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HomeContentsThemes > Israel and Palestine

Contents

Introduction
10083.01   An introduction to Israel and Palestine
Daguerreotypes
10083.02   Daguerreotypes: The Holy Land
10083.03   Jerusalem
Early photographers
10083.04   James Graham: The Holy Land (1855-1857)
10083.05   Mendel Diness: Jerusalem
10083.06   Louis de Clercq: Israel and Palestine
10083.07   George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859)
10083.08   Francis Frith: Books on Egypt, Sinai and Palestine
10083.09   Auguste Salzmann: Jerusalem
10083.10   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - The Holy Land and Syria (1862)
10083.11   Louis Vignes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain par M. Le Duc de Luynes (1868-74)
10083.12   H.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875)
10083.13   Félix Bonfils: Jerusalem
10083.14   James Robertson: Jerusalem
10083.15   Tancrède Dumas: Jerusalem
Nineteenth century organizations
10083.16   Palestine Exploration Fund
10083.17   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem
10083.18   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai
10083.19   American Palestine Exploration Society
10083.20   American Colony photographers of Jerusalem
Travel guides and photography
10083.21   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - Jerusalem
Zionism
10083.22   Zionism in Palestine
Post-1948 wars and social upheaval
10083.23   Middle East - a cycle of wars and uprisings (1948-): Introduction
10083.24   Lebanon 1982-2000
10083.25   George Azar: War photography in Lebanon (1982-200)
10083.26   The Intifadas
10083.27   Photographic studies on Israel, Palestine and the Intifadas
10083.28   Thoughts on the cycle of wars and uprisings in the Middle East
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
10083.01   Asia >  An introduction to Israel and Palestine 
  
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Pilgrimages to the Holy Land by adherents to Judaism, Christianity and Islam are devotional but also linked to seeing sites, finding tangible evidence of religious texts and bringing home relics. Each passage of the sacred texts has been researched for hundreds of years in minute detail and some use passages to locate archaeological, sites and finds - some with scholarly research and others with flights of fantasy. maps, paintings, drawings and prints of the locations have been common in Europe since the Renaissance and in the Islamic World probably earlier.[1]
 
Alexander Keith (1791-1880) was a minister in the Church of Scotland who authored Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy in the 1830s which went through a vast number of editions and by 1859 it was in its thirty-seventh edition.[2] In 1839 he undertook a Mission of Inquiry to Palestine in 1839, the year of the announcement of the daguerreotype, and was interested in proving the "truth" of Biblical statements. As the book went through later editions his son Dr. George Skene Keith (1819-1910) who was a surgeon, writer and amateur photographer, accompanied him to take daguerreotypes that would provide supporting evidence. In later editions these daguerreotypes were used as the basis for printed illustrations. Alexander Keith wrote in the preface to the thirty-seventh edition:
...on his first visit to the East, he took with him some calotype paper, &c., the mode of preparing which was then secret; but on reaching Syria it was wholly useless. Then engaged in another object, he passed within an hour of Ashkelon and another of Tyre, without seeing either. A second visit to Syria, accompanied by one of his sons, Dr G. S. Keith, Edinburgh, by whom the daguerreotype views were taken, enables him now to adduce such proof; and has led besides to such an enlargement of the evidence from manifold additional facts, as he fain hopes may impart that lesson to others with which his own mind has been impressed, a still deeper conviction of the defined precision of the sure word of prophecy.[3]
Rev. Albert Augustus Isaacs (1826-1903) made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1856 and the camera was and aid to memory, accuracy and education. In his book The Dead Sea (1857) he wrote:
We well know how often the pencil is proved to be treacherous and deceptive; while on the other hand the fac simile of the scene must be given by the aid of the photograph. This consideration induced me to determine that . . . I would visit these places, and not only judge for myself, but endeavour likewise to give the public the best means of arriving at a just conclusion.[4]
Later Isaacs wrote in the preface to his book A Pictorial Tour of The Holy Land (1863):
I am also convinced that when we have been in any way enabled to exercise the pictorial art, it increases vastly those powers of observation which add to the force and correctness of a descriptive narrative. As far as I am concerned, I am persuaded that I should not have had such clear impressions concerning the scenes I have visited, had it not been for the use which I have been enabled to make of the photograph and the pencil.[5]
There were a wide variety of portfolios and books with tipped-in photographs[6] through the nineteenth century showing Islamic, Biblical, ancient ruins, archaeological sites along with the local cultures. The travels undertaken by Louis de Clercq,[7] Francis Frith,[8] Auguste Salzmann,[9] Francis Bedford,[10], Louis Vignes, Henry Sauvaire[11] and H.H. Kitchner[12] all resulted in publications. 
  
Daguerreotypes 
  
10083.02   Asia >  Daguerreotypes: The Holy Land 
  
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Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey visited the The Holy Land in 1844 taking daguerreotypes what are now the vountries of Lebanon, Israel and Palestine.[13] In Lebanon he took a daguerreotype of the cedars of Lebanon which have religious significance as they are mentioned multiple times in the Old Testament.[14] He also photographed the ruins of Baalbek which were on the itinerary of many early photographers to the Middle East.[15] When he was in Jerusalem he photographed the walls, the Church of the Holy Sepulcre, the great mosque of the Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount and the Probatic Pool.[16] 
  
10083.03   Asia >  Jerusalem 
  
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This series should be seen as a starting point for research. Further research on the work of Arab, Syriac and Armenian photographers of the nineteenth century is being sought. Research should include Issay (Yessai) Garabedian, who took photographs of Jerusalem from 1857 onwards, founded a photographic school and became the Armenian Patriarch in 1865. The students he taught photography to included the Krikorian brothers, Kevork and Garabed. Khalil Raad was also significant in Jerusalem for over 50 years from 1890 onwards. 
  
   Jerusalem 
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Early photographers 
  
10083.04   Asia >  James Graham: The Holy Land (1855-1857) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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James Graham was a Scottish missionary who traveled to the Near East in the 1850s when it was under Ottoman rule. He photographed the historic sites of Jerusalem and the surrounding region. To associate the locations with Biblical truth the titles to some of his works were Biblical quotations and associations in the negative - for example "I will make Samaria as an heap of the field." Micah I.6 and Ephratah. Micah V.2. He was a friend of Pre-Raphaelite painters William Holman Hunt and Thomas Seddon[17] who both used his photographs as the basis for paintings.[18]
 
James Graham taught Mendel Diness[19] who was the first Jewish photographer in Jerusalem. The photographs and associated materials of James Graham were rediscovered at a garage sale in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1989. 
  
10083.05   Asia >  Mendel Diness: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Mendel Diness was a watchmaker in Jerusalem who learnt photography from Scottish missionary James Graham in the 1850s.[20] Diness later converted to Christianity and settled in the United States becoming a preacher. 
  
10083.06   Asia >  Louis de Clercq: Israel and Palestine 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10083.07   Asia >  George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In an age of deeply held religious convictions photographic evidence of places mentioned in the Bible was much sought after as it provided visible proof. Alexander Keith's book Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy was highly popular and went through numerous editions. George Skene Keith took daguerreotypes of locations and archaeological sites in and around the Holy Land to provide visual evidence for his father Alexander Keith's book. In the Preface to the Thirty-Sixth Edition it says:
In searching for facts alone, in illustration of prophecies, it has uniformly been the Author's endeavour to adduce the most unexceptionable and conclusive evidence; and hence unbelievers, condemned out of their own mouths, have in general been the leading witnesses. As soon as photography began to take its place among the wonderful arts or inventions of the present day, he anticipated a mode of demonstration that could neither be questioned nor surpassed; as, without the need of any testimony, or the aid of either pen or pencil, the rays of the sun would thus depict what the prophets saw. With this intent, on his first visit to the East, he took with him some calotype paper, &c., the mode of preparing which was then secret; but on reaching Syria it was wholly useless. Then engaged in another object, he passed within an hour of Ashkelon and another of Tyre, without seeing either. A second visit to Syria, accompanied by one of his sons, Dr G. S. Keith, Edinburgh, by whom the daguerreotype views were taken, enables him now to adduce such proof; and has led besides to such an enlargement of the evidence from manifold additional facts, as he fain hopes may impart that lesson to others with which his own mind has been impressed, a still deeper conviction of the defined precision of the sure word of prophecy.[21]
 
  
10083.08   Asia >  Francis Frith: Books on Egypt, Sinai and Palestine 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10083.09   Asia >  Auguste Salzmann: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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There have been many photographers who travel to a famous location and photograph it but don't see the evidence it presents. They collect visual memories with a camera to document places and sites but little more. Auguste Salzmann (1824-1872) was fundamentally different and this requires stressing - no other early photographer saw the way he did as an archaeologist. His 1856 volume Jérusalem. Etude et reproduction photographique des monuments de la Ville Sainte[22] included salt prints made using waxed paper negatives and printed by Blanquart-Evrard. The important factor here is what he saw and why.
 
Archaeology has fundamental rules related to stratigraphy and the way the architectural features have changed over time that give us indication as to dating. A blocked up window or doorway, changes in the types of stone in a section, ornamental stonework of differing styles are all clues to the understanding of temporal sequences and the changing cultures of a region. Auguste Salzmann was a rare person who recognised this and by looking at some examples of his work his analytical appreciation is immediately evident.  
  
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In these stratigraphic sections the changes of the rocks and shaped blocks indicate different building periods. His photograph of three blocked Roman arched doorways highlights how there have been changes to the use of a building over the centuries. A blocked up doorway at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre may indicate a need for increased security or a change of use. These are clues in stone. Auguste Salzmann went on to excavate on the island of Rhodes and some of his archaeological finds went to the British Museum in London.[23]
 
These photographs are unusual as they show the mind set and training of the photographer.[24] 
  
10083.10   Asia >  Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - The Holy Land and Syria (1862) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1862 photographer Francis Bedford[25] accompanied The Prince of Wales during a "Tour of the East" during which the royal party visited The Holy Land and Syria
  
   Francis  Bedford Tour 
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10083.11   Asia >  Louis Vignes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain par M. Le Duc de Luynes (1868-74) 
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10083.12   Asia >  H.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875) 
  
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The 1875 folio by H.H. Kitchener entitled Photographs of Biblical Sites[26] includes 12 mounted albumen photographs of interiors, exteriors and landscapes in Palestine and each plate is accompanied by text.
 
List of views:
Scene of the return of the ark from captivity with the Philistines
The scene of the attack on the Philistine camp by Jonathan and his armour-bearer
Mount Moriah
The site of Solomon's temple
Elisha's fountain at Jericho
Bethlehem
Presentation in the temple
Baptism in Jordan
Cana of Galilee
Bethany
The way of the cross
The holy Sepulchre
 
  
10083.13   Asia >  Félix Bonfils: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Félix Bonfils[27] was born in St. Hippolyte du Fort in France in 1831. Originally a bookbinder, in 1860 he enlisted and was sent to the Levant. He liked Lebanon and when his young son Adrien (born 1860) developed respiratory problems, he decided to emigrate. In 1867 the Bonfils family moved to the dry climate of Beirut and opened a photographic studio there. Félix Bonfils photographed extensively throughout Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Greece.
 
The increase in tourist travel is shown in a photograph of the Jaffa Gate[28] (Porte de Jaffa, Jérusalem) attributed to Félix Bonfils, On the left hand side there is a sign for "Cooks" affixed to the wall highlighting that the British firm of Thomas Cook had a presence in Jerusalem
  
10083.14   Asia >  James Robertson: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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James Robertson (1813-1888)[29] was an Englishman who trained at the Royal Mint in London and became chief engraver for the Ottoman Imperial Mint in Constantinople a position he held for forty years. He photographed in Turkey, Greece, Egypt and the Middle East including the city of Jerusalem
  
10083.15   Asia >  Tancrède Dumas: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Nineteenth century organizations 
  
10083.16   Asia >  Palestine Exploration Fund 
  
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The Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF) was founded in 1865 under the royal patronage of Queen Victoria with the mission to "to promote research into the archaeology and history, manners and customs and culture, topography, geology and natural sciences of biblical Palestine and the Levant."[30] Through a program of expeditions during which cartographic surveys[31] were carried out and archaeological excavations undertaken the PEF has made a considerable contribution to our knowledge of the region.
 
The Karl Baedeker guidebook for Palestine and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (1876) provided a description of the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Lastly we must mention the valuable services rendered to science by the society of the 'Palestine Exploration Fund', whose labours have extended over nearly ten years, but which unfortunately has not received pecuniary support commensurate with the importance of its objects. (Subscriptions are received by the Secretary, Walter Besant, Esq., 9 Pall Mall East, London.) The object of the society is the 'accurate and systematic exploration of the topography, geology, natural history, and ethnology of the Holy Land, particularly with a view to the interpretation of the Bible'. The society publishes ' Quarterly Statements', sent gratis to every subscriber, the substance of which down to the end of 1872 is comprised in two very interesting works. The larger of these is the 'Recovery of Jerusalem' by Major Wilson and Capt. Warren, edited by W. Morrison (London, 1871), and the smaller, which is to a great extent abridged from the other, 'Our Work in Palestine' (London, 1873). The Society first sent out Major Wilson, R.E., and Captain Anderson, R.E., to report on the best method of proceeding. These officers made a reconnaissance in Galilee and along the watershed to Nabulus; they took a great number of photographs and discovered several of the Galilean synagogues. The Fund next turned its attention to the archaeology of Jerusalem. In 1867 Capt. Warren, R.E., was sent out. His work was continued till 1870, and consisted mainly in making excavations. He, however, also made reconnaissances in Philistia, the Jordan Valley, and Moab. The results of the Jerusalem work are extremely valuable to scholars, especially in fixing the character and dimensions of the great Temple platform and the original rock surface of the Temple hill.
 
In 1871 the Society sent out Professor Palmer, accompanied by Mi. Tyrwhitt Drake. These gentlemen made an adventurous journey through the Negeb and an expedition into Moab.
 
In 1872 the most important undertaking of the Fund was started, being the topographical survey of Western Palestine to the scale of 1-inch to the mile. The party was commanded by Captain Stewart, R.E., and included Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake. Captain Stewart fell ill at the commencement of the work and was succeeded by Lieut. Conder, R.E., who is still in command. At the present date the survey of the whole country from Beersheba to Safed in Galilee, 4600 sq. miles in area, is complete, while 1400 sq. miles remain to be surveyed in upper Galilee. Mr. Tyrwhitt Drake died at his work from fever in June 1874. On 11th July, 1875, the survey party was attacked by a fanatical armed mob at Safed. Lieut. Conder was wounded, as well as Lieut. Kitchener, R.E., the second in command, and nearly every other member of the party. In consequence of this attack, and of the spread of cholera, the party was withdrawn for the winter. It is hoped that the survey will be completed in 1876, and published about a year later.
 
This work will probably prove the most important yet done in Palestine. The Biblical discoveries have been numerous and important; the number of sites explored and names collected is six or seven times greater than that on any published map; careful observations of natural history, geology, architecture, etc., have been made, and large scale plans of important towns, ruins, or buildings, have been drawn. Between 30 and 40 new churches have been found in various parts of Palestine, and some 200 of the rock-cut tombs have been planned.
 
The map will be published in ten large sheets, each accompanied by a memoir with plans and lists of names in English and Arabic. An endeavour will be made to give a description of every ruined site in the whole country from Dan to Beersheba. Numerous photographs have also been taken by the party, which are now being published.
 
In 1874 the Fund also sent out M. Clermont-Ganneau to Jerusalem. His work was principally epigraphic, and his most valuable discovery was that of a fine Hebrew inscription defining the limits of the city of Gezer, which he had already identified from independent considerations.[32]
On the expeditions Sergeant Henry Phillips of the Royal Engineers and Sergeant James McDonald both took photographs during the surveys of The Holy Land
  
10083.17   Asia >  Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
  
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Photographic work by Sergeant Henry Phillips, under the command of Sir Charles Warren, of the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF)[33] was undertaken in Jerusalem, The Holy Land (1867-1870). Some of the photographs were exhibited in London in 1869.
The Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund have opened the Dudley Gallery, Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, for an exhibition of great interest, which may form the nucleus of the desired Biblical Museum.

The centre piece of the Gallery is a large Ordnance Survey Plan of Jerusalem and its environs, telling very forcibly to the eye the nature of the country, with its well-known historic hills and sacred sites. The walls of the Gallery are hung with nearly 350 admirable photographic views of scenes in Palestine and Syria, taken by Sergeant Phillips under the orders of Captain Wilson and Lieutenant Warren. These pictures are a study in themselves. After looking at them we seem to be familiar with landscapes, now desolate and ruin bestrewn, once so rich and fertile, "with milk and honey blest," that land, "Over whose acres trod those blessed feet."[34]
 
  
10083.18   Asia >  Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
  
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The Ordnance Survey of the Sinai (1868-1869) was undertaken by the Palestine Exploration Fund (PEF)[35] and led by Captains Charles W. Wilson and H.S. Palmer. Sergeant James McDonald took photographs of the survey team and the topographical and archaeological features.[36] 
  
10083.19   Asia >  American Palestine Exploration Society 
  
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The American Palestine Exploration Society was founded in New York in 1870 as a privately funded society for archaeological and geographic exploration of the Holy Land. A forerunner of the American Schools of Oriental Research, the organization conducted its second expedition to the Holy Land in 1875 and hired French photographer Tancrede Dumas, who owned a studio in Beirut, to accompany the expedition.
 
Boston Univerversity houses the American Palestine Exploration Society (APES) Photograph Collection. 
  
10083.20   Asia >  American Colony photographers of Jerusalem 
  
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The American Colony of Jerusalem was a Utopian Christian community founded in 1881 by Horatio and Anna Spafford who had lost their four daughters when the liner they were on was accidently rammed and sunk in 1873.[37] The aims of the society were philanthropic and educational. Members of the group, particularly Elijah Meyers, Hol Lars (Lewis) Larsson and G. Eric Matson, documented life in Jerusalem, the locust devastation of 1915 and their interests in archaeological sites.[38] In the late 1890s Elijah Meyers founded the American Colony Photo Department which was headed between ca. 1903 and 1933 by Lewis Larsson, with staff photographers included Erik Lind, Lars Lind, Furman Baldwin, and G. Eric Matson. In around 1940 the Matson Photo Service was formed and additional photographers included Hanna Safieh and Joseph H. Giries.[39] 
  
Travel guides and photography 
  
10083.21   Asia >  Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - Jerusalem 
  
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The travel handbooks of Karl Baedeker provided tips on where to purchase the finest photographs whlst traveling.
  • Jerusalem
     
    Karl Baedeker (firm) Palestine and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1876), p.145
     
    Books, Photographs. Shapira, Christian Street. is the best shop; then Bergheim, in the same street. Photographs of every part of Palestine, medium size 18 fr. per dozen. They should be bought unmounted, and rolled on a round piece of wood to facilitate transport.
 
  
   19thc Studio Marketing 
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Zionism 
  
10083.22   Asia >  Zionism in Palestine 
  
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During the 1930s as Anti-Semitism increased in Europe with the rise of Fascism so the need for safe refuge became pressing as visas for Jews became increasingly difficult to obtain. Zionist pressure on the authorities running Palestine under the British Mandate grew as the numbers of refugees escaping persecution rose. Within Palestine the tensions between the Arab populations and the settlers increased and riots were not uncommon. Zionist leaders such as David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) and Golda Meir (1898-1978) recognised the importance of supporting the Kibbuz farms which had started in 1909 as a solid agricultural basis along with military strength was fundamental to building an eventual state. The photographs of industrial photographer Alfons Himmelreich reflect this process.[40] 
  
Post-1948 wars and social upheaval 
  
10083.23   Asia >  Middle East - a cycle of wars and uprisings (1948-): Introduction 
  
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On Friday 14 May, 1948 (the day in which the British Mandate over Palestine expired) the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel was signed by members of the National Council gathered at the Tel Aviv Museum - the American President Harold Truman recognized it as a sovereign country a few minutes afterwards going against many of his closest advisors including his Secretary of State, George Marshall. This was against the 29 November 1947 United Nations vote to divide Palestine so that a Jewish national homeland could be created from one sector of the area under the British Mandate.
 
On 15 May 1948, the Arab states issued their response statement to the declaration and Arab armies invaded Israel and the first Arab-Israeli war began. Following the ceasefire and armistice agreements with Egypt, Transjordan and Lebanon on 11 May 1949 Israel was recognized as an independent state at the UN and within a couple of months a ceasefire with Syria was signed.
 
Israel, the occupied territories of Palestine and its neighbouring countries have lived with periods of relative peace interspersed by wars (the 1967 Six Day War) and years of civil unrest. 
  
10083.24   Asia >  Lebanon 1982-2000 
  
The attacks and retaliations between Israel and Lebanon led to a full scale invasion of Lebanon by the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) in June 1982.[41] On 16 September 1982 the Lebanese Christian Phalangist militia entered the Beruit refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila (Chatila) and massacred the civilians - the precise number of victims of the massacre is unknown but the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) counted 2,750 but estimates vary between 300 and 3000. Photojournalist Robin Moyer was World Press Photo Winner in1982 for a photograph he took of the massacre.[42]
 
The Phalangists were authorized by the Israeli IDF, under the command of Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon, that held the territory around the camps - the outcry of the civilian losses forced an Israeli investigation, the Kahan Commission of Inquiry, in which Sharon was highly criticized[43] and the 12 February 2003 ruling from the Belgian Supreme Court created an uproar when it indicted Sharon for being complicit in the massacres.
 
By October 1983 hopes for foreign intervention failed when the Beirut barracks was destroyed by a truck bomb killing 241 US service personel. Lebanon went from bad to worse and became a factionalized disaster area with Beirut being shelled, bombed and having different regions of the city controlled by a multitude of guerrilla armies and proxies of different countries particularly Israel and Syria. During this period there are numerous hostages taken including Terry Waite, Brian Keenan[44] and John McCarthy who became household names in the UK. The Israel Defense Forces unilaterally withdrew from its positions in Lebanon in May 2000 after suffering years of bloody guerilla attacks from Hezbollah.
 
Photographers including Marc Riboud, Don McCullin[45] covered Beirut and George Azar[46] covered the 1982 Israeli bombing of of the city. 
  
10083.25   Asia >  George Azar: War photography in Lebanon (1982-200) 
  
Photojournalist George Azar,[47] who documented wars in the Middle East commented on the simplistic way regions are dipicted by the American media:
"When I first started working in the business, they told me that a great photograph had to have a gun in it. Better yet, it should have a man holding a gun. And the so-called best photographs — the ones that would make it on the front pages of American newspapers — would be those that captured women or children shooting or holding guns. ...
 
The reduction of an entire country to guns and fires resulted in the American public seeing a very skewed perspective of Lebanon. I wasn’t informing the American public, I was disinforming them."[48]
 
  
10083.26   Asia >  The Intifadas 
  
Within the West Bank and Gaza there have been uprisings (Intifada) against Israeli incursions, targeted assassinations, and restrictions that are breaches of numerous UN votes and international treaties. There have been two Intifada. Many Israelis refer to the Intifada as the matzav which means 'the situation' which has the linguistic hope that it will end. This is as euphemistic as the way the civil unrest in Northern Ireland is referred to as the troubles.
The First Intifada (1987-1993) in the Palestinian occupied territories was bloody but was largely confrontations between children throwing stones and a heavily armed Israel Defense Forces. The intifada was followed by the malformed birth of the Palestinian Authority under Yasser Arafat.[49]
 
The Second Intifada (2000-2005) started following the visit on the morning of 28 September 2000, a six-member Likud Knesset delegation led by the then-leader of the Israeli opposition, Ariel Sharon, to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. This act was provocative and a catalyst in a tinderbox that was ready for ignition. The second Intifada was far worse than the first as it has moved from rock throwing into guerrilla warfare, with rocket attacks and bus bombs - the Palestinians had learnt the lessons of the Hezbollah fighting in Lebanon.[50]
The bus bombing in Haifa's Carmeliya neighborhood in the afternoon of Wednesday 5 March 2003 killed 15 Israeli civilians, wounding 30 more but was preceeded by an IDF (Israel Defense Force) attack in Gaza that killed 20 civilians including a heavily pregnant woman only 10 days from term. This violent loop is set to continue. 
  
10083.27   Asia >  Photographic studies on Israel, Palestine and the Intifadas 
  
There have been, and continue to be, numerous photo-essays and in depth studies:  
  
10083.28   Asia >  Thoughts on the cycle of wars and uprisings in the Middle East 
  
Photojournalists can try to be dispassionate or struggle to promote peace when the odds against it are so high but it is difficult not to take sides when witnessing such horrors in situations when neither side is blameless. 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ When do the earliest Islamic sources depict locations in the Middle East? - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  2. Λ The books of Alexander Keith were incredibly popular but there was another way that evidence could be obtained. In June 1846 an advert for "Varty's New and Original Cabinet Models" was published in The Gentleman's Magazine, vol. XXV, no.VI (New Series), 1846, this advert was on p.57 in the Gent. Mag. Advertiser. The advert for models of religious sites stated:
    ...the Model of Jerusalem, received a further and remarkable confirmation from its accuracy having been most satisfactorily tested with Daguerreotype Views taken at Jerusalem, and kindly furnished by Rev. Dr. Keith, the eminent Author of Works on Prophecy.
     
      
  3. Λ Alexander Keith, 1859, Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy, Thirty-seventh edition (London, T. Nelson and Sons), Preface. 
      
  4. Λ Albert Augustus Isaacs, 1857, The Dead Sea: or, Notes and Observations Made during a Journey to Palestine in 1856-7 on M. de Saulcy’s Supposed Discovery of the Cities of the Plain, (London: Hatchard and Son) ["Illustrated from Photographs taken on the spot by the Author"]. Quoted in - Roger Taylor with Larry J. Schaaf, 2007, Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840–1860, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
      
  5. Λ Rev. Albert Augustus Isaacs, 1863, A Pictorial Tour of The Holy Land, (London: Wertheim, Macintosh, & Hunt, 1863), Preface, p. vi 
      
  6. Λ Tipped-in - ILAB: International League of Antiquarian Booksellers
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    www.ilab.org/eng/glossary/557-tipped-in.html
    Attached to, but not integral to the binding of the book. We usually use this term to indicate something that has been added: a letter from the author, a newspaper or magazine review or obituary, etc. The nature of what is tipped-in will determine whether this addition will enhance or devalue the book.
     
      
  7. Λ Louis de Clerq, 1860, Voyage en Orient 1859-1860, villes, monuments et vues pittoresques [Six volumes with 222 calotypes]  
      
  8. Λ There were multiple editions of the books of Francis Frith and the photographic plates they included varied. He also created a photographically-illustrated version of the Bible - Francis Frith, 1862-1863, The Holy Bible … Illustrated with Photographs by [Francis] Frith, (Glasgow: William Mackenzie) 
      
  9. Λ For the publication of Auguste Salzmann of Jerusalem - Auguste Salzmann, 1856, Jérusalem. Etude et reproduction photographique des monuments de la Ville Sainte depuis l'époque judaïque jusqu'à nos jours par Auguste Salzmann, chargé par le Ministère de l'instruction publique d'une mission scientifique en Orient, [Jerusalem: Photographs of the Monuments of the Holy City], (Paris: Gide et J. Baudry) 
      
  10. Λ For Francis Bedford - Francis Bedford, 1863, Photographic Pictures Made By Mr. Francis Bedford During the Tour in the East in which, by command, he accompanied His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, (London: Day & Son); W.M. Thompson & Francis Bedford, 1860s, The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens: a series of forty-eight photographs, (London: Day) [Text and introduction by W.M. Thompson, photographs by Francis Bedford]; Linda Wheatley-Irving, 2007, Summer, ‘Holy Land Photographs and Their Words: Francis Bedford and the 'Tour in the East'‘, Jerusalem Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 79-96; Sophie Gordon, John McCarthy & Badr El-Hage, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) 
      
  11. Λ Le Duc de Luynes [Honoré Paul Joseph d'Albert], 1868-1874, Voyage d'exploration à la mer Morte, à Petra, et sur la rive gauche du Jourdain, (Paris: Arthus Bertrand) [French - œuvre posthume publiée par ses petits-fils sous la direction de M. le comte de Vogüé. Atlas includes 64 hand-pulled black-and-white photogravures by Charles Nègre from wet-collodion negatives by Louis Vignes and Jardin and 18 toned lithographs by Eugène Ciceri, 14 after photographs of Louis Vignes and Henri Joseph Sauvaire.]
     
    Philippe Foliot, 1993, July-Sept, ‘Louis Vignes et Henry Sauvaire Photographers of the Expeditions of the Duc de Luynes‘, History of Photography, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 233-250 
      
  12. Λ H.H. Kitchener, 1875, Photographs of Biblical Sites (London: Richard Bentley & Son) 
      
  13. Λ In 1842 Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey set off on a tour of Italy, Greece and the Middle East taking between 800 and 900 daguerreotypes of ancient monuments.
     
    On Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey - 1998, Girault de Prangey (1804-1892): dessins, peintures, photographies, études historiques, (Langres: Musées de Langres / D. Guéniot) [Exhibition catalogue]
     
    Sales catalogues - 2003, 20 May, Important Daguerreotypes by Joseph-Philbert Girault De Prangey from the Archive of the Artist - Part I - Christie's London, (London: Christies); 2004, 18 May, Important Daguerreotypes by Joseph-Philbert Girault De Prangey from the Archive of the Artist - Part II - Christie's London, (London: Christies) 
      
  14. Λ Cedars of God - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 12 December 2013) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cedars_of_God 
      
  15. Λ In addition to Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey the extensive ruins at Baalbek were documented by a number of photographers including: Maxime Du Camp, Louis de Clercq, Gustave Le Gray, Félix Bonfils, Tancrède Dumas, W. Hammerschmidt, Francis Frith and Francis Bedford. 
      
  16. Λ In the J. Paul Getty Museum record for this daguerreotype "The Probatic Pool, Jerusalem (Jérusalem. Piscine probatique)" (2004.79.3) it says - Jerusalem's Probatic Pool was believed to be the site of a miracle performed by Jesus. According to the Bible, he healed a man who had been lame for thirty-eight years. 
      
  17. Λ Roger Taylor & Larry J. Schaaf, 2007, Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840-1860, (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) 
      
  18. Λ James Graham is mentioned in - John Pollard Seddon, 1858, Memoir and Letters of the Late Thomas Seddon, Artist, (London: J. Nisbet) [James Graham, p. 111] 
      
  19. Λ Carney E. S. Gavin & Nitza Rosovsky, 1995, Autumn, ‘Mendell John Diness of Jerusalem and Cincinnati‘, History of Photography, vol. 19, pp. 224-28 
      
  20. Λ Carney E. S. Gavin & Nitza Rosovsky, 1995, Autumn, ‘Mendell John Diness of Jerusalem and Cincinnati‘, History of Photography, vol. 19, pp. 224-28 
      
  21. Λ Alexander Keith, 1859, Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy, Thirty-seventh edition, (London, T. Nelson and Sons), preface 
      
  22. Λ For the publication of Auguste Salzmann of Jerusalem - Auguste Salzmann, 1856, Jérusalem. Etude et reproduction photographique des monuments de la Ville Sainte depuis l'époque judaïque jusqu'à nos jours par Auguste Salzmann, chargé par le Ministère de l'instruction publique d'une mission scientifique en Orient, [Jerusalem: Photographs of the Monuments of the Holy City], (Paris: Gide et J. Baudry) 
      
  23. Λ Auguste Salzmann was later involved in archaeological excavations on the island of Rhodes with some of his finds going to the British Museum - 1862, 2 June (Ordered), "Antiquities from Camirus, in the Island of Rhodes", The Finance Accounts I.-VII. of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for the Financial Year 1861-1862 (House of Commons) in the section on "Accounts, Estimates, &c. of the British Museum", pp. 16-17. 
      
  24. Λ I know of no other nineteenth photographer whose photographs show an understanding of archaeological principles as well of those of Auguste Salzmann. If you have other examples or suggestions I'd be most interested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  25. Λ Francis Bedford, 1863, Photographic Pictures Made By Mr. Francis Bedford During the Tour in the East in which, by command, he accompanied His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, (London: Day & Son)
     
    W.M. Thompson & Francis Bedford, 1860s, The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens: a series of forty-eight photographs, (London: Day) [Text and introduction by W.M. Thompson, photographs by Francis Bedford]
     
    See also - Badr El-Hage & Sophie Gordon, 2012, The Middle East in early photographs: Francis Bedford's royal tour of 1862, (London: Royal Collection); Sophie Gordon; John McCarthy & Badr El-Hage, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) 
      
  26. Λ H.H. Kitchener, 1875, Photographs of Biblical Sites (London: Richard Bentley & Son) Folio. Unpaginated. Black decorated maroon cloth with gilt lettering. 
      
  27. Λ For Félix Bonfils and Maison Bonfils - Carney E.S. Gavin, 1978, ‘Bonfils and the Early Photography of the Near East‘, Harvard Library Bulletin, vol. XXVI, no. 4; Robert Sobieszek, 1980, Remembrances of the Near East: The photographs of Bonfils, 1867-1907, (International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House); 2000, In Arab Lands: The Bonfils Collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, (American University in Cairo Press) 
      
  28. Λ Félix Bonfils [Attributed to], Porte de Jaffa, Jérusalem, 1894, March (album), Albumen print, 22.5 x 28.5 cm, New York Public Library, Stephen A. Schwarzman Building / Photography Collection, Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs, Catalog Call Number: MFZ+ (Bonfils) 82-117 , Digital ID: 85322, Record ID: 112109 
      
  29. Λ For James Robertson - B.A. & H.K. Henisch, 1990, January-March, "James Robertson of Constantinople: A Chronology", History of Photography, vol. 14, pp. 23-32; Bahattin Oztuncay, 1992, James Robertson: Pioneer of Photography in The Ottoman Empire, (Istanbul: Eran); Bahattin Oztuncay, 2013, Robertson. Photographer and engraver in the Ottoman capital.= Robertson. Osmanli baskentinde fotografçi ve hakkâk, (Istanbul: Koç University Press) 
      
  30. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  31. Λ Major early surveys of the Palestine Exploration Fund included:
     
    Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem
    Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
      
  32. Λ Karl Baedeker (firm), 1876, Palestine and Syria. Handbook for Travellers (Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1876), pp.125-126. 
      
  33. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  34. Λ anon., July 1, 1869, January, "Relics and Photographs from the Holy Land", The Scattered Nation, vols. 3-4, pp. 194 
      
  35. Λ The Palestine Exploration Fund continues its work today. As it says on its website:
    The PEF was founded in 1865 and is the oldest organization in the world created specifically for the study of the Levant, the southern portion of which was conventionally known as ‘Palestine’. The PEF is a major bridge and information resource for the public and academic community.
    (Accessed: 1 November 2013)
    www.pef.org.uk
     
    The Palestine Exploration Fund, 2 Hinde Mews, Marylebone Lane, London, W1U 2AA, UK
    Tel: +44 (0)20 7935 5379, Fax: +44 (0)20 7486 7438, Email: ExecSec@PEF.org.uk 
      
  36. Λ Ordnance Survey, 1869, Ordnance survey of the peninsula of Sinai. / Made with the sanction of the Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, bart., secretary of state for war, by Captains C.W. Wilson and H.S. Palmer, under the direction of Colonel Sir Henry James...director-general of the Ordnance survey. Pub. by authority of the lords commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, (Southampton, Ordnance survey office [London, H.M. Stationery off., G.E. Eyre and W.S. Spottiswoode, printers])
     
    Library of Congress, Call Number: DS110.5 .G7 (Case Y) [P&P] Copy 1
    www.loc.gov/pictures/item/20010340/ 
      
  37. Λ For the American Colony of Jerusalem - Alexander Hume Ford, 1906, "Our American Colony at Jerusalem". Appleton's Magazine, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 643–55; Bertha Spafford Vester, 1950, Our Jerusalem: an American family in the Holy city, 1881-1949, (Doubleday); Helga Dudman & Ruth Kark, 1998, The American Colony: scenes from a Jerusalem saga, (Jerusalem: Carta); Jane Fletcher Geniesse, 2009, American Priestess: The Extraordinary Story of Anna Spafford and the American Colony in Jerusalem, (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group) 
      
  38. Λ Rachel Hallote, 2007, "Photography and the American Contribution to Early "Biblical" Archaeology, 1870-1920," Near Eastern Archaeology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 32-33. 
      
  39. Λ The Library of Congress has a collection of photographs by the American Colony (Jerusalem)
    (Accessed: 14 December 2013)
    www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2007675258/ 
      
  40. Λ Alfons Himmelreich, 2005, Alfons Himmelreich: Photographer on the Roof, (Israel: The Open Museum of Photography in the Tel-Hai Industrial Park) 
      
  41. Λ Robert Fisk, 2002, Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon, (Nation Books) 
      
  42. Λ Robin Moyer was photographing for Black Star for Time. 
      
  43. Λ 1983, The Beirut Massacre: the Complete Kahan Commission Report, (Princeton, NJ: Karz-Cohl) 
      
  44. Λ Brain Keenan, 1994, An Evil Cradling: The Five-Year Ordeal of a Hostage, (Penguin Books) 
      
  45. Λ Don McCullin, 1983, Beirut: A City in Crisis, (New English Library) 
      
  46. Λ George Azar, 1991, Palestine: A Photographic Journey, (University of California Press); Mariam Shahin & George Azar, 2005, Palestine: A Guide, ( Interlink Pub Group Inc), 2nd edition 
      
  47. Λ George Azar, 1991, Palestine: A Photographic Journey, (University of California Press); Mariam Shahin & George Azar, 2005, Palestine: A Guide, ( Interlink Pub Group Inc), 2nd edition 
      
  48. Λ George Azar quoted in an article by Michelle Keller for ‘The Stanford Daily‘ 15 January 2003 
      
  49. Λ For context - Zachary Lockman & Joel Beinin (eds.), 1999, Intifada, (South End Press) The level at which a discussion of the issues is polarized is perhaps best shown by a customer review by HM on Amazon (posted: 20 October 2009):
    All the usual suspects write for the book above, that is all the usual far left extremist anti Israel nutjobs that currently populate our institutions of so-called higher learning.
    The situation is so extreme in the Middle East that any examination of the opposing viewpoint is seen as treachery or idiocy. 
      
  50. Λ Magnum photographers including Larry Towell and Christopher Anderson covered the start of the unrest on 27th September 2000.
     
    Wendy Perlman & Laura Junka, 2003, Occupied Voices: Stories of Everyday Life from the Second Intifada, (Nation Books) 
      
  51. Λ Roger Lemoyne - Official website
    (Accessed: 27 March 2018)
    www.rogerlemoyne.com 
      
  52. Λ Yair Gil
    (Accessed: 27 March 2014)
    www.yairgil.com 
      
  53. Λ George Azar, 1991, Palestine: A Photographic Journey, (University of California Press); Mariam Shahin & George Azar, 2005, Palestine: A Guide, (Interlink Pub Group Inc), 2nd edition 
      
  54. Λ Boris Carmi; Yaram Kaniuk (ed.) & J. Schlor. (ed.), 2004, Boris Carmi: Photographs from Israel, (New York: Prestel) 
      
  55. Λ John Tordai & Graham Usher, 2001, A People Called Palestine, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) 
      
  56. Λ David & Peter Turnley, 1997, In Times of War and Peace, (Abbeville Press) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
Aker, Julide, 2000, Sight-seeing: Photography of the Middle East and its Audiences, 1840-1940, (Cambridge: Harvard University Art Museums Gallery Series, Niumber 30) [Δ
  
Azar, George Baramki, 1991, Palestine: A Photographic Journey, (University of California Press) isbn-10: 0520073843 isbn-13: 978-0520073845 [Δ
  
Badr El-Hage, 2007, L’orient des Photographes Armeniens, (Paris: Cercle d’Art) [Δ
  
Badr El-Hage, 2007, Summer, ‘The Armenian Pioneers of Middle Eastern Photography‘, Jerusalem Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 22-26 [Δ
  
Dudman, Helga & Kark, Ruth, 1998, The American Colony: scenes from a Jerusalem saga, (Jerusalem: Carta) isbn-13: 978-9652203991 [Δ
  
Fletcher Geniesse, Jane, 2009, American Priestess: The Extraordinary Story of Anna Spafford and the American Colony in Jerusalem, (Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group) isbn-13: 978-0307277725 [Δ
  
Gibson, Shimon, 2003, Jerusalem in Original Photographs 1850-1920, (Stacey International for the Palestine Exploration Fund) [Δ
  
Howe, K.S., 1997, Revealing The Holy Land. The Photographic Exploration Of Palestine, (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum Of Art) [Δ
  
Jacobson, K., 2007, Odalisques & Arabesques: Orientalist Photography 1839-1925, (London: Quaritch) isbn-10: 095508525X isbn-13: 9780955085253 [Δ
  
Keith, Alexander, 1859, Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion derived from the Literal Fulfilment of Prophecy, (London, T. Nelson and Sons) [Thirty-seventh edition] [Δ
  
Kitchener, H.H., 1875, Photographs of Biblical Sites, (London: Richard Bentley & Son) [Δ
  
Le Duc de Luynes [Honoré Paul Joseph d'Albert], 1868-1874, Voyage d'exploration à la mer Morte, à Petra, et sur la rive gauche du Jourdain, (Paris: Arthus Bertrand) [French - œuvre posthume publiée par ses petits-fils sous la direction de M. le comte de Vogüé. Atlas includes 64 hand-pulled black-and-white photogravures by Charles Nègre from wet-collodion negatives by Louis Vignes and Jardin and 18 toned lithographs by Eugène Ciceri, 14 after photographs of Louis Vignes and Henri Joseph Sauvaire.] [Δ
  
Mott, Augusta, 1865, The stones of Palestine: notes of a ramble through the Holy Land, (London: Seeley, Jackson, and Halliday) [Photographs by Francis Bedford] [Δ
  
Nassar, Issam, 1997, Photographing Jerusalem: The image of the city in nineteenth century photography, (Boulder : East European Monographs ; New York : Distributed by Columbia University Press) [Δ
  
Nasser, Issam, 1997, Photographing Jerusalem: The Image of the City in Nineteenth Century Photography, (Boulder: East European Monographs) [Δ
  
Nasser, Issam, 2000, Winter, ‘A Jerusalem Photographer: The Life and Work of Hanna Safieh‘, Jerusalem Quarterly, vol. 7, pp. 24-28 [Δ
  
Nasser, Issam, 2006, Fall/Winter, ‘Familial Snapshot: Representing Palestine in the Work of the First Local Photographer‘, History & Memory, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 139-155 [Δ
  
Nasser, Issam, 2011, Summer, ‘Early Local Photography in Palestine: The Legacy of Karimeh Abbud‘, Jerusalem Quarterly, vol. 46, pp. 23-31 [Δ
  
Nir, Yeshayahu, 1985, The Bible and the image: The history of photography in the Holy Land, 1839-1899, (University of Pennsylvania Press) [Δ
  
Onne, Eyal, 1980, Photographic Heritage of the Holy Land 1839-1914, (Institute of Advanced Studies Manchester Polytechnic) isbn-10: 0905252101 isbn-13: 978-0905252100 [Δ
  
Perez, Nissan N., 1988, Focus East: Early Photography in the Near East 1839-1885, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
Sela, Rona, 2001, Photography in Palestine in the 1930s-40s, (Hakibutz Hameuchad Publishing House and Herzliya Museum) [Δ
  
Shahin, Mariam & Azar, George, 2005, Palestine: A Guide, (Northampton, MA: Interlink Books) isbn-10: 1905214510 [Δ
  
Spafford Vester, Bertha, 1950, Our Jerusalem: an American family in the Holy City, 1881-1949, (Doubleday) isbn-10: 0405102968 [Δ
  
Tordai, John & Usher, Graham, 2001, A People Called Palestine, (Dewi Lewis Publishing) [Δ
  
Vaczek, L & Buckland, G, 1981, Travelers In Ancient Lands: A Portrait Of The Middle East, 1839-1919, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
  
Woodward, Michelle L., 2007, Summer, ‘Photographic Style and the Depiction of Israeli-Palestinian Conflict since 1948‘, Jerusalem Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 6-21 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
George Baramki Azar 
  
Azar, George, 1991, Palestine: A Photographic Journey, (University of California Press) isbn-10: 0520075447 isbn-13: 978-0520075443 [Introductory essay by Ann M. Lesch] [Δ
  
Shahin, Mariam & Azar, George, 2005, Palestine: A Guide, (Interlink Pub Group Inc) isbn-10: 156656557X isbn-13: 978-1566565578 [2nd edition] [Δ
  
Micha Bar-Am 
  
Bar-Am, Micha, 1957, Across Sinai, (Israel: Hakibbutz Hameuhad) [Δ
  
Bar-Am, Micha, 1970, Portrait of Israel, (USA: New York Times/American Heritage Press) [Δ
  
Bar-Am, Micha, 1981, The Jordan, (Israel: Massada Ltd) [Δ
  
Bar-Am, Micha, 1996, The Last War, (Israel: Keter Publishers) [Δ
  
Bar-Am, Micha, 1998, Israel: A Photobiography, (USA: Simon & Schuster) isbn-10: 068484513X isbn-13: 978-0684845135 [Δ
  
Bar-Am, Micha, 2011, Insight: Micha Bar-Am's Israel, (London: Koenig Books / Israel: Open Museums) isbn-10: 3865609821 isbn-13: 978-3865609823 [Edited by Alexandra Nocke. Bilingual] [Δ
  
Bar-Am, Micha, 2013, Southward: Micha Bar-Am, Photographs, (Israel: The Negev Museum of Art) [Δ
  
Francis Bedford 
  
Badr El-Hage & Gordon, Sophie, 2012, The Middle East in early photographs: Francis Bedford's royal tour of 1862, (London: Royal Collection) [Δ
  
Bedford, Francis, 1863, Photographic Pictures Made By Mr. Francis Bedford During the Tour in the East in which, by command, he accompanied His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, (London: Day & Son) [Δ
  
Gordon, Sophie; McCarthy, John & El-Hage, Badr, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) isbn-10: 1905686188 isbn-13: 978-1905686186 [Δ
  
Thompson, W.M. & Bedford, Francis, 1860s, The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens: a series of forty-eight photographs, (London: Day) [Text and introduction by W.M. Thompson, photographs by Francis Bedford] [Δ
  
Wheatley-Irving, Linda, 2007, Summer, ‘Holy Land Photographs and Their Words: Francis Bedford and the 'Tour in the East'‘, Jerusalem Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 79-96 [Δ
  
Félix Bonfils 
  
2000, In Arab Lands: The Bonfils Collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, (American University in Cairo Press) [Δ
  
Gavin, Carney E.S., 1978, ‘Bonfils and the Early Photography of the Near East‘, Harvard Library Bulletin, vol. XXVI, no. 4 [Δ
  
Sobieszek, Robert, 1980, Remembrances of the Near East: The photographs of Bonfils, 1867-1907, (International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House) [Δ
  
Robert Capa 
  
Kershaw, Alex, 2002, Blood and Champagne: The Life and Times of Robert Capa, (Macmillan) [Δ
  
Shaw, Irwin & Capa, Robert, 1950, Report on Israel, (New York: Simon & Schuster) [Δ
  
Boris Carmi 
  
Carmi, Boris; Kaniuk, Yoram (ed.); & Schlor, J. (ed.), 2004, Boris Carmi: Photographs from Israel, (New York: Prestel) isbn-10: 3791329332 isbn-13: 978-3791329338 [Bilingual] [Δ
  
Louis de Clercq 
  
de Clerq, Louis, 1860, Voyage en Orient 1859-1860, villes, monuments et vues pittoresques [Six volumes with 222 calotypes] [Δ
  
Mendel Diness 
  
Gavin, Carney E. S. & Rosovsky, Nitza, 1995, Autumn, ‘Mendell John Diness of Jerusalem and Cincinnati‘, History of Photography, vol. 19, pp. 224-28 [Δ
  
Maxime Du Camp 
  
Du Camp, Maxime, 1852, Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie [Egypt, Nubia, Palestine and Syria], (Paris: Gide et J. Baudry) [Published in installments starting in September 1851] [Δ
  
Tancrède Dumas 
  
Cobbing, Felicity J., 2005, April, ‘The American Palestine Exploration Society and the Survey of Eastern Palestine‘, Palestine Exploration Quarterly, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 9-21 [Δ
  
Hallote, Rachel; Cobbing, Felicity & Spurr, Jeffrey B., 2012, The Photographs of the American Palestine Exploration Society, (Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research) isbn-10: 0897570987 isbn-13: 978-0897570985 [Volume 66] [Δ
  
Palestine Exploration Society, 1876, Catalogue of photographs: taken expressly for the American Palestine Exploration Society, during a reconnaissance east of the Jordan in the Autumn of 1875, (New York) [Photographs taken by Tancrède Dumas] [Δ
  
Elizabeth Anne Finn 
  
Finn, Elizabeth Anne, 1929, Reminiscences of Mrs. Finn: Member of the Royal Asiatic Society, (London: Marshall, Morgan and Scott) [Δ
  
Francis Frith 
  
Frith, Francis, 1857, Cairo, Sinai, Jerusalem, and the Pyramids of Egypt, (London: Mackenzie) [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1858, Egypt, Sinai and Jerusalem: A Series of Twenty Photographic Views, (London: W. Mackenzie) [With descriptions by Mrs. Poole and Reginald Stuart Poole. It includes 20 images measuring 49 x 39 cm within a folio measuring 77 x 55 cm.] [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1858-1860, Egypt and Palestine, Photographed and Described, (London: James S. Virtue) [2 volumes. Issued in 25 parts; 76 albumen prints] [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1861 (ca), The Holy Bible, (Eyre & Spottiswoode) [Illustrated with photographic views of Biblical Scenery from nature by Frith . 20 albumen prints, approx. 83/4 x 61/2 inches / 225 x 165 mm] [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1862, Sinai and Palestine, (London: W. Mackenzie) [A four volume series containing: Lower Egypt, Thebes, & the Pyramids; Upper Egypt and Ethiopia; Egypt, Sinai, and Palestine and a Supplementary Volume. A four-volume series; each volume contains 36 albumen prints, approx. 83/4 x 61~2 inches / 225 x 165 mm., and 1 smaller, cropped albumen print mounted on first title page; total of 148 albumen prints; text by Frith.] [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1862-1863, The Holy Bible … Illustrated with Photographs by [Francis] Frith, (Glasgow: William Mackenzie) [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1862-1863, The Holy Bible: Containing the Old and New Testaments . . . Illustrated with Photographs by Frith, (Glasgow: W. Mackenzie) [Second title page: The Queen's Bible. 56 albumen prints, approx. 83/4 x 61/2 inches / 225 x 165 mm.] [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1863, Egypt, Sinai, and Palestine [Δ
  
Frith, Francis, 1980, Egypt and the Holy Land in Historic Photographs, (New York: Dover) [Introduction by Julia van Haaften; commentary by Jon E. Manchi White] [Δ
  
James Graham 
  
Gavin, Carney E. S. & Rosovsky, Nitza, 1995, Autumn, ‘Mendell John Diness of Jerusalem and Cincinnati‘, History of Photography, vol. 19, pp. 224-28 [Δ
  
Alfons Himmelreich 
  
Himmelreich, Alfons, 2005, Alfons Himmelreich: Photographer on the Roof, (Israel: The Open Museum of Photography in the Tel-Hai Industrial Park) [Δ
  
Albert Augustus Isaacs 
  
Isaacs, Albert Augustus, 1857, The Dead Sea: or, Notes and Observations Made during a Journey to Palestine in 1856 – 7 on M. de Saulcy’s Supposed Discovery of the Cities of the Plain, (London: Hatchard and Son) ["Illustrated from Photographs taken on the spot by the Author"] [Δ
  
Isaacs, Albert Augustus, 1863, A Pictorial Tour in the Holy Land, (London: Wertheim, Macintosh, & Hunt) [Δ
  
Izis 
  
Izis, 1955, Israel, (Éditions Clairefontaine) [Δ
  
Maison Bonfils 
  
2000, In Arab Lands: The Bonfils Collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, (American University in Cairo Press) [Δ
  
Gavin, Carney E.S., 1978, ‘Bonfils and the Early Photography of the Near East‘, Harvard Library Bulletin, vol. XXVI, no. 4 [Δ
  
Sobieszek, Robert, 1980, Remembrances of the Near East: The photographs of Bonfils, 1867-1907, (International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House) [Δ
  
Auguste Salzmann 
  
Salzmann, Auguste, 1856, Jérusalem. Etude et reproduction photographique des monuments de la Ville Sainte depuis l'époque judaïque jusqu'à nos jours par Auguste Salzmann, chargé par le Ministère de l'instruction publique d'une mission scientifique en Orient [Jerusalem: Photographs of the Monuments of the Holy City], (Paris: Gide et J. Baudry) [Δ
  
Henri Sauvaire 
  
Foliot, Philippe, 1993, July-Sept, ‘Louis Vignes et Henry Sauvaire Photographers of the Expeditions of the Duc de Luynes‘, History of Photography, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 233-250 [Δ
  
Stephen Shore 
  
Shore, Stephen, 2014, Stephen Shore: From Galilee to the Negev, (Phaidon) isbn-10: 0714867063 isbn-13: 978-0714867069 [Δ
  
Larry Towell 
  
Towell, Larry, 1999, Then Palestine, (Aperture) isbn-10: 0893818348 isbn-13: 978-0893818340 [Δ
  
Towell, Larry, 2005, Larry Towell: No Man's Land, (Chris Boot in association with Archive of Modern Conflict) isbn-10: 0954689429 [Δ
  
Louis Vignes 
  
Foliot, Philippe, 1993, July-Sept, ‘Louis Vignes et Henry Sauvaire Photographers of the Expeditions of the Duc de Luynes‘, History of Photography, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 233-250 [Δ
  
Claudius Galen Wheelhouse 
  
Wheelhouse, Claudius Galen & El-Hage, Badr (ed.), 2006, Narrative of a Yacht Voyage in the Mediterranean, 1849/1850, (London: Folios) isbn-13: 978-1901059458 [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
George Baramki Azar • Micha Bar-Am  (1930-) • George Bridges  (1788-1863) • George Bridges  (1788-1863) • Roy Brody • Boris Carmi • Louis de Clercq  (1836-1901) • Gabriel de De Rumine  (1841-1871) • Mendel Diness • Tancrède Dumas  (1830-1905) • Elizabeth Anne Finn  (1825-1921) • Francis Frith  (1822-1898) • Barry Frydlender  (1954-) • Issay Garabedian • Tim Gidal  (1909-1996) • James Graham  (1806-1869) • David Harris • Alfons Himmelreich • Albert Augustus Isaacs  (1826-1903) • George Skene Keith  (1819-1910) • Gillian Laub  (1974-) • James Calder Macphail  (1821-1908) • Maison Bonfils • James McDonald  (check) • H. Phillips • David Rubinger • Henri Sauvaire • Shmuel Yosef Schweig • Marli Shamir • John Shaw Smith  (1811-1873) • Rodney Smith • Louis Vignes  (1831-1896) • Ilan Wolf • Yuval Yairi  (1961-)
HomeGeographical regionsAsia > Israel and Palestine 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
American Colony photographers of Jerusalem 
Calotypists - The Holy Land 
Christianity 
Daguerreotypists - The Holy Land 
Islam 
Judaism 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Israel and Palestine

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAlfons Himmelreich: Industrial photographer in Palestine and Israel 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 8, 2007)
ThumbnailAuguste Salzmann - Jerusalem 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 4, 2010)
ThumbnailFrancis Bedford: Tour in the East (1862) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 22, 2012)
ThumbnailFrancis Frith: Sinai, Palestine, The Nile 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 14, 2007)
ThumbnailJerusalem 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 26, 2011)
ThumbnailYuval Yairi: The Exploration of Memory 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 28, 2008)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Israel and Palestine

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlbert Augustus Isaacs: A Pictorial Tour of The Holy Land 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfons Himmelreich: Land is Life 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfons Himmelreich: The bolt 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAuguste Salzmann: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAuguste Salzmann: Jerusalem, Hospital of Sainte-Helene 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward L. Wilson: Scenes in the Orient 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFélix Bonfils: Israel and Palestine: Bethlehem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFélix Bonfils: Israel and Palestine: Dead Sea 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFélix Bonfils: Israel and Palestine: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFélix Bonfils: Souvenirs d'Orient 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Bedford: The Holy Land and Syria (1862) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Frith: The Holy Bible (ca. 1861) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Frith: Views in the Holy Land 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailH.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875) 
ThumbnailHenri Sauvaire: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain par M. Le Duc de Luynes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJames Graham: The Holy Land (1855-1857) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJames Robertson: Israel and Palestine: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Israel and Palestine 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis de Clercq: Israel and Palestine 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis de Clercq: Voyage en Orient 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLouis Vignes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain par M. Le Duc de Luynes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaxime Du Camp: Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMaxime Du Camp: Nubie, Syrie: Paysages et Monuments 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMendel Diness: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobert Capa: Israel and Palestine 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailTancrède Dumas: Israel and Palestine: Jerusalem 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailUnidentified artist - Félix Bonfils 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: American Palestine Exploration Society 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Palestine Exploration Fund 
ThumbnailTravel: Popular culture 
ThumbnailTravel: Thomas Cook and his Tours 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Bethlehem 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Dead Sea 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Hebron 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: City gates 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Garden of Gethsemane 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: General views 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Hospital of Sainte-Helene 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Temple mount 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Valley of Jehoshaphat 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Jerusalem: Western Wall 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Nazareth 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Tiberias 
 
  
   Ethnic groups and races 
  
ThumbnailArabs 
ThumbnailBedouins 
ThumbnailJews 
ThumbnailPalestinians 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAmerican Colony photographers of Jerusalem 
ThumbnailIsrael and Palestine: Books 
 
  
Refreshed: 15 April 2014, 20:00
 
  
 
  
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