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HomeContentsThemes > War

Contents

Introduction
13.01   Introduction to war photography
Military acceptance of photography
13.02   Ordnance Survey Building, Southampton
13.03   Photography and the British Army
Journalists at war
13.04   Journalists at war
Problematic issues
13.05   Photographs of war dead
13.06   American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead
13.07   Willoughby Wallace Hooper: The scandal of delaying a firing squad
13.08   Censorship of war photography
13.09   Faking war photographs
13.10   Humanity in terrible times
13.11   The landscapes of war
13.12   The civilian impact of War
13.13   Issues of interpretation of building structures
13.14   Wars and the lack of photographic evidence
13.15   Amateur photography and war
13.16   Boer War (1899-1902): Fabrications
13.17   National and ethnic perspectives of war
13.18   Veterans
13.19   Fractured history
Rephotographic studies
13.20   Rephotographic studies of conflicts and wars
The impact of changing technologies
13.21   The changing technologies of war photography
13.22   Fashion: Accessories: Gas masks
13.23   Night vision imagery
13.24   Iraq War (2003-2011): Abu Ghraib
13.25   William Laven: War Models
13.26   Satellite Sentinel and the Enough Project
13.27   Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011)
Thoughts
13.28   The aesthetics of conflict
13.29   War conclusions
Postscript
13.30   A postscript to war - Don McCullin
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
13.01   War >  Introduction to war photography 
  
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The photographs taken during each war show us the popular concerns of the day and reflect the morays of society at large. The American Civil War (1861-1865) can be seen through works of fiction such as Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage[1] or Charles Frazier's Cold Mountain[2] or the writings of Shelby Foote.[3] The Vietnam War (1961-1975) can be viewed through the contemporary diaries of Michael Herr in Dispatches.[4] Research and interviews of what actually happened during a mission in Somalia that went terribly wrong as in Mark Bowden's Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War[5] gives us insights. Both fictional and non-fictional works help us to understand a conflict and the attitudes that go with it - photographs take us there to show us the brutal reality of experience. They place us amid circumstances that nobody should ever see and yet a single shutter click of a 1000th of a second amidst the chaos of years can sum up an entire war and arouse public indignation.
 
In the sections on the different wars these issues are dealt with in detail and examples of the key images and the people who took them are provided. Here before we go into those we need to highlight the broader trends so that they can be better understood.
 
There are innumerable ways studying war photography with the simplest being chronological:
1840-1870 Earliest War Photographs (1840-1870)
1846-1848 Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
1848 Year of Revolutions (1848)
1849-1871 Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871)
1854-1856 Crimean War (1854-1856)
1856-1860 Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860)
1858 Indian Mutiny (1858)
1859 Franco-Austrian War (1859)
1860-1900 North American Indian Wars (1860-1900)
1861-1865 American Civil War (1861-1865)
1864 Prussian-Danish War (1864)
1865-1870 War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870)
1870-1871 Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
1871 Korean Punitive Expedition (1871)
1871 Paris Commune (1871)
1872-1873 Modoc War (1872-1873)
1877-1878 Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878)
1878-1880 Second Afghan War (1878-1880)
1882 Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)
1894-1895 First Sino-Japanese (1894-1895)
1898 Spanish American War (1898)
1899-1902 Boer War (1899-1902)
1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
1910-1920s Mexican Revolution (1910-early 1920s)
1914-1918 First World War (1914-1918)
1915-1923 Armenian massacres (1915-1923)
1917 Russian Revolution and the aftermath (1917)
1930s Japanese campaigns in China (1930s)
1933-1945 The Holocaust (1933-1945)
1935-1936 Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935-1936)
1936-1939 Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
1939-1945 Second World War (1939-1945)
1945-1991 Cold War (1945-1991)
1946-1949 Greek Civil War (1946-1949)
1948-? Middle East (1948-?)
1950-1953 Korean War (1950-1953)
1950s Algerian War of Independence (1950s)
1960-1998 Northern Ireland - The Troubles (1960s-1998)
1961-1975 Vietnam War (1961-1975)
1967-1975 Cambodian Civil War (1967-1975)
1979-? Afghanistan Wars (1979-?)
1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
1982 Falklands War (1982)
1991 Gulf War (1990-1991)
1991-2002 Algerian Civil War (1991-2002)
1991-1999 Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999)
1994-1996 / 1999-2009 Chechen (1994-1996 / 1999-2009)
2001-? Terrorism
2003-2011 Iraq War (2003-2011)
2008 South Ossetia War (2008)
Whilst a chronological overview is straight forward it misses the commonalities that are shared by all wars, the preparations for war, the similarities of scarred landscapes, the devastation of cities,[6] the refugees, medical needs and aftermath. The War/Photography: Images of Armed Conflict and Its Aftermath exhibition[7] curated by the The Museum of Fine Arts Houston in 2012 used this approach very successfully. Wars can be remembered for iconic photographers such as Robert Capa[8] during the Spanish Civil War or reflective ones such as Philip Jones Griffiths in Vietnam.[9] Whole wars are compressed into a few photographs taken in a split second. If you added the ten most important photographs of any war together the total exposure would probably be less than a second. How is it that we can summarize wars and hundreds of thousands of dealth within a second? Photography shows us so much and at the same time dulls complexity.  
  
Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
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Robert Capa was at Normandy during D-Day but never made it to the beach as his job was to get the first photographs back as quickly as possible.  
  
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The few surviving blurry negatives sum up a day with around 10,000 Allied casualities and 4-9,000 German. They are far from the only photographs of the day but they have immediacy. The War theme addresses not only the famous images of conflict but the complexity of the subject. 
  
Military acceptance of photography 
  
13.02   War >  Ordnance Survey Building, Southampton 
  
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The utilization of photography by the military expanded through the nineteenth century and the construction of a photography building for the Ordnance Survey[10] of the British Army in the 1850s at Southampton in England was a physical manifestation of this. 
  
13.03   War >  Photography and the British Army 
  
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In 1863 an article in the The Photographic Journal by John Spiller, F.C.S., Assistant Chemist to the War Department, was published on "Photography in Application to Military Purposes" which provided examples of how photography was being used within the British Army including examples with ordnance, a photographic van and the use of dark tents:
In commencing my historical sketch, it is proper to mention and acknowledge the employment of the camera in the Royal Gun-Factories during the years 1855 and 1856, when it was first used as a means of portraying the peculiarities of construction involved in sundry schemes for the improvement of ordnance and the application of the system of breech loading. The late Major Vandeleur, R.A., and Mr. MacKinlay, then Proof-Master, worked both the Talbotype and collodion processes, and produced results of interest and value in their department, but which were not distributed to any extent, in consequence of the limited opportunities available for their production on the part of officers performing other duties of a more pressing nature, and of an entirely different character.
.....
At Woolwich we have a photographic van, which was constructed and originally used by the Royal Carriage Department. It is four-wheeled, and, being somewhat large in dimensions, is drawn by two horses, which latter are supplied when required from the Military Train service. Some few years ago this van accompanied the troops from Woolwich to Dartford, and enabled Mr. Butter to produce a series of photographs illustrative of camp life.
.....
Besides these transportable operating-rooms, we have successfully used the square tent designed by Mr. Smartt. On several occasions the Artillery officers have had "field days" both in the grounds of the Royal Military Repository and on Woolwich Common, and with tents pitched have, under photographic canvas, allowed me to assume the command. Many useful sketches have thus been secured, and outdoor experience gained, which has since been, further extended by my pupils, some of whom at distant stations have given proof of the value which attaches to photography as a ready means of recording the geographical and military features of a country, or of reporting details of construction, whether relating to stockades, forts, or suggested improvements in military equipment.[11]
 
  
Journalists at war 
  
13.04   War >  Journalists at war 
  
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News correspondents increasingly accompanied armies and as photographers were kindred spirits in recording events we see occassional interplays between these two groups with Roger Fenton photographing William H. Russell correspondent for the Times of London during the Crimean War[12], Timothy O'Sullivan photographing the tent and wagon of the New York Herald during the American Civil War[13] and H. Ferdinand Gros the News of the Camp tent at the siege of Pretoria during the First Boer War (1880-1881).[14] 
  
Problematic issues 
  
13.05   War >  Photographs of war dead 
  
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Although there was contemporary criticism and distaste about moving bodies or leaving them where they lay so a photograph could be taken such as with Felice Beato during the Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860)[15] the dead were shown both in photographs and in book illustration made from the photographs.[16]  
  
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During the Boer War (1899-1902) that was a conflict in Southern Africa between the British Empire and the Dutch Boers who were seeking independence at the battle of Spion Kop[17] in the Natal a Boer photographer took photographs of the British dead as a propaganda tool. These photographs were double edged as they showed that the British army could be defeated and at the same time they raised morale amongst the Boers. Images of the dead had been shown during the American Civil War (1861-1865) but they were not consciously used for propaganda rather as a record of what had occurred.[18]  
  
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National newspapers in uncensored countries walk a tight path during times of war and have to question whether it is right to include photographs of their fallen. At the height of the First World War (1914-1918) the front page of the French newspaper Le Miroir published a photograph of the bodies of a German and a Frenchman propped up against each other. It was a devastating indictment on the futility of war.
 
Sensitivities about the heroic dead raise emotions in a time of war and it was not until 1943 that the USA published photographs of dead American soldiers. On 20 September 1943 LIFE magazine included a stark 1942 photograph of three dead marines on Buna Beach[19] in Papua New Guinea taken by George Strock during the Second World War (1939-1946), the power of the image meant that the magazine felt compelled to explain why it had been included in an adjacent full-page editorial. Opinions were divided on whether it was appropriate but the influential Washington Post said that the pictures "can help us to understand something of what has been sacrificed for the victories we have won."  
  
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The symbolism of the dead to create a political backlash is well appreciated by governments and during the Iraq War (2003-2011) attempts were made by the US government to prevent the publication of any arrivals of flag draped coffins or military funerals. When a cargo worker, Tami Silicio, took photographs of the flag draped coffins at Dover Airforce Base she said she did it to show the respect that was paid to the dead - the government did everything it could to prevent any other images being distributed and she and her husband lost their jobs.[20]  
  
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13.06   War >  American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead 
  
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During the American Civil War (1861-1865) the cameras were not able to photograph movement with any fidelity and therefore more static subjects were selected. The dead were a natural if macabre choice but there has been considerable discussion about the placement of the dead so that they provided the best visual composition. Analysis by William Frassanito in his pioneering book on photo-forensics Gettysburg: A Journey in Time[21] indicated that some bodies had been moved and the captions provided within Gardner's Sketchbook of the War[22] were not always accurate. 
  
13.07   War >  Willoughby Wallace Hooper: The scandal of delaying a firing squad 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
Colonel Hooper photographed the execution of the dacoits in Mandalay during the British Army campaigns in Burma and created a scandal making the event "unseemly". Grattan Geary gave an account in his book Burma, after the conquest: viewed in its political, social, and commercial aspects, from Mandalay thsat was published in 1886:
The second instance which may be adduced is that in which the too curious use of the photographic camera added an unseemly element to military executions in Mandalay. Being desirous of getting photographs of the prisoners' attitudes and expressions at the moment the bullets struck them, the Provost-Marshal set up a photographic camera in a convenient position when the dread words of command, "Ready! Present" were given. The discharge was then delayed for a few minutes while the camera was brought to bear on the doomed men; the focus attained, the signal was given, the bullets struck the waiting men; the negatives were secured. This procedure probably did not add perceptibly to the suffering of the men expecting momentarily the fatal bullets; but there is something unpleasant and almost sinister at the coolness and deliberation with which the action of the tragedy was suspended in order that a scientific record might be taken of the effect, physical and moral, of the shock of bullets, on the persons of defenceless and despairing men. Lord Dufferin at Calcutta and the Ministers in England shared the indignation of Mr. Bernard, when they came to know what had been done. The then Secretary of State, Lord Randolph Churchill, at once telegraphed instructions that grave and immediate action should be taken with regard to the officer concerned. His successor ordered that the Provost Marshal should be tried by Court-martial. But no one supposes that statesmen and administrators, accustomed to recognise and respect the rights of humanity, would fail to reprobate acts of the kind. The fatal thing is that such acts under certain circumstances become inevitable under a natural law, which ordains that the practice of cruelty makes even merciful men cruel, dulling the moral sense until it is impossible to draw the line with any precision between what is legitimate and what is not.
 
It is fair to say that Colonel Hooper has the reputation of being a very good officer, and that the desire to photograph the Burmese when struck by bullets is attributed, not to any inhumanity, but to what may almost be regarded as a passion for securing an indelible record of human expression at the supreme moment. It is related of him that on one occasion when a sepoy went shooting at large at his officers and comrades, he ran out with a photographic apparatus and brought it to bear upon the sepoy, who was in the act of taking aim at him. The homicidal soldier was struck at the instant by a bullet from another sepoy, and Colonel Hooper obtained his negative. At the battle of Minelah the gallant officer carried his camera under fire, so that it might be available for the record of any exceptional incident.
 
The photographing of the men shot at Mandalay under the circumstances mentioned was undoubtedly reprehensible. It created a bad impression, from which Colonel Hooper must be prepared to suffer in public opinion. But it is open to doubt whether there is not something very pharasaical in the spirit which revolts at the operation of photographing a batch of men at the moment of their execution, when their execution in batches is accepted as an ordinary incident in the subjugation of a conquered people. If all the men who were shot were dacoits, or had committed any moral offence other than that of hazarding their life in a lost cause, the shooting would be righteous as well as necessary, but, speaking generally, the executions in such cases are exemplary, and not punitive. It is the custom to close the eyes and the ears to the real nature of the "salutary severities" which are sparingly alluded to in the narratives of military operations in a vanquished country. It would be a great gain to the cause of humanity if there were more Colonel Hoopers, who would focus and fix and make widely known, every horror which it is the custom to slur over in referring to incidents of the kind. If people at large realised with anything like exactitude, the real nature of the price which subjugated populations pay for the blessings of civilisation, sounder views on such subjects would perhaps become more prevalent. As has been said above, if the severities produced always and everywhere the tranquillising effects which are generally expected from them, it might be a duty to acquiesce, as it is the duty of a surgeon to inflict pain as the price of an ultimate good.[23]
 
  
13.08   War >  Censorship of war photography 
  
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The attitude to censorship has varied over time and space. During the Second World War the American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt lifted censorship because he wanted the public to appreciate the hardship and the losses made on their behalf[24] but this should not fool us into thinking that the war wasn't censored.[25]
 
In the Vietnam War the open access to the battlefields meant that haunting images were shown and this may have been a contributing factor to sapping the will of the public to continue the war. All was not open in Vietnam and the bombing of Cambodia was not widely reported to the American public. The images of the Vietnam War weighed heavily upon political and military strategists and resulted in making the battlefields off limits to non-combat personnel in the British-Argentinean Falklands War and the First Gulf War - leaving history largely bereft of images that were not taken for official purposes. This changed again in the Iraq War (2003-2011) with pretty liberal rules for embedded journalists who were with the frontline troops and could witness war as it actually is. The case of Bradley Manning[26], of which video footage was only a part, showed clearly that the distinction between secrets, censorship and the right of the public to open access and honesty is blurry to say the least. 
  
13.09   War >  Faking war photographs 
  
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As soon as it became possible to manipulate photographs with multiple exposures, composite and combination prints, photomontages and painting on photographs truth became problematic. With war photography, which is a genre of photojournalism and documentary photography, it is held that because of the importance of the subject veracity is essential but this is far from the case. Propaganda is the most obvious example of the twisting of truth but there are many others and some photographers have been complicit in enhancing their photographs either through modifications to the image or the associated caption.
  • Movement of bodies
     
    During the American Civil War (1861-1865) there is a particularly well known case of a faked battlefield photograph. Alexander Gardner's Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter taken in July 1863 at Gettysburg has been subject to an analysis that revealed the body was moved from another location and the weapon shown would not have been appropriate for a sharpshooter.[27] [28]  
      
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  • Media created to promote a war
     
    The Spanish-American War (1898) was a media created war that was initiated by Randolph Hearst as part of a newspaper circulation battle. During this appalling misuse of the power of the media engravings showing the sinking of the American battleship U.S.S. Maine[29] by the Spaniards were issued as fact and films of the battles were made in America rather than on the actual battlefields.  
      
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  • Did the event take place as photographed and captioned?
     
    Robert Capa's photograph The Falling Soldier, Cerro Muriano, Cordoba front, Spain, September 5, 1936 has been the subject of considerable research and controversy as to whether it actually records the moment of death of a soldier during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and exactly where it was taken.[30]  
      
    Robert Capa and alternative versions 
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  • Vanishing people
     
    The real highlight of the faked photograph came in Soviet Russia when personalities who were out of favour with Stalin simply disappeared from the historical record by being erased from photographs in an Orwellian manner.[31]  
      
    Historical revisionism in Soviet Russia under Josef Stalin 
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  • The addition of clouds for effect
     
    These examples by George N. Barnard[32] during the American Civil War (1861-1865) show both the original negative (presumably from a plate) and the retouched version where the clouds are both dramatic and visible. If you look at the skyline on the retouched version of the Potter House image and examine the trees on the right hand side you can clearly see where the two images have been joined.  
      
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  • The addition of smoke for effect
     
    On these examples by Alphonse J. Liébert of the Hôtel de Ville in Paris during the Paris Commune (1871) and by Yevgeny Khaldei of the the Soviet flag being placed on the ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin on 2 May 1945 towards the end of the Second World War (1939-1945) show smoke which has been added for dramatic effect.  
      
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  • Recreations and reenactments of wars
     
    Without context war photographs can have limited truth and these photographs supposing showing the Boer War (1899-1902) are not what they appear to be.  
      
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  • Using models to simulate action
     
    The aerial dogfight photographs sold by the mysterious Mrs. Gladys Maud Cockburn-Lange were purportedly taken during First World War (1914-1918) but were acually created using models.  
      
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  • Using multiple negatives
     
    Francis J. Mortimer used multiple negatives to create patriotic motives during the First World War (1914-1918) the most notable of which is The Gate of Goodbye (1917).  
      
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    13.10   War >  Humanity in terrible times 
      
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    Each side during a conflict seeks to justify their actions by demonstrating that their side has moral superiority and therefore a 'god-given' right to win. It does this by promoting images that degrade the enemy or demonstrate seemingly super-human heroic actions by individuals that show by examine why right is on our side rather than theirs.
     
    In reviewing images of the First World War amongst all the pictures of devastation one will find images of a soldier carrying another wounded or gassed soldier back to a medical unit.  
      
    W. Eugene Smith: Marines Rescue a Baby on Saipan (1 July 1944) 
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    The photograph of the soldier carrying a baby in the Pacific War during Second World War by W. Eugene Smith shows a fleeting attempt to do something humane in a time that rarely allows it. The fact that the circumstances are only partially known and the child died does little to take away from the power of an image that transcends the time and place to reveal a sanctity to the action.
     
    In all wars there will be acts of humanity that demonstrate that people have the ability to rise above their baser instincts to be truly noble. 
      
    13.11   War >  The landscapes of war 
      
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    The landscape has been seen as a romantic Arcadian idyll - a place for painters and photographers to reflect on beauty as in Forest of Fontainebleau.[33] With war the hills, tracks and forests are disjointed and fractured by shells, roads are littered with cannon balls[34] and soldiers and refugees transverse what once had purity. The landscape itself loses its timeless nature and becomes a visible reflection of a specific conflict where shell holes, bomb craters and trenches are the souvenirs.
     
    Even where there are no apparent visible reminders within the landscape there is an interplay between history and landscape and some photographers such as Eva Leitolf in her series German Images - Looking for Evidence 2006-2008 have explored this. David Farrell photographed the localities where bodies were disposed of during The Troubles in Northern Ireland.[35] 
      
    13.12   War >  The civilian impact of War 
      
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    When we examine the photographs that reveal the civilian costs of war these can be organized into a series of distinct piles. This may seem a brutal way to deal with images of material and social destruction but follow my argument for a moment. The basic piles can be divided up into:
    • Remote impact
       
      Here during the American Civil War (1861-1865) we can see the burnt out warehouses and ruined cities. The cities are largely without people and show the remaining chimney stacks and unsupported blackened walls of disintegrating buildings. The casual observer would find little to distinguish the cities of the Confederacy from the photographs of 1870 Strasbourg taken during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). Indeed moving forward during the First World War large numbers of picture postcards of towns such as Ypres and Arras were sold showing similar cities. The only real difference is in the explosive power of the weapons used to create the devastation. By the Second World War with the blanket bombing of civilian centers such as Dresden, Tokyo the "Baedeker raids" on the UK and innumerable others - the aerial photographs of the ruins somehow remove us from what actually happened. We see bricks, tiles and splintered wood rather than the bodies beneath them.
       
    • Near distance impact
       
      We better comprehend what actually happens during war when confronted by images of those that have directly suffered its consequences. They are not the fighters but the civilians whose lives are dragged into turmoil by the battles that surround them. When Adrian J. Ebell photographed the refugees from the Indian attacks on the Northern Plains that led to the First Indian War he understood their meaning. Illustrations based on the photographs were published in 1863 in Harper's New Monthly Magazine and forced political action. Single images such as the young naked girl running from exploding napalm in the Vietnam War bring home real events in the way words rarely can.[36] We are surrounded by images of the bus bomb victims in Israel and the reactive collateral damage on civilians of the targeted assassinations of Palestinians by the IDF.
       
    • Full impact
       
      Alongside the fates of individuals there are the fates of entire peoples and ethnic groups who have been persecuted and massacred because of race hatred, jealousy and bigotry. The genocide of Armenian Massacres (1915-23)[37] left little photographic evidence whereas the Holocaust of the Second World War left so much that one would have to be unbalanced or prejudiced to question its veracity.[38] Through our lives genocides continue - the 1994 Rwandan genocide with its hatreds that continue with massacres in Burundi, Congo and Rwanda, the Killing Fields of Cambodia[39], the 1982 Lebanese Christian Phalangist militia massacres in the Beirut refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila (Chatila), the massacres during the Yugoslav wars carried out by Serbian forces at Vukovar in 1991 and Srebrenica in 1995.[40]
       
      Whole massacres have been blamed on others for political expediency. The execution of the 4,443 Polish officers whose bodies were disinterred from the Katyn Forest by the Germans in 1943 and Radio Berlin broadcast "a most horrific discovery" on 13 April 1943 claiming the Russian forces had done it - it was over 45 years later on 7 March 1989 that the Polish Government finally revealed that the Soviet NKVD under Stalin's orders had killed them whereas previously it was claimed that the German Army was responsible.[41]
    One shelled city through history looks almost the same as another - the similarities of collapsed walls, smashed statues, jumbled bricks and blocked roads have removed all signs of progress. What is left are the fractured remnants of civilization.
     
    Photojournalists bring the civilian causalities of war and the displaced people into our secure homes and pose uncomfortable questions about our humanity. The truly great photographs leave scars upon our memories that never heal. 
      
    13.13   War >  Issues of interpretation of building structures 
      
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    Military analysts and intelligence officers go through vast numbers of images to seek evidence of enemy activity. It is assumed that because there were aerial photographs of some of the Death Camps taken during the Second World War (1939-1945) that their purpose was obvious but is that really the case? If we examine these three photographs one by J.E. Larkin showing the Rebel Prison at Elmira, 1865 during the American Civil War (1861-1865), another of Tule Lake Relocation Center for Japanese interned during the Second World War and the last the Death Camp at Auschwitz they look essentially the same. There is possible evidence of smoke coming from mass cremation pits in aerial photographs for May onwards of 1944 but whether the implications of the smoke could have been accurately appreciated by the analysts at the time is open to dispute.[42] Analysis of photographic evidence after the event revealed how difficult it would have been to prove the evidence of mass murder at Auschwitz-Birkenau from the aerial photographs alone:
     
      
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    Numerous sources speak of the well-kept lands and landscaping around the crematoria; some described the buildings as "lodge-like," "industrial looking," or having a "bakery-like" appearance. These descriptions are borne out by the imagery of 25 August 1944 in which a park-like rectangle is visible. In the imagery of 13 September 1944 landscaping is visible around all four extermination facilities. Although survivors recalled that smoke and flame emanated continually from the crematoria chimneys and was visible for miles, the photography we examined gave no positive proof of this.[43]
    Our interpretation of these images is largely based on what was learnt after the image was taken and history has added levels of knowledge and meaning. Photographic evidence on its own can be insufficient. 
      
    13.14   War >  Wars and the lack of photographic evidence 
      
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    The Native Americans at the Battle of the Little Big Horn did not take photographers with them and so history records the event from the photographs of the battlefield taken later or from historical accounts. Those that have the best technologies and communication methods preserve history and the myths that go along with it.
     
    There are vast gaps in the photographic evidence of certain wars because of the lack of cameras, technical limitations of contemporary cameras, access to locations, the destruction of evidence and censorship.[44] We have hardly any photographic evidence of the Armenian Massacres (1915-23) because there were few photographers to record it.[45] The same is true of Falklands War[46] and the vast armored battle of VII Corps (under Lt. Gen. Frederick M. Franks, Jr.) in late February 1991 during the First Gulf War because of restricted access to the war zone.[47] Other wars and genocides such as the Killing Fields of Cambodia and the Rwandan Massacre took place in oppressive regimes where images needed to be taken covertly or after the event as it is too dangerous at the time. In Chechnya, which had two conflicts, 1994-6 and 1999-2000, photojournalists are seen as fair game by all sides and the bravery of those that try to get the images out is extraordinary. When Michael von Graffenried took covert photographs during the Algerian Civil War of the 1990's he risked his life with every shot he took.[48] 
      
    13.15   War >  Amateur photography and war 
      
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    By the 1890s hand-held cameras were widely available and amateur photography was booming as Kodak was marketing the concept of photography for everybody. No chemicals were involved for the person taking the photograph and this liberation made it a popular hobby. Within war photography this effect was almost immediate with soldiers of all ranks being able to carry cameras with them although it was frowned upon if not banned within most armies.
     
    During the Boer War (1899-1902) Captain J.H. Cuthbert edited a volume illustrated by over 1000 photographs taken by the 1st Battalion of the Scots Guards as they traveled through the Orange Free State, eastern Transvaal and Zululand. As he stated:
    This illustrated record of the work of the 1st Battalion Scots Guards during the South African War is the outcome of an agreement amongst some of the officers made in July, 1900. So many of the officers carried cameras that it was decided that on the return of the battalion a collection of the photographs taken should be made, and a selection from them should be brought out in book form.
    This was an enormous change as previously only hobbyists with money had been able to practice photography but declining costs and easier to use cameras made photography viable for all ranks. By the First World War (1914-1918) the boredom of interminable trench warfare meant that soldiers of all sides carried cameras with them.[49] Real photo postcards were also a craze during this period so soldiers sent their portraits back to loved ones at home.[50]
     
    Through the 1920s compact cameras with high quality lenses from Ernox, Lunar, Leica and Contax became available with small film negatives that allowed for decent quality enlargements. The portability of such cameras made them increasingly useful for war photojournalists but also for amateur photography within armed forces and civilian populations.
     
    This has been an ongoing trend with ever smaller cameras with higher quality lenses and the move to digital has increased the speed of progress. Now anybody with a camera phone in a conflict zone has a tool for propaganda and documentation along with the means of dissemination via email and social media. amateur photography is now outside the control of the military, censorship and the usual channals for print and broadcast journalism. In the past photography could be controlled by limiting supplies of photographic chemicals and papers, closing down photo stores and photo printers but digital requires no chemicals for distribution making it easy to monitor through government cyber surveillance agencies but next to impossible to manage. 
      
    13.16   War >  Boer War (1899-1902): Fabrications 
      
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    This series examines questions of veracity in war photography and includes three distinct types of fabricated realities that were used to portray the events of the Boer War (1899-1902) in South Africa. The three types are:
    • Recreations of contemporary news events: The stereocards marketed by the Universal View Co. (Philadelphia Pa, Lawrence Kan) and E.W. Kelley (Chicago : Dallas, Tex : Augusta, Ga) come from different stereoview series but all appear to have been taken on the same day with the same cast of extras even though they purport to be real events. Some of the cards have titles that relate to real events Boer Artillery, Battle of Spion Kop. South Africa but the landscapes, trees, uniforms have no relationship to the contemporary photographs of the real battle. Some of the cards bear the mark of William H. Rau Publishers (Philadelphia, U.S.A.) and his life dates (1855-1920) mean that he could have taken them but this is not certain.
       
    • Recreations for industrial exhibitions: The industrial exhibitions included a wide range of entertainment including staged events. Some of the stereoviews shown here come from the "Louisiana Purchase Exposition" held in St. Louis (USA) in 1904. The photographs by H.C. White (The Perfec Stereograph) show recreations of scenes from the Boer War that have far more activity in them than the actual war photographs.
       
    • Patriotic scenes: Other images created scenes that showed the heroic troops in a romantic vein. These resemble theatrical stock shots and were to entertain rather than deceive.
    During the Boer War film footage was taken by a variety of companies but there were also frauds including the Norden Films who shot scenes from the war in the countryside outside Blackburn in Great Britain. With profits to be made it is not surprising that fabricated events show up in both photographs and films. 
      
       War Boer Fabrications 
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    13.17   War >  National and ethnic perspectives of war 
      
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    The historical and linguistic associations between countries lead to different media coverage and access. The Falklands War[51] was of great interest in Britain and Argentina but of far less interest elsewhere, the Algerian War of Independence in the 1950s was a liberation struggle against French colonialism and the legacy of that meant that the brutal internal struggles in Algerian Civil War (1991-2002) were of more interest in France because it was a former colony and there are strong ties because of the large Algerian population in France.[52] The newspapers and magazines with the strongest ties of interest will send more of their own photographers and will use more images from the photo agencies that have the best access.
     
    Ongoing repression and independence struggles continue in many parts of the world but are a background hum in news stories - rarely do the images from these wars get published or appear in the news outside of their local region. 
      
    13.18   War >  Veterans 
      
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    Veterans of war are remembered in monuments of stone and brass and public holidays are set aside to cherish memories but how has photography addressed the many issues? There are multiple elements of this from the initial return home remembered in photos,[53] signage, bands and family reunions through to the physical and psychological issues each with their own photographic histories.  
      
    Todd Webb: Decorations welcoming home the military after the Second World War (1945-1946) 
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    With some wars we have photographs of the injuries such as those of New York surgeon Reed Brockway Bontecou for the American Civil War (1861-1865.[54]  
      
    R.B. Bontecou: Surgical injuries and their treatment during the American Civil War 
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    The pioneering plastic surgery of Mr. Archibald McIndoe carried out on Second World War airmen with burn injuries was recorded both in contemporary medical documentation and in the photographs taken by Nicola Kurtz at the 65th reunion in East Grinstead in September 2006. The surgery techniques were new at the time and the patients called themselves the "Guinea Pig Club". Simon Chaplin, Director of the Hunterian Museum at the Royal College of Surgeons, said: "These portraits remind us of the profound effect surgery can have on peoples' lives. It is impossible not to be moved by the courage and determination shown by the 'Guinea Pigs', and their success will provide inspiration to future generations of patients."[55]  
      
    The Guinea Pig Club: Bill Foxley 
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    The Guinea Pig Anthem
    (Sung to the tune Aurelia by Samuel Sebastian Wesley, 1864)
     
    We are McIndoe’s army,
    We are his Guinea Pigs.
    With dermatomes and pedicles,
    Glass eyes, false teeth and wigs.
    And when we get our discharge
    We’ll shout with all our might:
    “Per ardua ad astra”
    We’d rather drink than fight
     
    John Hunter runs the gas works,
    Ross Tilley wields the knife.
    And if they are not careful
    They’ll have your flaming life.
    So, Guinea Pigs, stand steady
    For all your surgeon’s calls:
    And if their hands aren’t steady
    They’ll whip off both your ears
     
    We’ve had some mad Australians,
    Some French, some Czechs, some Poles.
    We’ve even had some Yankees,
    God bless their precious souls.
    While as for the Canadians -
    Ah! That’s a different thing.
    They couldn’t stand our accent
    And built a separate Wing
     
    We are McIndoe’s army,
    (As first verse) 
      
       Portrait Guinea Pig Club 
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    13.19   War >  Fractured history 
      
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    Official war photographers and photojournalists have designated roles and can only be in one place at one time. A single photographers record of any war reflects their own itinerary and those itineraries are rarely listed. We see moments within the visual range of the photographer but what happened out of the range of the photographer's eye is missed. The selection of subject will be different for an official war photographer whose intention is documentation than for a photojournalist whose intention is the photo-essay or single front page photograph.
     
    History is fractured by intersections of images of events. The Nazi suicides in Leipzig, Germany (1945) were photographed on or around 20th April 1945 by at least four different photographers - Lee Miller, Margaret Bourke-White, Robert Capa and J. Malan Heslop[56]. But this is highly unusual most war photographs have no accompanying images from other perspectives. Some war are odd in that millions of photographs were taken and yet the photographers who took them are largely unknown. The First World War (1914-1918) is a good example of this where most people would be hard-pushed to name a photographer.[57]
     
    Since the advent of snapshot cameras in the 1890s it has been possible for soldiers to take cameras to war - it may have been illegal or frowned upon but it was done. An early example would be the book edited by Captain J.H. Cuthbert on the 1st Battalion Scots Guards during the Boer war as they traveled through the Orange Free State, eastern Transvaal and Zululand.[58]
    This illustrated record of the work of the 1st Battalion Scots Guards during the South African War is the outcome of an agreement amongst some of the officers made in July, 1900. So many of the officers carried cameras that it was decided that on the return of the battalion a collection of the photographs taken should be made, and a selection from them should be brought out in book form.
    Unofficial histories could now be constructed along with private photographs made into albums or stored in envelopes and boxes. The need for collecting and preserving the scattered visual evidence for history became a motivation for the somewhat elusive Archive of Modern Conflict. Collecting vast numbers of personal collections together it is a visual storehouse of incomplete and fractured histories. The images of Henryk Ross,[59] Heinrich Jöst,[60] Joe Heydecker[61] and Willy George[62] provide us with insights into ghettos during the Holocaust. The evidence may be fractured but it allows for different ways of editing the material to create books such as 82[63] on the Second World War (1939-1945), with photographs selected by David Thomson, use photographs to construct intellectual labyrinths:
    82 is like no other narrative you will have seen before and is so layered that no amount of analysis will end in firm conclusion.[64]
     
      
    Rephotographic studies 
      
    13.20   War >  Rephotographic studies of conflicts and wars 
      
    Given the intense interest in historical issues related to conflict and wars it is not surprising that significant locations have been repeatedly revisited and rephotographed to provide evidence that would improve understanding of what occurred. Information boards at the sights include historical and contemporary images to improve understanding and changes in the landscape.
     
    Dr. David Jones returned in the summers of 2011 and 2012 to the significant locations of the Crimean War (1854-1856).[65] He rephotographed the locations photographed by Roger Fenton[66] and also the sights from the 1904 album by Colonel Vladislav Klembovsky.
     
    William Frassinato used his military intelligence forensic skills to examine the photographic evidence of the battlefields of Gettysburg and Antietam from the American Civil War (1861-1865).[67]
     
    Historical re-enactment as both an entertainment and an educational event has become increasingly popular. Not only in the creation of military events but in having photographers on-site using time-appropriate techniques to capture the occasion.[68] 
      
    The impact of changing technologies 
      
    13.21   War >  The changing technologies of war photography 
      
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    Until the development of better lenses and improved chemicals the plates used were incapable of showing clearly the immediacy of war and so the cannon ball strewn fields of the Crimean War, the barricaded streets of the Paris Commune, the stiff portraits of military commanders having a meeting in the American Civil War (1861-1865) show facets of multi-faceted events. As technology improves so more facets are shown only to be obscured at times by restricted access or censorship. Sometimes an additional facet is falsely revealed by a faked photograph.
     
    By the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War large numbers of active participants and civilians had cameras and filled albums with personal histories - there were also increasing numbers of official photographers assigned to military units on all sides alongside the accredited photojournalists. Cameras were now highly portable and this allowed photographers to blend in with the troops. The lack of control of images is becoming a major concern to armies because of the potential for uncensored information leakage - frankly this is of far more concern to democratic countries with relatively free media because of the political fallout.
     
    When army photographer Ronald Haeberle took the photographs of the massacre at My Lai[69] in Vietnam did he fully appreciate the effect it would have later on the war as a whole? When Tami Silicio[70], a Maytag Aircraft cargo worker, during the Iraq War (2003-2011) took photos of flag draped coffins aboard a cargo plane she did it to show the respect that the fallen were given - the fact that she lost her job and all further photographs were restricted was to prevent political damage in direct contrast to Franklin Delano Roosevelt who held during the Second World War that the country needed to see the human cost of what it was fighting for. The new generations of camera phones will become a nightmare as they are increasingly integrated into the internet allowing anybody to upload photographs immediately. A photograph taken to humiliate a prisoner in the Iraqi jail at Abu Ghraib[71] during the Iraq War (2003-2011) has become an iconic image of religious potency. 
      
    13.22   War >  Fashion: Accessories: Gas masks 
      
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    Every technological development has a photographic history and gas masks[72] are no exception. Over time to understand these developments we need to establish temporal timelines of images that show both the innovations and how these changes have affected the photography of warfare. 
      
    13.23   War >  Night vision imagery 
      
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    Technologies to improve night vision capabilities have existed since the end of the Second World War where they were used by the German, American and British forces for enhancing the vision of snipers. The early systems used a near-infrared (NIR) light source that reflected the target back to the scope where an image tube enhanced the image. By the 1950's the US Army had established the 'Army Night Vision Laboratory', at Fort Belvoir (Virginia), which was instrumental in developing new technologies under the leadership of Robert Wiseman. Through the Vietnam War (1961-1975) and the First Gulf War (1991) there were tremendous leaps in the effectiveness in equipment as new technological approaches were tested and improved.[73] Current night vision equipment can amplify the image brightness up to 100,000 times but to improve the resolution and contrast this is normally reduced to two or three thousand times.[74] 
      
    13.24   War >  Iraq War (2003-2011): Abu Ghraib 
      
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    During the Iraq War (2003-2011) photographs came to light that showed war prisoners being tortured by American forces.[75] The photograph of a hooded prisoner standing on a box with his arms outstretched has become an iconic image of torture - the symbolism of a prisoner in a cructification-style pose was not lost on the Islamic and the Christian world. 
      
    13.25   War >  William Laven: War Models 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
      
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    William Laven took a novel approach to the Iraq War (2003-2011) with his series War Models. This was not the world of embedded photojournalism accompanying marines as they thought through the deserts of Iraq on a quest for non-existant chemical weapons. It was a seemingly detached of viewing the aircraft used as toys. As William Laven said in 2006:
    War Models is a series of photographs of unassembled model airplane kits of aircraft flown in the Iraq War.
     
    Forty aircraft types have been flown in Operation Iraqi Freedom. This includes 30 types of airplanes -- fighters, troop transporters, aerial tankers, and reconnaissance planes -- eight types of helicopters and two kinds of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), one armed with missiles, the other with cameras.
     
    Of the forty aircraft flown, model kits are made of twenty-one. The prints are scaled in proportion to the actual aircraft; each image is 1/50 the size of the actual aircraft. The AV-8 Harrier, for example, is small enough that two could squeeze into the typical San Francisco house lot, while two B-52 Stratofortress bombers would overcrowd a football field. The AV-8 weighs 14,000 pounds; the B-52 carries five times that weight in bombs alone. These images of children’s toys touch on the American fascination with symbols of power and acknowledge the complex relationship to the destructive power of the actual aircraft. [76]
    The parts of models of airplanes are shown thus removing us one step from the planes themselves. Here we are in the domain of boys and the men who retain the hobbies of childhood and a fascination with minute details. The accuracy of the models is an important part of this and satisfaction resides in the skill to craft as accurate a model as possible. But the model is not just a model it is a representation of an oject and the function of the object is reconnaisance, air support, bombing and the destruction of people, buildings and targets. The destructive force of these planes is impressive and a part of "shock and awe". Photographs take us one step further away from the destruction the planes create and encourage us to question the nature of power in a time of conflict. 
      
    13.26   War >  Satellite Sentinel and the Enough Project 
      
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    The Enough Project[77], launched in 2007, uses intensive field research and analysis to influence decision makers to prevent genocide and crimes against humanity. A related project is the Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP)[78] which uses DigitalGlobe satellite data to track atrocities in the Sudan and South Sudan region. The idea came from George Clooney and Enough Project Co-founder that although they couldn't prevent atrocities they could reduce the number as Clooney said:
    "Two million people were killed in the north-south war in Sudan before 2005. I wasn’t going to stand on the sidelines and not participate. We [Clooney has traveled with organizations including the International Rescue Committee and the Enough Project] went there four times, got the Newsweek cover [Feb. 28, 2011]. I set up this satellite system on the border of Abyei, and we’ve had incredible success in photographing mass atrocities. The idea is, we’re just going to keep the pressure on. Turning the lights on doesn’t mean anything stops. But it makes it harder, and that’s our job."[79]
    The idea that one can use a camera from over 400 miles away to collect evidence that can be used as proof of war crimes is novel and offers considerable opportunities for civilian activists. 
      
    13.27   War >  Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011) 
      
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    Basetrack One-Eight was an independent, civilian media project, funded by a 2010 News Challenge Grant from the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. It embedded journalists, including Balasz Gardi, with the 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, in the southern deserts of Afghanistan during 2010 and 2011. The project used iPhones and other devices to record photographs, audio and video that was posted on Facebook, Flickr and other social media websites.[80]
     
    The project was closed down by the Marines when some of the postings made on the social media sites were inappropriate and potentially harmful. 
      
    Thoughts 
      
    13.28   War >  The aesthetics of conflict 
      
    Aesthetics is a part of philosophy that addresses issues related to art and beauty and their appreciation.[81] This is a complex area as aesthetics is concerned with human sensitivity to the both the natural and human-made world. Art objects are appreciated in distinct ways by different cultural groups and within otherwise homogenous cultural groups. The question of whether "taste" and "sensitivity to art" is inherent to individual humans or culturally determined is difficult to prove empirically. The acceptance of abstraction both in painting, sculpture and photography from around 1910 is a case in point - there certainly were abstract works before then but rising awareness, and appreciation of, a novel art form developed from that period. Our reason affects whether we are disgusted, intrigued and react to photograph and so how do we address war photography?
     
    war photography is not a single genre and involves everything from the heroic fervour of nationalistic pride through to the shame of defeat. It is about small moments of human endurance and the dismemberment of bodies. Every aspect of good and evil can be seen within a single war as they are a reflection of the personalities of those that participant and the propaganda that drives them. Art has been a tangible reminder of wars from ancient times and as a grand example Trajan's Column in Rome is a 30 metre tall marble column to commemorate Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.[82]  
      
    Rome: Trajan's Column 
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    A painting of the Forum Traianum by Ippolito Caffi is a documentation of a physical place and in it Trajan's Column is shown. We are now further step removed from the actuality of the war represented. The Dacian Wars were so long ago that we don't know the causalities on either side and all we have is a representation in marble. On the 32 ton marble drums of which the column is constructed there is a frieze that goes continuously upwards around the column giving a blow by blow account of the wars. It is a narrative of military actions from the standpoint of the victors. Is the work an artistic marvel which can be judged and appreciated as beautiful? Undoubtedly.
     
    War artists existed long before newspapers and magazines and were a part of the propaganda of armies, military leaders and politicians.[83] People like Napoleon Bonaparte were well aware of their public image and canvases capture his victories and defeats - these are artistic fabrications painted after the events based upon sketches, diaries and witnesses meant to display glory and tragedy as parts of nation state historiography. The canvasses of Paul Nash and John Singer Sargent of the First World War (1914-1918) address difficult issues such as shell-blasted landscapes and gassed soldiers but they fit into an aesthetic tradition that would be clearly understood by their viewers.  
      
    War photography and book covers 
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    This brings us to the more contentious issue of the aesthetics of war photography brought about by the limited availability of vintage prints, expanding auction house interest. a developing collector base, the need for institutions to expand their collections in an age of rising values. Major exhibitions such as the 2012 "War/Photography" curated by Anne Wilkes Tucker for (The Museum of Fine Arts Houston[84] offer detailed and wide-ranging coverage of wars from their start to their aftermath. Time increases our psychological distance to events as Susan Sontag has pointed out.[85] Books like Robert Capa's Slightly out of Focus (1947)[86], David Douglas Duncan's This Is War! (1951)[87], Don McCullin's The Destruction Business (1971)[88] and many others are books of photojournalism were published at a time when the collector market for photography was limited and the outlets for war photography even more so. Accurate images of war such as the photograph by Susan Meiselas of the "Molotov Man" have complex histories and making them artworks and the "official" symbol of the Sandinista overthrow of the Somoza dictatorship reduces complexity to a propaganda message.[89] The intentions of the photographers were to take photographs that encapsulated moments of complex wars and with the "Molotov Man" we can see the contact sheet of which it is a single frame. Few of these photographers would have viewed them as art objects or praised their aesthetic beauty at the time the photographs were taken.[90]  
      
    Susan Meiselas "Nicaragua" (Aperture/ICP, 2008) 
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    As the fine art market has expanded aesthetics and war photography become more complex as galleries now represent photographers and sell the photographs to collectors and institutions. Previously Sergeant Ronald Haeberle's photographs of Bodies of women and children are shown on a road leading from the village of My Lai massacre, South Vietnam (1968)[91] would be of historic interest but now it has financial value to a different market.[92]  
      
    Sergeant Ronald Haeberle: Bodies of women and children are shown on a road leading from the village of My Lai massacre, South Vietnam (2008) 
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    Once photographs have value as art it effects what is photographed, how it is edited, who markets it and how it is shown. The Raphaël Dallaporta series "Antipersonnel" (2004) shows different types of antipersonnel weapons against a black blackground that is reminiscent of commercial photography and it takes away the horror of the devastation these items create.  
      
    Raphaël Dallaporta: Antipersonnel 
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    The photographs are a statement about horror but they are also photographs shown in galleries to hang on walls as art with a message. As a press release said:
    In Dallaporta's Antipersonnel series, colorful and diversely shaped mines are seductively captured against a black background, removed from any context. The initial impression of these objects, which almost seem glamorous, belies their deadly function and is quickly dispelled as one reads the framed captions. Like entries in a manual, the practical features of each object are listed: dimension, weight, country of manufacture, method of detonation and description of the resulting explosion.[93]
    The intention of Dallaporta's typology of the mechanism of disability and death is to provoke a questioning of art and the disconnection between what we see and the reality it portrays.
     
    When Richard Mosse photographed and filmed "The Enclave" in eastern Congo he was documenting a complex war of rebel groups but he choose to shot it using infrared which give a surreal beauty to the setting.[94] The images twist reality and force one to reflect on the aesthetics of horror and how it is marketed. 
      
    13.29   War >  War conclusions 
      
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    War is largely seen through the eyes and archives of the victors but increasingly with Internet access and global communications images from both sides are now appearing almost instantly on the monitors of picture editors. Digital cameras linked with, or an integral component of, mobile phones are changing the nature of photojournalism and the selection of which images to print (or display) and which to censor out is becoming increasingly political.[95]
     
    When contemporary war photographers such as Stanley Greene[96], Gilles Peress[97], Tom Stoddart [98] and James Nachtwey[99] take shots they are driven by a need and desire to "bear witness" to events. These images are passed on the mayor photo agencies but often not published by the media as they are deemed too horrific for the public to see, mesh with perceived public interest within ever shorter news cycles. The times when photographers can remain with a single war for protracted periods are rare and that means that the photographs appear scattered through publications or in a single photographer documentary monograph with a limited audience. Blogs are opening up this world but they have longevity issues and can be lost within an avalanche of digital material.
     
    We are fortunate that there are photojournalists who have been motivated by strong personal convictions that what they are seeing is not right to record little known wars to ensure that there is evidence of what has occurred. We do not like the images they take but by preserving reality they are trying to right wrongs. We may never understand the motivations of why some photographs were taken, for example those of the German Officer Heinrich Jöst in the Warsaw ghetto[100], but the images remain as a testimony to lives lost. 
      
    Postscript 
      
    13.30   War >  A postscript to war - Don McCullin 
      
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    Don McCullin 
      
     
      

    Footnotes 
      
    1. Λ Stephen Crane, 1895, The Red Badge of Courage, (D. Appleton & Company) 
        
    2. Λ Charles frazier, 1997, Cold Mountain, (Atlantic Monthly Press) 
        
    3. Λ Shelby Foote wrote three novels that are collectively known as The Civil War: A Narrative - Shelby Foote, 1958, Fort Sumter to Perryville; Shelby Foote, 1963, Fredericksburg to Meridian; Shelby Boote, 1974, Red River to Appomattox
        
    4. Λ Michael Herr, 1977, Dispatches, (Knopf) 
        
    5. Λ Mark Bowden, 1999, Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press) 
        
    6. Λ Ernestine Carter (ed.), 1941, Grim Glory: Pictures of Britain under Fire, (London: Lund Humphries). Includes photographs by Lee Miller and others. The book with a preface by Edward R. Murrow showed the effects of the Blitz during the Second World War on Britain and its people. 
        
    7. Λ Anne Wilkes Tucker; Will Michels & Natalie Zelt, 2012, War/Photography: Images of Armed Conflict and Its Aftermath, (The Museum of Fine Arts Houston) 
        
    8. Λ capa_01 
        
    9. Λ For a thoughtful analysis of the Vietnam War - Griffiths, Philip Jones, 1971, Vietnam Inc., (New York: Collier Books). It is just as biting as the Pentagon Papers
        
    10. Λ Rachel Hewitt, 2011, Map of a Nation: A Biography of the Ordnance Survey, (Granta Books) 
        
    11. Λ John Spiller, F.C.S., Assistant Chemist to the War Department, Dec. 15, 1863, "Photography in Application to Military Purposes", The Photographic Journal, vol. 8, pp. 410-413. 
        
    12. Λ Roger Fenton, "William H. Russell, Esqr., the Times special correspondent", 1855, Salt paper print, 20 x 17 cm, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-9183 - PH - Fenton (R.), no. 67 (A size) [P&P] 
        
    13. Λ Timothy H. O'Sullivan, "Group at tent and wagon of the New York Herald, Bealton, VA", 1863, August, Albumen print, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Ref: 03915u 
        
    14. Λ H. Ferdinand Gros, "The publishing office and editor's quarters for News of the Camp, during siege of Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa", [First Boer War], 1880-1881, Albumen print, Cambridge University Library, Royal Commonwealth Society, © Cambridge University Library, RCS Y3055A/32 
        
    15. Λ One of the most famous cases of leaving bodies so they could be photographed was Felice Beato at the Taku Fort during the Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) - D.F. Rennie, 1863, British Arms in North China and Japan, (Shanghai), p. 112
      "I walked round the ramparts on the West side. They were thickly strewn with dead - in the North-West angle thirteen were lying in one group around a gun. Signor Beato was there in great excitement, characterising the group as ‘beautiful‘ and begging that it might not be interfered with until perpetuated by his photographic apparatus, which was done a few minutes afterwards.."
       
        
    16. Λ For example one of the photographs of the Taku forts by Felice Beato was used as the source for a book illustration.
       
      Photograph:
      Felice Beato, "Interior view of the North Fort of Taku on the Peiho River, near Tientsin (Tianjin), China, following its capture by the English and French armies on August 21st 1860. The battlements and cannons are surrounded by Chinese corpses.", 1860, Albumen print, Wellcome Images, Wellcome Library , (V0037624)
       
      Book illustration:
      Robert Swinhoe, 1861, Narrative of the North China Campaign of 1860; Containing Personal Experiences of Chinese Characters, and of the Moral and Social Condition of the Country; Together with a Description of the Interior of Pekin, (London, Smith, Elder and Co., 1861), From a Photograph by Signor Beato, Published by Smith, Elder & Co., 85 Cornhill, London, 1861, Lithograph by Day & Son. 
        
    17. Λ Oliver Ransford, 1969, The Battle of Spion Kop, (John Murray) 
        
    18. Λ William Frassanito in his pioneering book on photo-forensics Gettysburg: A Journey in Time (1975) indicated that some bodies had been moved and the captions provided within Gardner's Sketchbook of the War were not always accurate. 
        
    19. Λ Battle of Buna–Gona - Wikipedia
      (Accessed: 4 August 2013)
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Buna–Gona
      Three American G.I.s lay dead on Buna Beach. This image, taken by George Strock in February 1943 for LIFE magazine, was not published until 20 September 1943. President Roosevelt authorised release of this image, the first to depict American soldiers dead on the battlefield. He was concerned that the American public were growing complacent about the cost of the war on human life.
       
        
    20. Λ Tami Silicio's Official Website - provides the background and documents
      (Accessed: 4 August 2013)
      www.tamisilicio.net 
        
    21. Λ William Fassinato had been a military intelligence analyst and brought these skills to the analysis of the photographic evidence - William A. Frassanito, 1975, Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, William A., 1978, Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, 1995, Early Photography at Gettysburg, (Thomas Publications) 
        
    22. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
        
    23. Λ Grattan Geary, 1886, Burma, after the conquest: viewed in its political, social, and commercial aspects, from Mandalay, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington), pp. 241-243 
        
    24. Λ Battle of Buna–Gona - Wikipedia
      (Accessed: 4 August 2013)
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Buna–Gona
      Three American G.I.s lay dead on Buna Beach. This image, taken by George Strock in February 1943 for LIFE magazine, was not published until 20 September 1943. President Roosevelt authorised release of this image, the first to depict American soldiers dead on the battlefield. He was concerned that the American public were growing complacent about the cost of the war on human life.
       
        
    25. Λ George H. Roeder, 1995, The Censored War: American Visual Experience During World War Two, (Yale University Press) 
        
    26. Λ Bradley Manning released footage showing a 2007 US military airstrike by an Apache helicopter in Baghdad that the US military did not want released that implicated US military in the deaths of Iraqi civilians and two reporters for Reuters. He was found guilt of multiple Espionage Act violations for his supplying information to Wikileaks.
      www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/30/bradley-manning-wikileaks-judge-verdict 
        
    27. Λ Alexander Gardner, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge); Alexander Gardner & E.F. Bleiler, 1959, Gardner‘s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War, (New York, Dover Publications); Brooks Johnson, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) 
        
    28. Λ William Fassinato had been a military intelligence analyst and brought these skills to the analysis of the photographic evidence - William A. Frassanito, 1975, Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, William A., 1978, Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, 1995, Early Photography at Gettysburg, (Thomas Publications) 
        
    29. Λ Samuel Willard Crompton, 2009, The Sinking of the USS Maine: Declaring War Against Spain, (Chelsea House Publishers) 
        
    30. Λ Richard Whelan, 1994, Robert Capa: A Biography, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press); In the more recent biography - Alex Kershaw, 2002, Blood and Champagne: The Life and Times of Robert Capa, (Macmillan), he devotes a chapter to this photograph. Richard Whelan 2002, Spring, ‘Proving that Robert Capa's "Falling Soldier" is Genuine: A Detective Story‘, Aperture, no. 166 
        
    31. Λ David King, 1997, The Commissar Vanishes: The Falsification of Photographs and Art in Stalin's Russia, (Metropolitan / Holt) 
        
    32. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
        
    33. Λ A classic example of the purity of natures was the Forest of Fontainebleau which was photographed by numerous photographers in the nineteenth century including - Charles Bodmer (1809-1893), Eugène Cuvelier (1837-1900), Charles Famin, Constant Alexandre Famin (1827-1888), Giraudon's Artist, John Beasly Greene (1832-1856), William Drooke Harrison, Alphonse Jeanrenaud and Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884). 
        
    34. Λ The Roger Fenton photographs of the "Valley of the Shadow of Death" are a useful example of this. See:
       
      Errol Morris, 2007, 25 September, ‘Which Came First, the Chicken or the Egg? (Part one)‘, New York Times
       
      Errol Morris, 2007, 4 October, ‘Which Came First, the Chicken or the Egg? (Part two)‘, New York Times
       
      Errol Morris, 2011, Believing is Seeing: (Observations on the History of Photography), (The Penguin Press) 
        
    35. Λ David Farrell, 2002, Innocent Landscapes: Sites of the Disappeared in Ireland, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) 
        
    36. Λ Nick Ut's photograph of naked young girl, Kim Phuk, and other children running down a road after she had been napalmed is so iconic that little explanation is necessary. 
        
    37. Λ Armenian genocide - Wikipedia
      (Accessed: 17 August 2013)
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Genocide 
        
    38. Λ In addition to the usual sources on the Holocaust there are some surprising photographic survivals of evidence:
       
      Henryk Ross, 2009,Henryk Ross: Lodz Ghetto Album, (Chris Boot)
      Book description (Accessed: 19 July 2013):
      Henryk Ross (1910-91) was a Jewish press photographer in Poland before World War II. Incarcerated by the invading Germans in the Lodz ghetto, he became one of its two official photographers. His duties afforded him access to photographic facilities which he used to secretly photograph the atrocities of Lodz, while also recording scenes of domestic life among the ghetto "elite." As the Germans began the liquidation of Lodz in 1944, Ross buried his 3,000 negatives. Surviving the Holocaust, he recovered them and, from his postwar home in Israel, circulated images showing the horrors of Lodz. But until now, the bulk of his photographs have remained unseen, including many of the ghetto police. For an audience accustomed to dramatic photographs of Holocaust suffering, the quiet, domestic scenes he recorded are poignant and sometimes shocking, challenging us to rethink what we understand about ghetto society.
      In late 1941 Heinrich Jost, a hotel owner and sergeant in the Wehrmacht, went into the Warsaw Ghetto and photographed it - he did not show the photographs until 1982 the year before he died - Gunther Schwarberg (ed.), 2001, In the Ghetto of Warsaw: Photographs by Heinrich Jost (Steidl)
       
      Joe Julius Heydecker, 1991, The Warsaw Ghetto: A Photographic Record 1941-1944, (St. Martins Press)
       
      Willy George, 1993, In the Warsaw Ghetto Summer 1941: Photographs by Willy Georg with Passages from the Warsaw Ghetto Diaries, (Aperture) 
        
    39. Λ Each war leaves different photographic histories and the "Killing Fields" of Cambodia are remembered largely through the prison records of those killed and genocide forensics. 
        
    40. Λ For Tom Stoddart - Tom Stoddart, 1997, Edge of Madness: Sarajevo, a City and Its People Under Siege, (Hayward Gallery Publishing); Tom Stoddart, 1998, Sarajevo, (Smithsonian); Tom Stoddart, Bob Geldorf, & Jean-Francois Leroy, 2004, iWitness, (Trolley); Tom Stoddart, 2008, Retrospective, (Cdpeditions). On 17 August 1992 his work was on the front page of Newsweek at the height of the Balkan War with the title "Ethnic Cleansing - Bosnia's Cry for Help" (vol. CXX, no. 7) 
        
    41. Λ Anna M. Cienciala, Natalia S. Lebedeva, & Wojciech Materski (eds.), 2007, Katyn: A Crime Without Punishment, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press)
       
      The original German report on the investigations - Amtliches Material zum Massenmord von Katyn, (Berlin: Gedruckt im Deutschen Verlag). It is this report that includes the photographic evidence - pages 99 to 103, 107 to 113, and 274 to 331.
       
      The literature on the Katyn Forest Massacre is extensive.
      (Accessed: 23 October 2013)
      www.katyn.org.au/books.html">www.katyn.org.au/books.html 
        
    42. Λ Brian Harmon, "See No Evil: John Ball's Blundering Air Photo Analysis"
      Includes examples of aerial photographs of Auschwitz along with their interpretation.
      (Accessed: 28 January 2014)
      www.holocaust-history.org/see-no-evil/ 
        
    43. Λ Dino A. Brugioni and Robert G. Poirier, 1979, "The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Complex", (Central Intelligence Agency) 
        
    44. Λ P.M. Taylor, 1997, Global communications, international affairs and the media since 1945, (New York: Routledge), [Chapter 3, Illusions of reality: The media and the reporting of warfare, pp. 99-144] 
        
    45. Λ Armenian genocide - Wikipedia
      (Accessed: 17 August 2013)
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armenian_Genocide 
        
    46. Λ Julan Barnes, 25 February 2002, "The worst reported war since the Crimean: One of Britain's leading novelists recalls how the conflict unfolded back home", The Guardian
      (Accessed: 17 August 2013)
      www.theguardian.com/media/2002/feb/25/broadcasting.falklands
       
      Don McCullin, one of the greatest of British war photojournalists, was not allowed to cover the Falklands War. 
        
    47. Λ General Wesley K. Clark, U.S. Army, Retired, now a military analyst, believes that as a result of the "Vietnam mentality" the military made an error by restricting press coverage during the Gulf War. "We had a 1st Armored Division tank battle that was just incredible, perhaps the biggest armored battle ever, but not a single image was reported or documented for history by the press." (Walter Isaacson. "News from the Frontline", Wall Street Journal, 9 January 2003, Opinion sec.) 
        
    48. Λ Books by Michael von Graffenried documented the Algerian Civil war - Michael von Graffenried, 1998, Inside Algeria, (Aperture); Michael von Graffenried, 2003, Journal d'Algérie: 1991-2001, (Autrement) 
        
    49. Λ Sebastian Remus, 2008, German Amateur Photographers in the First World War: A View from the Trenches on the Western Front, (Schiffer Pub Ltd) 
        
    50. Λ Bodleian Library, 2008, Postcards from the Trenches: Images from the First World War, (Bodleian Library, University of Oxford) 
        
    51. Λ Martin Middlebrook, 1985, Operation Corporate: The Story of the Falklands War, 1982 , (The Viking Press) 
        
    52. Λ Books by Michael von Graffenried documented the Algerian Civil war - Michael von Graffenried, 1998, Inside Algeria, (Aperture); Michael von Graffenried, 2003, Journal d'Algérie: 1991-2001, (Autrement) 
        
    53. Λ One of the best known of these photographs is - "Released prisoner of war, Lt. Col. Robert L. Stirm, is greeted by his family at Travis Air Force Base in Fairfield, Calif., as he returns home from the Vietnam War, March 17, 1973" taken by Sal Veder (AP Photo). 
        
    54. Λ Stanley Burns, 2011, Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography By R.B. Bontecou, (Burns Press) For a review - Andrea Volpe, 2012, "Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography by R. B. Bontecou, and: Doctored: The Medicine of Photography in Nineteenth-Century America" (review), The Journal of the Civil War Era, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 456-459
       
      B.O. Rogers, 2000, March, ‘Reed B. Bontecou, M.D. - his role in Civil War surgery and medical photography.‘, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 114-29
       
      Dr. Stanley Burns donated a number of albumen prints by R.B. Bontecou to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 
        
    55. Λ Photographs and text kindly provided by Nicola Kurtz (www.nicolakurtz.com) with archival records of the plastic surgery from, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Holtye Road, East Grinstead, West Sussex, RH19 3DZ, UK.
       
      "Lest We Forget" are more than words and these image and the accompanyting exhibition on Luminous-lInt is a testimony to the airmen and the surgical and nursing staff who treated them. 
        
    56. Λ J. Malan Heslop was a U.S Army Signal Corps photographer. 
        
    57. Λ The excellent book of First World War photographs - Mark Holborn & Hilary Roberts, 2013, The Great War: A Photographic Narrative, (Knopf / Imperial War Museums) - names the photographs who took the images but they are forgotten names in photohistory. 
        
    58. Λ J.H. Cuthbert, (ed.), nd., The 1st Battalion Scots Guards in South Africa, 1899-1902, (London: Harrison & Co.) 
        
    59. Λ Henryk Ross, 2009, Henryk Ross: Lodz Ghetto Album, (Chris Boot) 
        
    60. Λ In late 1941 Heinrich Jost, a hotel owner and sergeant in the Wehrmacht, went into the Warsaw Ghetto and photographed it - he did not show the photographs until 1982 the year before he died - Gunther Schwarberg (ed.), 2001, In the Ghetto of Warsaw: Photographs by Heinrich Jost (Steidl) 
        
    61. Λ Joe Julius Heydecker, 1991, The Warsaw Ghetto: A Photographic Record 1941-1944, (St. Martins Press) 
        
    62. Λ Willy George, 1993, In the Warsaw Ghetto Summer 1941: Photographs by Willy Georg with Passages from the Warsaw Ghetto Diaries, (Aperture) 
        
    63. Λ David Thomson, 2013, 82, (AMC - Archive of Modern Conflict) 
        
    64. Λ David Thomson: 82 - AmcBooks
      (Accessed: 3 January 2014)
      www.amcbooks.com/82 
        
    65. Λ Roger Fenton is the best known of Crimean War photographers and there is a considerable amount written about him - Gordon Baldwin et al., 2004, All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852–1860, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); Helmut & Alison Gernsheim, 1954, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the Crimean War, (London: Secker & Warburg); John Hannavy, 1975, Fenton of Crimble Hall, (Boston: David R. Godine); Valerie Lloyd, 1988, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the 1850s, (London: South Bank Board); Richard Pare, 1987, Roger Fenton, (New York: Aperture).
       
      For a rephotographic study - David R. Jones, 2012, In the Footsteps of Roger Fenton, Crimean War Photographer, (www.lulu.com: self-published) 
        
    66. Λ William Fassinato had been a military intelligence analyst and brought these skills to the analysis of the photographic evidence - William A. Frassanito, 1975, Gettysburg: A Journey in Time, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, William A., 1978, Antietam: The Photographic Legacy of America's Bloodiest Day, (Scribner); William A. Frassanito, 1995, Early Photography at Gettysburg, (Thomas Publications) 
        
    67. Λ David R. Jones, 2012, In the Footsteps of Roger Fenton, Crimean War Photographer, (www.lulu.com: self-published) 
        
    68. Λ Increasingly accurate re-enactments and the use of chemical processes appropriate to the period has led to contemporary photographs being sold as originals. It is recommended that daguerreotypes and tintypes are dated on the back of the plate and paper-based prints marked to indicate it is a re-enactment to prevent future fraud. 
        
    69. Λ PBS, American Experience: Photographic Evidence of the Massacre at My Lai
      (Accessed: 30 March 2014)
      www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/mylai-massacre-evidence/ 
        
    70. Λ Tami Silicio's Official Website - provides the background and documents
      (Accessed: 4 August 2013)
      www.tamisilicio.net 
        
    71. Λ The literature on the tortures at Abu Ghraib is vast and it is well-researched with accounts of what led up to the specific events and the aftermath - Mark Danner, 2004, Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Terror (New York Review Books); Stephen F. Eisenman, 2007, The Abu Ghraib Effect, (University of Chicago Press)
       
      The documentary Standard Operating Procedure directed by Errol Morris (Participant Productions, 2008) covers what happened at Abu Ghraib. 
        
    72. Λ Gas Mask - Wikipedia
      (Accessed: 6 August 2013)
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_mask 
        
    73. Λ US Army - Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate - History
      (Accessed: 6 August 2013)
      www.nvl.army.mil/history.html 
        
    74. Λ US Army - Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate
      (Accessed: 6 August 2013)
      www.nvl.army.mil/ 
        
    75. Λ The literature on the tortures at Abu Ghraib is vast and it is well-researched with accounts of what led up to the specific events and the aftermath - Mark Danner, 2004, Torture and Truth: America, Abu Ghraib, and the War on Terror (New York Review Books); Stephen F. Eisenman, 2007, The Abu Ghraib Effect, (University of Chicago Press)
       
      The documentary Standard Operating Procedure directed by Errol Morris (Participant Productions, 2008) covers what happened at Abu Ghraib. 
        
    76. Λ Introduction to the online exhibition "William Laven: War Models" on Luminous-lInt. Text provided by William Laven, November 2006. 
        
    77. Λ "The Enough Project fights to end genocide and crimes against humanity..." the project uses tools and analysis to provide reports in influence politcal leaders. The project was conceived in 2006 by Gayle Smith and John Prendergast and launched in 2007.
      (Accessed: 4 August 2013)
      www.enoughproject.org/about 
        
    78. Λ Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP)
      (Accessed: 4 August 2013)
      www.satsentinel.org/ 
        
    79. Λ David Gergen, 25 September 2011, "What Drives George Clooney", Parade 
        
    80. Λ Amy Pereira, 2011, Basetrack One-Eight - 1st Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, Afghanistan deployment 2010-2011, (Blurb), about the project:
      Basetrack is an experimental media project, tracking the deployment of 1/8– 1st Battalion, Eighth Marines, during their deployment to southern Afghanistan. A small team of mobile media operators embedded with the battalion, transmitting their reports and reflections from Helmand province as they traveled across the battalion’s area of operations.
       
      Basetrack’s forward team is supported by a network of technologists,analysts, artists, and journalists, working around the clock, from around the world, to connect over a thousand Marines and Corpsmen to their families, and to connect a broader public to the longest war in US history.
       
      Basetrack is a non-profit initiative, operated by November Eleven, a US-based, 501(c)3 public charity. Basetrack takes an open-source approach to journalism, making its original content freely available for non-commercial use under Creative Commons licensing protocols, and employing open, ubiquitous social media platforms to distribute its reporting, and to engage public participation in the reporting process.
      issuu.com/basetrack/docs/basetrack 
        
    81. Λ Aesthetics - Wikipedia
      (Accessed: 22 May 2014)
      (a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics">en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aesthetics 
        
    82. Λ There were two Dacian Wars (101-102 AD and 105-106AD). 
        
    83. Λ There is a large and ever-expanding literature on war and art for example - Pat Hodgson, 1977, The War Illustrators, (London: Osprey); Laura Brandon, 2008, Art and War, (New York: I.B. Tauris) 
        
    84. Λ Anne Wilkes Tucker, Will Michels & Natalie Zelt, 2012, War/Photography: Images of Armed Conflict and Its Aftermath, (The Museum of Fine Arts Houston) 
        
    85. Λ Susan Sontag, 1977, On Photography, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux) 
        
    86. Λ Robert Capa, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt) 
        
    87. Λ David Douglas Duncan, 1951, This Is War! A Photo-Narrative in Three Parts, (New York: Harper & Brothers) 
        
    88. Λ Don McCullin, 1971, The Destruction Business, (Macmillan) 
        
    89. Λ Susan Meiselas - Molotov Man (July 1979)
      (Accessed: 22 May 2014)
      www.susanmeiselas.com/latin-america/nicaragua/#id=molotov-man 
        
    90. Λ I'd welcome evidence to contemporary aesthetic discussions of war photography for any of these photographers - alan@luminous-lint.com 
        
    91. Λ My Lai Massacre - Wikipedia
      (Accessed: 27 May 2014)
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/My_Lai_Massacre 
        
    92. Λ A wire service copy of this photograph was sold at Swann Galleries, New York, auction May 20, 2010, Sale 2215, Lot 397 
        
    93. Λ Press release - Courtesy of L. Parker Stephenson Photographs, New York (14 February 2012) 
        
    94. Λ Richard Mosse - The Enclave (2014)
      www.richardmosse.com/works/the-enclave/ 
        
    95. Λ Anthony Dworkin, Roy Gutman & David Rieff (eds.), 2007, Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know, (W. W. Norton & Company) 
        
    96. Λ For Stanley Greene - Greene, Stanley, 2004, Open Wound: Chechnya 1994-2003, (Trolley Books); Jean-Francois Leroy, 2008, Stanley Greene, (Actes Sud); Stanley Greene & Tuen van der Heijden, 2009, Black Passport, (Aperture); Stanley Greene, 2010, Chalk Lines: The Caucasus, (Editions Intervalles) 
        
    97. Λ For Gilles Peress - Gilles Peress, 1994, Farewell to Bosnia, (Distributed Art Publishers); Gilles Peress, 1995, The Silence, (Distributed Art Pub Inc - DAP); Eric Stover & Gilles Peress, 1998, The Graves: Srebrenica and Vukovar, (Scalo) 
        
    98. Λ For Tom Stoddart - Tom Stoddart, 1997, Edge of Madness: Sarajevo, a City and Its People Under Siege, (Hayward Gallery Publishing); Tom Stoddart, 1998, Sarajevo, (Smithsonian); Tom Stoddart, Bob Geldorf, & Jean-Francois Leroy, 2004, iWitness, (Trolley); Tom Stoddart, 2008, Retrospective, (Cdpeditions). On 17 August 1992 his work was on the front page of Newsweek at the height of the Balkan War with the title "Ethinc Cleansing - Bosnia's Cry for Help" (vol. CXX, no. 7) 
        
    99. Λ For James Nachtwey - James Nachtwey, 1989, Deeds of War, (New York: Random House); James Nachtwey, 1999, Inferno, (London: Phaidon) 
        
    100. Λ In late 1941 Heinrich Jost, a hotel owner and sergeant in the Wehrmacht, went into the Warsaw Ghetto and photographed it - he did not show the photographs until 1982 the year before he died - Gunther Schwarberg (ed.), 2001, In the Ghetto of Warsaw: Photographs by Heinrich Jost (Steidl) 
        

    alan@luminous-lint.com

     
      

    HomeContents > Further research

     
      
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    General reading 
      
    Bangert, Christoph, 2014, War Porn, (Heidelberg: Kehrer Verlag) [Δ
      
    Batchen, Geoffrey; Gidley, Mick; Miller, Nancy K. & Prosser, Jay (eds.), 2012, Picturing Atrocity: Photography in Crisis, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 186189872X isbn-13: 978-1861898722 [Δ
      
    Burns, Stanley, 1980, Civil War Medical Photography, (Burns Press) [Δ
      
    Dworkin, Anthony; Gutman, Roy & Rieff, David (eds.), 2007, Crimes of War 2.0: What the Public Should Know, (W. W. Norton & Company) isbn-10: 0393328465 [Δ
      
    Eisenman, Stephen F., 2010, The Abu Ghraib Effect, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 1861896468 isbn-13: 978-1861896469 [Δ
      
    Ernst, Friedrich, 1924, Krieg dem Kriege! Guerre a la guerre! War against war! Oorlog aan den oorlog!, (Berlin: Freie Jugend) [Δ
      
    Faas, Horst, 1997, Requiem By the Photographers who Died in Vietnam and Indochina, (New York: Random House) [Δ
      
    Feinstein, Anthony, 2006, Journalists Under Fire: The Psychological Hazards of Covering War, (The Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 0801884411 isbn-13: 978-0801884412 [Δ
      
    Finnegan, Terrence J., 2011, Shooting the Front: Allied Aerial Reconnaisance in the First World War, (The History Press) isbn-10: 0752460528 isbn-13: 978-0752460529 [Δ
      
    Fowler, Will, 2000, Their War: German Combat Photographs From the Archives Of Signal Magazine, (Da Capo Press) isbn-10: 1580970400 isbn-13: 978-1580970402 [Δ
      
    Fralin, Frances, 1985, The Indelible Image: Photographs of War - 1846 to the Present, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810911108 isbn-13: 978-0810911109 [Δ
      
    Goldberg, Vicki, 1993, The Power of Photography: How Photographs Changed Our Lives, (London and New York: Abbeville Press) [Δ
      
    Halberstam, David; Pyle, Richard & Faas, Horst, 2003, Lost over Laos: A True Story of Tragedy, Mystery, and Friendship, (Da Capo Press) isbn-10: 0306812517 [Δ
      
    Hannavy, John, 1974, The Camera Goes to War: Photographs from the Crimean War, 1854-1856, (Edinburgh: Scottish Arts Council) [Δ
      
    Hillard, Elias B., 1964, The Last Men of the Revolution: A photograph of each from life, together with views of their homes printed in colors accompanied by brief biographical sketches of the men, (Hartford, Conn.: N.A. & R.A. Moore) [Δ
      
    Holborn, Mark & Roberts, Hilary, 2013, The Great War: A Photographic Narrative, (Knopf / Imperial War Museums) isbn-10: 0385350708 isbn-13: 978-0385350709 [Δ
      
    Kamber, Michael, 2013, Photojournalists on War: The Untold Stories from Iraq, (University of Texas Press) isbn-10: 0292744080 isbn-13: 978-0292744080 [Introduction by Dexter Filkins] [Δ
      
    Kamber, Michael, 2013, Photojournalists on War: The Untold Stories from Iraq, (University of Texas Press) isbn-13: 978-0292744080 [Foreword by Dexter Filkins] [Δ
      
    Leroy, Catherine & McCain, John (foreword), 2005, Under Fire: Great Photographers and Writers in Vietnam, (Random House) isbn-10: 1400063582 isbn-13: 978-1400063581 [Δ
      
    Lewinski, Jorge, 1978, The Camera at War, A History of War Photography, (New York: Simon & Schuster) [Δ
      
    Light, Michael, 2003, 100 Suns, (Knopf) isbn-10: 1400041139 isbn-13: 978-1400041138 [Δ
      
    Livingston, Jane, 1985, The Indelible Image, Photographs of War, (New York: Harry Abrams) [Δ
      
    Moeller, Susan D., 1989, Shooting War, (New York: Basic Books) [Δ
      
    Moorehead, Caroline, 2009, Humanity in War: Frontline Photography since 1860, (New Internationalist) isbn-10: 1906523150 isbn-13: 978-1906523152 [Introduction by James Nachtwey] [Δ
      
    Naythons, Matthew, 1993, Face of Mercy: A Photographic History of Medicine at War, (Burns Press) isbn-10: 0976449552 [Δ
      
    Norback, Craig & Melvin, Gray (eds.), 1980, The World's Great News Photos 1840-1940, (New York: Crown) [Δ
      
    Piston, William Garrett & Sweeney, Thomas P., 2009, Portraits of Conflict: A Photographic History of Missouri in the Civil War, (University of Arkansas Press) isbn-10: 1557289131 isbn-13: 978-1557289131 [Δ
      
    Rogers, B.O., 1995, May-June, ‘The first Civil War photographs of soldiers with facial wounds‘, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 269-83 [Δ
      
    Sandweiss, Martha; Stewart, Rick & Huseman, Ben, 1989, Eyewitness to War: Prints and Daguerreotypes of the Mexican War, 1846-1848, (Fort Worth & Washington: Amon Carter & Smithsonian) [Δ
      
    Shaw, Irwin (ed.), 1981, Paris, Magnum Photographs 1835-1981, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
      
    Stichelbaut, Birger et al., 2009, Images of Conflict: Military Aerial Photography and Archaeology, (Cambridge Scholars Publishing) isbn-10: 1443801712 isbn-13: 978-1443801713 [Δ
      
    Strachan, Hew (ed.), 2003, The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War, (Oxford Paperbacks) isbn-10: 0192893254 isbn-13: 978-0192893253 [Δ
      
    Sullivan, Constance, 1978, Great Photographic Essays from Life, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
      
    Szarkowski, John, 1973, From The Picture Press, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
      
    Taylor, A.J.P., 1963, The First World War: An Illustrated History, (Hamish Hamilton) [Δ
      
    Thomson, David, 2013, 82, (AMC Books / Archive of Modern Conflict) isbn-13: 978-0957049048 [Two volumes] [Δ
      
    Tucker, Anne Wilkes; Michels, Will & Zelt, Natalie, 2012, War/Photography: Images of Armed Conflict and Its Aftermath, (The Museum of Fine Arts Houston) isbn-10: 0300177380 isbn-13: 978-0300177381 [Δ
      
     
      
    Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
      
    Eddie Adams 
      
    Adams, Eddie, 2008, Eddie Adams: Vietnam, (Umbrage Editions) isbn-10: 1884167969 isbn-13: 978-1884167966 [Δ
      
    George N. Barnard 
      
    Barnard, George N., 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck) [Δ
      
    Barnard, George N., 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall] [Δ
      
    Davis, Keith F (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) [Δ
      
    Barnard & Gibson 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
    Felice Beato 
      
    Bowen, Claire, 2007, ‘Memorising the Mutiny: Felice Beato's Lucknow Photographs‘, Cahiers victoriens & édouardiens, no. 66, pp. 195-209 [Δ
      
    Chappell, Walter, 1958, Feb., ‘Robertson, Beato & Co. Camera vision at Lucknow‘, Image, no. 7, pp. 36-40 [Δ
      
    Clark, John; Fraser, John & Osman, Colin, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) [Δ
      
    Fraser, John, 1981, ‘Beato's photograph of the interior of the Sikansar-Bagh at Lucknow‘, Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, vol. 59, pp. 51-55 [Δ
      
    Harris, John, 2000, ‘Topography and Memory: Felice Beato's Photographs of India, 1858-1859‘, in Vidya Dehejia (ed.), 2001, India through the Lens - Photography 1840-1911, (New York: Smithsonian Institution, Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M Sackler Gallery), pp. 118-147 [Δ
      
    Masselos, Jim & Gupta, Narayani, 1997, Beato's Delhi, 1858, 1887, (Delhi) [Δ
      
    White, Stephen, 1982, ‘Felix Beato and the First Korean War, 1871‘, The Photographic Collector, vol. 3, no. 1 [Δ
      
    R.B. Bontecou 
      
    Bontecou, Reed B., 1888, What class of gunshot wounds and injuries justify resection or excision in modern warfare? : with a description of an antiseptic provisional wound dressing for the field, devised for the military service, (Troy, N.Y. : [s.n.], (Phila., Pa. : Press of Wm. F. Fell & Co.)) [Δ
      
    Burns, Stanley, 2011, Shooting Soldiers: Civil War Medical Photography By R.B. Bontecou, (Burns Press) isbn-13: 978-1936002054 [Δ
      
    Rogers, B.O., 2000, March, ‘Reed B. Bontecou, M.D. - his role in Civil War surgery and medical photography.‘, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 114-29 [Δ
      
    Margaret Bourke-White 
      
    Bourke-White, Margaret, 1944, They called it "Purple Heart Valley": A Combat Chronicle of the War in Italy, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ
      
    Mathew B. Brady 
      
    Meredith, Roy, 1976, The World of Mathew Brady: Portraits of the Civil War Period, (Brooke House Publishers) isbn-10: 0912588055 isbn-13: 978-0912588056 [Δ
      
    Sullivan, George, 1994, Mathew Brady: His Life and Photographs, (New York, Cobblehill/Dutton) isbn-10: 0525651861 isbn-13: 978-0525651864 [Δ
      
    Larry Burrows 
      
    Halberstam, D., 2002, Larry Burrows Vietnam, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) [Δ
      
    Robert Capa 
      
    Capa, Robert, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt) [Δ
      
    Capa, Robert, 1964, Images of War, (NY: Paragraphic Books) [Δ
      
    Capa, Robert, 1989, Robert Capa, (Paris: Centre National de la Photographie) [Δ
      
    Whelan, R., 2001, Robert Capa: The Definitive Collection, (New York: Phaidon Press) [Δ
      
    Whelan, Richard, 1994, Robert Capa: A Biography, (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press) [Δ
      
    Young, Cynthia (ed.), 2010, The Mexican Suitcase, (Steidl / ICP Publications) isbn-10: 3869301414 isbn-13: 978-3869301419 [2 volumes, slipcase] [Δ
      
    Chim 
      
    Young, Cynthia (ed.), 2010, The Mexican Suitcase, (Steidl / ICP Publications) isbn-10: 3869301414 isbn-13: 978-3869301419 [2 volumes, slipcase] [Δ
      
    David Douglas Duncan 
      
    Duncan, David Douglas, 1951, This Is War! A Photo-Narrative in Three Parts, (New York: Harper & Brothers) [Δ
      
    Alexander Gardner 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
    Johnson, Brooks, 1991, An Enduring Interest: The Photographs of Alexander Gardner, (Norfolk, VA: Chrysler Museum) [Δ
      
    James Gardner 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
    Ashley Gilbertson 
      
    Gilberston, Ashley & Filkins, Dexter (introduction), 2007, Whiskey Tango Foxtrot: A Photographer's Chronicle of the Iraq War, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226293254 isbn-13: 978-0226293257 [Δ
      
    Philip Jones Griffiths 
      
    Griffiths, Philip Jones, 1971, Vietnam Inc., (New York: Collier Books) isbn-13: 978-0020804000 [First edition] [Δ
      
    Griffiths, Philip Jones, 2004, Agent Orange: Collateral Damage in Vietnam, (Trolley Books) isbn-10: 1904563058 isbn-13: 978-1904563051 [Δ
      
    Griffiths, Philip Jones & Sayle, Murray, 1996, Dark Odyssey, (Aperture Foundation) isbn-10: 0893816450 isbn-13: 978-0893816452 [Δ
      
    Bert Hardy 
      
    Hardy, Bert, 1985, Bert Hardy: My Life, (London: Gordon Fraser) [Δ
      
    Tim Hetherington 
      
    Hetherington, Tim, 2009, Long Story Bit by Bit: Liberia Retold, (Umbrage Editions) isbn-10: 188416773X isbn-13: 978-1884167737 [Δ
      
    Hetherington, Tim, 2010, Infidel, (Chris Boot) isbn-10: 1905712189 isbn-13: 978-1905712182 [Δ
      
    Huffman, Alan, 2013, Here I Am: The Story of Tim Hetherington, War Photographer, (Grove Press) isbn-10: 0802120903 isbn-13: 978-0802120908 [Δ
      
    Chris Hondros 
      
    Hondros, Chris, 2014, Testament, (powerHouse Books) isbn-13: 978-1576876732 [Edited by Alexandra Ciric, Francisco P. Bernasconi, and Christina Piaia, Introduction by Jonathan Klein, Foreword by Régis Le Sommier, Afterword by Greg Campbell] [Δ
      
    Willoughby Wallace Hooper 
      
    Geary, Grattan, 1886, Burma, after the conquest: viewed in its political, social, and commercial aspects, from Mandalay, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington) [For an account of Colonel Hooper photographing the execution of the dacoits in Mandalay] [Δ
      
    Hooper, Willoughby Wallace, 1887, Burmah. A series of one hundred photographs, illustrating incidents connected with the British Expeditionary Force to that country, (London, Bangalore and Calcutta: J.A. Lugard, C.G. Brown and Thacker, Spink & Co.) [Δ
      
    Kenneth Jarecke 
      
    Cervenka, Exene & Jarecke, Kenneth, 1992, Just Another War, (Montana, Joliet: Bedrock Press) isbn-10: 0963478400 isbn-13: 978-0963478405 [Δ
      
    David Knox 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
    Josef Koudelka 
      
    Koudelka, J., 1999, Chaos, (New York: Phaidon Press) [Δ
      
    John McCosh 
      
    Russell-Jones, Peter R., 1968, January, ‘John MacCosh’s Photographs of the 2nd Sikh War, 1848-49, and the 2nd Burma War, 1852-53‘, Photographic Journal, vol. 108, pp. 25-27 [Δ
      
    Don McCullin 
      
    McCullin, Don, 1971, The Destruction Business, (Macmillan) isbn-10: 0333130227 isbn-13: 978-0333130223 [Δ
      
    McCullin, Don, 1981, Hearts of Darkness, (Random House Inc) [Δ
      
    McCullin, Don, 1981, Hearts of Darkness: Photographs by Don McCullin, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) [Introduction by John Le Carré] [Δ
      
    McCullin, Don, 1992, Unreasonable Behaviour: An Autobiography, (Knopf) [1st American edition, A new edition was published by Vintage in 2002] [Δ
      
    McCullin, Don, 1996, Sleeping With Ghosts: A Life's Work in Photography, (Aperture) [Introduction by Mark Haworth-Booth] [Δ
      
    McCullin, Don, 2005, Don McCullin in Africa, (London: Jonathan Cape) [Δ
      
    McCullin, Don, 2010, Shaped By War, (Jonathan Cape) isbn-10: 0224090267 isbn-13: 978-0224090261 [Δ
      
    Susan Meiselas 
      
    Meiselas, Susan, 1981, Nicaragua From June 1978–July 1979, (New York: Pantheon) [Δ
      
    Meiselas, Susan, 2008, Nicaragua, (Aperture/ICP) isbn-10: 159711071X isbn-13: 978-1597110716 [New edition - Claire Rosenberg (ed.).] [Δ
      
    Joel Meyerowitz 
      
    Meyerowitz, Joel, 2006, Aftermath, (New York: Phaidon) [Δ
      
    Lee Miller 
      
    Penrose, Antony (ed.), 1992, Lee Miller’s War: Photographer and Correspondent with the Allies in Europe 1944–1945, (Boston: Bulfinch Press) [Δ
      
    Penrose, Antony (ed.), 2005, Lee Miller’s War, (New York: Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 0500285586 isbn-13: 978-0500285589 [Foreword by David E. Scherman] [Δ
      
    James Nachtwey 
      
    Nachtwey, James, 1989, Deeds of War, (New York: Random House) [Δ
      
    Nachtwey, James, 1999, Inferno, (London: Phaidon) [Δ
      
    Timothy H. O'Sullivan 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
    Tim Page 
      
    Page, Tim & Shawcross, William (introduction), 1995, Tim Page's Nam, (Thames and Hudson, Inc.) isbn-10: 0500272808 isbn-13: 978-0500272800 [Δ
      
    William Pywell 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
    John Reekie 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
    Gerda Taro 
      
    Taro, Gerda, 2008, Gerda Taro, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865215327 isbn-13: 978-3865215321 [Δ
      
    Young, Cynthia (ed.), 2010, The Mexican Suitcase, (Steidl / ICP Publications) isbn-10: 3869301414 isbn-13: 978-3869301419 [2 volumes, slipcase] [Δ
      
    Wood & Gibson 
      
    Gardner, Alexander, 2003, Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the American Civil War, (New York: Delano Greenidge) [Δ
      
     
      
    If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
     
      
    Resources 
      
    Civil War Collections 
    http://www.geh.org ... 
      
    Magnum Photos 
    http://www.magnumphotos.com ... 
    Probably the world‘s most famous photo agency for photojournalists. Use this site to access the portfolios, biographies of the many notable Magnum photographers. Where there are books by the photographers the website frequently includes the photographs used. 
      
     
      

    HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

     
    Max Alpert  (1899-1980) • Dmitri Baltermants  (1912-1990) • Micha Bar-Am  (1930-) • Felice Beato  (1832-1909) • Cecil Beaton  (1904-1980) • Werner Bischof  (1916-1954) • R.B. Bontecou  (1824-1907) • Margaret Bourke-White  (1904-1971) • Mathew B. Brady  (1823-1896) • Larry Burrows  (1926-1971) • Robert Capa  (1913-1954) • Agustin Victor Casasola  (1874-1938) • Dean Chapman • Luc Delahaye  (1962-) • Raymond Depardon  (1942-) • David Douglas Duncan  (1916-) • Emmanuel Evzerikhin  (1911-1984) • Horst Faas  (1933-2012) • Enrique Fazio • Roger Fenton  (1819-1869) • L. Fiorillo • Leonard Freed  (1929-2006) • Alexander Gardner  (1821-1882) • Ashley Gilbertson  (1978-) • Burt Glinn  (1925-2008) • Philip Jones Griffiths  (1936-2008) • Bert Hardy  (1913-1995) • Tim Hetherington  (1970-2011) • Chris Hondros  (1970-2011) • Frank Hurley  (1885-1962) • Yevgeny Khaldei  (1917-1997) • Don McCullin  (1935-) • Susan Meiselas  (1948-) • Chester Michalik • Lee Miller  (1907-1977) • Christopher Morris  (1958-) • James Nachtwey  (1948-) • Timothy H. O'Sullivan  (1840-1882) • Tim Page • Alessandro Pavia  (1824-1889) • Gilles Peress  (1946-) • Georgii Petrusov  (1903-1971) • James Robertson  (1813-1888) • George Rodger  (1908-1995) • Walter Rosenblum  (1919-2006) • Paul Senn  (1901-1953) • Paul Shambroom  (1956-) • W. Eugene Smith  (1918-1978) • Humphrey Spender  (1910-2005) • Edward Steichen  (1879-1973) • Lou Stoumen  (1917-1991) • Ellen Susan • David Wilkie Wynfield  (1837-1887) • Georgi Zelma  (1906-1984)
    HomeThemes > War 
     
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    Photographers who died in action 
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    Key dates 
      
    The Holocaust (1933-1945) 
     
      

    HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > War

    Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
    Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

     
      
    ThumbnailAdolphe Braun - The Paris Commune and the Aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (February 20, 2007)
    ThumbnailAmerican Civil War (1861-1865) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (February 28, 2011)
    ThumbnailAmerican Civil War (1861-1865: Robin Stanford Civil War Photography Collection 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (April 3, 2013)
    ThumbnailAutochromes and Autochromists of WWI 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (May 1, 2006)
    ThumbnailBoer War (1899-1902) - Fabrications 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (July 25, 2006) The veracity of war.
    ThumbnailCrimean War (1854-1856) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (August 28, 2006)
    ThumbnailEarliest War Photographs 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Improved (October 28, 2010) The section on the Mexican-American War has been updated to include the Daguerreotypes from the Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas. Many thanks (14 July 2010).
    ThumbnailEdward Grazda: Afghanistan, 1992-2004 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (February 1, 2007)
    ThumbnailEdward Grazda: With the Mujahideen, Afghanistan, 1982-1989 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (January 25, 2007)
    ThumbnailEllen Susan: Soldier Portraits 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (August 6, 2008)
    ThumbnailFirst World War (1914-1918) - Prisoners of War 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (January 28, 2007)
    ThumbnailGardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War (1866) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Improved (September 19, 2006)
    ThumbnailGustave Le Gray: Camp de Châlons (1857) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (November 13, 2011)
    ThumbnailIndian Mutiny (1858) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (November 9, 2010)
    ThumbnailMexican-American War (1846-1848) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (March 25, 2011)
    ThumbnailMichael Rockefeller: In the Highlands of West Papua 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (January 5, 2008)
    ThumbnailParis Commune Album (1871) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (May 1, 2006)
    ThumbnailPortrait: The Guinea Pig Club 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (July 18, 2010) Warning: These images may be considered disturbing as this exhibition remembers the pioneering plastic surgery of Archibald McIndoe. Thanks to Nicola Kurtz who photographed the 65th reunion of The Guinea Pig Club in September 2006.
    ThumbnailSecond Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (November 9, 2010)
    ThumbnailShaped by War: Photographs by Don McCullin 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (February 17, 2010)
    ThumbnailUnification of Italy (1849-1871) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (December 4, 2010)
    ThumbnailWilliam Laven: War Models 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (November 16, 2006)
     
      

    HomeVisual indexes > War

    Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
    Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

     
      
       Photographer 
      
    ThumbnailDon McCullin: War: Books 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailAdolphe Braun: The Paris Commune and the Aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailAdolphe Braun: Théâtre de la Guerre, 1870-1871 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailChris Steele-Perkins: Northern Ireland: The Troubles (1960s-1998) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailDmitri Baltermants: Second World War (1935-1945) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailE. & H.T. Anthony & Co.: War Views 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailEddie Adams: Street execution of a Viet Cong prisoner, Saigon 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    Thumbnail Estaban Garcia: War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailFelice Beato: Khartoum Relief Expedition (1884-1885) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailFernand Cuville: Autochromes of the First World War 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailFrank Hurley: Paget plates of the First World War 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailG. Papot: Sicile, Palerme, Barricade de la Portal di Castro 
    ThumbnailGeorge Hubert Wilkins: Paget plates for the Australian Historical Mission on the First World War (1919) 
    ThumbnailJames Robertson: Interior of the Malakoff Fortress 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJames Robertson: Interior of the Redan, Sevastopol 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJohn Burke: General Roberts and staff inspecting captured guns 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJohn Burke: Khyber Pass 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJohn Burke: Portraits 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJohn McCosh: Burma 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJules Gervais-Courtellemont: Les Champs de Bataille de la Marne 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailL. Fiorillo: Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailLéon Eugène Méhédin: Campagne d'Italie en 1859 - Voyages en Italie 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailManuel Ramos: Mexican Revolution 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailMike Abrahams: Northern Ireland: The Troubles (1960s-1998) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailOlive Edis: British women's services at the battlefields of France and Flanders (1918-1919) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailPhilip Jones Griffiths: Vietnam Inc. 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailPhilip Jones Griffiths: Vietnamese Children file past a Dead Child 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailR.B. Bontecou: Surgical injuries and their treatment during the American Civil War: 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRaphaël Dallaporta: Antipersonnel 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRobert F. Sargent: Taxi to Hell 
    ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Balaclava - Balaklava 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Cooking House 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Portraits from the Crimea 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRoger Fenton: The artist's van 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Valley of the Shadow of Death 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRon Haeberle: My Lai Massacre 
    ThumbnailSAFARA: Fabrication des casques de soldats 
    ThumbnailStefano Lecchi: The Defence of Rome (la difesa di Roma) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailTim Hetherington: Afghanistan 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailUnderwood & Underwood: 8109 A Russian earth mine exploding near base of Antzushan 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailUnderwood & Underwood: Christmas Presents from home 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailUnderwood and Underwood: Cost of Patriotism - Remington Scouts enjoying lunch 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailUnderwood & Underwood: The horrors of modern war! 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailWenderoth, Taylor and Brown: The Children of the Battle Field 
    ThumbnailWilliam Laven: War Models 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
     
     
      
       Connections 
      
    ThumbnailAlphonse J. Liébert - Yevgeny Khaldei 
    ThumbnailGeorge Hubert Wilkins - Arthur Rothstein 
    ThumbnailGeorge N. Barnard - Adolphe Braun - Robert Capa - Peter Keetman 
    ThumbnailJ.E. Larkin - Clem Albers -Unidentified photographer 
    ThumbnailJean-Baptiste Tournassoud - Dmitri Baltermants 
    ThumbnailJohn Heartfield - Alexander Zhitomirsky 
    ThumbnailL. Fiorillo - Unidentified photographer 
    ThumbnailRobert Capa - Mike Stimpson 
    ThumbnailRoger Fenton - Timothy H. O'Sullivan - H. Ferdinand Gros 
    ThumbnailTibor Honty - Josef Koudelka - Alberto Korda 
    ThumbnailUnidentified photographer - Unidentified artist 
     
     
      
       Thematic Connections 
      
    ThumbnailAbu Ghraib 
    ThumbnailPasschendale 
     
      
       Themes 
      
    ThumbnailFashion: Accessories: Gas masks 
    ThumbnailLandscape: Cityscapes - Urban: Wartime 
    ThumbnailNorthern Ireland: The Troubles (1960s-1998) 
    ThumbnailSpanish Civil War (1936-1939): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
    ThumbnailWar of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
    ThumbnailWar: Afghanistan Wars (1979-?) 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865) 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Birth of a Nation (1915) 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Prisons and prisoners 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Private George Lemon, ex-prisoner of war of the Confederates 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Propaganda 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): Revenue stamps 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The breastworks and fortifications 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The commanders and officer class 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The families 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The hospitals 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The injuries 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The photographers 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The press 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The railways 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The soldiers 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The spies 
    ThumbnailWar: American Civil War (1861-1865): The weapons 
    ThumbnailWar: Anglo-Zulu War (1879) 
    ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Destruction of test house 
    ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Examples 
    ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima (6 August 1945) 
    ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki (9 August 1945) 
    ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: New Mexico, at the Alamogordo Test Range, first ever nuclear explosion 
    ThumbnailWar: Boer War (1899-1902) 
    ThumbnailWar: Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901) 
    ThumbnailWar: Cold War (ca. 1945-1991) 
    ThumbnailWar: Crimean War (1854-1856) 
    ThumbnailWar: Crimean War (1854-1856) : Portrait of a Soldier 
    ThumbnailWar: Falklands - Malvinas War (1982) 
    ThumbnailWar: First Gulf War (1991) 
    ThumbnailWar: First Sino-Japanese (1894-1895) 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918) 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): American Commission for Devastated France 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Autochromes and Paget plates 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Gallipoli 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Photographic competitions 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Prisoners of war 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Propaganda 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Your Country Needs You 
    ThumbnailWar: Franco-Prussian War (1871) 
    ThumbnailWar: Indian Mutiny (1856) 
    ThumbnailWar: Iraq War (2003-2011): Books 
    ThumbnailWar: Iraq War (2003-2011): Justification 
    ThumbnailWar: Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871) 
    ThumbnailWar: Korean War (1950-1953) 
    ThumbnailWar: Libya (2011) 
    ThumbnailWar: Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) 
    ThumbnailWar: Mexican-American War (1846-1848) 
    ThumbnailWar: Mexican-American War (1846-1848): Lieutenant Colonel Henry Clay, Jr. 
    ThumbnailWar: Modoc War (1872-1873) 
    ThumbnailWar: Napoleonic Wars 
    ThumbnailWar: New Zealand Wars (1860-1872) 
    ThumbnailWar: North American Indian Wars 
    ThumbnailWar: Northern Ireland - The Troubles (1960s - 1998) 
    ThumbnailWar: Paris Commune (1871) 
    ThumbnailWar: Prussian-Danish War (1864) 
    ThumbnailWar: Revolution in Asuncion (ca 1890) 
    ThumbnailWar: Russian Revolution and the aftermath (1917) 
    ThumbnailWar: Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) 
    ThumbnailWar: Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880) 
    ThumbnailWar: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) 
    ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945) 
    ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
    ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): Internment camps 
    ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): Justice and revenge 
    ThumbnailWar: Second World War (1939-1945): The Holocaust 
    ThumbnailWar: Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) 
    ThumbnailWar: Terrorism: Examples 
    ThumbnailWar: Terrorism: World Trade Center (2001) 
    ThumbnailWar: Typologies 
    ThumbnailWar: Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
     
     
      
       Events 
      
    ThumbnailYear of Revolutions (1848) 
     
     
      
       Techniques 
      
    ThumbnailAutochromes: Themes: Military 
    ThumbnailCarte de visites: Themes: Military 
     
      
       Still thinking about these... 
      
    ThumbnailAircraft recognition training - U.S. Navy (ca. 1947-1951) 
    ThumbnailAlbum de la Société Ottomane de Secours aux Blessés Militaires, Guerre 1877-1878 
    ThumbnailExplosions 
    ThumbnailIrish nationalism, the Easter Rising and Partition 
    ThumbnailNight vision 
    ThumbnailSatellite Sentinel and the Enough Project - Southern Sudan 
    ThumbnailWar: First World War (1914-1918): Death and remembrance 
     
     
      
    Refreshed: 16 August 2014, 19:58
     
      
     
      
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