artist studies 
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14.39   Art >  Artistic studies of nude women 
  
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 Erotica Artist studies 
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Erotica Men 
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Erotica Women 
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14.40   Art >  Eugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies 
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Eugène Durieu (1800-1874) was a French lawyer, artist and photographer credited with taking some of the first nude studies in the early 1850s. Many of his nude studies of both genders were posed for his friend the artist Eugène Delacroix.[77] The friendship between Delacroix and Durieu[78] was a creative collaboration as Gerry Badger has pointed out:
The evidence of letters and journals suggests that this was a partnership in the Hill/Adamson mould, Durieu providing the necessary technical expertise while Delacroix arranged the models’ poses and stamped his artistic authority upon the sessions, utilising nature’s ‘free design’ not so much to elevate but to enliven.[79]
 
  
14.41   Art >  Vincenzo Galdi: Artist studies - Académies 
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14.42   Art >  Artistic studies of nude men 
  
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With the early male photographs of men they appear to be less ambiguous than those of women but this has to be a personal opinion. They do seem to be predominantly artist studies rather than erotic. 
  
  Erotica Artist studies 
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14.43   Art >  Combining a daguerreotype with a miniature to create a painting (1848) 
  
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In these extracts taken from a letter from Daniel Webster to his son Mr. Fletcher Webster (March 12, 1848) it includes a desire to add an image of Edward Webster on died in the 25th January 1848 to a portrait:
Mr. Healy is painting a portrait from the daguerreotype; I have not seen it, but it is thought to be very good. I have been meditating upon something which I wish should be thought of. Edward was ten years old when I made the Hayne speech in the Senate. Why should not Mr. Healy make a picture of him, as of that age, from the daguerreotype, and from Miss Goodrich's little miniature, and place him at my feet? He was then no older than Daniel is now.
...
 
See Julia, and tell her what I propose about Edward's picture.[80]
 
  
Painting on photographs 
  
14.44   Art >  Introduction to painting on photographs 
  
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From the earliest days of photography with daguerreotypes and salt prints artists have used them either as the basis for works of art or have painted directly on them using a vast range of techniques and specialized equipment including air brushes and retouching, colouring and painting kits[81] 
  
Visual connections between art and photography 
  
14.45   Art >  Paintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa 
  
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The transference of subjects from one artistic media to another has been a continuous theme in art history with Roman sculptors making copies of earlier Greek works.[82] Drawings and sketches survive of works that became paintings. With the advent of photography the same bi-directional transfer of ideas continued. A photograph by André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri of Prince Richard Metternich and Princess Pauline Metternich (1862) was used as the basis for an oil painting of Princess Pauline de Metternich (ca. 1865) by Edgar Degas.[83] Gustave Courbet's painting of Le château de Chillon (the chateau of Chillon) (1874) is remarkably similar to an earlier photograph of the same location Vue Suisse, Chillon (1863-1865) by Adolphe Braun.  
  
Le château de Chillon (the chateau of Chillon) 
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Artists seek inspiration from photography and appropriate as necessary. In 1967 Andy Warhol's silkscreen Marilyn [on blue ground] (1967) used a Gene Kornmann publicity shot of Marilyn Monroe taken for the film Niagara (ca. 1953).  
  
Marilyn Monroe by Gene Kornmann and Andy Warhol 
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The photographs of a blood stained Jackie Kennedy at the signing in of President Lyndon B. Johnson on an airplane shortly after President Kennedy's assassination were used by Andy Warhol in multiple versions including 16 Jackies (1964) and Thirty-Five Jackies (Multiplied Jackies) (1964); both silkscreened images were based on a photograph taken by Cecil Stoughton. Another photograph by Cecil Stoughton showing Johnson consoling Jackie Kennedy was published in a special issue of Berliner Illustrirte in December 1963 and was used for the 1963 painting President Johnson Consoles Mrs. Kennedy by Gerhard Richter.[84] Other artists such as Shinro Ohtake have made drawings based on photographic series.[85]
 
The crossover of themes is bi-directional and continuous with each media transforming the other to a greater or lesser extent. Some works are direct copies whilst others are transformative iterations.  
  
Oscar Gustave Rejlander: Drawings made from his photographs 
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   Paintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa 
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14.46   Art >  Photographs based on known paintings 
  
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As a student Barnaby Hall in the late 1970s had to make a photographic version of Francois Boucher's oil painting of the naked Louise O'Murphy (ca. 1752)[86] and he did using Jackie as the model.  
  
Francois Boucher and Barnaby Hall 
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When creating a series of photographs inspired by the French Impressionists Neil Folberg wanted to do a version of Renoir's Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881) was used the Maison Fournaise as the location. Neil Folberg returned there and here is his account of how the photograph was made.  
  
Renoir and Neil Folberg 
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The answer is that I did go check out the Maison Fournaise and the porch there, but because it was high and a bit small, I would have had to build scaffolding outside the porch to stand on. Also, because it was still an operating restaurant, I would have had to pay to shut it down for two days (had they agreed).
 
What happened is that in my early researches, I was wandering around along the river in the little village of Vétheuil near where Monet had lived sometime before he got involved in his grandiose project at Giverny. Someone who had a house right on the river - Stefan is his name - came down to talk to me and invited me for a drink on his porch which overlooked the Seine ... and Stefan is a set designer whose profession is restaurant design. I kept his name for a year or so until I decided to recreate the scene and then went back to see his porch after looking at the Maison Fournaise. It was just so much easier and nicer to work with and he helped create the set. He is seated in the picture with his children and his wife Nina is in the back, the tallest woman standing. She's talking to my good friend Bénedicte. I also used two other friends, Laurent and a cousin of my assistant who is an acting instructor and helped me assign roles to each of the characters. So I was not only recreating the scene of Renoir in a contemporary mode, I was recreating the process, too, where he had used his friends as models and probably had had a pretty good time with them. Believe me, after rehearsing all morning and having a good lunch with plenty of wine we made a party out of this in the late afternoon and by the time we made the shot it wasn't posed - it had become real. That's the story![87]
The Raft of the Medusa (1818-1819) by Théodore Géricault is the Louvre and is an iconic example of French Romantism. The true story of the wreck of a French frigate and a cannibalistic struggle to survive is a brutal one. The idea of eating one's comrades can be taken literally or metaphorically as in the world of politics. When photographer Joel-Peter Witkin recreated the scene in 2006 it had changed into The Raft of G.W. Bush and he described it with withering words:  
  
Géricault and Joel-Peter Witkin 
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The Raft of George Bush" is a contemporary "Ship of Fools" which has as its pictorial basis, the "Medusa" of Gericault. Bush sits lost in his grand ideas, shown as small electric lights. His left hand rests on the large, perfect breast of "Condi" Rice. This, the most powerful woman on earth, is merely a mouth-piece, a token blackie who dresses in haute coutre. Above Bush is his mother, Barbara, basking in the light, the myth of Republicanism. At her feet is Defense Secretary Rumsfeld crushed by the defeat of Iraq. Colin Powell wears the wreath of militarism and the dollar sign vision he now lives for, after lying to the world at the United Nations. Powell taps Bush on the shoulder to make him aware of their rescue. Vice President Cheney and his wife express joyful rapture in their deliverance. Dick Cheney, a "whatever it takes to succeed" type, is dressed in a gown and bra, reminiscent of the cowardly men on the sinking Titanic who dressed as women in order to save themselves. Below the mast is a religious figure representing Theocracy and Priest-pederasts. Has the young man below him received spiritual comfort or oral sex. The angry angel, wearing a bra of tea cups, holds a large bone signifying cannibalistic capitalism, that charnel house of our dismal social progress. All the other models in this tableaux are posed as characters in the Gercault painting with the exception of the black African named Cyril, who waves to the ship. All the other men are M.T.V. and Big Mac prodigals with the soft bodies and minds of corporate culture.[88]
 
  
14.47   Art >  Painted photographs by known artists 
  
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Painting on photographs has been commonplace since daguerreotypes and salt prints were invented but it is rare to have examples where the names of both the photographer and the artist are known.
 
In the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden Leiden there is a photograph by A. Jarrot that has been hand-painted with watercours by Willem de Famars Testas[89] and in the National Gallery of Canada there is a portrait of Sir John A. Macdonald photographed by William Notman and painted by John A Fraser.[90] The Metropolitan Museum of Art has a remarkable portrait of Empress Eugénie as an Odalisque taken by Louis Pierson that has been painted or retouched by Marck.[91] Many studios employed colourists in the nineteenth century but to record their names was not usually deemed important.[92] 
  
14.48   Art >  Thomas Eakins: The Swimming Hole 
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Nudity is a devisive subject in art and was even more so in the nineteenth century. It was acceptable in nineteenth century salon painting where Classical, Mythological and Historic themes were popular but the showing of naked youths in a contemporary setting was frowned upon. In 1883 Thomas Eakins[93] took a number of photographs of his students relaxing naked around a pond close to Haverford College in Pennsylvania.[94] The photographs were studies for a painting that was initially called "Swimming" but is known as The Swimming Hole.[95] Although the painting had been done as a paid commission it was rejected - the reason being that it was unrepresentative of Thomas Eakins paintings.
 
Thomas Eakins held mixed classes for anatomical drawing at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and during one he removed a loincloth from a male nude and all was revealed. The scandal that ensued led to his dismissal in Feburary 1886. When Thomas Eakins left he wrote a letter on 15th February 1886 to Edward Hornor Coates, Chairman of the Committee on Instruction:
Was ever so much smoke for so little fire? I never in my life seduced a girl, nor tried to, but what else can people think of all this rage and insanity. It is not a rare ambition in a painter to want to make good pupils. My dear master Gerome who loved me had the same ambition, helped me always and has to this day interested himself in all I am doing.
 
My figures at least are not a bunch of clothes with a head and hands sticking out but more nearly resemble the strong living bodies that most pictures show. And in the latter end of a life so spent in study, you at least can imagine that painting is with me a very serious study. That I have but little patience with the false modesty which is the greatest enemy to all figure painting. I see no impropriety in looking at the most beautiful of Nature's works, the naked figure. If there is impropriety, then just where does such impropriety begin? Is it wrong to look at a picture of a naked figure or at a statue? English ladies of the last generation thought so and avoided the statue galleries, but do so no longer. Or is it a question of sex? Should men make only the statues of men to be looked at by men, while the statues of women should be made by women to be looked at by women only? Should the he-painters draw the horses and bulls, and the she-painters like Rosa Bonheur the mares and the cows? Must the poor old male body in the dissecting room be mutilated before Miss Prudery can dabble in his guts?
 
Such indignities anger me. Can not anyone see into what contemptible inconsistencies such follies all lead? And how dangerous they are? My conscience is clear, and my suffering is past.[96]
 
  
14.49   Art >  Edgar Degas: After the Bath 
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Edgar Degas used photography as an aid to painting.[97] 
  
14.50   Art >  Georg Hendrik Breitner: Using photography as an aid to painting 
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Dutch artist Georg Hendrik Breitner (1857-1923)[98] is known to have used photographs as studies for his paintings. His painting Girl in Red Kimono, Geesje Kwak (1893-1895)[99] is based upon a surviving photograph[100] he took in his studio on Lauriersgracht, Amsterdam. 
  
14.51   Art >  Photographs that are stylistically similar to paintings 
  
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This selection of photographs covers the full temporal range and many diverse techniques and yet it is overwelmingly obvious to see the immense influence of artistic conventions on how landscapes have been subjectively framed and models posed for portraits
  
   Photographs that are stylistically similar to paintings 
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14.52   Art >  Neil Folberg: The French Impressionists 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Statement by Neil Folberg, "Travels with Van Gogh and the Impressionists"
I found it interesting to consider that the medium of photography was coming into its own just as the Impressionists were making their mark on the world. In France, Nadar, Gustave Le Gray, Hippolyte Bayard, and Édouard Baldus were some of the early proponents of the new medium. Le Gray in particular had a visual sensibility that was related to that of the Impressionists; interestingly, he started out as a painter and exhibited work at the Paris Salons of 1848 and 1853, before turning his attention to photography. Could such photographic visions have inspired some of the Impressionist artists?
 
The idea of capturing transient phenomena certainly fascinated these painters - and this capability was of course the great promise of photography. We see this interest very clearly in Monet’s work: think, for example, of his 1873 painting Impression, Sunrise, the piece that gave the Impressionist movement its name. But the new visual approach was not confined to obviously poetic effects of winter, twilight, and grand landscape; it extended in both painting and photography to everyday life on the streets, in the cafés and guinguettes, in the train stations and countryside. It was, in fact, a sociological change as well as an aesthetic one.
 
Still, despite its inspiring potential, photography in the 1880s was a cumbersome process: emulsions and prints were handmade, cameras were large and difficult to handle, demanding skilled operators willing to suffer a fair amount of discomfort to make images. Emulsions were slow and required long exposures of static subjects, denying the instantaneous vision of contemporary life that the medium would later offer. So although some of Impressionist painters might have been conceptually attracted to the medium, they would likely have found it lacking in spontaneity (and of course color, which was a prime interest of these artists). Degas experimented with the medium for a couple of years - with very interesting and beautiful results - but eventually lost interest in it ... perhaps because of its technical awkwardness.[101]
 
If the Impressionist painters were resurrected today, they would naturally be turning their attentions to modes, subjects, and media far different from those they utilized in the mid- and late nineteenth century.
 
For this series of images, I was of course working in the world of contemporary France, with elements of the Impressionist aesthetic in my mind, but advanced photographic tools in my hands. I have tried to channel the Impressionists’ approaches through my own, and to make photographs that reflect their individual interests and perspectives.
 
When I showed my Impressionists series to Weston Naef, curator of photographs at the J. Paul Getty Museum, he posed a question: "You have so many identities and voices in these photographs that I‘m bound to ask, which one of them is you?" There is a genre in contemporary photography in which the artist poses him - or herself in different vestments and situations; I have chosen instead to try on other artistic identities - identities of creators whom I admire greatly. It has been an amusing and challenging process, and inevitably my shortcomings as an artist may show through these costumes.
 
I always try to keep a sharp critical eye on my own efforts, and this project presented the distinctly uncomfortable proposition that I engage with giants. This engagement led me occasionally to construct images with a kind of wryness, or a sly sense of humor, which is evident from time to time in these photographs. Humor will have to be my substitute for humility. My larger purpose in this series is to bring the Impressionist concept to the contemporary viewer in a new way, and to invite you to revel in their work, which remains as fresh, relevant, and compelling today as it was at the time of its creation.
 
This series treats the oeuvre of Pissarro, Cézanne, Monet, Manet, Morisot, Renoir, Degas and Van Gogh and is drawn from the forthcoming book by Abbeville Press (due Fall 2007), "Travels with Van Gogh and the Impressionists" on which I have collaborated with writer Lin Arison.
 
  
Portraiture and art 
  
14.53   Art >  The "artistic" portrait 
  
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There was a strong desire amongst the more thoughtful early photographers to demonstrate photography was an art the equal of painting rather than just a technical skill anybody could master. To promote the 'art' argument it was necessary to convince critics and the owners of art galleries and museums the work had not only novelty but real lasting artistic quality.
 
The question of how exactly a photographic portrait could be included in the 'fine art' tradition in the 19th century Western European mindset was to link it to the biblical, classical or literary subjects common in salon paintings. These themes, which are now frequently seen as trite, were the staples of intellectuals in the late nineteenth century. The book by Juliet Hacking (Princes of Victorian Bohemia, 2000) deals with David Wilkie Wynfield (1837-87)[102][103] who photographed Millais, Lord Leighton, Holman Hunt, Manet, and Burne-Jones and influenced the style of Julia Margaret Cameron.[104] 
  
14.54   Art >  Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Julia Margaret Cameron[105] was born in 1815 at Calcutta in India to James Pattle, an official with the East India Company, and Adeline de l'Etang, a French aristocrat. She took up photography after she was given a camera in the early 1860's and mastered it quickly. She took soft focused portraits of the famous English Victorians that were in her social circle and these included the astronomer Sir John Frederick William Herschel[106], the author Thomas Carlyle, Alfred Lord Tennyson[107] and Charles Darwin.
 
Julia Margaret Cameron, in a short photographic exuberance, produced an astounding body of work often based on characters from literary narratives including Shakespearean, Arthurian, mythological figures such as Venus and Cupid, Lord Tennyson's poems, Biblical characters (angels and the Madonna) as her subjects and dressed her models accordingly. In addition to these "art" subjects she photographed the leading men of Victorian society - Lord Tennyson, Thomas Carlyle, Sir John Frederick William Herschel and William Holman Hunt. As Julia Margaret Cameron wrote:
When I have had such men before my camera my whole soul has endeavoured to do its duty towards them in recording faithfully the greatness of the inner as well as the features of the outer man. The photograph thus taken has been almost the embodiment of a prayer.[108]  
  
Julia Margaret Cameron: Alfred Lord Tennyson 
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Julia Margaret Cameron: Thomas Carlyle 
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Julia Margaret Cameron: Sir John Frederick William Herschel 
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Julia Margaret Cameron: Charles Darwin 
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Julia Margaret Cameron: Sir Henry Taylor 
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Cameron was embedded within the upper echelons of Victorian society as an encounter with William Allingham on 10 June 1867 reveals:
Monday, June 10.—Fine, warm. To Brockenhurst by invitation to the Bowden Smiths, croquet, roses, hot sun. Field-path to station, red campions and kingcups. Down train comes in with Mrs. Cameron, queenly in a carriage by herself surrounded by photographs. We go to Lymington together, she talking all the time. “I want to do a large photograph of Tennyson, and he objects! Says I make bags under his eyes—and Carlyle refuses to give me a sitting, he says it’s a kind of Inferno! The greatest men of the age (with strong emphasis), Sir John Herschel, Henry Taylor, Watts, say I have immortalised them—and these other men object!! What is one to do—Hm?”
This is a kind of interrogative interjection she often uses, but seldom waits for a reply. I saw her off in the Steamer, talking to the last. Dine 7.30—Sit on doorstep and hear corncrake in the moonlight. Haymaking now.[109]
Julia Margaret Cameron's work was not universally approved of in her lifetime even though there was reverence for her subjects. [110] 
  
   Julia Margaret  Cameron 
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14.55   Art >  Oscar Gustave Rejlander: Two Ways of Life 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The painterly Two Ways of Life by Oscar Gustave Rejlander used 32 glass negatives to construct a single combination print. The photograph met with contemporary criticism and praise:
We hear with some surprise that the Scottish Photographic Society have refused to admit into their Exhibition Mr. Rejlander's picture of the "The two ways of Life;"— a subject intended to teach a high moral lesson, and which is certainly the cleverest photograph that has yet been produced. We sincerely hope no such prudery will find its way south of the Tweed.[111]
 
  
14.56   Art >  Mimicing art within Pictorialism 
  
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In the rise of pictoralism certain technical processes, particularly bromoil, gum bichromate and pigment prints, allowed photographers to create single images that could be manipulated in the darkroom to appear similar to painting brush strokes. This became a global movement as international exhibitions and publications meant that their work was seen by travelers and their themes, techniques and visual styles adopted.
 
Some photographers including Guido Rey and Richard Polak used sets, props and costumes to create photographs that mimicked the styles of old master paintings.  
  
Johannes Vermeer (Dutch Master, 1632-1675) 
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  • Guido Rey (1861-1935) Italian pictorialist from Turin who, like Richard Polak, created living tableau in the style of the Dutch painters Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch.[112] In 1902 his work was included in the Esposizione Internazionale di Arte Decorativa e Moderna di Torino and later it was published outside of Italy in prestigious magazines including Studio and Camera Work[113] (vol. 24, October 1908).  
      
    Guido Rey 
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  • Richard Polak (1870-1956) was a Dutch pictoralist who recreated sets similar to those of the great Dutch oil painting masters (Vermeer and Steen) and then photographed actors in them. He published them in a portfolio Photographs from Life in Old Dutch Costume[114].  
      
    Richard Polak 
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  • Count Aleksander von Tyszkiewicz was an aristocrat painter who recreated scenes reminiscent of the period of Napoleon Bonaparte.[115]  
      
    Count Aleksander von Tyszkiewicz 
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This tradition is continued by Australian photographer Bill Gekas who photographs his daughter in recreated tableaus of the Old Masters similar to those of Vermeer and Rembrandt
  
Paints in tubes 
  
14.57   Art >  Preserving paint in collapsible tubes 
  
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On Sept 11, 1841 John Goffe Rand was awarded a US patent for "Preserving paint (collapsible tube)".[116] This seemingly simple invention had a significant effect upon artists as they could now paint conveniently outdoors carrying their pigments in metal tubes. Later movements such as Impressionism would not have been possible without tube paints and this had an immense, but often overlooked, impact on photography. Many of the early photographers were artists or closely associated with them and therefore as artists went to paint landscapes in the open air so photographers accompanied them. 
  
The connections between photography and landscape art 
  
14.58   Art >  Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The road to Chailly (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
  
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The roads cutting through the dense forests and undergrowth of the Forest of Fontainebleau provided easily accessible vistas that were both photographed by Gustave Le Gray[117] and painted by Claude Monet[118] in near identical views. 
  
   Fontainebleau 
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14.59   Art >  Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The Bodmer Oak (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
  
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The "Bodmer Oak" in the Forest of Fontainebleau was named after the Swiss painter Charles Bodmer (1809-1893) who was born Karl Bodmer and changed his name after settling in France. He exhibited his painting of the tree at the 1850 Salon. The tree was also painted by Claude Monet in 1865.[119] 
  
   Fontainebleau 
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Using Autochromes for early colour art photography 
  
14.60   Art >  Autochromes: Art 
  
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Nobody has written better than John Wood on the relationship between Art and the Autochrome: Here are some excerpts of his fascinating book: The Art of the Autochrome, The Birth of Color Photography
 
The inherent beauty of the autochrome makes it difficult at times to distinguish an autochrome that is merely beautiful from one that is a conscious work of art. It is as if the process itself had the power to confer aesthetic legitimacy on whatever was being photographed. There are, of course, exceptions, but most autochromes do seem to have the authority of art – that power to rivet our gaze and demand of our eyes that they return again and again, and the power to reward those returns with pleasure and insight. It would be interesting to know what it is about the authochrome that so compels, to know why that soft glow of suggestion, of elegant ladies in lace, of nuance and the Monet-haze of dream is so emotionally gripping, so psychologically arresting. It is as if they possess a kind of proustian power, an ability to waken in us and summon up our collective memory – or possibly a collective mythology – of a gentler past - Structures of Recollection, p. 1
 
…Stieglitz said, "Soon the world will be color-mad, and Lumière will be responsible….The Lumières….have given the world a process which in history will rank with the startling and wonderful inventions of those two other Frenchmen, Daguerre and Nièpce."
 
Coburn wrote Stieglitz to exclaim, "I too have the color fever badly and have a number of things that I am simply in raptures over." A few weeks later Coburn gave an interview in which he stated "It’s just the greatest thing that’s ever happened to photography".
 
And Steichen declared "I have no medium that can give me colour of such wonderful luminosity as the Autochrome plate. One must go to stained glass for such colour resonance, as the palette and canvas are a dull and lifeless medium in comparaison."
 
Such rapturous statements were not at all uncommon, and everyone seemed to have something to say about the autochrome…..The excitement that color photography initially inspired was probably best summed up by J. Nilsen Laurvik, an art critic and photographer who had his own exhibition of autochromes at Stieglitz’s Little Galleries in 1909 and later became director of the San Francisco Museum of Art. He wrote, "In short, color-photography marks the beginning of a new and thoroughly scientific study of color that will, no doubt, revolutionize all forms of color processes as well as exert a strong influence on the art of painting."…
 
… In the hands of a Kuhn, a Steichen, a Coburn, or one of the other Symbolist masters, many of those same mysteries, the same introspection, and the same beauty of their work on paper blazed out, but now in color. Speaking of this phenomenon, which, of course, is the very mystery of art and of art’s mastery, Stieglitz wrote, "Why this should be so in a mechanical process… is one of those phenomena not yet explained, but still understood by some…Those who have seen the Steichen pictures are all of one opinion…"
 
Though the autochrome in a practiced Symbolist’s hands was capable of effects approaching those of other Symbolist works, its inherent straightness made it the bridge between prewar and postwar photography, the link between the early issues of Camera Work and its final issues. It may even have helped convert some photographers to modernism. Few photographers, if any, embraced Symbolism more fervently than George Seeley, yet he produced a body of work in autochrome that bears no similarity to his previous work. It is as if the autochrome drove him toward realism. And though the work of many of the other major photographers of the period also changed, probably as much in response to Symbolism’s postwar irrelevance as to anything else, it is likely that the autochrome and the "color fever" it generated played a greater role than we have credited them with shaping photography’s new direction. Color Fever, p. 9,10, 15,16
 
The breakdown of light and the suggestion of the veil appears to be a signal for a different kind of looking than we normally perform, a kind of looking that is accompanied by an inherent an positive emotional response to what we see. I earlier suggested that the "straightness" of the autochrome made it one of the various bridges into modernism. That straightness fused to the still life, to the world of relatively dateless, pure objects produced its own kind of new objectivity, and that effect yoked to broken light – clear, precise, but diffused – produced images that caught the tensions of the modern world but were tempered by deep, positive emotional responses. That is the real magic of the autochrome….
Color Triumphant p. 41
 
John Wood The Art of the Autochrome, The Birth of Color Photography (University of Iowa press,, 1993). 
  
   Autochromes Art 
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Artists of the twentieth century and photography 
  
14.61   Art >  Salvador Dali 
  
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The portraits of surrealist artist Salvador Dali (1904-1989) attempt to capture his mercurial personality. 
  
14.62   Art >  Photographers who have taken portrait series on artists 
  
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Photographers are drawn to artists and inhabit similar worlds of exhibitions, publishing, collectors and dealers - they share common interests in the visual. This familiarity has led to numerous interactions between the two and many notable photographers are frustrated artists and I suppose that many artists are frustrated photographers. People who do both well are frequently unhappy because they consider that one side of their work has never got the recognition they feel it deserves. Reading the life of Man Ray shows that at times he was depressed at how little his painting was accepted as his photographs became more sought after.
  • In 1950 Hans Namuth took over 500 stills of the artist Jackson Pollock at work. He later went on to explore the actual process of creativity by taking portraits of artists as they worked. These included such famous artists, used in the broadest sense, as Frank Lloyd Wright, Walter Gropius, John Steinbeck, Edward Hopper, Andrew Wyeth, Louise Nevelson and Stephen Sondheim.
     
  • David Douglas Duncan had a long term friendship with Pablo Picasso and produced several books of photographs including Picasso's Picassos.[120] André Villers had a chance meeting with Picasso in 1953 that developed into an artistic relationship and he created photo collages that blend elements of Picasso's work with his own photographs.
     
  • Ugo Mulas between 1964 and 1967 took a series of photographs of Pop artists and these were published in the book New York, arte e persone and this helped to establish his reputation.[121]
     
  • Rudy Burckhardt took photographs of key modern artists in their studios including William de Kooning, Guston, Pollock and Rothko.
 
  
Photography as a means of documenting art 
  
14.63   Art >  Land art 
  
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Land art or Environmental art[122] is a direct artistic response to natural surroundings. Artists create temporary sculptures using natural materials, such as mud, rocks, leaves, ice and twigs. These can be small in scale such as Andy Goldworthy's[123] use of leaves to outline a branch or as large as a semi-permanent "spiral jetty"[124] made using rock in the Great Salt Lake Utah by Robert Smithson. Photography is a means of documenting the project and it is the text, drawings and photographs that become the historical record of the original artwork and they are integral to it.
 
Another form of Land art does not alter or take from the landscape in a physical sense but rather explores it. This is the case with Hamish Fulton whose walks and the resulting diaries and images are a documentation of the event:
“I am what I call a ‘walking artist’… Walking is an art form in its own right. I place emphasis on the experience of walking.”[125]
 
  
14.64   Art >  Conceptual photography 
  
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Conceptual photography as a part of conceptual art[126] is a photography genre in which the artist makes a photograph of a concept or idea. Usually the conception of the idea precedes the realization of the photograph. The practitioners of this approach are sometimes called photoconceptualists.
 
Widely used in advertising and commercial photography the most successful images are immediately understandable. The use of an impoverished African child in a television advertisement is shown to represent a wider issue of underdevelopment and it ignores the complexity both at the individual level and the socio-political. It can be argued that images are, on occasion, cynically used to promote an issue at the most basic of human level - empathy. Image stock libraries have whole sections dedicated to getting across concepts to an audience.  
  
Promoting issue awareness and advertising through association 
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Within photography there have been periods when symbolic elements were used such as the glass globes included in Pictorialist photographs by Clarence H. White, Gertrude Käsebier, Baron Adolph de Meyer, Edward Steichen and Anne Brigman. The exact meaning they were seeking to elucidate other than symbolic purity is difficult to determine.[127]  
  
Glass globes and the Pictorialists 
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Within conceptual art and conceptual photography the same motivations apply and it is about the use of images to transmit an idea to the viewer. In some cases the artists is documenting a performance. In the "Untitled Film Stills" series by Cindy Sherman she placed herself within scenes reminiscent of 1940s and 50s film noir. The 69 black and white photographs in the series made between 1977 and 1980 question the nature of cinema, film stills, scenic reality, gender stereotypes and what a portrait is expected to be all in a single frame.[128]  
  
Cindy Sherman: Untitled Film Stills 
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With Sherrie Levine[129] her appropriations of the work of Walker Evans was provocative and critics rose up to defend her work and attack it. Some of her photographs were direct copies of photographs taken from books where she gave them new titles - such as "After Walker Evans". One commonly held way to view these is with a knee-jerk reaction that it has no originality but this may be confusing the physical object which is a copy with the underlying idea (the "concept") which questions the nature of originality and why works should be included in a canon of famous photographers who produce iconic images. It is the questions raised that are important and the intentions behind them rather than the artworks themselves.  
  
Sherrie Levine: After Walker Evans 
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14.65   Art >  Performance art 
  
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Performance art has the freedom of a transient theatrical event where there is no requirement for drama or a plot. The event itself provides no drama other than the content of the art and the reaction of any audience to it and this can have its foundation in Dada[130] and Surrealism.[131] The transient nature of the event means that any documentation is in the form of text, photography or some form of video. Just as Laban notation[132] records the forms of a dance so photography can provide a formal, or informal, documentation. This is similar to Land art where constructed forms within the natural world are changed by the elements and the documentation records what was created. The two forms can at times merge for example with Andy Goldsworthy[133] throwing or dropping balls of coloured clays into water. With Christo & Jeanne-Claude the process of creating, and documenting, is just as important as the final work of art blurring boundaries between Conceptual art, Land art and Performance art.[134] Since 1971 Christo & Jeanne-Claude have used Wolfgang Volz as their exclusive photographer and at times project director indicating the strong connections with the temporary sculptures they construct and the requirements of longer term documentation. 
  
Looking at art 
  
14.66   Art >  Looking at art 
  
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How art has been viewed is a consistent theme within photography. The backs of viewers contemplating the higher meanings of paintings imbues the photograph, by association, with the higher meanings. 
  
Exhibitions 
  
14.67   Art >  Exhibitions on the relationships between art and photography 
  
The threads that connect art and photography have woven a complex and at times frayed fabric. In 1910 the Albright Art Gallery [now the Albright-Knox Art Gallery] hung an exhibition of only photography curated by Alfred Stieglitz and it is thought to have been the earliest in North America.[135] In 1981 the Museum of Modern Art, New York opened an exhibition Before Photography: Painting and the Invention of Photography curated by Peter Galassi.[136] It went beyond the work of Henrich Schwarz in his 1949 article Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences and elevated the discussion from analogies between to distinct fields to a more critical understanding of the paintings in the period just prior to the public announcement of photography in 1839.
 
Since 2000 there have been exhibitions that concentrate on the relationship at a specific location such as the 2008 In the Forest of Fontainebleau: Painters and Photographers from Corot to Monet[137] at the National Gallery of Art and the 2010 exhibition Images of a Capital - The Impressionists in Paris at the Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany.
 
In 2012 the exhibition Snapshot: Painters and Photography, Bonnard to Vuillard[138] at The Phillips Collection in Washington explored the use of vernacular photography as an aid, or an aide-memoire, for painters.
 
In the Sainsbury Wing of London's National Gallery an exhibition was held (31 October 2012 – 20 January 2013) entitled 'Seduced by Art: Photography Past and Present' which was the gallery's first major exhibition of photography. With the catchy phrase "view Old Master painting through a new lens" it included old master painting along with photographs by Martin Parr, Richard Billingham, Craigie Horsfield, Richard Learoyd and others.
 
We can see an increasing pace of exhibitions that include painting and photography as equals that should be shown together to explore the relationships and differences. 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Aaron Scharf, 1974, Art and Photography, (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books). The literature on the connections between art and photography is vast with early books including - Van Deren Coke, 1964, The Painter and the Photograph, from Delacroix to Warhol, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press); Henrich Schwarz & William Parker, 1987, Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press); Eugenia Parry Janis, 1991, The Kiss of Apollo, Photography & sculpture, 1845 to the present, (San Francisco: Fraenkel Gallery) 
      
  2. Λ Helmut Gernsheim & Alison Gernsheim, 1968, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [Second revised edition. Reprint of the 1956 London edition] 
      
  3. Λ For Gustave Le Gray - Eugenia Parry Janis, 1987, The Photography of Gustave Le Gray, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press); Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884, (Paris, BnF / Gallimard) [Exhibition, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 19 March - 16 June 2002]; Aubenas, Sylvie et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820–1884, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) 
      
  4. Λ For the artwork of Johann Baptist Isenring (1796-1860) - Roland Waspe, 1985, Johann Baptist Isenring, 1796-1860 : Druckgraphik, (Staatsarchiv des Kantons St. Gallen) 
      
  5. Λ Photographs by Eugène Durieu were used by French Romantic artist Eugène Delacroix - Van Deren Coke, 1962 Spring, "Two Delacroix Drawings Made from Photographs", Art Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 172–174 
      
  6. Λ Graham Ovenden, 1974, Alphonse Mucha Photographs, (Academy Editions Ltd) 
      
  7. Λ Gordon Hendricks, 1972, The Photographs of Thomas Eakins, (New York: Grossman Publishers); David Sewell (ed.), 2001, Thomas Eakins, (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale University Press) 
      
  8. Λ Malcolm Daniel, 1998, Edgar Degas: Photographer, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [With essays by Eugenia Parry & Theodore Reff] 
      
  9. Λ For the artwork of Adriaan Venema, 1981, G. H. Breitner, 1857-1923 , (Bussum: Het Wereldvenster). To compare one of his paintings, Girl in Red Kimono, Geesje Kwak, 1893-1895, (Oil on canvas, 24 x 19 1/2 ins is in a private collection in The Netherlands), with a surviving photograph look at - Georg Hendrik Breitner, Girl in a kimono (Geesje Kwak) in Breitner’s studio on Lauriersgracht, Amsterdam, n.d., Gelatin silver print, 12 1/4 x 15 1/4 ins (framed), Collection RKD (Netherlands Institute for Art History) 
      
  10. Λ H. Fox Talbot, 1844, Pencil of Nature, (London: Longman, Brown, Green, & Longmans) 
      
  11. Λ William Stirling, 1848, Annals of the Artists of Spain, (London: John Olivier) [Illustrated with Talbotypes] 
      
  12. Λ 1843, "Richard Beard, of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses and representations of nature, and of other objects", The London Journal and Repository of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, Conjoined Series, no. CXXXII, Recent Patents, 1843, pp. 358-360 
      
  13. Λ John Thomson, 1873-1874, Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented, 4 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston Low, and Searle, 1873 [vols. 1 and 2] and 1874 [vols. 3 and 4]) 
      
  14. Λ Mary Bergstein, 2000, Image and enterprise: The photographs of Adolphe Braun, (London: Thames & Hudson); Christian Kempf, 1994, Adolphe Braun et la photographie 1812-1877, (Lucigraphie)
     
    Charlène Sébert, 2010, La reproduction photographique d'œuvres d'art au xixe siècle. L'exemple de la maison Braun & Cie, avec huit albums conservés au musée d'Orsay, (Mémoire de Recherche, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, sous la direction de Mme Claire Barbillon) 
      
  15. Λ In 1876, the year before the death of Adolphe Braun, the firm of Adolphe Braun et Cie (1876-1889) was established and his son Gaston Braun continued the business. The firm continued under different names - Braun Clément & Cie (1889-1910) and Braun et Cie (1910-). 
      
  16. Λ There were details of the 1888 case brought by Adolphe Braun and Company in the photographic press.
     
    "Talk in the Studio - International Copyright Of Photographs", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1563, August 17, 1888, p. 528.
    "Talk in the Studio - International Copyright Of Photographs", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1564, August 24, 1888, p. 544.
    "Talk in the Studio", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1568, September 21, 1888, p. 599. 
      
  17. Λ The "Première Exposition d'Art Photographique" (The Photo-Club de Paris) was held in 1894 but the articles were drawn up on 20th July 1893 and the jury later. 
      
  18. Λ Nosfgeratu - IMDB
    (Accessed: 26 April 2014)
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0013442/ 
      
  19. Λ Walter Thornbury, 1862, The Life of J.M.W. Turner, R.A. Founded on Letters and Papers Furnished by his Friends and Fellow Academicians, (London: Hurst and Blackett), vol. II, pp. 259-264 
      
  20. Λ John Thomson, 1873-1874, Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented, 4 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston Low, and Searle, 1873 [vols. 1 and 2] and 1874 [vols. 3 and 4]) 
      
  21. Λ Felice Beato is one of the most interesting peripatetic photographers of the nineteenth century - Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); John Clark, John Fraser & Colin Osman, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) 
      
  22. Λ Abelardo Morell & Luc Sante, 2004, Camera Obscura, (Bulfinch); Elizabeth Siegel, Brett Abbott & Paul Martineau, 2013, Abelardo Morell: The Universe Next Door, (Art Institute of Chicago) 
      
  23. Λ Randy Kelly, 8 October 2012, "‘Fossilizing’ With a Camera", The New York Times, Art & Design
    (Accessed: 10 May 2014)
    www.nytimes.com/2012/10/09/arts/design/hiroshi-sugimoto-at-the-american-museum-of-natural-history.html 
      
  24. Λ William H. Wollaston, 1807, February, March, April, May, "LVIII. Description of the Camera Lucida. By William H. Wollaston, Sec. R.S.", The Philsophical Magazine, vol. 27, pp. 343-347 
      
  25. Λ John Hammond & Jill Austin, 1987, The Camera Lucida in Art and Science, (Taylor & Francis) 
      
  26. Λ Museum of Fine Arts, Boston - Using the Camera Lucida
    Curator Karen Quinn describes how artist Fitz Henry may have used a mechanical device to aid him in painting "Coffin's Beach," a shore scene from Gloucester, Massachusetts.
    www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ktb1qCo4kY 
      
  27. Λ "Camera Lucida", August 22, 1835, The Dublin Penny Journal, vol. IV, no. 164, p. 61 
      
  28. Λ George Gregory, 1808, Lectures on Experimental Philosophy, Astronomy, and Chemistry: Intended Chiefly for the Use of Students and Young Person, vol. 1, pp. 152-153 
      
  29. Λ Denison Olmsted, 1835, An Introduction to Natural Philosophy: Designed as a Textbook for the Use of the Students in Yale College, (H. Howe & Company), pp. 322-323 
      
  30. Λ Elizabeth Glassman & Marilyn F. Symmes, 1980, Cliché-verre: Hand-Drawn, Light-Printed: A Survey of the Medium from 1839 to the Present, (Detroit: The Detroit Institute of Arts) 
      
  31. Λ G. Kepes, et al., 1995, Language of Vision: Fundamentals of Bauhaus Design, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications) [Reprint]; Gyorgy Kepes, 1984, Light Graphics, (New York: International Center of Photography) isbn-10: 0933642059 isbn-13: 978-0933642058 [Exhibition catalogue]; Gyorgy Kepes, & Marjorie Supovitz (ed.), 1978, Gyorgy Kepes: The MIT Years 1945-1977, (The MIT Press) 
      
  32. Λ Abelardo Morell: Cliché-verres - www.abelardomorell.net/posts/cliche-verres/ 
      
  33. Λ William Culp Darrah, 1981, Cartes De Visite In Nineteenth Century Photography, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah); Thomas Harris, 2013, ‘The Mighty, Yet Diminutive, Carte de Visite‘, in Bryan & Page Ginns, 2013, Antique Photographica: The Collector's Vision (Schiffer), pp. 100-120; Elizabeth Anne McCauley, 1985, A. A. E. Disderi and the Carte de Visite Portrait, (New Haven: Yale) 
      
  34. Λ Mark S. Chalabala, 2013, American Backmark: The Art and Artistry of the Carte de Visite Imprint 1860-1890, (Privately printed) 
      
  35. Λ For a useful list of early publications that used, or purportedly used, daguerreotypes see - Beaumont Newhall & Robert Doty, 1962, "The Value of Photography to the Artist, 1839", Image (George Eastman House), vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 25-28 
      
  36. Λ Examples of books, albums and portfolios that had illustrations based, or purportedly based on, daguerreotypes include:
     
    1840, Paris Et Ses Environs Reproduits Par La Daguerreotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon, (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie., Editeurs);
     
    Louis Cherbuin, ca. 1840, Recueil des vues principales de Milan et de ses environs executees d'apres le daguerreotype, (Milan: chez Ferdinando Artaria et Fils Editeurs);
     
    Adolphe Duperly, 1840, Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica being A Collection of Views of the most Striking Scenery, public Buildings and other interesting objects, (A. Duperly);
     
    Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours 1842, Excursions daguerriennes: vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe, (A Paris: Chez Rittner et Goupil, Boulevard Montmartre, 15; Lerebours, Opticien de l'Observatoire, Place du Pont-Neuf, 13; Hr Bossange, Quai Voltaire, 11);
     
    J.J. Falkeisen & Louis Cherbuin, ca. 1845, Recueil de Vues Principales de la Toscane: executees d'apres les Originaux du Daguerreotype et gravees par J. J. Falkeisen et L. Cherbuin (Milan, chez Ferdinand Artaria & Fils, Editeurs) 
      
  37. Λ  Charles Philipon; Auguste Auvial; Paul de La Garenne; Victor Ratier; Jean Baptiste Arnout; et al, 1840, Paris et ses environs : reproduits par le daguerre´otype, ( Paris : Chez Aubert et cie., e´diteurs, marchands d'estampes et imprimeurs - Paris : Imprime´ par Be´thune et Plon) 
      
  38. Λ Included on "Books illustrated with lithographs or engravings after daguerreotypes or with prints from etched daguerreotypes" in Helmut and Alison Gernsheim, 1956, L.J.M. Daguerre (1787-1851), (Cleveland: World Pub. Co.), p. 190.
     
    For a useful list of early publications that used, or purportedly used, daguerreotypes see - Beaumont Newhall & Robert Doty, 1962, "The Value of Photography to the Artist, 1839", Image (George Eastman House), vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 25-28 
      
  39. Λ Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours, 1842, Excursions daguerriennes: Vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (A Paris: Chez Rittner et Goupil, Boulevard Montmartre, 15; Lerebours, Opticien de l'Observatoire, Place du Pont-Neuf, 13; Hr Bossange, Quai Voltaire, 11). 
      
  40. Λ 1841, The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal, vol. 4, p. 63 
      
  41. Λ Adolphe Duperly, 1840, Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica being A Collection of Views of the most Striking Scenery, public Buildings and other interesting objects, (A. Duperly)
     
    There is a copy in the British Library. 
      
  42. Λ The date of this publication is uncertain and the date of 1844 is given by - Frank Cundall, (1902), Bibliographia Jamaicensis. A list of Jamaica books and pamphlets, magazine articles, newspapers, and maps, most of which are in the library of the Institute of Jamaica, (Kingston: Institute of Jamaica) 
      
  43. Λ  Bitumen of Judea is also known as asphaltum or Syrian Asphalt. 
      
  44. Λ The solvent used was oil of lavender and turpentine. 
      
  45. Λ Henry Fox Talbot in his Pencil of Nature (1844) was far-sighted when he brought together in a single volume the ways it which he predicted that photography would be useful. He included "Fac-simile of an Old Printed Page" (pt. 2, pl. 9), "Copy of a Lithographic Print" (pt. 2, pl. 11) and "Hagar in the Desert" each of which showed how photographs could be used to copy art. 
      
  46. Λ William Stirling, 1848, Annals of the Artists of Spain, (London: John Olivier) [Illustrated with Talbotypes] 
      
  47. Λ Richard Beard, 17 April 1848, letter, National Gallery, Archive: NG5/72/3 
      
  48. Λ Mary Bergstein, 2000, Image and enterprise: The photographs of Adolphe Braun, (London: Thames & Hudson); Christian Kempf, 1994, Adolphe Braun et la photographie 1812-1877, (Lucigraphie)
     
    Charlène Sébert, 2010, La reproduction photographique d'œuvres d'art au xixe siècle. L'exemple de la maison Braun & Cie, avec huit albums conservés au musée d'Orsay, (Mémoire de Recherche, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, sous la direction de Mme Claire Barbillon) 
      
  49. Λ In 1876, the year before the death of Adolphe Braun, the firm of Adolphe Braun et Cie (1876-1889) was established and his son Gaston Braun continued the business. The firm continued under different names - Braun Clément & Cie (1889-1910) and Braun et Cie (1910-). 
      
  50. Λ There were details of the 1888 case brought by Adolphe Braun and Company in the photographic press.
     
    "Talk in the Studio - International Copyright Of Photographs", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1563, August 17, 1888, p. 528.
    "Talk in the Studio - International Copyright Of Photographs", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1564, August 24, 1888, p. 544.
    "Talk in the Studio", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1568, September 21, 1888, p. 599 
      
  51. Λ The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art has a half plate daguerreotype taken by Marcus Aurelius Root, ca. 1847-1849 of George Caleb Bingham's painting "Lighter Relieving the Steamboat Aground", 1847. (Gift of the Hall Family Foundation, 2005.37.77) A digital scan of this daguerreotype is required - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  52. Λ William Stirling, 1848, Annals of the Artists of Spain, (London: John Olivier) [Illustrated with Talbotypes] 
      
  53. Λ The Correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot
    (Accessed: 13 March 2013)
    Document number: 5936
    Date: 05 May 1847
    Recipient: TALBOT William Henry Fox
    Author: HENNEMAN Nicolaas
    Collection: National Media Museum, Bradford
    Collection number: 1937-4950
    Last updated: 3rd February 2010 
      
  54. Λ Sources vary in the number of copies - in a footnote to The Correspondence of William Henry Fox Talbot, Document number: 5936 the figure is given as 25. 
      
  55. Λ In the same year that Professor Charles C. Piazzi Smyth published on Queen Mary's Missal in St. Petersburg he also published - C. Piazzi Smyth, 1862, Three Cities in Russia, (London: Lovell, Reeve & Co.) [2 volumes] 
      
  56. Λ Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Évrard, 1847, Procédés employés pour obtenir les épreuves de photographie sur papier, présentés à l'Académie des sciences, (Paris: C. Chevalier) 
      
  57. Λ Tipped-in - ILAB: International League of Antiquarian Booksellers
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    www.ilab.org/eng/glossary/557-tipped-in.html
    Attached to, but not integral to the binding of the book. We usually use this term to indicate something that has been added: a letter from the author, a newspaper or magazine review or obituary, etc. The nature of what is tipped-in will determine whether this addition will enhance or devalue the book.
     
      
  58. Λ For Adolphe Braun - Christian Kempf, 1994, Adolphe Braun et la photographie 1812-1877, (Lucigraphie); Mary Bergstein, 2000, <>Image and enterprise: The photographs of Adolphe Braun, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  59. Λ October 23, 1874, "A Continental Printing Establishment", The British Journal of Photography, p. 509 [For a description of the printing works of Adolphe Braun.] 
      
  60. Λ August 17, 1888, "Talk in the Studio", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1563, p. 528 
      
  61. Λ August 24, 1888, "Talk in the Studio", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1564 p. 544 
      
  62. Λ September 21, 1888, "Talk in the Studio", The Photographic News, vol. XXXII, no. 1568, p. 599 
      
  63. Λ David Octavius Hill, 1866, "The First General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland - Signing the Act of Separation and the Deed of Demission at Tanfield, Edinburgh, May 1843", Oil painting, 5 foot x 11 foot 4 inches (1.53m x 3.45m), Free Church of Scotland [This photograph was taken by Rev George T. Thomson LRPS and is provided with the permission of the Free Church of Scotland.] 
      
  64. Λ An example letter from "Hill, D O, to the subjects of the Disruption picture, here filled in to Dr Gordon, 9 June 1843"
    New College Library (Free Church of Scotland), autograph folder 240
    [Open, lithographed letter]
    DOH to the subjects of the Disruption picture, here filled in to Dr Gordon, 9 June 1843
    Source: scottishphotography.org/?page_id=285 
      
  65. Λ June 29, 1866, "Large Carbon Reproductions", The Photographic News: A Weekly Record of the Progress of Photography, vol. X, no. 408, pp. 304-305. 
      
  66. Λ Free Church of Scotland, 15 North Bank Street, The Mound, Edinburgh EH1 2LS, Scotland. Tel: 0131 226 5286 
      
  67. Λ Aaron Scharf, 1974, Art and Photography, (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books). The literature on the connections between art and photography is vast with early books including - Van Deren Coke, 1964, The Painter and the Photograph, from Delacroix to Warhol, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press); Henrich Schwarz & William Parker, 1987, Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press); Eugenia Parry Janis, 1991, The Kiss of Apollo, Photography & sculpture, 1845 to the present, (San Francisco: Fraenkel Gallery) 
      
  68. Λ Les Baigneuses [The Bathers] by Gustave Courbet is in the The Musée Fabre, Montpellier. 
      
  69. Λ Graham Ovenden, 1974, Alphonse Mucha Photographs, (Academy Editions Ltd) 
      
  70. Λ For a contemporary analysis - Wendy Steiner, 2010 , The Real Real Thing: The Model in the Mirror of Art, (University of Chicago Press)
     
    There should be a history of the use of life models in art providing accounts from studios, diaries etc but I have not come across one. If there is please let me know - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  71. Λ J.C. Horsley, 1885, "Religion and Art", The Official Report of the Church Congress held at Portsmouth, October, 1885, (London: Bemrose & Sons), p. 188 
      
  72. Λ Allan Cunningham, 1843, The Life of Sir David Wilkie: With His Journals, Tours, and Critical Remarks on Works of Art; and a Selection from His Correspondence, (Lomdon: John Murray) - "Went to the Royal Academy, and did a good deal to the sketch from the life model" (vol. 1, p. 183), "Went to the Academy, where I continued painting from the naked figure till 7 o'clock" (vol. 1, p. 184) 
      
  73. Λ George du Maurier, 1894, Trilby, (London: Osgood, McIlvaine) [Published serially in Harper's Monthly in 1894.] 
      
  74. Λ Margaret B. Wright, 1878, "An Atelier des Dames", Lippincott's Magazine of Popular Literature and Science, vol. 22, pp. 21-29
    "Do you dislike to pose for male artists?" asked Paletta.
     
    "Dislike? Why should I with so fine a figure as this?" answered the woman, throwing off her cloak to resume her pose. "I'd like it better if I had a handsome face, but I'd like it much worse if I had flabby flesh or buniony feet."
     
    Paletta saw that no question of modesty entered the model's mind, and she went back to her easel to paint...
     
      
  75. Λ There are numerous adverts - for example, 1 October 1881, The Artist and Journal of Home Culture, p. 304 
      
  76. Λ 1887, "Monthly Record of American Art", The Magazine of Art, vol. 10, p. xxxviii 
      
  77. Λ Van Deren Coke, 1962 Spring, "Two Delacroix Drawings Made from Photographs", Art Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 172–174 
      
  78. Λ Eugène Durieu is mentioned on multiple occassions in the diaries of Delacroix - Eugène Delacroix, Paul Flat, René Piot, 1893, Journal de Eugène Delacroix ...: 1850-1854, (E. Plon, Nourrit et cie) 
      
  79. Λ Eugène Durieu and Eugène Delacroix - Gerry Badger (blog)
    (Accessed: 11 November 2013)
    www.gerrybadger.com/eugene-durieu-and-eugene-delacroix/ 
      
  80. Λ This letter is published in George Ticknor Curtis, 1870, Life of Daniel Webster (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1870), vol. II, ch. XXXIV, p. 322. 
      
  81. Λ An indication of the commercial potential of tinting and painting early photographs is provided by the taking out of patents to ensure protection over the processes involved. Early examples include:
    "To Richard Beard, of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses and representations of nature, and of other objects, being a communication. [Sealed 10th March, 1842.]", The London Journal and Repository of Arts, Sciences, and Manufactures, Conjoined Series, no. CXXXII, Recent Patents, 1843, pp. 358-360.
     
    "22. For an Improvement in Coloring Daguerreotype Plates, by fixing the Colors thereon; Frederick Langenheim, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, January 30." American Patents, Journal of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, and American Repository, February, 1847, p. 105. Patent was issued in January, 1846.
     
      
  82. Λ "Roman Copies of Greek Statues" In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: - Metropolitan Museum of Art
    (Accessed: 27 November 2017)
    www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/rogr/hd_rogr.htm 
      
  83. Λ Thanks to Paul Frecker for pointing out the connection between the carte de visite of André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri and the portrait by Edgar Degas. 
      
  84. Λ John J. Curley, 2013, A Conspiracy of Images: Andy Warhol, Gerhard Richter and the Art of the Cold War, (Yale University Press) 
      
  85. Λ Shinro Ohtake, 1996, Portraits by Avedon, 18th July 1979, (UCA). The book includes 73 drawings inspired by Portrait Photographs by Richard Avedon and drawn on 18 July 1979.
    (Accessed: 13 March 2014)
    www.shinro-ohtake.com/books/avedon.html
    Thanks to John Gossage for a Facebook posting on 13 March 2014 for pointing out this volume. 
      
  86. Λ Francois Boucher (artist, 1703-1770), "Louise O'Murphy", 1752 (ca), Oil on canvas, 23.23 x 28.74 ins, Alte Pinakothek, Inv. no. 1166 
      
  87. Λ Pers. email, Neil Folberg to Alan Griffiths, 8 April 2014 
      
  88. Λ Text courtesy of Etherton Gallery and Joel-Peter Witkin. 
      
  89. Λ A. Jarrot [photographer] & Willem de Famars Testas [watercolourist], "Portrait of Willem de Famars Testas during his stay in Egypt, 1859.", 1859, Photograph, watercoloured, Rijksmuseum van Oudheden Leiden, 19.6.3-1 
      
  90. Λ William Notman; John A. Fraser, "Sir John A. Macdonald", 1861, Albumen silver print, with watercolour on wove paper, 59 x 45.2 cm, National Gallery of Canada, Purchased 1979, no. 23338 
      
  91. Λ Louis Pierson, [Empress Eugénie as an Odalisque], 1861-1865, Albumen silver print, hand-painted, 17 x 12 cm (6 11/16 x 4 3/4 ins) (image) 38 x 28 cm (14 15/16 x 11 ins) (mount), Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gilman Collection, Gift of The Howard Gilman Foundation, 2005, Accession Number: 2005.100.410 (4) 
      
  92. Λ I'd be most interested to learn of other examples where both the name of the photographer and the artist are recorded - alan@luminous-lint.com
     
    Do we know for example who painted the photographic portraits of The Countess da Castiglione (1837-1899) taken by Louis Pierson? See - Pierre Apraxine & Xavier Demange, 2000, "La Divine Comtesse": Photographs of the Countess de Castiglione, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; New Haven: Yale University Press) 
      
  93. Λ Gordon Hendricks, 1972, The Photographs of Thomas Eakins, (New York: Grossman Publishers); David Sewell (ed.), 2001, Thomas Eakins, (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale University Press) 
      
  94. Λ The Smithsonian Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden has a number of the photographic studies by Thomas Eakins in its collection that were gifts from Joseph H. Hirshhorn:
     
    1883, "Thomas Eakins and Students", 1966, Accession Number: 83.16
    1883, "Study for 'Swimming'", 1966, Accession Number: 83.15
    1883, "Study for 'Swimming'", 1966, Accession Number: 83.17 
      
  95. Λ The oil painting "The Swimming Hole" by Thomas Eakins is now in the collection of the Amon Carter Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas. 
      
  96. Λ Thomas Eakins: Scenes from Modern Life - PBS
    (Accessed: 13 August 2013)
    www.pbs.org/eakins/t_1886_rumor.htm 
      
  97. Λ Malcolm Daniel, 1998, Edgar Degas: Photographer, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [With essays by Eugenia Parry & Theodore Reff] 
      
  98. Λ Adriaan Venema, 1981, G. H. Breitner, 1857-1923 , (Bussum: Het Wereldvenster) 
      
  99. Λ Girl in Red Kimono, Geesje Kwak, 1893-1895, Oil on canvas 24 x 19 1/2 ins is in a private collection in The Netherlands. 
      
  100. Λ Georg Hendrik Breitner, Girl in a kimono (Geesje Kwak) in Breitner’s studio on Lauriersgracht, Amsterdam, n.d., Gelatin silver print, 12 1/4 x 15 1/4 ins (framed), Collection RKD (Netherlands Institute for Art History) 
      
  101. Λ Malcolm Daniel, 1998, Edgar Degas: Photographer, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [With essays by Eugenia Parry & Theodore Reff] 
      
  102. Λ Juliet Hacking, 1995, ‘David Wilkie Wynfield: The Great Amateur‘, History of Photography, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 322-327; Juliet Hacking, 2000, Princes of Victorian Bohemia, (Prestel) 
      
  103. Λ The National Portrait Gallery in London has a collection of portraits by David Wilkie Wynfield - www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/set/362 as does the Royal Academy of Arts (London). 
      
  104. Λ For a catalogue raisonné of the photographs of Julia Margaret Cameron - Julian Cox & Colin Ford, 2003, Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs, (Los Angeles: Getty Publications) 
      
  105. Λ For a catalogue raisonné of the photographs of Julia Margaret Cameron - Julian Cox & Colin Ford, 2003, Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs, (Los Angeles: Getty Publications) 
      
  106. Λ For the album Julia Margaret Cameron gave to her friend Sir John Herschel - Colin Ford, 1975, The Cameron Collection: An Album of Photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron Presented to Sir John Herschel, (Workingham, England: Van Nostrand Reinhold, in association with the National Portrait Gallery, London) 
      
  107. Λ 1893, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and his friends, (London: T. Fisher Unwin) 
      
  108. Λ Julia Margaret Cameron, 1874, Annals of My Glass House (Unfinished manuscript); Reprinted in full in - Violet Hamilton, 1996, Annals of my glass house: photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron, (Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery), p. 15; Also reprinted in - Beaumont Newhall, 1980, "Annals of my Glass House" IN, Photography: Essays and Images, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) 
      
  109. Λ Cited in: Anthony Lane, 2 September 2013, "Names and Faces: The portraits of Julia Margaret Cameron", The New Yorker - Review of an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    (Accessed: 30 August 2013)
    www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/atlarge/2013/09/02/130902crat_atlarge_lane?currentPage=all
     
    Original source - H. Allingham & D. Radford, 1907, William Allingham: A Diary, (Macmillan & Co.), pp. 152-153 
      
  110. Λ January 1877, "Characteristics of the International Fair. VI. Closing Days", The Atlantic Monthly, vol. XXXIX, p. 94
    The invention deserves universal gratitude for this and the numerous facilities which it offers, but it should be kept within its proper limits. The most egregious instance of its exceeding them is to be found in the English department of Photographic Hall; there are some absurd, blurred groups, representing scenes from the Idyls of the King, which everybody who has been to London will recognize as Mrs. Cameron's. The attempt at artistic and dramatic effect is enormous; the result is merely a series of very poor photographs of ill-dressed actors and actresses in exaggerated attitudes. Unfortunately, it is but another case of overdoing a successful experiment: eight or ten years ago Mrs. Cameron, then an amateur, I believe, took very striking and agreeable likenesses; one of her favorite subjects was the druidical physiognomy of Henry Taylor, author of Philip van Artevelde, whom she used as an advertisement.
     
      
  111. Λ January, 15, 1858, Photographic Notes - Journal of the Birmingham Photographic Society, vol. III, p. 24 
      
  112. Λ Sadakichi Hartmann, "Guido Rey: A Master of Detail Composition" IN Sadakichi Hartmann, 1978,The Valiant Knights of Daguerre: Selected Critical Essays on Photography and Profiles of Photographic Pioneers, (University of California Press) 
      
  113. Λ For Camera Work - Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) 
      
  114. Λ Richard Polak, 1913-1915, Photographs from Life in Old Dutch Costume [Folio of sixty-five photogravures, variously sized to approx. 9 x 6½ in., each with printed credit, process and title, mounted on thick card with Printed in Germany blindstamp, printed title page, introduction by F.J. Mortimer and plate list, 20 x 14½ in.] 
      
  115. Λ See: Count Aleksander von Tyszkiewicz , "Scene d'intérieur Empire", [Photo-Club de Paris / 1897, Pl. XXXV], 1897 ; Count Aleksander von Tyszkiewicz, "Der Besuch", [Die Kunst in der Photographie (Art Folio #4)], 1898 
      
  116. Λ John Goffe Rand, Sept 11, 1841, "Preserving paint (collapsible tube)", US patent (No. 2,252) 
      
  117. Λ Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884, (Paris, BnF / Gallimard) [Exhibition, Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 19 March - 16 June 2002]; Sylvie Aubenas et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820–1884, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); Lisa Barro & Nora W. Kennedy, 2005, ‘Gustave Le Gray's Salted Paper Prints‘, in Pre-Prints of the 14th Triennial Meeting Amsterdam, ICOM Committee for Conservation, pp. 533–540; Eugenia Parry Janis, 1987, The Photography of Gustave Le Gray, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press) 
      
  118. Λ Claude Monet - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 7 August 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Monet 
      
  119. Λ "The Bodmer Oak, Fontainebleau Forest", 1865, Claude Monet (French, 1840–1926), Oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Sam Salz and Bequest of Julia W. Emmons, by exchange, 1964 (64.210). (Accessed: 7 August 2013)
    www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/64.210
     
    Curatorial description
    The Bodmer Oak—named after the Swiss artist Karl Bodmer (1809–1893), who exhibited his painting of the tree at the 1850 Salon—was one of several imposing trees in the Fontainebleau Forest that had acquired a special appellation.
     
    The carpet of russet leaves signals that Monet painted this canvas just before he left Chailly-en-Bière, near Fontainebleau, in October 1865. It is probably the last of several landscapes executed in connection with his monumental Déjeuner sur l'herbe (fragments of which are now at the Musée d'Orsay, Paris).
     
    The slash in the upper right-hand corner of the painting may have been made by Monet, who reputedly mutilated some canvases in order to discourage a landlord from seizing them in 1866.
     
      
  120. Λ David Douglas Duncan, 1961, Picasso's Picassos, (Harper & Brothers); David Douglas Duncan, 1974, Goodbye Picasso, (Grosset & Dunlap); David Douglas Duncan, 1990, Picasso and Jacqueline, (W W Norton & Co Inc); David Douglas Duncan, 2006, Picasso & Lump: A Dachshund's Odyssey, (Bulfinch) 
      
  121. Λ Ugo Mulas, 1967, New York, arte e persone (Milan) 
      
  122. Λ John K. Grande, 2004, Art Nature Dialogues: Interviews with Environmental Artists, (SUNY Press) 
      
  123. Λ For a selection of books on the Land art of Andy Goldsworthy - Andy Goldsworthy, 1990, A Collaboration with Nature, (Abrams); Andy Goldsworthy, 1996, Wood, (Harry N. Abrams); Andy Goldsworthy, 2004, Hand to Earth, (Harry N. Abrams), Andy Goldsworthy, 2011, Stone, (Thames & Hudson) 
      
  124. Λ Lynne Cooke & Karen Kell (eds), 2005, Robert Smithson: Spiral Jetty, (University of California Press) 
      
  125. Λ Hamish Fulton
    (Accessed: 15 March 2014)
    www.thecornwallworkshop.com/hamish-fulton-walks 
      
  126. Λ Alexander Alberro & Blake Stimson (eds.), 1999, Conceptual Art: A Critical Anthology, (The MIT Press); Peter Osborne (ed.), 2011, Conceptual Art, (Phaidon Press, reissue) 
      
  127. Λ If anybody has any documentary evidence that explains the spiritual significance of glass globes to the Pictorialists I'd be most interested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  128. Λ Cindy Sherman & Peter Galassi, 2003, Cindy Sherman: The Complete Untitled Film Stills, (New York: Musem of Modern Art)
     
    In 1995, The Museum of Modern Art (New York) purchased the series from the artist, preserving the work in its entirety. 
      
  129. Λ Reena Jana, March 21, 2001, "Is It Art, or Memorex?", Wired Magazine; Roberta Smith, November 11, 2011, "Flattery (Sincere?) Lightly Dusted With Irony," New York Times; Johanna Burton and Elisabeth Sussman; With contributions by Thomas Crow, David Joselit, Maria H. Loh, Howard Singerman, and Carrie Springer, 20012, Sherrie Levine: MAYHEM, (Yale University Press) 
      
  130. Λ Leah Dickerman, 2005, Dada, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art) 
      
  131. Λ Rosalind E. Krauss & Jane Livingston, 1985, L'Amour Fou: Photography & Surrealism, (New York: Abbeville) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  132. Λ Rudolf von Laban, 1956, Laban’s Principles of Dance and Movement Notation, (London: MacDonald and Evans) 
      
  133. Λ For a selection of books on the Land art of Andy Goldsworthy - Andy Goldsworthy, 1990, A Collaboration with Nature, (Abrams); Andy Goldsworthy, 1996, Wood, (Harry N. Abrams); Andy Goldsworthy, 2004, Hand to Earth, (Harry N. Abrams), Andy Goldsworthy, 2011, Stone, (Thames & Hudson) 
      
  134. Λ Paul Goldberger, Christo and Jean-Claude & Wolfgang Volz, 2010, Christo and Jean-Claude: 75, (Taschen). Wolfgang Volz has been the exclusive photographer for Cristo and Jean-Claude since 1971. 
      
  135. Λ Catalogue of the international exhibition, pictorial photography / Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Albright Art Gallery, Exhibition held Nov. 3-Dec. 1, 1910 at the Albright Art Gallery; Published as an issue of Academy notes
    Catalogue online:
    libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15324coll19/id/6374 
      
  136. Λ Peter Galassi, 1981, Before Photography: Painting and the Invention of Photography, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) 
      
  137. Λ Kimberly Jones, 2008, In the Forest of Fontainebleau: Painters and Photographers from Corot to Monet, (Washington: National Gallery of Art; Yale University Press) 
      
  138. Λ Elizabeth W. Easton (ed.), 2011, Snapshot: Painters and Photography, Bonnard to Vuillard, (Yale University Press) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Borcoman, James, 1974, December, ‘Purism Versus Pictorialism: The 135 Years War. Some Notes On Photographic Aesthetics‘, ArtsCanada, no. 192-195, pp. 68-82 [Δ
  
Caffin, Charles H., 1972, Photography as a Fine Art, (New York: Doubleday) [Reprint of 1901 edition] [Δ
  
Campany, David (ed.), 2007, Art and Photography, (New York: Phaidon) isbn-10: 0714847569 isbn-13: 978-0714847566 [Δ
  
Chalabala, Mark S., 2013, American Backmark: The Art and Artistry of the Carte de Visite Imprint 1860-1890, (Privately printed) [Δ
  
Chalumeau, Jean-Luc, 2007, Peinture et Photographie, (Paris: Chêne) isbn-13: 978-284277731X [Δ
  
Chantal, George, 2007, La forêt de Fontainebleau: un atelier grandeur nature, (Paris) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Chase, Linda (ed.), 2001, Photorealism: The Liff Collection, (Naples, FL: Naples Museum of Art) isbn-13: 978-0970515810 [Δ
  
Claudet, A., 1864, 15 October, ‘Photosculpture‘, The Journal of the Photographic Society of London, no. 150, pp. 121-124 [Δ
  
Coke, Van Deren, 1964, The Painter and the Photograph, from Delacroix to Warhol, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Δ
  
Coke, Van Deren, 1972, The Painter and the Photograph, from Delacroix to Warhol, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press) [Revised and enlarged edition] [Δ
  
Cowling, Mary, 1989, The Artist as Anthropologist: The Representation of Type and Character in Victorian Art, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [Δ
  
Daniel, Malcolm R., 1990, ‘Darkroom vs. Greenroom: Victorian Art Photography and Popular Theatrical Entertainment‘, Image, vol. 33, no. 1/2, pp. 13-20 [Δ
  
Dewitz, Bodo von, 2011, La Bohème: Artists in the 19th and 20th Century Photography, (Steidl) isbn-13: 978-3869301396 [Museum Ludwig, Cologne. Expo: 25/09/2010 - 09/01/2011] [Δ
  
Dezeuze, Anna & Kelly, Julia (eds.), 2013, Found Sculpture and Photography from Surrealism to Contemporary Art, (Ashgate) isbn-13: 978-1409400004 [Δ
  
Diba, Layla S., 2013, ‘Qajar Photography and its Relationship to Iranian Art: A Reassessment‘, History of Photography, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 85-98 [Δ
  
Dickerman, Leah (ed.) et al., 2013, Inventing Abstraction, 1910-1925, (New York: he Museum of Modern Art) isbn-10: 0870708287 isbn-13: 978-0870708282 [Δ
  
Easton, Elizabeth W. (ed.), 2011, Snapshot: Painters and Photography, Bonnard to Vuillard, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300172362 isbn-13: 978-0300172362 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Faxon, Alicia Craig, 1992, ‘D. G. Rossetti's Use of Photography‘, History of Photography, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 254-262 [Δ
  
Fogle, Douglas, 2003, The Last Picture Show: Artists Using Photography 1960-1982, (Walker Art Center) isbn-10: 0935640762 isbn-13: 978-0935640762 [Δ
  
Ford, Colin, 1973, ‘The Beginnings of Art Photography‘, in 1973, The Hill/Adamson Albums: A Selection of Victorian Prints Acquired by the National Portrait Gallery in January 1973, (London: Times Newspapers Ltd.) [Δ
  
Fraenkel, Jeffrey (ed.), 2009, Edward Hopper & Company: Hopper's Influence on Photography - Robert Adams, Diane Arbus, Harry Callahan, William Eggleston, Walker Evans, Robert Frank, Lee Friedlander, Stephen Shore, (Fraenkel Gallery) isbn-10: 188133726X isbn-13: 978-1881337263 [Δ
  
Galassi, Peter, 1981, Before Photography: Painting and the Invention of Photography, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Galerie Daniel Blau [firm], 2008, Gegossenes Licht / Cast Light, (Munich: Galerie Daniel Blau) isbn-13: 978-3000240454 [500 copies] [Δ
  
Gall, Jean-Luc, 1997, November, ‘Photo/sculpture L'invention de François Willème‘, Revue études photographiques, no. 3 [Δ
  
Grundberg, Andy & Gauss, Kathleen, 1987, Photography and Art: Interactions Since 1946, (New York: Cross River Press) [Δ
  
Hamber, Anthony J., 1996, A Higher Branch of the Art: Photographing the Fine Arts in England, 1839-1880, (Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach) [Benjamin L. Spackman, pp. 412, 418, 428; Stephen Thompson, pp. 385-86] [Δ
  
Harvey, Eleanor Jones, 2012, The Civil War and American Art, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300187335 isbn-13: 978-0300187335 [Δ
  
Hockney, David, 2001, Secret knowledge: Rediscovering the lost techniques of the Old Masters, (Viking Studio) isbn-10: 0670030260 isbn-13: 978-0670030262 [Δ
  
Hollein, Max, 2012, Malerei in Fotografie. Strategien der Aneignung / Painting in Photography. Strategies of Appropriation, (Heidelberg: Kehrer Verlag) isbn-13: 978-3941399167 [Texts by Dr. Martin Engler, Carolin Köchling, and Dr. Christina Leber] [Δ
  
Jacobson, K. & Hamber, A., 1996, Étude D'Après Nature. 19th Century Photographs In Relation To Art, (Petches Bridge, England: Ken & Jenny Jacobson) [Δ
  
Janis, Eugenia Parry, 1991, The Kiss of Apollo, Photography & sculpture, 1845 to the present, (San Francisco: Fraenkel Gallery) isbn-10: 0938491660 isbn-13: 978-0938491668 [Δ
  
Jones, Kimberly, 2008, In the Forest of Fontainebleau: Painters and Photographers from Corot to Monet, (Washington: National Gallery of Art; Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Kandinsky, Wassily [Vasily], 1911 (dated 1912), Über das Geistige in der Kunst. Insbesondere in der Malerei [On the Spiritual in Art: And Painting in Particular], (R. Piper & Co.) [Δ
  
Kemp, Martin, 1992, The Science of Art: Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Lindquist-Cock, Elizabeth, 1979, ‘Stillman, Ruskin and Rossetti: The Struggle between Nature and Art‘, History of Photography, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-14 [Δ
  
Lynes, Barbara Buhler & Weinberg, Jonathan (eds.), 2011, Shared Intelligence: American Paintings and the Photograph, (University of California Press) isbn-13: 978-0520269064 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Macartney, Hilary, 2006, ‘William Stirling and the Talbotype volume of the Annals of the Artists of Spain‘, History of Photography, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 291-308 [Δ
  
Maffioli, M., Marchioni, S. & Marchioni, N. (eds.), 2008, I Macchiaioli e la fotografia, (Florence: Alinari) isbn-13: 978-8895849041 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Marbot, Bernard & Challe, Daniel, 1991, Les photographes de Barbizon - La forêt de Fontainebleau, (Catalogue BNF/ Hoebeke) [Δ
  
Marcoci, Roxana, 2010, The Original Copy: Photography of Sculpture, 1839 to Today, (New York: The Museum of Modern Art) isbn-10: 0870707574 isbn-13: 978-0870707575 [Contributors : Geoffrey Batchen, Tobia Bezzola] [Δ
  
Meisel, Louis K., 1989, Photorealism, (New York: Abradale/Abrams) isbn-13: 978-0810980921 [Δ
  
Meisel, Louis K., 1993, Photorealism Since 1980, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) isbn-13: 978-0810937208 [Δ
  
Meisel, Louis K. & Chase, Linda, 2002, Photorealism at the Millennium: The Not-So-Innocent Eye - Photorealism in Context, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) isbn-13: 978-0810934832 [Δ
  
Moor, George, 1893, ‘The Camera in Art‘, in 1893, Modern Painting, (London: Walter Scott), pp. 183-189 [Δ
  
Newhall, Beaumont, 1958, May, ‘Photosculpture‘, Image: Journal of Photography and Motion Pictures of the George Eastman House, no. 61, pp. 100-105 [http://image.eastmanhouse.org/files/GEH_1958_07_05.pdf] [Δ
  
Newhall, Beaumont & Doty, Robert, 1962, ‘The Value of Photography to the Artist, 1839‘, Image (George Eastman House), vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 25-28 [Δ
  
Ovenden, Graham, 1972, Pre-Raphaelite Photography, (New York: St. Martins / Academy) isbn-10: 0902620916 [Δ
  
Parker, William S. (ed.), 1985, Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences. Selected Essays by Heinrich Schwartz, (Gibbs M. Smith, Inc, Peregrine Smith Books in association with the Visual Studies Workshop) [Δ
  
Plisnier, Valentine, 2012, Le Primitivisme dans la photographie = Primitivism and Photography: l’impact des arts extra-européens sur la modernité photographique de 1918 à nos jours = Non-Western Art and Modern Photography: From 1918 to the Present, (Paris : Trocadéro) isbn-13: 978-2951866843 [French / English] [Δ
  
Rahaab Allan & Pramoud Kumar KG, 2008, Painted Photographs: Coloured Portraiture in India, (Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Alkazi Collection of Photography and UNESCO) isbn-10: 8189995189 isbn-13: 9788189995188 [Δ
  
Roberts, Helene E., 2013, Art History Through the Camera's Lens, (Routledge) isbn-10: 1134304382 isbn-13: 978-1134304387 [First published in 1995] [Δ
  
Root, Enoch, 1888, ‘Photography as a Fine Art‘, Photographic News, vol. 1, no. 11, p. 140 [Δ
  
Saunier, Philippe, Heilbrun, Françoise, Pohlmann, Ulrich, Ritter, Dorothea, Maffioli, Monica, Zimmermann,Michaël F. & Bolloch, Joëlle, 2009, Voir l'Italie et mourir. Photographie et peinture dans l'Italie du XIXe siècle, (Paris: musée d'Orsay / Skira-Flammarion) isbn-13: 978-2081224254 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Scharf, Aaron, 1969, Art and Photography, (Baltimore: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press) [Δ
  
Scharf, Aaron, 1974, Art and Photography, (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books) [Δ
  
Scharf, Aaron, 1986, Art and Photography, (New York: Penguin Books) [Δ
  
Schwarz, Henrich, 1949, November, ‘Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences‘, Magazine of Art, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 252-57 [Δ
  
Schwarz, Henrich & Parker, William, 1987, Art and Photography: Forerunners and Influences, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) [Δ
  
Sobieszek, Robert A., 1980, ‘Sculpture as the Sum of Its Profiles: François Willème and Photosculpture in France, 1859-1868‘, The Art Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 617-630 [Δ
  
Steadman, Philip, 2001, Vermeer's Camera, (New York: Oxford University Press) [Δ
  
Stirling, William, 1848, Annals of the Artists of Spain, (London: John Olivier) [Illustrated with Talbotypes] [Δ
  
Waggoner, Diane (ed.) et al., 2010, The Pre-Raphaelite Lens: British Photography and Painting, 1848-1875, (Washington-Paris: Lund Humphries Publishers) isbn-10: 1848220677 isbn-13: 978-1848220676 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Wallis, Brian (ed.), 1995, Art After Modernism: Rethinking Representation, (New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art) [Δ
  
Witkovsky, Matthew S. et al., 2012, Light Years: Conceptual Art and the Photograph, 1964-1977, (Art Institute of Chicago) isbn-10: 0300159714 isbn-13: 978-0300159714 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Adolphe Braun 
  
Bergstein, Mary, 2000, Image and enterprise: The photographs of Adolphe Braun, (London: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
  
Kempf, Christian, 1994, Adolphe Braun et la photographie 1812-1877, (Lucigraphie) [Δ
  
Sébert, Charlène, 2010, La reproduction photographique d'œuvres d'art au xixe siècle. L'exemple de la maison Braun & Cie, avec huit albums conservés au musée d'Orsay, (Mémoire de Recherche, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, sous la direction de Mme Claire Barbillon) [Δ
  
Julia Margaret Cameron 
  
Fagan-King, Julian, 1986, ‘J. M. Cameron, G. F. Watts, D. G. Rossetti: The Influence of Photography on Painting‘, History of Photography, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 19-29 [Δ
  
Jean Baptiste Corot 
  
Daniel, Malcolm, 1996, Eugène Cuvelier: Photographer in the Circle of Corot, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Δ
  
Eugène Cuvelier 
  
Cuvelier, Eugene; Weidemann, Henning & Challe, Daniel, 1997, Eugene Cuvelier: Legend of the Forest, (Cantz) isbn-10: 3893228578 isbn-13: 978-3893228577 [Δ
  
Daniel, Malcolm, 1996, Eugène Cuvelier: Photographer in the Circle of Corot, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Δ
  
Edgar Degas 
  
Daniel, Malcolm, 1998, Edgar Degas: Photographer, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [With essays by Eugenia Parry & Theodore Reff] [Δ
  
Eugène Durieu 
  
Coke, Van Deren, 1962, Spring, ‘Two Delacroix Drawings Made from Photographs‘, Art Journal, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 172-174 [Δ
  
Thomas Eakins 
  
Danly, Susan & Leibold, Cheryl, 1994, Eakins and the Photograph: Works by Thomas Eakins and His Circle in the Collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, (Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press; Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts) isbn-10: 1560983523 isbn-13: 978-1560983521 [Δ
  
Hendricks, Gordon, 1972, The Photographs of Thomas Eakins, (New York: Grossman Publishers) [Δ
  
Sewell, David (ed.), 2001, Thomas Eakins, (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Weinberg, H. Barbara, 1994, ‘Thomas Eakins and The Metropolitan Museum of Art‘, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 52, no. 3 (Winter, 1994-95) [Δ
  
Peter Henry Emerson 
  
Newhall, Nancy, 1975, P. H. Emerson: The Fight for Photography as a Fine Art, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Walker Evans 
  
Webb, Virginia-Lee, 2000, Perfect Documents Walker Evans and African Art, 1935, (Metropolitan Museum of Art) isbn-10: 0300086814 isbn-13: 978-0300086812 [Δ
  
Philippe Halsman 
  
Halsman, Philippe & Dali, Salvador, 1954, Dali’s Mustache, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ
  
David Octavius Hill 
  
Stevenson, Sara, 1991, ‘David Octavius Hill and the Use of Photography as an Aid to Painting‘, History of Photography, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 47-59 [Δ
  
Izis 
  
Izis, 1969, Le monde de Chagall, (Paris: Gallimard) [Text by Roy McMullen] [Δ
  
Albert Londe 
  
Londe, Albert, 1903, Album de chronophotographies documentaires a` l'usage des artistes, (Paris: C. Mendel) [Δ
  
Frederick Anthony Stansfield Marshall 
  
Marshall, Frederick Anthony Stansfield, 1855, Photography: The Importance of Its Application in Preserving Pictorial Records of the National Monuments of History and Art, (London: Hering and Remington) [Δ
  
Yasumasa Morimura 
  
Morimura, Yasumasa, 2003, Daughter of Art History: Photographs by Yasumasa Morimura, (New York: Aperture) [Introduction by D. Kuspit] [Δ
  
Alphonse Marie Mucha 
  
Ovenden, Graham, 1974, Alphonse Mucha Photographs, (Academy Editions Ltd) isbn-10: 0856701610 isbn-13: 978-0856701610 [Δ
  
Eadweard Muybridge 
  
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1901, The Human figure in motion: An electro photographic Investigation of consecutive phases in Muscular Actions, (Chapman and Hall) [Δ
  
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1925, Animals in Motion, (Chapman and Hall) [Δ
  
Nancy Newhall 
  
Newhall, Nancy, 1975, P. H. Emerson: The Fight for Photography as a Fine Art, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Pablo Picasso 
  
Baldassari, Anne, 1997, Picasso and Photography: The Dark Mirror, (Paris: Flammarion; Houston: The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston) [Δ
  
Robert Rauschenberg 
  
Hopps, Walter, Davidson, Susan et al., 1997, Robert Rauschenberg: A Retrospective, (New York: Guggenheim Museum) [Δ
  
Oscar Gustave Rejlander 
  
Jones, Edgar Yoxall, 1973, Father of Art Photography: O. G. Rejlander, 1813-1875, (London: David and Charles) [Δ
  
Spencer, Stephanie, 1985, O. G. Rejlander: Photography as Art, (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press) [Δ
  
Henry Peach Robinson 
  
Harker, Margaret F., 1988, Henry Peach Robinson: Master of Photographic Art, 1830–1901, (New York: Basil Blackwell) [Δ
  
John Ruskin 
  
Burns, Karen, 1997, ‘Topographies of Tourism: Documentary Photography and "The Stones of Venice"‘, Assemblage, vol. 32, pp. 22-44 [Δ
  
Costantini, P. & Zannier, I. (eds.), 1986, I Dagherrotipi della Collezione Ruskin, (Firenze e Arsenale, Venezia: Alinari) [Δ
  
Costantini, Paolo, 1986, ‘Ruskin e il dagherrotipo‘, in P. Costantini & I. Zannier (ed.), 1986, I dagherrotipi della collezione Ruskin (Venice-Florence), pp. 11-20 [Δ
  
Hanson, Brian, 1981, ‘Carrying off the Grand Canal: Ruskin’s Architectural Drawings and the Daguerreotype‘, The Architectural Review, pp. 104-109 [Δ
  
Harvey, Michael, 1984, ‘Ruskin and Photography‘, The Oxford Art Journal, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 25-33 [Δ
  
Henison, Robert, 1993, ‘John Ruskin and the Argument of the Eye‘, in Harriet Whelchel (ed.), 1993, John Ruskin and the Victorian Eye, (Harry N. Abrams), pp. 28-51 [Δ
  
Jacobson, K. & J., 2014, Carry Off the Palaces: John Ruskin's Lost Daguerreotypes, (Quaritch) [Δ
  
Kemp, Wolfgang, 1981, ‘Architektur-Aufnahme am Übergang von der Zeichnung zur Fotografie - das Beispiel Ruskin‘, Marburger Jahrbuch für Kunstwissenschaft, vol. 20, pp. 55-62 [Δ
  
Smith, Lindsay, 1995, Victorian Photography, Painting, and Poetry: The Enigma of Visibility in Ruskin Morris and the Pre-Raphaelites, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [Δ
  
Walton, Paul H., 1985, The Drawings of John Ruskin, (Hacker Art Books) isbn-10: 087817298X isbn-13: 978-0878172986 [New edition] [Δ
  
Wildman, Stephen, 2006, Ruskin and the Daguerreotype, (Lancaster: Lancaster University / Ruskin Library) isbn-10: 1862201757 isbn-13: 978-1862201750 [12 pages] [Δ
  
Sarony 
  
Allan, William, 1986, ‘Legal Tests of Photography-as-Art: Sarony and Others‘, History of Photography, vol. 10, pp. 221-128 [Δ
  
Sandy Skoglund 
  
Skoglund, Sandy, 1998, Sandy Skoglund: Reality Under Siege A Retrospective, (Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810927853 isbn-13: 978-0810927858 [Δ
  
Alfred Stieglitz 
  
Greenough, Sarah, 2000, Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and his New York Galleries, (Washington: National Gallery of Art.) isbn-10: 0894682830 [Also published by Bullfinch Press, ISBN-10: 0821227289, ISBN-13: 978-0821227282] [Δ
  
Messinger, Lisa Mintz, 2011, Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keefe, (Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art) isbn-10: 0300175884 isbn-13: 978-0300175882 [Δ
  
Andy Warhol 
  
McShine, K. (ed.), 1989, Andy Warhol, A Retrospective, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Warhol, Andy, 1988, Andy Warhol: Death and Disasters, (Houston, TX: Menil Collection: Houston Fine Art Press) [Δ
  
Warhol, Andy, 1989, Andy Warhol, Photobooth Pictures, (New York: Robert Miller Gallery) [Δ
  
Warhol, Andy, 1999, About Face: Andy Warhol Portraits, (Hartford, CT: Wadsworth Atheneum and Pittsburgh: Andy Warhol Museum, Cambridge, MA: Distributed by MIT Press) [Essays by Baume, Nicholas, Crimp, Douglas, Meyer, and Richard] [Δ
  
David Wilkie Wynfield 
  
Hacking, Juliet, 2000, Princes of Victorian Bohemia, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791323016 isbn-13: 978-3791323015 [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Giuseppe Alinari  (1836-1890) • Leopoldo Alinari  (1832-1865) • Domenico Anderson  (1854-1938) • Peter Beard  (1938-) • Bisson frères • Charles Bodmer  (1809-1893) • Achille Bonnuit  (check) • Frank Brangwyn  (1867-1956) • Georg Hendrik Breitner  (1857-1923) • François-Rupert Carabin  (1862-1932) • Chuck Close  (1940-) • Alvin Langdon Coburn  (1882-1966) • Thomas Demand  (1964-) • John Dugdale  (1960-) • Alfred Ehrhardt  (1901-1984) • Peter Henry Emerson  (1856-1936) • Robert Farber • Bernard Faucon  (1950-) • Neil Folberg  (1950-) • Franco Fontana  (1933-) • Pablo Genovés  (1959-) • Bruce Gilden  (1946-) • Paolo Gioli  (1942-) • Claus Goedicke  (1966-) • Hisaji Hara  (1964-) • Peter Hujar  (1934-1987) • Gertrude Käsebier  (1852-1934) • Ouka Lele  (1957-) • Gustave Marissiaux  (1872-1929) • Barbara Morgan  (1900-1992) • Yasumasa Morimura  (1951-) • Oscar Gustave Rejlander  (1813-1875) • Henry Peach Robinson  (1830-1901) • Georges Rousse  (1947-) • John Ruskin  (1819-1900) • Andres Serrano  (check) • Cindy Sherman  (1954-) • Sandy Skoglund  (1946-) • Edward Steichen  (1879-1973) • Alfred Stieglitz  (1864-1946) • Clare Strand  (1973-) • Paul Strand  (1890-1976) • Patrick Tosani  (1954-) • Andy Warhol  (1928-1987) • Boyd Webb  (1947-) • François Willème  (1830-1905) • Neil S. Winokur  (1945-)
HomeThemes > Art 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Abstract 
Appropriation 
Artist studies - Académies 
Artists 
Camera Notes 
Camera Work 
Camera lucida 
Camera obscura 
Cliché-verre 
Colour 
Composite and combination prints 
Conceptual 
Copyright 
Drawing and optical devices 
Fabricated realities 
Forest of Fontainebleau 
Futurism 
Hand-painted photographs 
Pantograph 
Photorealism 
Physionotrace 
Pictorialism 
Post-modernism 
Pre-Raphaelite 
Printing works 
Retouching, colouring and painting kits 
Silhouette 
Surrealism 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Art

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailArt and Photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 22, 2012)
ThumbnailAutochromes: Art 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Louis-Emile Durandelle and the Paris Opera (1860-1874) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 30, 2010)
ThumbnailErotica: Artist studies / Académies 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 10, 2007) We welcome examples of additional artists studies - particularly those that were used as the basis for known artworks.
 
Warning: If you are under 18 or offended by naked bodies do NOT view this exhibition.
ThumbnailFontainebleau, Barbizon - the relationships between painters and photographers 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 6, 2010) Further examples sought showing direct parallels between individual paintings and photographs.
ThumbnailGustave Le Gray: Seascapes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 30, 2010)
ThumbnailImages of a Capital - The Impressionists in Paris 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 6, 2010) Coincides with the exhibition at the Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany (2 October 2010 - 30 January 2011).
ThumbnailNeil Folberg: The French Impressionists 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 23, 2007)
ThumbnailPainting in Photography. Strategies of Appropriation 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 4, 2012)
ThumbnailPaintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 22, 2012) Do you know of examples of artworks that have used photography in their creation from any part of the world?
ThumbnailPhotographic reproductions of sculpture 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 22, 2012)
ThumbnailPhotographic reproductions of works on paper and canvas 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 22, 2012)
ThumbnailPhotographs that are stylistically similar to paintings 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 22, 2012) We are seeking examples of photographs that were influenced by artistic styles and movements.
  
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Art

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailAlberto Giacometti 
ThumbnailAndy Warhol 
ThumbnailAuguste Rodin 
ThumbnailCharles Felu 
ThumbnailFrida Kahlo 
ThumbnailGeorges Braque 
ThumbnailHenri de Toulouse-Lautrec 
ThumbnailJean Cocteau 
ThumbnailPablo Picasso 
ThumbnailSadakichi Hartmann 
ThumbnailSalvadore Dali 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA. Calavas (editor): Artist studies - Académies 
ThumbnailAdolphe Braun: Photographing art 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAdolphe Braun: Printing works at Dornach 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlexandre Orion: Metabiotica 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlphonse Marie Mucha: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAndy Goldsworthy: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArnulf Rainer: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAthanasius Kircher: Camera obscura 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBudtz Muller: Les Oeuvres de Thorvaldsen 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Bierstadt: Bartholdi Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles François Daubigny: Cliché-verre 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailClaude-Marie Ferrier: The train station at Fontainebleau (1855-1856) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDavid Wilkie Wynfield: Portraits of Victorian painters and illustrators 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailE. Aubin: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Steichen: Balzac 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailF.G. Weller: An artist being awarded a laurel wreath by a ghostly figure 
ThumbnailFord Madox Brown: Work 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrançois Willème: Photosculpture 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Chauvassaigne: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederick Langenheim: Patents for Coloring Daguerreotype Plates 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFritz Henle - Thomas Struth 
ThumbnailGaudenzio Marconi: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorg Hendrik Breitner: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge Hendrik Breitner: Photography and painting - Girl in Red Kimono 
ThumbnailGiacomo Balla 
ThumbnailGuido Rey: Costume pieces 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustave Le Gray: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustave Le Gray: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustave Le Gray: Photographs of art 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenri Evenepoel: Photography and painting - White hats 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: Bust of Patroclus 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: Camera lucida drawings 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: Diogenes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHisaji Hara: A Photographic Portrayal Paintings of Balthus 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.M. Cañellas: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJean Baptiste Corot: Cliché-verre 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Herschel: Camera lucida drawings 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Robert Parsons: Jane Morris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Ruskin: Thoughts on photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulien Vallou de Villeneuve: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulien Vallou de Villeneuve: Reclining nudes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis Igout: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard: Reproductions of works of art 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis-Rémy Robert: Doorway to Sèvres Factory 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis-Rémy Robert: Sèvres ceramics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNevil Story-Maskelyne: Camera obscura: Portable 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOscar Gustave Rejlander: Drawings made from his photographs 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOscar Gustave Rejlander: Infant Photography Gives the Painter an Additional Brush 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOscar Gustave Rejlander: Two Ways of Life 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPaul Cézanne: The Bather 
ThumbnailPesme: Artist studies - Académies 
ThumbnailRichard Long: On-site sculptures 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Polak: Costume pieces 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Macpherson: Sculpture 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSouthworth & Hawes: Sculptures 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Eakins: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Eakins: The Swimming Hole 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailVincenzo Galdi: Artist studies - Académies 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: African Negro Arts (1935) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailYasumasa Morimura: Self portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailZhang Huan: Performance art 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailAdolphe Braun - Gustave Courbet 
ThumbnailEmilio Beauchy - José Gutiérrez Solan 
ThumbnailFrancois Boucher - Barnaby Hall 
ThumbnailGuido Rey - Richard Polak 
ThumbnailGustave Dore - Edmund Teske 
ThumbnailMarcel Duchamp - Gjon Mili - Eliot Elisofon 
ThumbnailOlympe Aguado - Chim - Robert Doisneau - Harry Lapow - Elliott Erwitt 
ThumbnailRenoir - Neil Folberg 
ThumbnailThomas Le Clear - Pascal Adolphe Dagnan-Bouveret - Unidentified photographer - August Sander - Sabine Weiss - Carte Horse Conspiracy 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer - Lieutenant Alfred Bastien 
 
  
   Occupationals 
  
ThumbnailArtists 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailArt: Art and Photography 
ThumbnailArt: Companies providing photographic reproductions of art in the nineteenth century 
ThumbnailArt: Copyright on photographic reproductions of art in the Nineteenth century 
ThumbnailArt: Mosaics 
ThumbnailArt: Painting en plein air 
ThumbnailArt: Painting on photographs: A 19th Century perspective 
ThumbnailArt: Paintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa 
ThumbnailArt: Paintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa: Fontainebleau - The Bodmer Oak 
ThumbnailArt: Paintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa: Fontainebleau - The road to Chailly 
ThumbnailArt: Photographing documents and artworks 
ThumbnailArt: Photographing sculpture 
ThumbnailArt: Photographs that are stylistically similar to paintings 
ThumbnailArt: Plaster and ash casts 
ThumbnailArt: Porcelain and ceramics: Sevres Porcelain Factory 
ThumbnailArt: Publications 
ThumbnailArt: Sculpture: The "Laocoonte" in the Vatican Museums 
ThumbnailArt: Sculpture: The "Statue of Horses and Chariot" in the Vatican Museums 
ThumbnailArt: Urban art: Graffiti 
ThumbnailArt: Urban art: Interventions 
ThumbnailArt: Urban art: Posters 
ThumbnailArt: Urban art: Signage 
ThumbnailArt: Urban art: Textures 
ThumbnailArt: Urban art: Wall murals 
ThumbnailErotica: A Pictorialist perspective 
ThumbnailErotica: Artist studies - Académies 
ThumbnailStatues, sculptures and busts of photographers 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailAlbumen prints: Themes: Portrait: Artists 
ThumbnailCabinet cards: Backs: Graphics that place photography with painting and the arts 
ThumbnailCalotypes: Themes: Art 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Themes: Art 
ThumbnailCarte de visites: Themes: Portrait: Artists 
ThumbnailCliché-verre 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Art 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Portrait: Artists 
ThumbnailDrawing and drafting aids: Camera Lucida 
ThumbnailDrawing and drafting aids: Camera obscuras: Designs 
ThumbnailDrawing and drafting aids: Camera obscuras: Portable 
ThumbnailDrawing and drafting aids: Pantographs 
ThumbnailDrawing and drafting aids: Perspective 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailArtistic group 
ThumbnailBruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855) 
ThumbnailExhibitions: 1913 Armory Show 
ThumbnailJapan: Japanese artists and colorists 
ThumbnailParis et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840) 
ThumbnailPerformance art 
ThumbnailThe Shroud of Turin 
ThumbnailUsing grids to create art 
 
  
Refreshed: 16 July 2014, 22:32
 
  
 
  
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