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HomeContentsThemes > Turkey

Contents

Information requests
10077.01   Improving content on countries
Daguerreotypes
10077.02   Daguerreotypes: Turkey
Places
10077.03   Constantinople, The Architecture
10077.04   Constantinople - Istanbul - Fountains
10077.05   Constantinople - Istanbul: Santa Sophia
10077.06   Constantinople - Istanbul: Theodosian column
Studio portraits
10077.07   Studio portraits in Turkey
Stereotypes
10077.08   Turkey: Women in ripose
Occupationals
10077.09   Guillaume Berggren: Occupationals
10077.10   Turkey: Porters
Modernization
10077.11   Turkey: Abdul-Hamid II Collection (1880-1893)
Photographers
10077.12   James Robertson: Constantinople
10077.13   Guillaume Berggren: Constantinople
10077.14   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Constantinople (1862)
10077.15   Pascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873
Photographic studios of Constantinople
10077.16   Abdullah frères: Backmarks
10077.17   Nicolas Andriomenos: Backmarks
10077.18   Pascal Sebah: Backmarks
Conflict
10077.19   Album de la Société Ottomane de Secours aux Blessés Militaires, Guerre 1877-1878
10077.20   Armenian massacres (1915-1923)
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Information requests 
  
10077.01   Europe >  Improving content on countries 
  
We are seeking to extend the information and examples we can share on this country.
  • Earliest photographs
     
  • Key photographers and their studios
     
  • Major documentary photographic series
     
  • Significant historical events
     
  • Books, magazines and journals - including their covers
     
  • Photographic societies and associations - including outings and meetings
These points are indicative of topics that could be included on this page and if you have expertise you would like to share now is the time to get in touch.
 
If you are able to assist in any way it is appreciated.
 
  
Daguerreotypes 
  
10077.02   Europe >  Daguerreotypes: Turkey 
  
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Places 
  
10077.03   Europe >  Constantinople, The Architecture 
  
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   Constantinople 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
10077.04   Europe >  Constantinople - Istanbul - Fountains 
  
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10077.05   Europe >  Constantinople - Istanbul: Santa Sophia 
  
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10077.06   Europe >  Constantinople - Istanbul: Theodosian column 
  
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Studio portraits 
  
10077.07   Europe >  Studio portraits in Turkey 
  
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Stereotypes 
  
10077.08   Europe >  Turkey: Women in ripose 
  
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Occupationals 
  
10077.09   Europe >  Guillaume Berggren: Occupationals 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Guillaume Berggren was a Swedish photographer who worked in Turkey from 1866 onwards. He recorded the construction of the Anatolian railway and the inauguration of the Orient Express. In the 1890s he documented the working classes of Constantinople. 
  
10077.10   Europe >  Turkey: Porters 
  
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Modernization 
  
10077.11   Europe >  Turkey: Abdul-Hamid II Collection (1880-1893) 
  
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In the late nineteenth century sets of albums showing the modernization of Turkey were given by Abdul Hamid II[1] to the LIbrary of Congress[2] and the British Museum.[3] These sets were vast with the Library of Congress version including 51 large-format albums containing 1,819 photographs.
 
The gift of these impressive sets highlighted the progress of the Ottomon Empire with its factories, mines, hospitals, schools, universities, government buildings, police stations, harbours, railways and monuments. The military prowess of the Empire was shown along with the police and fire brigades. Magnificent views of Constantinople by Abdullah frères[4] were included.
 
A number of the most important photographic studios in Constantinople were involved in the project including Abdullah frères, Bogos Tarkulyan (Phébus), Sebah & Joaillier. The Turkish military photographer Ali Riza Pasa and the Photographic Unit of the Imperial School of Engineering were also involved.[5] 
  
Photographers 
  
10077.12   Europe >  James Robertson: Constantinople 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10077.13   Europe >  Guillaume Berggren: Constantinople 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10077.14   Europe >  Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Constantinople (1862) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In 1862 photographer Francis Bedford[6] accompanied The Prince of Wales during a "Tour of the East" during which the royal party visited Constantinople in Turkey
  
   Francis  Bedford Tour 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
10077.15   Europe >  Pascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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For the 1873 "Exposition Universelle de Vienne"[7] a three part illustrated volume Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 [The Costumes of Turkey in 1873][8] was produced. Each part was illustrated with studio portraits showing different costumes from the regions ruled by the Ottoman Empire. Both men and women are photographed and it covers, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and the regions around Mecca and Medina in what is now Saudi Arabia. Different ethnic groups are shown including Kurds, Armenians, Jews and Greeks along with their occupations as shepherds, merchants, guards, priests and members of the beaurocracy. Where appropriate for women examples of their domestic clothing along with their clothing for outside are shown. Where two or three standing figures are shown in a photograph each costume is described separately.
 
The photographer Pascal Sebah (1823-1886) was a noted Turkish studio photographer and it will be noted that each photograph has the same panelling behind indicating that they were all taken in the same studio. 
  
Photographic studios of Constantinople 
  
10077.16   Europe >  Abdullah frères: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10077.17   Europe >  Nicolas Andriomenos: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10077.18   Europe >  Pascal Sebah: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Conflict 
  
10077.19   Europe >  Album de la Société Ottomane de Secours aux Blessés Militaires, Guerre 1877-1878 
  
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10077.20   Europe >  Armenian massacres (1915-1923) 
  
Based on estimates possibly a million died though the Turkish government denies it happened despite all evidence to the contrary with massacres of many thousands occurring in Bitlis (June 1915) and Trebizond (July 1915). The hidden nature of the massacres meant that very few photographs survive - this was not an event intended for the newspapers even though over 194 articles have appeared in the New York Times alone and the genocide of the Armenians and the depopulation of areas was reported in 1915. The American Ambassador to the Ottoman Court, Henry Morgenthau, sent a telegram to the U.S. State Department on 20 July 1915 that protested the "race extermination" of the Armenians by the Ottoman government.
 
There are photographs of the hangings in the major cities and of Armenian refugees going to the deserts of Der el Zor. The lack of photographic evidence made denial easier for the Turkish Government and it was the lack of an public outcry that allowed Adolf Hitler when he was starting the Final Solution - a euphemism for the extermination of a number of diverse groups in Europe during the Second World War to write:
I have issued the command — and I'll have anybody who utters but one word of criticism executed by a firing squad — that our war aim does not consist in reaching certain lines, but in the physical destruction of the enemy. Accordingly, I have placed my death-head formations in readiness — for the present only in the East — with orders to them to send to death mercilessly and without compassion, men, women, and children of Polish derivation and language. Only thus shall we gain the living space (Lebensraum) which we need. Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?[9]
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Abdul Hamid II (1842-1918) was the 34th sultan and the last to rule the Ottoman Empire. His photographic survey is disscussed in - William Allan, 1984, "The Abdul Hamid II Collection", History of Photography, vol. 8, pp. 119-145; Carney E.S. Gavin; Sinasi Tekin & Gonul Alpay Tekin, 1988, "Imperial Self-Portrait. The Ottoman Empure as Revealed in Sultan Abdul Hamid's Photographic Albums", Journal of Turkish Studies, vol. 12 
      
  2. Λ Abdul Hamid II Collection - Library of Congress
    Call Number: LOT 9534
    (Accesed: 21 December 2012)
    www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/ahii/ 
      
  3. Λ The British Library set is now in the British LIbrary.
    British Library, "Sultan Abdulhamid II Early Turkish Photographs in 51 Albums from the British Library on Microfiche" (Zug, Switzerland: IDC, 1987). 
      
  4. Λ Engin Ozendes, 1998, Abdullah Frères, Ottoman Court Photographers, (YKY - Yapi Kredi Yayinlari) 
      
  5. Λ Abdul Hamid II Collection - Background and Scope - Library of Congress
    (Accessed: 21 December 2013)
    www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/ahii/background.html 
      
  6. Λ Francis Bedford, 1863, Photographic Pictures Made By Mr. Francis Bedford During the Tour in the East in which, by command, he accompanied His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, (London: Day & Son)
     
    W.M. Thompson & Francis Bedford, 1860s, The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens: a series of forty-eight photographs, (London: Day) [Text and introduction by W.M. Thompson, photographs by Francis Bedford]
     
    See also - Badr El-Hage & Sophie Gordon, 2012, The Middle East in early photographs: Francis Bedford's royal tour of 1862, (London: Royal Collection); Sophie Gordon; John McCarthy & Badr El-Hage, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) 
      
  7. Λ Vienna (Wien), Weltausstellung (1873) - One of the great World Fairs and Internnational Exhibitions of the nineteenth century. 
      
  8. Λ 1873, Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873: Ouvrage publie´ sous le patronage de la Commission impe´riale ottomane pour l'Exposition universelle de Vienne. Texte par Son Excellence Hamdy bey ... et Marie de Launay ... Phototypie de Se´bah., (Constantinople: Impr. du "Levant times & shipping gazette")
     
    The Library of Congress has a copy of this volume (GT1267 .H2).
     
    Online version - Open Library
    (Accessed: 21 December 2013)
    openlibrary.org/books/OL7002055M/Les_costumes_populaires_de_la_Turquie_en_1873.
     
    With thanks to Theodoros Natsinas for bringing this volume to my attention. 
      
  9. Λ The text above is the English version of the German document handed to Louis P. Lochner in Berlin. It first appeared in - Louis P. Lochner, 1942, What About Germany? (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.), pp. 1-4. The Nuremberg Tribunal later identified the document as L-3 or Exhibit USA-28. Two other versions of the same document appear in Appendices II and III. For the German original cf. 1956, Akten zur Deutschen Auswartigen Politik 1918-1945, Serie D, Band VII, (Baden-Baden), pp. 171-172. 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
1873, Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873, (Constantinople: Impr. du "Levant times & shipping gazette") [Ouvrage publie´ sous le patronage de la Commission impe´riale ottomane pour l'Exposition universelle de Vienne. Texte par Son Excellence Hamdy bey ... et Marie de Launay ... Phototypie de Se´bah. Library of Congress: GT1267 .H2] [Δ
  
Abut, Ahmet, 2006, From Konstantiniyye to Istanbul: Photographs of the Rumeli Shore of the Bosphorus, (Istanbul) [Δ
  
Aker, Julide, 2000, Sight-seeing: Photography of the Middle East and its Audiences, 1840-1940, (Cambridge: Harvard University Art Museums Gallery Series, Niumber 30) [Δ
  
Allan, William, 1984, ‘The Abdul Hamid II Collection‘, History of Photography, vol. 8, pp. 119-145 [Δ
  
Badr El-Hage, 2007, L’orient des Photographes Armeniens, (Paris: Cercle d’Art) [Δ
  
Behdad, Ali & Gartlan, Luke, 2013, Photography's Orientalism: New Essays on Oriental Representation, (Getty) isbn-13: 978-1606061510 [Δ
  
Erdogdu, Ayshe, 1999, ‘The Victorian Market for Ottoman Types‘, History of Photography, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 269-273 [Δ
  
Gizgen, Engin Voir, 1987, Photography in the Ottoman Empire 1839-1919, (Istanbul) [Δ
  
Jacobson, K., 2007, Odalisques & Arabesques: Orientalist Photography 1839-1925, (London: Quaritch) isbn-10: 095508525X isbn-13: 9780955085253 [Δ
  
Macek, Vaclav, 2011, The History of European Photography 1900-2000, (Central European House of Photography) isbn-13: 978-8085739558 [Three volumes] [Δ
  
Özendes, Engin, 1987, Photography in the Ottoman Empire 1839-1919, (Istanbul: Haset Yayinevi) [First edition, a second edition was published in 1995] [Δ
  
Özendes, Engin, 1999, Photography in Turkey, (Tarih Vakfi) [Δ
  
Özendes, Engin, 1999, The Second Ottoman Capital Edirne, (Istanbul: Yem Yayinlari) [Δ
  
Özendes, Engin, 2013, Photography in the Ottoman Empire, (YEM Publications) [Δ
  
Öztuncay, B., 2003, The Photographers of Constantinople: Pioneers, Studios and Artists from 19th Century Istanbul. Vol.1 - Text and Photographs. Vol.2 - The Album, (Istanbul: Aygaz) [Δ
  
Oztuncay, Bahattin, 2006, The Photographers of Constantinople, (Istanbul: Aygaz) [Δ
  
Perez, Nissan N., 1988, Focus East: Early Photography in the Near East 1839-1885, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) [Δ
  
Seker, Nimet, 2009, Die Fotografie im Osmanischen Reich, (Ergon Verlag, Arbetsmaterialien zum Orient, Band 21) isbn-10: 14368072 [Δ
  
Shaw, Wendy, 2009, February, ‘Ottoman Photography of the Late Nineteenth Century: An 'Innocent' Modernism?‘, History of Photography, vol. 33 [Δ
  
Vaczek, L & Buckland, G, 1981, Travelers In Ancient Lands: A Portrait Of The Middle East, 1839-1919, (Boston: New York Graphic Society) [Δ
  
Woodward, Michelle L., 2003, Winter, ‘Between Orientalist Clichés and Images of Modernization: Photographic Practice in the Late Ottoman Era‘, History of Photography, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 363-374 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Abdullah frères 
  
Gavin, Carney E.S.; Tekin, Sinasi & Tekin, Gonul Alpay, 1988, ‘Imperial Self-Portrait. The Ottoman Empure as Revealed in Sultan Abdul Hamid's Photographic Albums‘, Journal of Turkish Studies, vol. 12 [Δ
  
Ozendes, Engin, 1998, Abdullah Frères, Ottoman Court Photographers, (YKY - Yapi Kredi Yayinlari) isbn-10: 9753638434 isbn-13: 978-9753638432 [Δ
  
Francis Bedford 
  
Badr El-Hage & Gordon, Sophie, 2012, The Middle East in early photographs: Francis Bedford's royal tour of 1862, (London: Royal Collection) [Δ
  
Gordon, Sophie; McCarthy, John & El-Hage, Badr, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) isbn-10: 1905686188 isbn-13: 978-1905686186 [Δ
  
Thompson, W.M. & Bedford, Francis, 1860s, The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens: a series of forty-eight photographs, (London: Day) [Text and introduction by W.M. Thompson, photographs by Francis Bedford] [Δ
  
Félix Bonfils 
  
2000, In Arab Lands: The Bonfils Collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, (American University in Cairo Press) [Δ
  
Gavin, Carney E.S., 1978, ‘Bonfils and the Early Photography of the Near East‘, Harvard Library Bulletin, vol. XXVI, no. 4 [Δ
  
Sobieszek, Robert, 1980, Remembrances of the Near East: The photographs of Bonfils, 1867-1907, (International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House) [Δ
  
Ernest de Caranza 
  
Oztuncay, Bahattin, 1991, ‘Ernest de Caranza: Member of the Société Française de Photographie‘, History of Photography, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 139-143 [Δ
  
Polycarpe Joaillier 
  
Özendes, Engin, 1999, From Sebah & Joaillier to Foto Sabah: Orientalism in Photography, (Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Yayinlari) isbn-10: 9750800575 [Δ
  
Vassilaki Kargopoulo 
  
Oztuncay, Bahattin, 2000, Vassilaki Kargopoulo: Photographer to His Majesty the Sultan, (Istanbul: BOS) [Δ
  
Maison Bonfils 
  
2000, In Arab Lands: The Bonfils Collection of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, (American University in Cairo Press) [Δ
  
Gavin, Carney E.S., 1978, ‘Bonfils and the Early Photography of the Near East‘, Harvard Library Bulletin, vol. XXVI, no. 4 [Δ
  
Sobieszek, Robert, 1980, Remembrances of the Near East: The photographs of Bonfils, 1867-1907, (International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House) [Δ
  
Susan Meiselas 
  
Meiselas, Susan, 1997, Kurdistan: In the Shadow of History, (New York: Random House) [Δ
  
James Robertson 
  
Oztuncay, Bahattin, 1992, James Robertson: Pioneer of Photography in The Ottoman Empire, (Istanbul: Eran) [Δ
  
Oztuncay, Bahattin, 2013, Robertson. Photographer and engraver in the Ottoman capital.= Robertson. Osmanli baskentinde fotografçi ve hakkâk., (Istanbul: Koç University Press) [Δ
  
Robertson, James, n.d., James Robertson: Photographer of Istanbul, (London: The British Council) [Δ
  
J. Pascal Sebah 
  
Özendes, Engin, 1999, From Sebah & Joaillier to Foto Sabah: Orientalism in Photography, (Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Yayinlari) isbn-10: 9750800575 [Δ
  
Sebah & Joaillier 
  
Gavin, Carney E.S.; Tekin, Sinasi & Tekin, Gonul Alpay, 1988, ‘Imperial Self-Portrait. The Ottoman Empure as Revealed in Sultan Abdul Hamid's Photographic Albums‘, Journal of Turkish Studies, vol. 12 [Δ
  
Özendes, Engin, 1999, From Sebah & Joaillier to Foto Sabah: Orientalism in Photography, (Istanbul: Yapi Kredi Yayinlari) isbn-10: 9750800575 [Δ
  
Bogos Tarkulyan 
  
Gavin, Carney E.S.; Tekin, Sinasi & Tekin, Gonul Alpay, 1988, ‘Imperial Self-Portrait. The Ottoman Empure as Revealed in Sultan Abdul Hamid's Photographic Albums‘, Journal of Turkish Studies, vol. 12 [Δ
  
Pierre Tremaux 
  
Tremaux, P., 1862-1862 (ca), Exploration archéologique en Asie Mineure comprenant les restes non-connus de plus de quarante cités antiques, (Paris: Imprimerie Lemercier) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Abdullah frères • Nicolas Andriomenos  (1851-1929) • Gertrude Bell  (1868-1926) • Guillaume Berggren  (1835-1920) • Félix Bonfils  (1831-1885) • Ernest de Caranza  (1837-1863) • Gabriel de De Rumine  (1841-1871) • Ara Güler  (1928-) • Juhn Henry Haynes  (1849-?) • Polycarpe Joaillier  (1848-1904) • Vassilaki Kargopoulo • J. McCartney • Susan Meiselas  (1948-) • Marc Riboud  (1923-) • James Robertson  (1813-1888) • Ali Sami  (1866-1936) • J. Pascal Sebah  (1872-1947) • Pascal Sebah  (1823-1886) • Sebah & Joaillier • B.L. Spackman  (1824-1879) • Alexander Svoboda  (check) • Bogos Tarkulyan  (check) • Pierre Tremaux
HomeGeographical regionsEurope > Turkey 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Armenian massacres (1915-1923) 
Daguerreotypists - Turkey 
 
Key dates 
  
Armenian massacres (1915-1923) 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Turkey

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailConstantinople, The Architecture 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 15, 2011)
ThumbnailFrancis Bedford: Tour in the East (1862) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 22, 2012)
ThumbnailOrientalism 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 23, 2010) I met a traveller from an antique land...
  
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Turkey

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAbdullah frères: Abdul-Hamid II Collection 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAbdullah frères: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAbdullah frères: Constantinople 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAbdullah frères: Turkish women 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFélix Bonfils: Turkey: Constantinople - Istanbul 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Bedford: Constantinople (1862) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrancis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGuillaume Berggren: Constantinople 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGuillaume Berggren: Occupationals 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJames Robertson: Turkey: Constantinople - Istanbul 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Turkey 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNicolas Andriomenos: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNicolas Andriomenos: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPascal Sebah: Backmarks 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPascal Sebah: Turkey: Constantinople - Istanbul 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPierre Tremaux: Exploration archéologique en Asie Mineure 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPierre Tremaux: Voyage au Soudan Oriental et dans l'Afrique Septentrionale 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPolycarpe Joaillier: Grave 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRobertson & Beato: Turkey: Constantinople - Istanbul 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSebah and Joaillier: Islamic architecture: Mosque interiors 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSebah and Joaillier: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSebah and Joaillier: Street life 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailTurkey: Constantinople - Istanbul 
ThumbnailTurkey: Constantinople - Istanbul: Dolmabahce Palace 
ThumbnailTurkey: Constantinople - Istanbul: Fountains 
ThumbnailTurkey: Constantinople - Istanbul: Santa Sophia 
ThumbnailTurkey: Constantinople - Istanbul: Theodosian column 
 
 
  
   Ethnic groups and races 
  
ThumbnailDervishes 
ThumbnailTurks 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAlbum de la Société Ottomane de Secours aux Blessés Militaires, Guerre 1877-1878 
ThumbnailFrancis Frith in Turkish costume 
 
  
Refreshed: 28 September 2014, 12:14
 
  
 
  
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