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HomeContentsThemes > Street

Contents

Introduction
12.01   Street photography
12.02   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840)
12.03   Early street photography
12.04   Different perspectives on nineteenth century street photography
Changes in cameras
12.05   Camera developments and street photography
12.06   European Street photography of the 1920‘s and 1930‘s
Photographers
12.07   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor
12.08   Silas A. Holmes (attributed): New York ca. 1855)
12.09   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Early street photography in Russia (1859)
12.10   John Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China
12.11   John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist
12.12   John Thomson: Street Life in London
12.13   John Thomson: The Crawlers
12.14   Eugène Atget: Street photography
12.15   Paul Martin: Street photography
12.16   Victor Angerer: Instantaneous photography on the street (1888)
12.17   Emil Mayer: Street photography
12.18   Arnold Genthe: Chinatown
12.19   Walker Evans: Street photography
12.20   Walker Evans: The subway portraits
12.21   Helen Levitt: Children of New York
12.22   Weegee: Street photography
12.23   Vivian Maier: Street photography
12.24   Robert Frank: The Americans: Book covers
12.25   Robert Frank, 1958, "A Statement", U. S. Camera Annual, p. 115
12.26   Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places
12.27   Joel Meyerowitz: Street photography
12.28   Ed Van der Elsken: Sweet Life (1966)
12.29   William Klein: Books
12.30   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974)
12.31   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers?
12.32   Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers
Voyeurism
12.33   Voyeurism
Working on the street
12.34   Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography
12.35   Backgrounds: Street photographers
12.36   Afghan Box Camera Project
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
12.01   Street >  Street photography 
  
Beaumont Newhall in The History of Photography[1] has a chapter entitled 'Instant vision' that examines the technological changes and the personal visions of the photographers that led them to be interested in capturing the immediacy of life.
 
Street photography is by no means uniform in its intentions and there are many different ways that the subject can be subdivided for discussion for example:
Documentary photography of streets  
  
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The documentation of street vendors in the lost daguerreotypes of Richard Beard[2] is a clear example of the motivation to visually preserve a record of changing occupations. The same is true of John Thomson in his book Street Life in London (1877)[3] with its Woodburytypes of The London Boardmen, an Independent Shoe Black and the Flying Dustmen.
 
The street in an age of commerce and industry  
  
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As steel-framing for the internal structures of buildings became more common towards the end of the nineteenth century[4] ever larger skyscrapers could be constructed. Streets became canyons of commerce with small figures dwarfed by the might of the institutions they worked it. The street becomes alienated and devoid of any natural forms - it is the "Metropolis" of Fritz Lang[5] and Paul Citroen.[6]
 
Humanistic photography of activity on the street  
  
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Within the humanistic photography, particularly that done in France by Robert Doisneau, Willy Ronis and André Kertész from the 1920s through to the 1950s there was a light humour and tenderness in the photographs. A similar vein can be found with the work of Roger Mayne in his series on Southam Street in London[7] or Helen Levitt in New York.[8] These photographs captured the freedom of children at play during an age without the formality of nineteenth century posed photography and before parental fear for child safety brought them inside the home. The work of Vivian Maier as she roamed the streets of New York and Chicago is all about these small passing moments of life.[9]
 
Captured and candid moments on the street  
  
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The street theme examines how the advent of smaller cameras, improved optics and higher speed plates and films have allowed images to be captured with increasing veracity and as the size of the camera decreased so the photographer could blend into the background like Arnold Genthe for his work in San Francisco's Chinatown[10], Paul Martin with his photographs of streets and beaches[11] or Walker Evans on the subway with concealed cameras.[12]
 
Commercial opportunism on the street  
  
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Commercial motivation and necessity drove some photographers to seek business opportunities on the street by approaching passers to see if they wanted their pictures taken. Platt Delascus Babbitt from the early 1850s was based at Niagara Falls taking daguerreotypes of tourists sometimes taking the photographs first of people admiring the views and then approaching them to sell the plate. Places where tourists congregated such as beaches were a common hunting ground for photographers. Some photographers such as Joseph Selle took candid snapshots of people walking in the Union Square area of San Francisco for over forty years with the intention of hussling them into a purchase.[13]
Any history of street photography that ignored the vast amounts of vernacular and amateur photography that arose towards the end of the nineteenth century with the rising popularity of handheld cameras would be incomplete. There are billions of snapshots showing the street and with the acceptance of digital photography and increasing surveillance the growth in imagery will continue. 
  
12.02   Street >  Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Adolphe Duperly (1801-1865) arrived in Jamaica in 1830s and established himself as an engraver. The book Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (ca. 1844)[14][15] by Adolphe Duperly included engravings based upon daguerreotypes the location of which is currently unknown. Duperly's firm was a highly successful one in Jamaica and continued through his son and grandson. 
  
12.03   Street >  Early street photography 
  
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There are photographs from the late 1830s and 1840s showing streets including the famous daguerreotype of the View of Boulevard du Temple[16] by Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, calotypes of Paris taken in 1843 by Henry Fox Talbot showing the street from an upper window of the Hotel de Douvres.[17] Remarkable though these photographs are they are more "proof of concept" shots showing what could be done with a photograph rather than a conscious decision to show activity on the street - having said this the distinction is a fine one. To argue a case for the "first" street photographs is unnecessary as we are seeking trends within the genre and "street photography" concentrates on photographers with a commitment to documenting what was happening on the street rather than just streets.  
  
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There are daguerreotypes, carte de visite and albumen prints that show streets and monuments with people but they are more about significant monuments and places.  
  
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With very photography long exposures meant that streets are largely devoid of people or traces of blurred ghost-like figures remain. The physical street was recorded with the surrounding architecture but life on the street was largely absent. In rare cases such as a civic event, a protest or crowd the whole scene is captured but those are about the "event" rather than the everyday. There is a level of detachment from the events taken place on the street rather than an involvement in it. In cases where photographers recorded people on the street it was to document vendors, traders and the "characters" rather than the fluid mix of people that makes up the everyday. 
  
12.04   Street >  Different perspectives on nineteenth century street photography 
  
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Through the nineteenth century there were a series of photographers with different viewpoints taking images for different purposes and with different social agendas. With the works of Richard Beard[18][19] and John Thomson[20] their photographs, or engravings based on them, had a overt or covert agenda of highlighting class differences and the ills of fast urbanization - in many ways these were the visual equivalent of what Charles Dickens was doing in his literature. At the same time other photographers such as Thomas Annan[21] was recording the older buildings of Glasgow, Scotland or Charles Marville[22] who recorded the roads of Paris that were going to be destroyed by Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann's urban transformations and Eugéne Atget[23] who preserved the architecture and changing streets. These photographers were preservationists seeking to record the immense changes taking place in the increasingly industrial cities - the people who inhabited the cities were rather like bit players in a far grander drama.
 
The photography with a social message that was seeking to record and hopefully improve the lot of the working classes and the poor was carried out by Waldemar Franz Herman Titzenthaler[24] in Germany, John Galt (1863-1942) in his lantern slides for the London City Mission taken in the early 1900s, the street vendors of Paris taken by Eugéne Atget, and Jacob Riis[25] in the squalid alleys and slums of New York.
 
Jacob Riis was born at Ribe in Denmark and became a reporter for The New York Herald on the poverty ridden and squalid slums of New York. There was such a disparity of wealth and understanding that the prosperous had little contact with the lower classes other than servants and vendors and this meant that readers were largely unaware of the issues and the photographs he took were proof of the overcrowded conditions and grinding poverty. New York was jolted into action and social reform when the book How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York was published in 1890 - here the barriers of distance and illustrative style were removed and the power of photography to further a social cause was ensured. 
  
Changes in cameras 
  
12.05   Street >  Camera developments and street photography 
  
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A real step forward in camera size came at the end of the 19th century with the Block-Notes camera by L. Gaumont & Cie. a French camera maker. The camera was very small being only 1 1/4 x 2 1/3 x 3 1/2 when folded closed but it took a 4.5 x 6 cm glass plate. This was quite revolutionary as it allowed hobbyists such as Jacques-Henri Lartique (1894-1986) to carry the camera anywhere and that immediacy allowed for a totally different intimacy with the subject.
 
By the 1920s a number of portable cameras came out with fast lenses that were able to use lower level of available light. These allowed interiors to be taken without flash powder or the necessity of a tripod.
  • 1924: Ernox / Ermanox - Ernemann-Werke E.G.
  • 1924: Lunar - Hugo Meyer
  • 1924: Leica (film and different lenses)
  • 1932: Contax - Zeiss-Ikon (rangefinder and slit-image focusing)
The smaller camera with convenient rolls of film allowed photojournalists to capture non-posed views of events and famous people and Erich Salomon[26], Felix H. Man[27] and Alfred Eisenstaedt[28] excelled at this. But another effect was that it allowed photographers freedom to explore their personal visions of the world. It was this that allowed a continuing stream of remarkable individuals to preserve their own insights of the changing world about them. They did not concentrate on the pictorial aspects of the image but rather the strangeness of the everyday and this is a theme that is as vigorous today as it was in the 1920s.
André Kertész (1894-1985)
Brassaï (1899-1984)
Bill Brandt (1904-1983)
Robert Doisneau (1912-1994)
Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908-2004)
Weegee (1899-1968)
 
  
12.06   Street >  European Street photography of the 1920‘s and 1930‘s 
  
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There was a movement of artists and intellectuals throughout Europe following the First World War (1914-1918) and this led to a spread of ideas and photographic styles. André Kertész (Hungarian) and Brassai (Hungarian) moved to Paris and Bill Brandt (German) moved to London. This is significant as they saw their adopted countries with the enquiring eyes of outsiders. They all took night photographs in the cities they had moved to and they seem to be outside observers rather than participants in the activities that take place. In 1933 Brassai's photographs were published in the book Paris by Night a project that Kertész had already turned down.
 
The 1928 photograph of Meudon by André Kertész is an extraordinary combination of activities, the train moving from right to left on the viaduct, the man with wrapped parcel crossing to the right, all happening seemingly at random. Hans-Michael Koetzle in his 2002 book Photo Icons: The Story Behind the Pictures - Volume 2 (Koln: Taschen) argues that all is not as it would first appear and the person with the parcel could be the German artist Willi Baumeister. Was part of this street photograph staged as with The Kiss (Le Basier de L'Hotel de Ville, 1950) by Robert Doisneau or was it a fortuitous accident? 
  
Photographers 
  
12.07   Street >  Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1851 Henry Mayhew's book London Labour and London Poor[29] was published in three volumes collecting together his well researched articles published in the Morning Chronicle. The book was an attempt at educating the middle and upper classes in Victorian England to the appalling social conditions of London. The illustrations for the book were based on daguerreotypes that were taken under the supervision of Richard Beard that were converted to wood engravings for publication because of the inability to print photographs within books at the time. As Naomi Rosenblaum pointed out in her A World History of Photography[30] the result of using wood engraving is that the characters are removed from their original surroundings by the use of 'sketchily indicated' backgrounds and this separates the viewer from the subject.
 
Illustrations based on Beard daguerreotypes included:
The Coster-Girl
The Oyster Stall
The Irish Street-Seller
The Wallflower Girl
The Groundsel Man
The Baked Potato Man
The London Coffee-Stall
Orange Mart, Dukes Place
 
  
12.08   Street >  Silas A. Holmes (attributed): New York ca. 1855) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Silas A. Holmes (1820-1886) was an early American photographer who took salted paper prints of New York City in the 1850s. 
  
12.09   Street >  Charles Piazzi Smyth: Early street photography in Russia (1859) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1859 Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900) made a trip to Russia and took one inch square plates - including one of a street scene in Novogorod.[31] Based upon this there was an early split in photographers between those who saw the need for the highest possible quality print and that necessitated bulky equipment and those that wanted to 'capture the moment' in a candid manner and that required portability and the need to be unobtrusive. 
  
12.10   Street >  John Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The albumen print Physic Street, Canton, China by John Thomson was converted into an illustration, A street in Canton, for one of his books. [32] 
  
12.11   Street >  John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The glass plate of Peking, Pechili province, China: a travelling chiropodist is in the collection of the Wellcome Images[33] and it was made into a wood engraving. 
  
12.12   Street >  John Thomson: Street Life in London 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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When in 1877 the book Street Life in London[34] was published it included 36 Woodburytypes, an early photographic process, illustrated by John Thomson[35] to accompany the texts by Adolphe Smith. In some of the photographs the person seems to have been carefully selected and their clothing and paraphernalia laid out to create a visually agreeable picture. They are posed portraits of street life rather than the unguarded captured moment.
London Nomades
London Cabmen
Covent Garden Flower Women
Recruiting Sergeants At Westminster
Street Floods In Lambeth
Public Disinfectors
Street Doctors
Street Advertising
Clapham Common Industries
"Caney" The Clown
Dealer In Fancy Ware
The Temperance Sweep
The Dramatic Shoe Black
"Tickets," The Card Dealer
The Old Clothes Of St. Giles
A Convicts' Home
The "Wall Worker"
Covent Garden Labourers
Halpenny Ices
Black Jack
The Cheap Fish Of St. Giles's
Cast Iron Billy
Workers On The "Silent Highway"
The Street Fruit Trade
The London Boardmen
The Water Cart
"Mush Fakers" And Ginger Beer Makers
November Effigies
"Hookey Alf," Of Whitechapel
The "Crawlers"
Italian Street Musicians
The Street Locksmith
The Seller Of Shell Fish
Flying Dustmen
Old Furniture
The Independent Shoe Black
 
  
   John  Thomson Street Life In London 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
12.13   Street >  John Thomson: The Crawlers 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In the book Street Life in London by John Thomson & Adolphe Smith ([1877]) the "crawlers" were described:
"Some of these crawlers are not, however, so devoid of energy as we might at first be led to infer. A few days' good lodging and good food might operate a marvellous transformation. The abject misery into which they are plunged is not always self sought and merited; but is, as often, the result of unfortunate circumstances and accident. The crawler, for instance, whose portrait is now before the reader, is the widow of a tailor who died some ten years ago. She had been living with her son-in-law, a marble stone-polisher by trade, who is now in difficulties through ill-health. It appears, however, that, at best, "he never cared much for his work," and innumerable quarrels ensued between him, his wife, his mother-in-law, and his brother-in-law, a youth of fifteen. At last, after many years of wrangling, the mother, finding that her presence aggravated her daughter's troubles, left this uncomfortable home, and with her young son descended penniless into the street. From that day she fell lower and lower, and now takes her seat among the crawlers of the district."[36]
 
  
12.14   Street >  Eugène Atget: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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No matter how well-respected Eugène Atget is as a recorder of the streets and architecture of Paris his street photography of people does not stand up well. In most cases it is distant with the backs of a group or crowd where their attention is drawn away from the photographer. The distance between the subject and the camera might be a part of the equipment he used but is more likely to be about personal reserve and a level of comfort he had with the subject. Where individuals such as Joueur de Guitare [Guitar Player] (1900), a street vendor Marchard d'abat-jour, rue Lepic (1899-1900) or the Facteur [Postman] (ca. 1900) were taken they are posed rather than having the informality that was emerging with 1890s snapshots. Just as Atget's camera and technique was outdated so was his approach to street photography
  
12.15   Street >  Paul Martin: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Paul Martin used a Fallowfield Facile detective camera, sometimes disguised as a parcel, to record the informal side of life on the streets and people at play on beaches at the English seaside towns of Yarmouth, Ilfracombe and the island of Jersey during the 1890s.[37] 
  
12.16   Street >  Victor Angerer: Instantaneous photography on the street (1888) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Victor Angerer was an Austrian photographer who marketed dry-plates and was a practitioner of instantaneous photography ("Momentfotografie") for street photography photography.[38] 
  
12.17   Street >  Emil Mayer: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Dr. Emil Mayer was a Viennese street photographer in the early 20th century. He was almost certainly the greatest of the European bromoilists in the 1920s and 30s. He and his wife committed suicide in 1938 when the Nazis annexed Austria and much of his work was destroyed. 
  
12.18   Street >  Arnold Genthe: Chinatown 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Arnold Genthe was an immigrant from Germany who took up residency in San Francisco in California from 1895 and photographed the streets of Chinatown while trying to remain as inobtrusive as possible. In his autobiography As I remember (1936) Genthe remembered his first visits to Chinatown:
Like all good tourists I had a Baedeker. A sentence saying, "It is not advisable to visit the Chinese quarter unless one is accompanied by a guide," intrigued me. There is a vagabond streak in me which balks at caution. As soon as I could make myself free, I was on my way to Chinatown, where I was to go again and again, for it was this bit of the Orient set down in the heart of a western metropolis that was to swing my destiny into new and unforeseen channels.[39]
 
...
 
"The smell of the place—it was a mixture of the scent of sandalwood and exotic herbs from the drugstores, the sickly sweetness of opium smoke, the fumes of incense and roast pork , and the pungent odors from the sausages and raw meats hanging in the "Street of the Butchers." And in the air there was always the sound of temple gongs, the clashing of cymbals and the shrill notes of an orchestra. It was something for me to write home about."[39]
Arnold Genthe lost most of his early work in the San Francisco Fire of 1906. 
  
12.19   Street >  Walker Evans: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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On Wednesday 28 September 1938 the The Museum of Modern Art (New York) opened its first ever one-person show and exhibited over a hundred photographs taken by Walker_Evans (1903-1973). In 1934 some of his photographs of vernacular architecture had been shown at the museum but this was different as it was a survey and its significance was appreciated in the original press release:
The word modern, in its truest sense, aptly characterizes Mr. Evans' work as it is "straight" photography, so factual that it may almost be called functional. Its insistence is upon the utmost clarity and detail of the image. Combined with this technical skill is Walker Evans' genius for composition.[41]
In the accompanying text Lincoln Kirsten wrote "The pictures of men and portraits of houses have only that 'expression' which the experience of their society and times has imposed on them."[42] The classic book which accompanied the exhibition American Photographs included street scenes, ginger bread wooden architectural adornment, metal work, signage (a subject Walker_Evans continually photographed and collected) along with people in the street. His moments on the street include sleeping people,[43] captured back views of the unaware along with snapshot-like instant photographs, and posed shots. These are show diverse attitudes to the subject with the subject being fully aware to the presence of the camera in some, partially aware in others and totally unaware. The technical clarity of the photographs with their "modernist" style referred to in the press release does not mesh with a clarity of awareness. Between 1938 and 1941 Walker_Evans would use a concealed camera to take his Subway portraits which were not published in book form until 1966.[44]  
  
Walker Evans: Subway portraits (1938-1941) 
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In 1941 Walker_Evans took a series "In Bridgeport's War Factories" for Fortune magazine and in those we see pictures of people crossing the street and pausing similar to the work of Garry Winogrand twenty years later.[45] It is the spectrum of subject awareness of the photographer that makes the street photography of Walker_Evans so intriguing. 
  
12.20   Street >  Walker Evans: The subway portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Beween 1938 and 1941 Walker Evans traveled the subway in New York with a hidden camera to catch people unaware.[46] Similar approaches have been used by Paul Martin[47] for beaches and the street and by Erich Salomon[48] for politicans and celebrities. The photographs of Walker Evans were published in 1966 in Many Are Called[49] with an introduction by James Agee with whom Evans had collaborated earlier.[50] For some of these trips Evans was acccompanied by fellow photographer Helen Levitt to provide the distraction of normality whilst he was taking the photographs. These moments in which the "sitter" is unguarded have a naturalness that was rare in the 1930s and 40s but there remains a touch of voyeurism in the process. 
  
12.21   Street >  Helen Levitt: Children of New York 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Helen Levitt was influenced by and studied between 1938 and 1939 with Walker Evans and met James Agee[51] at her first meeting with Evans. The street photography of Henri Cartier-Bresson was also a key influence in her work and like him she used a 35mm Leica to capture intimate moments and the immediacy of her surroundings. Her solo show at The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA)[52] in 1943 and her book A way of Seeing (1965)[53] reflected these influences. Her concentration on children playing in the streets of the poorer parts of New York City viewed now has a sense of nostalgia but that is the wrong way to see them. She was able to capture the fleeting moments of childhood and that gives her work a universal charm. In some ways her quiet images of the street can be usefully compared to those of Vivian Maier.[54] 
  
12.22   Street >  Weegee: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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"Weegee the Famous" as his wet stamp declared was hard-nosed photojournalist in New York who used a police short wave radio and at times slept in a police station so he could be on the scene of a story before or soon after the authorities. Weggee captured, crime, tragedy, car accidents and night life of the city.[55] His photographs look like stills from film noir movies and no doubt his photographs influenced their style.[56] 
  
12.23   Street >  Vivian Maier: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 2007 a real estate agent John Maloof purchased 30,000 negatives taken by the then anonymous photographer Vivian Maier, a reclusive nanny from Chicago. Bought on a hunch, he had inadvertently stumbled upon an undiscovered pot of gold.
 
Born in New York in 1926, Maier spent her youth in France before returning home to The States in 1951. There she spent the next five decades looking after various families and their children. As well as following in the footsteps of Mary Poppins this eccentric, highly intellectual and heavily opinionated lady was also a serious street photographer.
 
With her Rolleiflex camera firmly around her neck Maier strolled through the streets of Chicago and New York casting her gaze over the everyday characters and scenes she saw. Fashionable fur stoles, boys playing on the beach and journeys on the Staten Island ferry are just some of the subjects that caught her untrained, yet brilliant eye.
 
When Maloof, acquired these negatives in 2007 Maier was a complete unknown, and there was no knowledge of her talent or the breadth of her archive. The storage locker, which contained Maloof's acquisition, was only auctioned off to help settle a number of payments, which had built up before Maier’s death in 2009.
 
After Maloof's initial discovery he went on to recover over 2,000 rolls of undeveloped film, 3,000 prints and 150,000 negatives. This incredible archive is now highly regarded in the photography field and Maier has since been likened to the great 20th Century documentary photographers Diane Arbus, Brassai, Walker Evans and Weegee.[57]
 
[Courtesy of Chris Beetles Fine Photographs] 
  
12.24   Street >  Robert Frank: The Americans: Book covers 
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Robert Frank and "The Americans" 
  

 
Swiss-born photographer Robert Frank secured a grant from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation in 1955. Over the next two years he took 800 rolls of film as he traveled the roads of the USA. From this vast number of photographs he selected 83 for his 1958 book Les Américains which was published by the legendary book designer Robert Delpire in Paris[58]. An American edition of The Americans[59] came out in 1959 with an introduction by Jack Kerouac.[60] The book was not an initial success with a review in Popular Photography (May 1960) criticizing it for "meaningless blur, grain, muddy exposures, drunken horizons and general sloppiness." Frank was accused of "hating America" as he showed the prevalent racism but in a documentary in 2004 he said:
It didn't make me hate America. It made me understand how people can be.[61]
The criticisms of Frank missed the point and over time, and no doubt assisted by the writing of Jack Kerouac who had a cult-like following, the The Americans started to become a seminal work of American street photography. The energy of the images so different from the street photography of the time and yet attuned to the disruptive forces and cultural polarisation that were present in American society and which would be questioned by the counter culture of the 1960s.
"When people look at my pictures I want them to feel the way they do when they want to read a line of a poem twice."[62]
Post-Second World War America had an economic boom but at the same time an unsettled nature which was reflected in popular culture. Films like The Wild One (1953) with Marlon Brando playing a disgruntled and flawed biker Johnny Strabler and later Easy Rider (1969) with Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper highlighted a generation that was not sure where it fitted in. The classic counterculture book On the Road by Jack Kerouac was published in 1957 and, as mentioned earlier, Kerouac wrote the introduction to The Americans (1959) A host of other photographers would hitchhike or drive in beat-up cars across America leaving a legacy that still requires a comprehensive overview.[63] 
  
12.25   Street >  Robert Frank, 1958, "A Statement", U. S. Camera Annual, p. 115 
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In 1958 Robert Frank published "A Statement" in U.S. Camera Annual which was the same year the first edition of Les Américains was published in Paris a year before the first American edition:
I am grateful to the Guggenheim Foundation for their confidence and the provisions they made for me to work freely in my medium over a protracted period. When I applied for the Guggenheim Fellowship, I wrote: "To produce an authentic contemporary document, the visual impact should be such as will nullify explanation"
 
With these photographs, I have attempted to show a cross-section of the American population. My effort American life and society have been ignored. The photographs were taken during 1955 and 1956; for the most part in large cities such as Detroit, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and in many other places during my Journey across the country. My book, containing these photographs, will be published in Paris by Robert Delpire, 1958.
 
I have been frequently accused of deliberately twisting subject matter to my point of view. Above all, I know that life for a photographer cannot be a matter of indifference. Opinion often consists of a kind of criticism. But criticism can come out of love. It is important to see what is invisible to others—perhaps the look of hope or the look of sadness. Also, it is always the instantaneous reaction to oneself that produces a photograph.
 
My photographs are not planned or composed in advance and I do not anticipate that the on-looker will share my viewpoint. However, I feel that if my photograph leaves an image on his mind—something has been accomplished.
 
It is a different state of affairs for me to be working on assignment for a magazine. It suggests to me the feeling of a hack writer or a commercial illustrator. Since I sense that my ideas, my mind and my eye are not creating the picture but that the editors' minds and eyes will finally determine which of my pictures will be reproduced to suit the magazines' purposes.
 
I have a genuine distrust and "mefiance" toward all group activities. Mass production of uninspired photojournalism and photography without thought becomes anonymous merchandise. The air becomes infected with the "smell" of photography. If the photographer wants to be an artist, his thoughts cannot be developed overnight at the corner drugstore.
 
I am not a pessimist, but looking at a contemporary picture magazine makes it difficult for me to speak about the advancement of photography, since photography today is accepted without question, and is also presumed to be understood by all—even children. I feel that only the integrity of the individual photographer can raise its level.
 
The work of two contemporary photographers, Bill Brandt of England and the American, Walker Evans, have influenced me. When I first looked at Walker Evans' photographs, I thought of something Malraux wrote: "To transform destiny into awareness." One is embarrassed to want so much for oneself. But, how else are you going to justify your failure and your effort?[64]
 
  
12.26   Street >  Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places 
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Until I was twenty-three, I lived mostly in a few square miles in Manhattan. In 1972, I set out with a friend for Amarillo, Texas. I didn't drive, so my first view of America was framed by the passenger's window. It was a shock."
 
Stephen Shore, 1982
 
  
12.27   Street >  Joel Meyerowitz: Street photography 
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12.28   Street >  Ed Van der Elsken: Sweet Life (1966) 
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Ed Van der Elsken Sweet Life (Köln: M. DuMont Schauberg, 1966). First German edition. Large square quarto. [26],179pp. Black cloth with signature of artist stamped in white on front cover in original photographic dust jacket. Photographic endpapers. Fascinating pictorial account of Dutch photographer Ed Van der Elsken's 1960 trip to Asia and North America. The work is profusely illustrated with b/w reproductions of photographs focusing on the daily life of people in these countries. The artist succeeds in capturing the joy, as well as the hardship of its inhabitants. The work was published worldwide in 7 editions. "Van der Elsken hat weder sogenannte Sehenswürdigkeiten noch Landschaften fotografiert; das überläßt er anderen. Sie tauchen zwar in seinen Fotos auch auf, aber das Hauptaugenmerk des Fotografen wie seiner Kamera galt immer dem Menschen, seinem Leiden und Glück, der Vielfalt des Lebens, das er voll Verständnis und Teilnahme und gerade deshalb aufrichtig und ehrlich bis zur Brutalität notierte." Text in German.
"Sweet Life is a sprawling, exuberant cornucopia, a preview of the pure stream-of-consciousness, machine-gun approach that would soon come with the Japanese Provoke photographers. And like the Provoke aesthetic, Van der Elsken's work has its dark and pessimistic undertones, although in Sweet Life bold, frantic energies predominate."
 
Parr, Martin & Badger, Gerry, 2004, The Photobook: A History. Vol. I, (New York: Phaidon), p.255.
 
  
12.29   Street >  William Klein: Books 
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Between 1955 and 1964 William Klein broke all the supposed rules of street photography if Henri Cartier-Bresson was looking for the "decisive moment"[65] to extract a well composed image of the flow of life in a single moment of stillness Klein was about the visual chaos of fast moving cities. Just as Alexey Brodovitch has influenced visual design and the nature of fashion and dance photography with his motion blurs[66] so Klein altered our perception of the street and the city. The books of his photographs on New York (1955)[67], Rome (1958-1959)[68], Moscow (1964)[69] and Tokyo (1964)[70] are about the energy of a city. The off-kilter shots look like snapshots with their grainy texture with distortion and blurred focus showing people crushed together. These were not the kind of photographs to be included in a travel book of a pristine and tranquil city - they are mood flashes from within cosmopolitan chaos.
 
After around a decade of innovative photographic books William Klein abandoned photography for filmmaking and once again stretched the boundaries with his experimental films.[71] 
  
12.30   Street >  Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974) 
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This exhibition includes the fifteen photographs shown at the first show by Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer that was held at "Bali-Kino" in West Berlin, Germany in October 1974. The following comments prepared by the photographers for this online exhibition provide the context.
 
For the first exhibition of our photographs 1974 in West-Berlin we wrote:
"We show festive events, moments where a person rises above his everyday life, such as to elevate himself by joining a well-meaning circle in the certainty about the indivisibility of the nation, or to bask in the radiance from a trophy for his dog; or even to make sure to be among the redeemed by taking part in the procession on Corpus Christi Day. Should anybody nevertheless feel signs of sadness in our pictures, the blame should not be laid on us. Perhaps it is the paltriness of our everyday life, the insufficient conditions of production and working, which even in these festive moments show discernibly through."
Today, rereading these lines, we are astonished at our self-assuredness then: The precisely formulated concept of "alienated leisure time" had been our guideline in finding and selecting motifs; however, dragged along by the passage of history we now find that our pictures may not be locked up within such boundaries.
 
Since then our endeavor has developed further, unpredictable and difficult to explain. Nevertheless, we believe strongly that we are still in pursuit of the same task. Now we are especially led by the magical space provided by the glance and posture of the photographed, by their aura: the tension between being repelled and attracted, which includes us as well as the viewer and which at the same time expels us and shows us our place.
 
Inevitably, political and social climate shows up in these pictures. We as anyone have our opinion about that. But we trust it’s better to leave the viewer on his own and let him enter unguided so that he may find his own self.
 
Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer (December 2006) 
  
   1 Nothhelfer Nothhelfer 
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12.31   Street >  Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers? 
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In the beginning, we were interested in the documentary force of photography. We wanted to illustrate and criticize social manifestations like the alienation of leisure. But this documentary intention faded in the face of the impact of the individual pictures: if successful, it gave us an impulse, and we were moved by its particular points, which could be brought onto a socially critical denominator. We realized that the preliminary theoretical decisions cannot be a substitute for the spontaneous grasping of a moment. We moved closer to the anarchic element of photography — where chance is often given more credit than the photographer did. And since there is no point in being jealous of chance, it didn‘t bother us being limited in our impact. For it was only within these limits that our intentions could be realized. The way from reality to a photograph is not a technical process. The photographic process is determined by thought and sense and leads from the conspicuous situation through the taking, discussing and selecting of the picture into the rational eye of the public.
 
All of the photographs were taken in Berlin. They show people with which we share the experience of living in the same city. The anonymity of a city is not a magic cap, which makes the social roles invisible. What is our concern with these strangers? In passing they give us inducement to think, to experience emotions of attraction or disgust. Our photography also finds itself in this conflict.
 
Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer (May 2007) 
  
   1 Nothhelfer Nothhelfer 
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12.32   Street >  Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers 
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Some series from the work of Philip-Lorca diCorcia[72] blur the boundaries between different genre including street photography, documentary, staged photography and fabricated realities. The use of sophisticated lighting systems such as those used by Gregory Crewdson[73] mean that there is intentionality as the location was selected, lighting set up and the shot framed before the subject arrived. In one series by Lorca diCorcia the location was prepared and then street hustlers from Santa Monica Boulevard in Los Angeles were picked up and paid their normal rate for a sexual act. No sexual act took place but the hustler was taken to the prepared location and photographed - the photographs having a title made up of three parts - the name of the person, where they came from and the amount paid. The resulting photograph is therefore partly documentary with portraits of social outsiders but it breaks the rules by changing location and it is not a street photography even though it takes place on the street. Reality has been twisted by the use of additional lighting and so what are we seeing? The resulting staged tableaux can be considered exploitative but they make the viewer question their pre-conceptions of reality and genre. 
  
Voyeurism 
  
12.33   Street >  Voyeurism 
  
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The use of hidden cameras within street photography has been well established by photographers such as Paul Martin[74] with his captured moments in British seaside towns and beaches or with the subway portraits of Walker Evans.[75] Erich Salomon[76] also used a hidden camera concealed in a briefcase with a hole for the lens to photograph a sensational murder trial.[77] These are well accepted within the history of photography even though there is concern about the lack of consent of those photographed. This can be justified to a certain extent by the knowledge that when a camera is present it changes the dynamic and some degree of posing will take place removing the naturalism of a scene.
 
When the photographer and those being photographed are of different genders or there is a disparity in age such as an older person photographing a young child our sensitivities become more acute and laws are increasingly being made and enforced to outlaw the activity. These laws are increasingly flouted as ever-smaller cameras are embedded into mobile devices and have become almost invisible.
 
So how should the work of photographers like Miroslav Tichý[78] be viewed?
 
Miroslav Tichý (1926-2011) was a Czech photographer with a somewhat eccentric style recording with homemade cameras the women of his home town of Kyjov. His use of strange cameras made out of cardboard tubes and old tin cans along with his poorly printed voyeuristic works has made him highly regarded by a certain section of the fine photography community. His work has been collected and preserved by a neighbour, Roman Buxbaum, and since 2004 has gained reputation through international exhibitions as a subversive rebellion against communist repression. The question of voyeurism still remains.
 
The same unease occurs with the voyeuristic surveillance-like night photographs of groping heterosexual and homosexual lovers in three Tokyo parks (Shinjuku, Yoyogi, and Aoyama) by Kohei Yoshiyuki. [79] The situation gets even worse with Ikko Kagari's books showing sexual molestation on the Japanese subway system.[80]
 
In 2013 photographer Arne Svenson had an exhibition at the Julie Saul Gallery in New York which showed his series Neighbors which used a telephoto lens to photograph the daily life of unaware participants in apartments opposite his own in Tribeca.[81] Whilst faces are not shown the series provoked an outcry for privacy from some of those viewed. Reading comments on the websites where these have been posted ranges from they are good art right through to voyeurism with all shades in-between. Legal judgements will do little to provide clear boundaries of what is "acceptable" within society. 
  
Working on the street 
  
12.34   Street >  Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
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Joseph Selle was a commercial photographer in the Union Square area of San Francisco for forty years, from the 30s to the 70s. He took candid snapshots of pedestrians and then sold the portraits by mail for fifty cents each. When he retired his entire archive - totaling some one million images - went to Visual Studies Workshop in Rochester, New York. Now, due to digital technology, a small selection of this vast body of work is available. It is an enormously moving experience of time travel to "walk" the streets along with Selle and see our parents and grandparents or younger selves on display. Curated with the cooperation of VSW archivist Andrew Eskind, this preliminary exhibition will include video projection of thousands of images.
 
Joseph Selle: Curatorial Reflections
 
I distinctly remember a tall older man haunting Union Square in the early 70s, offering to sell pedestrians their photographic portraits. After more than three decades I still remember him for some reason: perhaps it was his height, his odd outfit of a taxi driver’s hat and long duster. It is a supreme coincidence that after all this time I have come to work with Joseph Selle’s lifetime accumulated archive.
 
Viewing these images is an overwhelming emotional experience. After a session editing the photographs, one is unlikely to ever walk the city streets in quite the same way, because an awareness of the lives that once occupied these same sidewalks becomes unshakable. The Selle archive is as close as we will ever come to the experience of time travel, experiencing the streets of San Francisco half a century ago. Truly a memento mori, we encounter vibrantly alive people in the midst of their quotidian lives, people whom we infer are now long dead, while the children displayed are themselves entering late middle age. I don’t believe I have ever understood both the tragedy and dignity of life as viscerally as I have while immersed in this project.
 
It is fascinating and moving to see how people organize themselves, create structure, within such a simple act as walking down the street. Mothers and grandmothers hold children’s hands. Adult children support their aged parents. Women friends walk side by side, talking, touching. Couples and families align themselves with each other, to other pedestrians, and to the architecture. Vehicle traffic and crowding causes odd behavior and balletic moves.
 
This is to some extent an anthropological experience, as we see that a trip downtown to Union Square, even well into the 1960s, was an occasion for wearing one’s best clothing. Women inevitably wear white gloves and hats, and almost never wear slacks. Fox stoles and mink coats abound. Men wear suits and ties, and hats. Everyone smokes. Everyone shops. Everyone’s clean. Just blocks away on Market Street, we discover more people of color and more casually dressed people, especially as the 50s move along into the 60s. Taken at the end of the baby boom, the pictures include many more pregnant women than we are used to seeing on the streets today. Men smoke pipes.
 
People are faced with a behavioral choice if they see someone like Selle about to approach them on the street. Most ignore him if they notice him at all, but once they realize what he is up to, and that he’s harmless, often give themselves away by touching their hair or putting their best foot forward. Quite a few put their hands up to signal stop; many others laugh at being caught unaware.
 
History is lurking in the shadows of every photograph. In the 50s material one can detect the impact of Mamie Eisenhower’s conservative style on the women, and then suddenly just a few months later, Jackie Kennedy’s more chic approach is seen everywhere. We see an elderly man wearing a Kennedy straw hat during the election campaign. Then one evening on Market Street we see people carrying newspapers under their arms with the enormous banner headline: "….SLAIN!" and we can painfully infer that it marks the assassination of the President. Among the well-dressed people streaming by the photographer’s lens are a great number African American and Asian American people, and even a significant number of mixed-race couples; more occasionally we see Latinos, or a hipster in jeans or leather, or out gay people. San Francisco’s particular character was already apparently well on its way to being established.
 
Organizing the archive places the curator into several vexing dilemmas. These images have been captured for four decades like genies in a bottle, waiting to be released. Selecting a few of them for this catalogue feels like a betrayal to all the other lives glimpsed and not included that will now recede back into obscurity forever. Selecting a tiny number of these works to represent the whole is a daunting curatorial task. Arguably, to be most true to the archive one should allow chance to determine the selection: the richness of this work is the profound beauty of its ordinariness. As curator I am drawn to the most artfully or quirkily framed shots. I am tempted to disregard the great majority of the pictures that are out of focus. As historian one could cull the 18,000 images for important moments. As anthropologist there is the opportunity to represent the entire population: the wealthy, the middle class, the working class, all the racial backgrounds, the clothing, lifestyles and eccentricities of the culture. I have tried to represent all these approaches as best I can; a book many times the size of this catalogue is called for.
 
The territory of museums has widened over the past decade to include more and more consideration of visual materials made by non-artists that nonetheless reflect skill, style, meaning and power. The street vendor work of Joseph Selle is just at the brink of being appreciated in that same way and it is a thrill and a privilege to participate in that rediscovery. This project could not have happened without the energy and dedication of Andrew Eskind of Visual Studies Workshop in Rochester, New York. Eskind has taken on the pursuit of information about Selle with the precision of a private eye and the dedicated professionalism of the historian he truly is. I offer my humble thanks to him for bringing this project to me, enabling the Nelson Gallery to share it with the UC Davis community.
 
© Renny Pritikin
Davis, California
February 2005
 
How long does it take to look at a million photographs? Is it even possible? It‘s said that in today‘s media saturated society, we‘re each exposed to 1500 images daily. If that‘s an average (and not counting TV and movies), what are the high and low extremes? Can one look at, say, even 10,000 in a day and still make any sense out of them?
 
This conceptual conundrum is perhaps what delayed archivists and students from exploring and exhibiting the more than one million surviving negatives made between the 1950s and 1970s by the San Francisco street vendor photographic firm, Fox Movie Flash.
 
Fox Movie Flash was owned by Joseph Selle (1906-1988) and operated out of 942 Market Street from the 1930s until the 1970s. Selle ventured out onto Market Street often framing his photographs under the marquee of the neighboring Pix Theatre at 946 Market. He also worked all of the corners and side streets around Union Square during peak periods of pedestrian traffic. He and associate photographers wearing the Fox Movie Flash cap carried rather heavy, modified DeVry movie cameras (marketed by Burke & James, Inc as "Street Vending Cameras"). They were pre focused at 10 ft and loaded with sufficient film to snap up to 1500 images of shoppers and tourists with the hope of selling some percentage of them souvenir portraits of their visit to San Francisco‘s prime retail shopping district. Charlie Rester, the last living Fox Movie Flash associate photographer recalls that on good days photographers could earn $100/day - a respectable living at the time.
 
This photographic genre - street vendor photography - has yet to attract much attention from museums, collectors, or historians. Yet there is anecdotal evidence that similar cameras and the same business model were used in many other American cities as well as abroad. Selle and fellow practitioners were not at all interested in the esthetics of their photographs. In fact, it is unlikely they even looked at every frame among the 1500 on the 100-foot rolls of negatives. The one-out-of-10 (or more likely one-out-of-100) pedestrians who actually paid the 50 cents ($1 by the 1970s) for the postcard-size souvenirs made their purchase decisions sight-unseen. Neither creator nor purchaser was making decisions on the basis of visual interest, or qualitative judgment. Only those frames matched by ticket number to individual purchasers were even printed. Among the many permutations of the speculative commercial practice now called street vendor photography, this one has also been aptly referred to as ‘surprise photography‘. (cf Mapping Sitting: On Portraiture and Photography; Walid Raad, Karl Bassil, Zeina Maasri, Akram Zaatari; 2002)
 
The term "surprise" is fitting in more ways than one. The purchaser received the souvenir within a few weeks in the mail. Having no opportunity for a preview, the end-product may have been a pleasant surprise, or a dud. Not every frame is sharp, well composed, or properly exposed. San Franciscan Jack Tillmany recalls his mother making 2 purchases from Fox Movie Flash operators when he was a kid going downtown with her in the 1950s. The first is a cherished memento; the second a disappointment. The photographers, too, should have experienced surprises - both while on the streets encountering sailors, shoppers, tourists, lovers, families - as well as in the darkroom where surely they looked at, and, perhaps laughed at frames which hadn‘t sold as well as those which were printed for buyers. The best surprise of all, however, are the many reactions we can experience today whether selecting previously unseen images for publication, or viewing original shooting sequences as if they were movies - complete with bad frames, changing weather, newspaper headlines, movie theatre marquees, dress, kids, smokers, relationships.
 
US Davis American Studies professor Jay Mechling refers to the psychological term "intermittant reward" to explain why many viewers become so captivated watching the original unedited shooting sequences that they‘ll continue watching without knowing when - or if - there will soon be an end. If every once in a while, we‘re rewarded by a surprise - by an image striking to us for its accidental composition, for its recollection of someone we knew or loved, for its goofiness - we‘ll happily continue watching expecting a new surprise at any moment.
 
Thus, beyond the sheer logistical challenge of exploring over a million undifferentiated images, the archivist today needs to consider the multitude of potential unimagined points of interest represented in this vast documentary record. For curators, such as Renny Pritikin, there‘s the irresistible temptation to do what Selle and his co-hort photographers never found time or motivation to do. He has applied the criteria of visual interest we‘d otherwise associate with non-commercial street photographers such as Walker Evans, Lee Friedlander, Garry Winogrand, Harry Callahan, or even Weegee. His selections reproduced here from the 18,000 frames digitally scanned to date (only 1% of the extant total) could easily be matched by totally different sets selected from the perspective of social historians, movie buffs (theatre marquees are a recurring theme), architecture historians, urbanologists, or those of us who are plain and simple sentimental old picture junkies.
 
© Andrew Eskind
Rochester, NY
March 2005
 
[These texts accompanied the exhibition Joseph Selle‘s Fox Movie Flash - Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography that was held at the Nelson Gallery at UC Davis, January 13th - March 13th, 2005. This exhibition used projected images.] 
  
   Portrait SF Street Vendor 
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12.35   Street >  Backgrounds: Street photographers 
  
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12.36   Street >  Afghan Box Camera Project 
  
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   Afghan Box Camera Project 
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Beaumont Newhall, 1949, The History of Photography from 1839 to the Present Day, (New York: The Museum of Modern Art) 
      
  2. Λ Henry Mayhew, 1851, London Labour and the London Poor: A Cyclopaedia of the Condition and Earnings of Those that Will Work, Those that Cannot Work, and Those that Will Not Work, (G. Woodfall and son) [Illustrations based on daguerreotypes by Richard Beard] 
      
  3. Λ John Thomson & Adolphe Smith, [1877], Street Life in London, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington) 
      
  4. Λ  there is disagreement over which building is the first "skyscraper" although the Tacoma Building (1889) in Chicago and the Flatiron Building (1902) in New York are useful examples to work with. 
      
  5. Λ Metropolis (1927) dir. Fritz Lang
    www.imdb.com/title/tt0017136/ 
      
  6. Λ Paul Citroen (1896-1983)was a Dutch painter, printmaker and photographer noted for his 1923 collage "Metropolis". 
      
  7. Λ For Roger Mayne in the UK - Roger Mayne, 1996, Street Photographs of Roger Mayne, (Art Books Intl Ltd); Roger Mayne, 2001, Roger Mayne Photographs, (Random House) 
      
  8. Λ Helen Levitt, 1965, A Way of Seeing, (New York: The Viking Press) [Essay by James Agee] 
      
  9. Λ John Maloof (ed.), 2011, Vivian Maier: Street Photographer, (powerHouse Books); Richard Cahan & Michael Williams, 2012, Vivian Maier: Out of the Shadows, (CityFiles Press)
     
    There is a documentary film "Finding Vivian Maier" (2014) that attemts to track down her personality based on limited evidence.
    www.vivianmaier.com/film-finding-vivian-maier/ 
      
  10. Λ Arnold Genthe, 1936, As I remember, (Reynal & Hitchcock) 
      
  11. Λ Paul Martin, 1939, Victorian Snapshots, (London: Country Life); Paul Martin, n.d. [1978?], A Yarmouth Holiday, (London: Nishen Photography) [Introduction by Mark Haworth-Booth];Bill Jay, 1973, Victorian Candid Camera: Paul Martin 1864-1944, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles) 
      
  12. Λ Walker Evans & James Agee (introduction), 1966, Many Are Called, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin); Sarah Greenough, 1991, Walker Evans: Subways and Streets, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art)
     
    Walker Evans: Subway portraits
    (Accessed: 20 July 2013)
    www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/walker-evans-subway-portraits-1938-41 
      
  13. Λ An archive of Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash is maintained at the Visual Studies Workshop, Rochester, NY, USA 
      
  14. Λ Adolphe Duperly, 1840, Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica being A Collection of Views of the most Striking Scenery, public Buildings and other interesting objects, (A. Duperly)
     
    There is a copy in the British Library. 
      
  15. Λ The date of this publication is uncertain and the date of 1844 is given by - Frank Cundall, (1902), Bibliographia Jamaicensis. A list of Jamaica books and pamphlets, magazine articles, newspapers, and maps, most of which are in the library of the Institute of Jamaica, (Kingston: Institute of Jamaica) 
      
  16. Λ Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, "View of Boulevard du Temple", 1839 (ca), Daguerreotype, Bayerisches Nationalmuseum 
      
  17. Λ Henry Fox Talbot, View of the Boulevards at Paris", The Pencil of Nature, Part 1, pl. 2, 1844 (published) 
      
  18. Λ Henry Mayhew, 1861-62, London Labour and the London Poor, (London: Charles Griffin, and Company) [4 vols. The woodcuts are based upon daguerreotypes by Richard Beard] 
      
  19. Λ If you know the whereabouts of the Richard Beard daguerreotypes used to illustrate Henry Mayhew, 1861-62, London Labour and the London Poor, (London: Charles Griffin, and Company) I'd be most interested. - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  20. Λ John Thomson & Adolphe Smith, [1877], Street Life in London, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington) 
      
  21. Λ Thomas Annan is well known for his Old Country Houses of the Old Glasgow Gentry (1870) and for The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow - engraved by Annan from Photographs taken for the City of Glasgow Improvement Trust which has gone through multiple editions and is a classic of documentary photography.
     
    For studies on the work of Thomas Annan - Roy McKenzie, 1992, ‘Thomas Annan and the Scottish Landscape: Among the Gray Edifices‘, History of Photography, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 40; Anita Ventura Mozley, 1977, Thomas Annan: Photographs of The Old Closes And Streets of Glasgow 1868/1877, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [With a supplement of 15 related views) with a new introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley. Published through the Cooperation of The International Museum of Photography / George Eastman House]; Ian Spring, 1996, ‘Midnight Scenes and Social Photographs: Thomas Annan's Glasgow‘, in Mancoff, Debra N. & Trela, DJ (eds.), Victorian Urban Settings: Essays on the Nineteenth-Century City and Its Contexts, pp. 195-213; Sara Stevenson, 1990, Thomas Annan 1829-1887, (Edinburgh: National Galleries of Scotland)
     
    The book by Thomas Annan is included in - Martin Parr & Gerry Badger (2004) The Photobook: A History, volume 1, (Phaidon Press Limited) 
      
  22. Λ For Charles Marville and Paris - Jacqueline Chambord (ed.), 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris, 1852-1878, (French Inst/Alliance Francaise); Charles Marville, 1994, Marville Paris, (Hazan); Charles Marville, 1997, Charles Marville, (Centre National de Photo) 
      
  23. Λ There are a large number of monographs on Eugène Atget and the standard by which all others are judged are the four volumes published by the Museum of Modern Art (1981-1985):
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1981, The Work of Atget. vol. 1: Old France, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1982, The Work of Atget. vol. II: The Art of Old Paris, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1983, The Work of Atget. vol. III: The Ancien Regime, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
    John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1985, The Work of Atget. vol. IV: Modern Times, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
     
      
  24. Λ Landesbildstelle Berlin: Berlin, 1990, Photographien von Waldemar Titzenthaler, (Berlin: Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung) 
      
  25. Λ For the books by Jacob A. Riis - Jacob A. Riis, 1890, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons); Jacob A. Riis, 1892, The Children of the Poor, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Company).
     
    For the socio-political context and biographical details on Jacob A. Riis - Alexander Alland Sr, 1993, Jacob A. Riis: Photographer and Citizen, (New York: Aperture); Janet B. Pascal, 2005, Jacob Riis: Reporter and Reformer, (Oxford University Press, USA); Bonnie Yochelson, & Daniel Czitrom, 2007, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York, (New York: New Press) 
      
  26. Λ Erich Salomon, 1931, Berühmte Zeitgenossen in unbewachten Augenblicken, (Stuttgart: Engelhorns Nachf.) ["Celebrated Contemporaries in Unguarded Moments"]
     
    Erich Salomon was one the first photojournalists in the 1920s to user the light Ermanox and Leica cameras. His "candid portraits" of the politicians and royalty of the pre-Second World War era remain popular - Erich Salomon, 1963, Porträt einer Epoch, (Frankfurt and Berlin: Verlag Ullstein); Peter Hunter-Salomon, 1967, Erich Salomon: Portrait of an Age, (New York: Macmillan); Erich Salomon, 1975, Portrait of an Age, (New York: Collier Books); Erich Salomon, 1978, Erich Salomon, (Millerton, NY: Aperture)
     
    There is a film The Candid Image: A Portrait of Erich Salomon (1992) on Erich Salomon. Description of this documentary:
    His camera hidden in his hat, he sat in a courtroom and photographed two accused murderers being sentenced; photographed Von Hindenburg from a bathroom window across from the presidential palace; hid his camera in a music stand to photograph Toscanini in performance. But he had artistic talent as well as nerve. This program tells Salomon’s story, the famous photos augmented by some of the negatives hidden from the Nazis and now restored. Salomon was killed in Auschwitz, but his astonishing documentation of the 20th century survives.
     
      
  27. Λ Felix Man, 1948, Man With Camera: Photographs from Seven Decades, (New York: Schocken) 
      
  28. Λ Alfred Eisenstaedt, 1980, Witness to Our Time, (New York: Viking) [Revised edition]; Alfred Eisenstaedt, 1990, Eisenstaedt: Remembrances, (Boston: Bulfinch); Alfred Eisenstaedt, 1985, Eisenstaedt on Eisenstaedt: A Self-Portrait, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Introduction by Peter Adam] 
      
  29. Λ The book London Labour and London Poor was evidently rare quite soon after it was published in 1851 as in The Atheneum, no. 1407, Oct. 14, 1854, p. 1223 there was the following advert:
    RARE WORK. A few Copies just ready of HENRY MATHEWS Celebrated and very Extraordinary Work, 'LONDON LABOUR AND THE LONDON POOR : a CycIopedia of Those that Work, Those that cannot Work, and Those that will not Work,' with Engravings of the Scenes and People described, copied from Daguerreotypes taken expressly for this Book by Beard. Prices [unclear on scan]. Each bound copy has at end the whole of the valuable "Answers to Correspondents arranged to be read uninterruptedly." EITHER DIVISION OF THE WORK SOLD SEPARATELY.
     
    A quantity of Odd Numbers for completion of sets to 63rd number -(pages 432 of vol. II. and 199 of vol. III.). The Answers to Correspondents prepared for binding, all Advertisements, &c. attached on publication being excluded. Copies bound in manner rendering them more complete than any ever supplied, except by
    G. Newbold, 8, Regent-street. Westminster.
    N.B. Numbers bought - full price given - lists requested by post.
     
      
  30. Λ Naomi Rosenblum, 1984, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press); Naomi Rosenblum, 2007, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press) [4th edition] 
      
  31. Λ C. Piazzi Smyth, 1862, Three Cities in Russia, (London: Lovell, Reeve & Co.), [Two volumes]. p. 398 on obtaining permission to take photographs. 
      
  32. Λ John Thomson, 1875, The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China, and China; or Ten Years' Travels, Adventures and Residence Abroad (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low & Searle), between p. 248 and 249. 
      
  33. Λ John Thomson, "Peking, Pechili province, China: a travelling chiropodist", 1869, Glass plate, Wellcome Images, Wellcome Library, London (L0055933)
     
    This plate was later copied for a wood engraving by Henri-Théophile Hildibrand after Etienne Antoine Eugène Ronjat which can be located at the Wellcome Library, London (V0016866, Library reference no. : ICV No 17008) 
      
  34. Λ John Thomson & Adolphe Smith, [1877], Street Life in London, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington); Reprint - John Thomson & Adolphe Smith, 1969, Street Life in London, (New York: Bernard Blom) [Facsimile edition].
     
    For the context - Jeff Rosen, 1993, ‘Posed as Rogues: The Crisis of Photographic Realism in John Thomson's Street Life in London‘, Image, vol. 36, no. 3/4, pp. 9-39 
      
  35. Λ John Thomson travelled widely and his books include works on Cambodia, China, Formosa, and Indo-China. 
      
  36. Λ John Thomson & Adolphe Smith, [1877], Street Life in London, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington) 
      
  37. Λ Paul Martin, 1939, Victorian Snapshots, (London: Country Life); Paul Martin, n.d. [1978?], A Yarmouth Holiday, (London: Nishen Photography) [Introduction by Mark Haworth-Booth];Bill Jay, 1973, Victorian Candid Camera: Paul Martin 1864-1944, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles) 
      
  38. Λ Laura Tomicek (2009) (in German). Victor Angerer – Momentfotografie in Österreich (Mag. phil thesis). University of Vienna. 
      
  39. Λ Arnold Genthe, 1936, As I remember, (Reynal & Hitchcock), p. 32 
      
  40. Λ Arnold Genthe, 1936, As I remember, (Reynal & Hitchcock), p. 33 
      
  41. Λ Press release 38919-24, 24-25 September 1938, The Museum of Modern Art
    (Accessed: 8 April 2014)
    www.moma.org/pdfs/docs/press_archives/456/releases/MOMA_1938_0036_1938-09-19_38919-24.pdf 
      
  42. Λ Press release 38919-24, 24-25 September 1938, The Museum of Modern Art
    (Accessed: 8 April 2014)
    www.moma.org/pdfs/docs/press_archives/456/releases/MOMA_1938_0036_1938-09-19_38919-24.pdf 
      
  43. Λ Walker Evans, "South Street, New York" (1932), plates 48 and 49 in Walker Evans, 1938, Walker Evans: American Photographs, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) 
      
  44. Λ Walker Evans & James Agee (introduction), 1966, Many Are Called, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin); Sarah Greenough, 1991, Walker Evans: Subways and Streets, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art)
     
    Walker Evans: Subway portraits
    (Accessed: 20 July 2013)
    www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/walker-evans-subway-portraits-1938-41 
      
  45. Λ There are examples of this style long before Walker Evans such as Paul Martin, Emil Mayer, Victor Angerer and Arnold Genthe just to name a few. 
      
  46. Λ Walker Evans & James Agee (introduction), 1966, Many Are Called, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin); Sarah Greenough, 1991, Walker Evans: Subways and Streets, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art)
     
    Walker Evans: Subway portraits
    (Accessed: 20 July 2013)
    www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/walker-evans-subway-portraits-1938-41 
      
  47. Λ Paul Martin, 1939, Victorian Snapshots, (London: Country Life); Paul Martin, n.d. [1978?], A Yarmouth Holiday, (London: Nishen Photography) [Introduction by Mark Haworth-Booth];Bill Jay, 1973, Victorian Candid Camera: Paul Martin 1864-1944, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles) 
      
  48. Λ There is a film The Candid Image: A Portrait of Erich Salomon (1992) on Erich Salomon. Description of this documentary:
    His camera hidden in his hat, he sat in a courtroom and photographed two accused murderers being sentenced; photographed Von Hindenburg from a bathroom window across from the presidential palace; hid his camera in a music stand to photograph Toscanini in performance. But he had artistic talent as well as nerve. This program tells Salomon’s story, the famous photos augmented by some of the negatives hidden from the Nazis and now restored. Salomon was killed in Auschwitz, but his astonishing documentation of the 20th century survives.
     
      
  49. Λ Walker Evans & James Agee (introduction), 1966, Many Are Called, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin) 
      
  50. Λ James Agee & Walker Evans, 1941, Let Us Now Praise Famous Men: Three Tenant Families, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company) 
      
  51. Λ Helen Levit and James Agee would later collaborate on two films The Street (1948) and The Quiet One (1949). 
      
  52. Λ Her first solo exhibition at The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York was curated by Nancy Newhall in 1943. 
      
  53. Λ Helen Levitt, 1965, A Way of Seeing, (New York: The Viking Press) [Essay by James Agee] 
      
  54. Λ John Maloof (ed.), 2011, Vivian Maier: Street Photographer, (powerHouse Books); Richard Cahan & Michael Williams, 2012, Vivian Maier: Out of the Shadows, (CityFiles Press)
     
    There is a documentary film "Finding Vivian Maier" (2014) that attemts to track down her personality based on limited evidence.
    www.vivianmaier.com/film-finding-vivian-maier/ 
      
  55. Λ Books by Weegee have gone through numerous reprints, editions and translations - Weegee, 1946, Naked City, (New York: Essential Books); Weegee, 1959, Weegee's Creative Camera, (Hanover House); Weegee, 1961, Weegee by Weegee, (New York: Ziff-Davis Pub. Co.) [First edition]; Weegee, 1964, Weegee's Creative Photography, (Ward, Lock & Co.) 
      
  56. Λ The 'Imp'probable Mr. Wee Gee (1966, director: Sherman Price) is a pseudo-documentary about Weegee and he stars as "Mr. Wee Gee". Not having seen this film I'll include the plot summary provided by frankfob2@yahoo.com on IMDB:
    Famed crime photographer Arthur Fellig, nicknamed Mr. Wee Gee, stars as himself in this pseudo-documentary that begins when he falls in love with a store window dummy and tracks "her" to London, England, then meets up with a beautiful ghost in a haunted house and finally winds up in Paris, where he meets other beautiful women and ends up being chased onto the Eiffel Tower.
    Certainly sounds intriguing. 
      
  57. Λ John Maloof (ed.), 2011, Vivian Maier: Street Photographer, (powerHouse Books); Richard Cahan & Michael Williams, 2012, Vivian Maier: Out of the Shadows, (CityFiles Press)
     
    There is a documentary film "Finding Vivian Maier" (2014) that attemts to track down her personality based on limited evidence.
    www.vivianmaier.com/film-finding-vivian-maier/ 
      
  58. Λ Frank, Robert, 1958, Les Américains, (Paris: Delpire) 
      
  59. Λ Robert Frank, 1959, The Americans, (New York: Grove Press) 
      
  60. Λ Jack Kerouac had published On the Road in 1957 whicj was a seminal publication of the Beat Generation and was a fictional road book - saying in words what Robert Frank had expressed in photographs. Both books were quests to understand America. 
      
  61. Λ From a 2004 documentary for British television. Quoted in Anthony Lane, 14 September 2009, "Road Show", The New Yorker
      
  62. Λ Robert Frank, Life (26 November 1951), p. 21 
      
  63. Λ An American Journey: Revisiting Robert Frank's 'The Americans,' is a documentary written and directed by Philippe Séclier. 60 minutes.
     
    In 1963 Thomas Hoepker traveled around America on assignment - Thomas Hoepker, 2013, Heartland: An American Road Trip in 1963, (Peperoni Books). Stephen Shore did a trip in 1972 that resulted in - Stephen Shore, 1982, Uncommon Places, (Aperture). This book is widely cited as one of the key volumes for its' use of colour.
     
    This restless spirit was also evident in Britain with the novels of the "Angry Young Men" including, John Osborne, Kingsley Amis, Alan Silitoe (1928-2010) and many others. It was also evident in films such as Look Back in Anger (1959), Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1960) and The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner (1962). French New Wave cinema during the period had similar issues of alienation. 
      
  64. Λ Robert Frank, 1958, "A Statement", U. S. Camera Annual, p. 115 
      
  65. Λ  Henri Cartier-Bresson,, 1952, Images à la Sauvette, (Paris: Editions Verve) was published in English as - Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1952, The Decisive Moment, (New York: Simon and Schuster) 
      
  66. Λ Alexey Brodovitch & Edwin Denby, 1945, Ballet, (New York: J.J. Augustin) [Text by Edwin Denby] 
      
  67. Λ William Klein, 1955,New York 1954, (Marval); William Klein, 1956, [NEW YORK] Life is good & good for you in NEW YORK, (Editions du Seuil) 
      
  68. Λ William Klein, 1958-1959, Rome: The City and its People, (The Viking Press) [Also published by Seuil, Paris (1959) and Feltrinelli, Milan (1960). Republished by Aperture (2009) with texts by Alberto Moravia, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Ennio Flaiano, Federico Fellini.] klein_moscow_01 
      
  69. Λ William Klein, 1964, Tokyo, (New York: Crown Publishers); William Klein, 1964, Tokyo, (Tokyo, Japan: Zokeisha Publications) 
      
  70. Λ "The Delirious Fictions of William Klein" (available as a 3 DVD boxed set from the Criterion Collection) is stimulating viewing. His 1966 film "Who are You Polly Maggoo?" should be watched by anybody interested in fashion photography and the supermodel. 
      
  71. Λ Philip-Lorca diCorcia & Peter Galassi, 1995, Philip-Lorca diCorcia, (New York: Museum of Modern Art; distributed by Abrams); Philip-Lorca diCorcia, 2003, A Storybook Life, (Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms Publishers); Dennis Freedman (ed.) & Philip-Lorca diCorcia, 2011, Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Eleven, (Freedman Damiani); Philip-Lorca diCorcia, 2013, Hustlers, (Steidl) 
      
  72. Λ Rick Moody & Gregory Crewdson, 2002, Twilight: Photographs by Gregory Crewdson, (Abrams); Stephan Berg (ed.), 2005, Gregory Crewdson, 1985–2005, (Ostfildern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz); Gregory Crewdson & Russell Banks, 2008, Beneath the Roses, (Abrams); Gregory Crewdson & Craig Burnett, 2011, Gregory Crewdson: In a Lonely Place, (Abrams) 
      
  73. Λ Paul Martin, 1939, Victorian Snapshots, (London: Country Life); Paul Martin, n.d. [1978?], A Yarmouth Holiday, (London: Nishen Photography) [Introduction by Mark Haworth-Booth];Bill Jay, 1973, Victorian Candid Camera: Paul Martin 1864-1944, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles) 
      
  74. Λ Sarah Greenough, 1991, Walker Evans: Subways and Streets, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art) 
      
  75. Λ There is a film The Candid Image: A Portrait of Erich Salomon (1992) on Erich Salomon. Description of this documentary:
    His camera hidden in his hat, he sat in a courtroom and photographed two accused murderers being sentenced; photographed Von Hindenburg from a bathroom window across from the presidential palace; hid his camera in a music stand to photograph Toscanini in performance. But he had artistic talent as well as nerve. This program tells Salomon’s story, the famous photos augmented by some of the negatives hidden from the Nazis and now restored. Salomon was killed in Auschwitz, but his astonishing documentation of the 20th century survives.
     
      
  76. Λ Tim Gidal, 1973, Modern Photojournalism: Origin and Revolution 1910-1933, (New York: Macmillan) 
      
  77. Λ Miroslav Tichy, 2012, L'homme a La Mauvaise Camera, (Presses du Reel) 
      
  78. Λ Kohei Yoshiyuki & Yossi Milo (ed.), 2007, The Park, (Hatje Cantz/Yossi Milo). The book description says:
    Kohei Yoshiyuki's nighttime photographs, taken with infrared film and flash in Japan's Shinjuku, Yoyogi and Aoyama Parks during the 1970s, capture the illicit sexual encounters, both heterosexual and homosexual, that frequently occurred there under the cloak of darkness. The Park's images not only reveal hidden sexual exploits but also uncover many spectators ardently lurking in the darkness, waiting to join in--and quickly raise issues of voyeurism and surveillance. In The Photobook: A History, Volume II, Martin Parr speaks to the societal relevance of this series, calling it, "A brilliant piece of social documentation, catching perfectly the loneliness, sadness and desperation that so often accompany sexual or human relationships in a big, hard metropolis like Tokyo."
     
    As exhibition organizer and editor Yossi Milo writes in his introduction, "With each viewing, I noticed something that had eluded me before: the photos' rigorous compositions They are provocative photographs, and unsettling as well: one is both chilled and thrilled by Yoshiyuki's boldness, by how close he crept to his unaware subjects, by the hours he spent late at night crouched in bushes and against trees, waiting for his perfect shot."
     
      
  79. Λ Ikko Kagari, 1982, Document Tsuken Densha, (Hama Shobo). These photographs may have been taken using infrared flash photography. 
      
  80. Λ arnesvenson.com/theneighbors.html
    (Accessed: 17 July 2013)
    With Arne Svenson's new series, Neighbors, he has turned outward from his usual studio based practice to study the daily activities of his downtown Manhattan neighbors as seen through his windows into theirs. Svenson has always combined a highly developed aesthetic sense viewed from the perspective of social anthropology in his eclectic projects with subjects ranging from prisoners to sock monkeys. His projects are almost always instigated by an external or random experience which brings new objects or equipment into his life- in this case he inherited a bird watching telephoto lens from a friend.
     
    The grid structure of the windows frame the quotidian activities of the neighbors, forming images which are puzzling, endearing, theatrical and often seem to mimic art history, from Delacroix to Vermeer. The Neighbors is social documentation in a very rarified environment. The large color prints have been cropped to various orientations and sizes to condense and focus the action.
    Jonny Weeks, 19 August 2013, "The art of peeping: photography at the limits of privacy - New York photographer Arne Svenson snapped his neighbours in their homes without permission – and has just won a court case under his First Amendment rights. Should snooping be allowed in the name of art?", The Guardian (UK) (Accessed: 28 August 2013)
    www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/photography-blog/2013/aug/19/art-peeping-photography-privacy-arne-svenson 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Eskildsen, Ute, 2008, Street & Studio: An Urban History of Photograph, (Tate Publishing) isbn-10: 1854377787 isbn-13: 978-1854377784 [Δ
  
Klein, Mason & Evans, Catherine, 2011, The Radical Camera: New York's Photo League, 1936-1951, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300146876 isbn-13: 978-0300146875 [Δ
  
Kozloff, Max, 2002, New York: Capital of Photography, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300094450 isbn-13: 978-0300094459 [Δ
  
Papageorge, Tod, 1981, Walker Evans & Robert Frank: An Essay on Influence, (New Haven, CT.: Yale University Art Gallery) [Δ
  
Seaborne, Mike; Loman. Jack & Sparham, Anna, 2012, London Street Photography 1860-2010, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) isbn-10: 1907893032 isbn-13: 978-1907893032 [Δ
  
Westerbeck, Colin & Meyerowitz, Joel, 2001, Bystander: A History of Street Photography, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Amy Arbus 
  
Arbus, Amy, 2006, On the Street, (Welcome) [Δ
  
Henri Cartier-Bresson 
  
Arbaizar, P. et al., 2003, Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Man, the Image and the World: A Retrospective, (New York: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
  
Assouline, Pierre, 2013, Henri Cartier-Bresson, (Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 0500290520 isbn-13: 978-0500290521 [Δ
  
Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 1952, The Decisive Moment, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ
  
Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 1992, Henri Cartier-Bresson: Photographer, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
Galassi, Peter, 1993, Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Early Work, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Bruce Davidson 
  
Davidson, Bruce, 1970, East 100th Street, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press) [Δ
  
Philip-Lorca diCorcia 
  
diCorcia, P.-L., 2003, A Storybook Life, (Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms Publishers) [Δ
  
diCorcia, P.-L. & Galassi, P., 1995, Philip-Lorca diCorcia, (New York: Museum of Modern Art; distributed by Abrams) [Δ
  
diCorcia, Philip-Lorca, 2013, Hustlers, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869306173 isbn-13: 978-3869306179 [Δ
  
Freedman, Dennis (ed.) & diCorcia, Philip-Lorca, 2011, Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Eleven, (Freedman Damiani) isbn-10: 8862081677 isbn-13: 978-8862081672 [Δ
  
Robert Doisneau 
  
Doisneau, R., 1980, Three Seconds from Eternity, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
  
Doisneau, Robert, 1997, Three Seconds from Eternity: Photographs by Robert Doisneau, (New York: te Neues Publishing Co) [Δ
  
Hamilton, Peter, 1995, Robert Doisneau: A Photographer’s Life, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Δ
  
Adolphe Duperly 
  
Duperly, Adolphe, 1840, Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica being A Collection of Views of the most Striking Scenery, public Buildings and other interesting objects, (A. Duperly) [Δ
  
Walker Evans 
  
Evans, Walker, 1938, Walker Evans: American Photographs, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Evans, Walker, 2012, Walker Evans: American Photographs. Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Edition, (New York: MOMA Publications) isbn-13: 978-0870708350 [Essay by Lincoln Kirstein. Introduction by Sarah Meister] [Δ
  
Greenough, Sarah, 1991, Walker Evans: Subways and Streets, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art) [Δ
  
Robert Frank 
  
Eskildsen, Ute, 2008, Robert Frank: Paris, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865215246 isbn-13: 978-3865215246 [Δ
  
Frank, Robert, 1958, Les Américains, (Paris: Delpire) [Δ
  
Frank, Robert, 1959, The Americans, (New York: Grove Press) [Δ
  
Lee Friedlander 
  
Galassi, Peter & Benson, Richard, 2005, Friedlander, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Bill Jay 
  
Jay, Bill, 1973, Victorian Candid Camera: Paul Martin 1864-1944, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles) [Δ
  
André Kertész 
  
Ducrot, Nicholas (ed.), 1972, André Kertész: Sixty Years of Photography, 1912–1972, (New York: Grossman Publishers) [Δ
  
Greenough, Sarah et al., 2005, André Kertész, (Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art; Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press) [Δ
  
Kertész, André, 1974, J’aime Paris: Photographs Since the Twenties, (New York: Grossman Publishers) [Δ
  
Phillips, Sandra S et al., 1985, André Kertész: Of Paris and New York, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago) [Δ
  
William Klein 
  
Klein, William, 1956, William Klein: New York, 1954–1955, (Paris: Editions de Seuil) [Δ
  
Klein, William, 1958-1959, Rome: The City and its People, (The Viking Press) [Also published by Seuil, Paris (1959) and Feltrinelli, Milan (1960). Republished by Aperture (2009) with texts by Alberto Moravia, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Ennio Flaiano, Federico Fellini.] [Δ
  
Klein, William, 1964, Mockba - Moscow, (New York: Crown) [Δ
  
Klein, William, 1964, Tokyo, (New York: Crown Publishers) [Δ
  
Klein, William, 1964, Tokyo, (Tokyo, Japan: Zokeisha Publications) [Δ
  
Klein, William, 1981, William Klein: Photographs, (New York: Aperture) [Pro?le by John Heilpern] [Δ
  
Klein, William, 1989, Close-up: Photographs and Texts by William Klein, (London: Thames and Hudson) [Δ
  
Klein, William, 2008, William Klein: Contacts, (Rome: Contrasto Due) [Δ
  
Klein, William, 2010, William Klein: Life is Good & Good for You in New York, (Errata Editions) isbn-10: 1935004085 isbn-13: 978-1935004080 [Republished version with texts by Max Kozloff and Jeffrey Ladd] [Δ
  
Helen Levitt 
  
Levitt, Helen, 1989, A Way of Seeing, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press) [3rd edition, with additional photographs. Original edition published in 1965] [Δ
  
Phillips, Sandra S. & Hambourg, Maria Morris, 1991, Helen Levitt, (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Danny Lyon 
  
Eskildsen, U. & Pitts, T., 1991, Danny Lyon: Photo-Film, (Heidelberg, Germany: Edition Braus) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Lyon, Danny, 1971, Conversations with the Dead - Photographs of Prison Life with the Letters and Drawings of Billy McCune, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) [Δ
  
Vivian Maier 
  
Cahan, Richard & Williams, Michael, 2012, Vivian Maier: Out of the Shadows, (CityFiles Press) isbn-10: 0978545095 isbn-13: 978-0978545093 [Δ
  
Maloof, John (ed.), 2011, Vivian Maier: Street Photographer, (powerHouse Books) isbn-10: 1576875776 isbn-13: 978-1576875773 [Contribution by Geoff Dyer] [Δ
  
Mary Ellen Mark 
  
Fulton, Marianne, 1991, Mary Ellen Mark: 25 Years, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
Paul Martin 
  
Flukinger, Roy & Schaaf, Aaron, 1977, ‘Paul Martin: A Critical Biography‘, in Roy Flukinger; Aaron Schaaf & Standish Meacham, Paul Martin: Victorian Photographer [Δ
  
Jay, Bill, 1973, Victorian Candid Camera: Paul Martin 1864-1944, (Newton Abbot: David and Charles) [Δ
  
Emil Mayer 
  
Mayer, Emil & Rosser, Edward, 1999, Viennese Types, (Blind River Editions) [Δ
  
Roger Mayne 
  
Mayne, Roger, 1996, Street Photographs of Roger Mayne, (Art Books Intl Ltd) isbn-10: 185177002X isbn-13: 978-1851770021 [Δ
  
Mayne, Roger, 2001, Roger Mayne Photographs, (Random House) isbn-10: 0224060546 isbn-13: 978-0224060547 [Δ
  
László Moholy-Nagy 
  
Benedetta, Mary & Moholy-Nagy, László, 1936, The Street Markets of London, (London: John Miles Ltd) [Reissued by Benjamin Blom Inc, NY, 1972] [Δ
  
Homer Page 
  
Davis, Keith F., 2009, The Photographs of Homer Page - The Guggenheim Year: New York, 1949-50, (The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art) isbn-13: 978-0300154436 [Δ
  
John Thomson 
  
Thomson, John & Smith, Adolphe, 1881, Street Incidents, (London, Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington) [Δ
  
Thomson, John & Smith, Adolphe, 1969, Street Life in London, (New York: Bernard Blom) [Facsimile edition] [Δ
  
Thomson, John & Smith, Adolphe, [1877], Street Life in London, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington) [Δ
  
Waldemar Franz Herman Titzenthaler 
  
Landesbildstelle Berlin: Berlin, 1990, Photographien von Waldemar Titzenthaler, (Berlin: Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung) isbn-10: 3875841956 [Δ
  
Viergutz, Volker, 2008, December, Fotografien von Waldemar Titzenthaler. Unterwegs in Deutschland und Europa, (Berlin: Landesarchiv Berlin) isbn-13: 978-3980330336 [Eine Ausstellung des Landesarchivs Berlin im Rahmen des 3. Europäischen Monats der Fotografie 17. Oktober bis 23. Dezember 2008] [Δ
  
Ed Van der Elsken 
  
Berghmans, Tamara (text), n.d.Ed van der Elsken - Looking for Love on the Left Bank, (Aman Iman Publishing) isbn-13: 978-2953391091 [Background information and contacts sheets for Ed van der Elsken’s book Love on the Left Bank.] [Δ
  
Van der Elsken, Ed, 1966, Sweet Life, (Köln: M. DuMont Schauberg) [First German edition] [Δ
  
Roman Vishniac 
  
Vishniac, Roman, 1986, A Vanished World - Roman Vishniac, (Douglas & McIntyre) isbn-10: 0374520232 isbn-13: 978-0374520236 [Foreword by Elie Wiesel] [Δ
  
Garry Winogrand 
  
Friedlander, L. & Harris, A. (eds.), 2002, Arrivals & Departures: The Airport Pictures of Garry Winogrand, (New York: Distributed Art Publishers) [Δ
  
Greenough, Sarah; O'Toole, Erin; Papageorge, Tod; Phillips, Sandra S. & Rubinfien, Leo (ed.), 2013, Garry Winogrand, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300191774 isbn-13: 978-0300191776 [Δ
  
Rexer, Lyle, 2013, February, ‘An Obsessive Embrace: Garry Winogrand's late sprint‘, Harper's Magazine, pp. 55-63 [Δ
  
Stack, Trudy Wilner, 2002, Winogrand: 1964, (Santa Fe: Arena Editions) isbn-10: 1892041626 isbn-13: 978-1892041623 [Δ
  
Szarkowski, John, 2003, Winogrand: Figments from the Real World, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Winogrand, Garry, 1969, The Animals, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Republished Museum of Modern Art (2004)] [Δ
  
Winogrand, Garry, 1975, Women Are Beautiful, (New York: Light Gallery & Farrar, Straus & Giroux) [Δ
  
Winogrand, Garry, 1977, Public Relations, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Republished by The Museum of Modern Art, New York (2004)] [Δ
  
Winogrand, Garry, 1999, The Man in the Crowd: The Uneasy Streets of Garry Winogrand, (San Francisco: Fraenkel Gallery and DAP) [Introduction by Fran Lebowitz. Essay by Ben Lifson] [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Alan Babbitt - Fine Art Photography 
http://www.abproductions.com ... 
The site has a quirky charm but make sure you check out the New York street photography exhibits. 
  
Jeffrey Ladd 
http://www.jeffreyladd.com 
  
Frank Rodick: Liquid city series of black and white motion studies. 
http://www.frankrodick.com ... 
  
Joseph Selle - Fox Movie Flash 
http://host321.ipowerweb.com ... 
Street photography. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Berenice Abbott  (1898-1991) • Manuel Álvarez Bravo  (1902-2002) • Victor Angerer • J. Craig Annan  (1864-1946) • Thomas Annan  (1829-1887) • Amy Arbus  (1954-) • Diane Arbus  (1923-1971) • Eugène Atget  (1857-1927) • Bill Brandt  (1904-1983) • Brassaï  (1899-1984) • Henri Cartier-Bresson  (1908-2004) • Harold Chapman  (1927-) • Mark Cohen  (1943-) • Marjory Collins • Tošo Dabac  (1907-1970) • Bill Dane  (1938-) • Bruce Davidson  (1933-) • Robert Doisneau  (1912-1994) • Louis Draper  (1935-2002) • Morris Engel  (1918-2005) • Elliott Erwitt  (1928-) • Walker Evans  (1903-1975) • Huger Foote  (1961-) • Robert Frank  (1924-) • Lee Friedlander  (1934-) • Sid Grossman  (1913-1955) • John Gutmann  (1905-1998) • Frank Horvat  (1928-) • Kenneth Josephson  (1932-) • André Kertész  (1894-1985) • William Klein  (1928-) • Josef Koudelka  (1938-) • Dorothea Lange  (1895-1965) • Jacques-Henri Lartigue  (1894-1986) • Russell Lee  (1903-1986) • Helen Levitt  (1913-2009) • Vivian Maier  (1926-2009) • Charles Marville  (1813-1879) • Emil Mayer  (1871-1938) • Roger Mayne  (1929-) • Ray K. Metzker  (1931-) • Joel Meyerowitz  (1938-) • Lisette Model  (1901-1983) • Homer Page  (1918-1985) • Tod Papageorge  (1940-) • Jacob A. Riis  (1849-1914) • Angelo Rizzuto  (1906-1967) • Walter Rosenblum  (1919-2006) • Sebastião Salgado  (1944-) • Roger Scott  (1944-) • Joseph Selle  (1906-1988) • Ben Shahn  (1898-1969) • Raghubir Singh  (1941-1999) • Aaron Siskind  (1903-1991) • Paul Strand  (1890-1976) • Frank Meadow Sutcliffe  (1853-1941) • John Thomson  (1837-1921) • John Vachon  (1914-1975) • Ed Van der Elsken  (1925-1990) • Roman Vishniac  (1897-1990) • Weegee  (1899-1968) • Dan Weiner  (1919-1959) • Garry Winogrand  (1928-1984) • Bill Witt  (1921-) • Marion Post Wolcott  (1910-1990) • Max Yavno  (1911-1985)
HomeThemes > Street 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Characters and occupational types 
Street photographers 
Urban life 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Street

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAfghan Box Camera Project 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 1, 2012)
ThumbnailDouglas Ethridge: Urban Observations 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 5, 2008)
ThumbnailGabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 30, 2006)
ThumbnailHarold Chapman: A Retrospective 1947-2007 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 12, 2007)
ThumbnailJohn Thomson - Street Life in London (1877) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 4, 2013)
ThumbnailJoseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 14, 2006)
ThumbnailRoger Mayne 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 8, 2007)
ThumbnailStreet photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (April 11, 2010)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Street

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAdolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfred Stieglitz: Winter on Fifth Avenue 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAndré Kertész: Street photography in Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArnold Genthe: Chinatown 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArnold Genthe: San Francisco: Earthquake and fire (1906) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBill Witt: New York City 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Gatewood: Wall Street 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEmil Mayer: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEugène Atget: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEustace Calland: The Mall 
ThumbnailGeorge Davison: Oxford Street - A Wet Day 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGundula Schulze Eldowy: Berlin in einer Hundenacht / Berlin in a Dog's Night 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHarold Chapman: London 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHarold Chapman: Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHelen Levitt: Children of New York 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoel Meyerowitz: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: Street Life in London 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLisette Model: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPaul Martin: Ilfracomb 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPaul Martin: Jersey 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPaul Martin: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPaul Martin: Yarmouth 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Doisneau: Humanistic photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Frank: The Americans 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoger Mayne: Youth 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRoman Vishniac: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSilas A. Holmes (attributed): New York ca. 1855) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Child: China: Pekin: Street view 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThurston Hopkins: London 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTony Ray-Jones: England 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailVictor Angerer: Instantaneous photography on the street (1888) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailVivian Maier: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: Subway portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWeegee: Street photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Klein: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailFred Church - Paul Burty Haviland - Alfred Stieglitz 
ThumbnailKarl Struss - E.O. Hoppé - Drahomir Ruzicka 
ThumbnailPaul Martin - Eugène Atget 
ThumbnailRoger Mayne - Milton Rogovin 
 
  
   Occupationals 
  
ThumbnailBootblacks and shoeshines 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailStreet: 1920s-1940s 
ThumbnailStreet: 1950s-1970s 
ThumbnailStreet: Early examples 
ThumbnailStreet: Juxtapositions with posters and signage 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailUK: England: Bristol 
 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailCalotypes: Themes: Streets 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailSnapshot aesthetic 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 11 April 2014, 22:53
 
  
 
  
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