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HomeContentsThemes > History of photography


Prehistory of photography
10058.01   The Prehistory of photography
Drawing and optical devices
10058.02   Drawing and optical devices
10058.03   A history of the camera obscura
Light-sensitive chemicals
10058.04   An introduction to light-sensitive materials
10058.05   An Account of a method of copying Paintings upon glass, and of making Profiles, by the agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver. Invented by T. WEDGWOOD, ESQ. With Observations by H. DAVY. (1802)
Occupations of early photographers
10058.06   Occupations of early photographers
Styles and movements
10058.07   Styles and movements
Processes and products
10058.08   Process and product
10058.09   Daguerreotype plate sizes
10058.10   Card photograph types
10058.11   Books about photobooks
10058.12   British photobooks
10058.13   French photobooks
10058.14   German photobooks
10058.15   Dutch photobooks
10058.16   Czech photobooks
10058.17   American photobooks
10058.18   Japanese photobooks
Deaths of photographers
10058.19   Suicides of photographers
10058.20   The Holocaust: Photographers who died
10058.21   reGeneration
Acceptance of photography
10058.22   Photography as an academic discipline
10058.23   A history of photographic galleries
10058.24   Beaumont Newhall and the History of Photography
10058.25   Museums and photography
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
Prehistory of photography 
10058.01    The Prehistory of photography 
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The term "prehistory of photography" is an inaccurate one as the term prehistory means the period prior to written history and the developments both in light-sensitive chemicals and in the camera obscura and other drawing and optical devices were far later than that. Ignoring that issue the term does has a utility in bringing together the concepts, modes of popular entertainment, innovations and scientific discoveries that were the foundations of photography prior to 1839 - the year it was officially announced.
To understand the foundations of photography requires an understanding of the texts on optics and chemistry that were being better understood through the Renaissance. Work published on chemistry by Angelo Sala in 1614 documented that silver nitrate turned black when exposed to the rays of the sun.  
Angelo Sala 
By the seventeenth century texts on optics were being published including Oculus artificialis teledioptricus (1685-1686) by Johann Zahn that included an illustration of a camera obscura and was using experiments to grasp the principles of light.  
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Johann Zahn: Oculus artificialis teledioptricus, sive telescoopium... (1685-1686) 
Although the scientific principles were not fully appreciated these two threads of research are the basis of pre-digital photography. 
Drawing and optical devices 
10058.02    Drawing and optical devices 
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The drawing and optical devices that are significant in understanding the early history of photography include:
Camera obscura
Camera lucida
Magic lanterns and Lantern slides
Physionotrace / physiognotrace
Contemporary photographers continue to explore these devices for example Abelardo Morell with Camera obscuras[1] and Hiroshi Sugimoto with Dioramas.[2] 
10058.03    A history of the camera obscura 
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The camera obscura has a long history with the earliest known account being that of philosopher Mozi (Mo-Ti) (470-390 BCE) from China with a "collecting place" being a darkened room where an inverted image could be seen.[3] An inverted image produced by a small aperture was described in Problemata, a work compiled over centuries by Aristotle (394-322 BCE) and his followers:
"Why is it that during eclipses of the sun, if one views them through a sieve or a leaf-for example, that of a plane-tree - or through the two hands with fingers interlaced, the rays are crescent shaped in the direction of the earth?"[4]
Alhazen (Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham or Ibn al-Haytham) (965-1040)[5] was an Arab or Persian[6] scientist, mathematician and astronomer who experimented with a camera obscura.[7] Using a darkened room with a small hole in one wall and lamps hung outside he obscured lamps and demonstrated that light travelled in a predictable manner. His observations showed that light came from a source rather than rays sent out by the eye as had previously been believed.  
An illustration of Arab use of a camera obscura 
Use of the camera obscura for astronomical observations, such as eclipses, was known by the Late Middle Ages.
In 1279, John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, noted that:
"When at the time of an eclipse of the sun, its rays are received in a dark place through a hole of any shape, it is possible to see the crescent-shape getting smaller as the moon covers the sun."[8]
French astronomer Guillaume de Saint-Cloud noted in 1290:
"It happened that those who too intently observed the sun (during an eclipse) found their vision was impaired when they went into the shade again... In order to eliminate this and to be able to observe without danger the beginning, the end, and the extent of the eclipse, one should make in the roof of a house, or in the window, an opening towards that part of the sky where the eclipse of the sun will appear, and the size of the hole should be about the same as that made in a barrel for the purpose of drawing off wine."[9]
Roger Bacon (ca. 1214-1294) described how the device could be used to view the local environment rather than just the heavens:
"we may see whatever we desire and anything in the house or street, and everyone looking at those things will see them as if they were real, but when they go to the spot they will find nothing...those looking will run to the image, and think that things appear there when there is nothing, but merely an apparition."[10]
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) also wrote about the camera obscura:
I say that if the front of a building—or any open piazza or field—which is illuminated by the sun has a dwelling opposite to it, and if, in the front which does not face the sun, you make a small round hole, all the illuminated objects will project their images through that hole and be visible inside the dwelling on the opposite wall which may be made white; and there, in fact, they will be upside down, and if you make similar openings in several places in the same wall you will have the same result from each. Hence the images of the illuminated objects are all everywhere on this wall and all in each minutest part of it. The reason, as we clearly know, is that this hole must admit some light to the said dwelling, and the light admitted by it is derived from one or many luminous bodies. If these bodies are of various colours and shapes the rays forming the images are of various colours and shapes, and so will the representations be on the wall.[11]
An account of the camera obscura occurs in Cesare Cesarini's Italian version of Vitruvius' treatise De Architectura (Como, 1521), four years after Leonardo's death. Cesarini expressly names Benedettino Don Papnutio as the inventor of the camera obscura.
Use of the camera obscura for the observation of solar eclipses was known to Levi Ben Gershon (1342), a Jewish philosopher and mathematician; Franciscus Maurdycus (1543), Professor of Mathematics at Messina and Erasmus Reinhold (1542), a German mathematician. Gemma-Frisius (1508-1555) was a mathematician, cartographer, philosopher and scientific instrument maker with many accomplishments including the creation of globes and astrolabes, he also described triangulation for surveying - a principle that is still used today. One of his drawings is the earliest extant illustration of a camera obscura and shows how he used a pinhole within a darkened room to study the solar eclipse of 1544[12].  
Giorgio Vasari (1511-1574) mentions an invention of Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
"Leon Battista made a discovery for representing landscapes and for diminishing and enlarging figures by means of an instrument, all good inventions useful to art."
Alberti devised a number of mechanical devices for the delineation of perspective and this might refer to his "intersector" invented in 1435 and described in his Treatise on Painting rather than a camera obscura.
Girolamo Cardano, a physician and professor of mathematics in Milan, in 1550 made a leap in the design of the by placing a convex lens in the hole:
"If you want to see the things which go on in the street, at a time when the sun shines brightly place in the window shutter a convex will attain the eagerly awaited result in a wonderful manner."[13]
Neapolitan physician Giovanni Battista Della Porta (1535-1615) in his book Magiae Naturalis (Naples, 1558)
“If you cannot paint, you can by this arrangement draw with a pencil. You have then only to lay on the colors. This is done by reflecting the image downwards on to a drawing-board with paper. And for a person who is skillful this is a very easy matter.[14]
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By the early seventeenth century fabric was used to make tent-type camera obscuras and one of these was used in 1612 by Christopher Scheiner for his observation of sunspots. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) was the first to used the descriptive phrase "camera obscura" and he used tent for astronomy in 1612 and Sir Henry Wottan said that one would be useful for topographical drawings. Athanasius Kircher (1601-1680) published an engraving of a camera obscura in 1644. Constantijn Huygens (1596-1687) bought one. Vermeer (1632-1675) was aware of the camera obscura and may have used it to assist in his paintings and this hypothesis has been around for many years including David Hockney's book Secret knowledge: Rediscovering the lost techniques of the Old Masters (2001)[15]. Whilst manuscript evidence that artists used drawing and optical devices is limited there can be no dispute that the development of lens, mirrors and scientific instruments was rapid during this period and there was little separation between the arts and sciences. The level of usage by artists of camera obscuras can be disputed for individual works but it is increasingly difficult to argue that they were not used. Artists including Canaletto (1697-1768)[16] had a camera obscura made by the Venetian optical-instrument maker Domenico Selva (d. 1758) and many others including Johannes Torrentius (Johannes van der Beeck, 1589-1644), Francesco Guardi (1712-1793), Michele Giovanni Marieschi (1710-1743), Luca Carlevaris (1663-1730) and Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) used them.  
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Canaletto: Drawings of Venice made using a camera obscura 
Other fields of science, including anatomy, could be enhanced by the use of a camera obscura and Dr. William Cheselden, surgeon to Queen Caroline, stated in the preface to his Osteographia, Or the Anatomy of the Bones (1733) that it was used for the drawings:
"with more accuracy and less labour, doing in this way in a few minutes more than could be done without in many hours, I might say in many days."[17]
This book was a standard text for students of anatomy for nearly a century and on the title page there is an illustration of an artist using a table-top camera obscura to draw an upside down torso suspended from a tripod so that when drawn it would be shown the correct way up.  
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Dr. William Cheselden: Osteographia, Or the Anatomy of the Bones 
John Harris mentions the camera obscura in his Lexicon Technicum (1704) and they are described in books by John Barrow (1735)[18] and George Adams (1794)[19]. Enlightened people such as Horace Walpole (1717-1797) and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) owned camera obscuras and by the eighteenth century they were an accepted part of astronomy and art with a functional utility that lifted them above simple curiosities.
Over the years there had been a progression from the observation of the phenomenon, to the construction of rooms with a small hole, the insertion of a lens into the hole, the use of a diaphram to adjust the size of the hole, spherical wooden balls with a lens that allowed for panoramas, fragment and portable camera obscuras. This knowledge was well known to astronomers, artists and those with a interest to scientific instruments and drawing aids by the time photography was being experimented on in the 1820s and 30s. Within chemistry there was a growing appreciation and understanding of light-sensitive materials and once a method of putting these on a plate or paper could be practically used within a camera obscura a camera would be created and photography invented.
Camera obscuras have a magical quality, and some earlier practitioners were thought to be using witchcraft. Contemporary photographers, most notably Abelardo Morell[20], explore the possibilities by photographing the images created within the dark chamber. 
Light-sensitive chemicals 
10058.04    An introduction to light-sensitive materials 
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Photography using chemicals is based upon their light-sensitive properties. There were two key issues that needed to be resolved to capture an image using chemicals. The first issue was which chemicals were light sensitive and this was experimented on by Wilhelm Homberg, Johann Heinrich Schulze, Thomas Wedgwood[21], Joseph Nicéphore Niépce and others. The second issue was how to halt the continuing darkening for the paper or leather that had been treated with light-sensitive chemicals and thereby preserve any image that had been created. This was perfected by Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and the how to 'fix' the image advice of Sir John Herschel to Henry Fox Talbot.[22]
The isolation of individual chemicals and the improvement of their purity has been going on for well over a thousand years. In the 13th century Albertus Magnus (1139-1238) discovered that nitric acid could be used to separate gold and silver by dissolving the silver. The solution resulting from this process was called nitric acid silver - now known as silver nitrate. He noted that silver nitrate blackened the skin but the reason for this was not appreciated until later. Georges Fabricius (1516-1571) in addition to his archaeological research and poetry discovered another silver salt - silver chloride.
It was from the seventeenth century that the significance of the darkening started to be appreciated and understood. In 1614 Angelo Sala documented that silver nitrate turned black when exposed to the sun but he did not link this change to light. In 1694 Wilhelm Homberg (1652-1715) described how certain chemicals darkened when exposed to light. In the 1720s Johann Heinrich Schulze (1684-1744) discovered that certain silver salts including silver chloride and silver nitrate darken in the presence of light. By mixing chalk with these salts placing them in jars with labels on the outside of the glass and exposing them to light the text on the label could be seen on the contents of the jar when the label was removed. The image would be preserved for a period by keeping the jar in darkness and viewing it with candle light and it was a curiosity without a means to retain the image and show it in normal light. His experiments confirmed that the sensitivity of the chemicals was due to light rather than heat and this was significant as it proved, in principle, that chemicals could be used to capture an image through the action of light alone.
Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) worked on the properties of silver chloride and proved that the blackening was through the action of light. His next breakthrough was that the black residue was metallic silver and that ammonia did not affect it. That light alone could affect silver salts was by the late eighteenth century established. The next step was to apply this knowledge to capturing images and the final step was to preserve the images in a stable form that would not be affected by further exposure to light.
Thomas Wedgwood (1771-1805) was the third surviving son of Josiah and Sarah Wedgwood. Josiah was a potter who perfected lines of products that established him as the "Father of English Potters". Thomas continued his father's interest in science and in around 1800 he experimented using silver nitrate to treat paper or white leather. He found that when exposed to light it darkened and an image could be seen for a time. The lack of a means of halting the chemical process meant that the treated area turned black over time and the image was lost. Thomas Wedgwood was in failing health at this time and his discovery was published in the Journal of the Royal Institution in Great Britain in 1802 by his friend Sir Humphry Davy in the article An Account of a method of copying Paintings upon glass, and of making Profiles, by the agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver. Invented by T. WEDGWOOD, ESQ. With Observations by H. DAVY.
The resinous bitumen of Judea hardens when exposed to light and In the 1820s Joseph Nicéphore Niépce used this property to capture an image. On the areas of the plate not exposed to light the resin did not harden and could be washed away with oil of lavender. Once the plate was washed the areas without the ridges could be etched creating a printing plate. 
10058.05    An Account of a method of copying Paintings upon glass, and of making Profiles, by the agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver. Invented by T. WEDGWOOD, ESQ. With Observations by H. DAVY. (1802) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
The following article on the discoveries of Thomas Wedgwood was published in the Journal of the Royal Institution in Great Britain in 1802 by Sir Humphry Davy.[23]
An Account of a method of copying Paintings upon glass, and of making Profiles, by the agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver. Invented by T. WEDGWOOD, ESQ. With Observations by H. DAVY.
White paper, or white leather, moistened with solution of nitrate of silver, undergoes no change when kept in a dark place; but on being exposed to the daylight, it speedily changes colour, and after passing through different shades of grey and brown, becomes at length nearly black.
The alterations of colour take place more speedily in proportion as the light is more intense. In the direct beams of the sun, two or three minutes are sufficient to produce the full effect. In the shade, several hours are required, and light transmitted through different coloured glasses acts upon it with different degrees of intensity. Thus it is found that red rays, or the common sunbeams passed through red glass, have very little action upon it: Yellow and green are more efficacious, but blue and violet light produce the most decided and powerful effects. [1]
The consideration of these facts enables us readily to understand the method by which the outlines and shades of paintings on glass may be copied, or profiles of figures procured, by the agency of light. When a white surface, covered with solution of nitrate of silver, is placed behind a painting on glass exposed to the solar light, the rays transmitted through the differently painted surfaces produce distinct tints of brown or black, sensibly differing in intensity according to the shades of the picture, and where the light is unaltered, the colour of the nitrate becomes deepest.
When the shadow of any figure is thrown upon the prepared surface, the part concealed by it remains white, and the other parts speedily become dark.
For copying paintings on glass, the solution should be applied on leather; and in this case it is more readily acted upon than when paper is used.
After the colour has been fixed upon the leather or paper, it cannot be removed by the application of water, or water and soap, and it is in a high degree permanent.
The copy of a painting, or the profile, immediately after being taken, must be kept in some obscure place. It may indeed be examined in the shade, but in this case the exposure should be only for a few minutes; by the light of candles and lamps, as commonly employed, it is not sensibly affected.
No attempts that have been made to prevent the uncoloured part of the copy or profile from being acted upon by light have as yet been successful. They have been covered with a thin coating of fine varnish. but this has not destroyed their susceptibility of becoming coloured; and even after repeated washings, sufficient of the active part of the saline matter will still adhere to the white parts of the leather or paper; to cause them to become dark when exposed to the rays of the sun.
Besides the applications of this method of copying that has just been mentioned, there are many others. And it will be useful for making delineations of all such objects as are possessed of a texture partly opaque and partly transparent. The woody fibres of leaves. and the wings of insects, may be pretty accurately represented by means of it. and in this case. it is only necessary to cause the direct solar light to pass through them, and to receive the shadows upon prepared leather.
When the solar rays are passed through a print and thrown upon prepared paper, the unshaded parts are slowly copied; but the lights transmitted by the shaded parts are seldom so definite as to form a distinct resemblance of them by producing different intensities of colour.
The images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver. To copy these images was the first object of Mr. Wedgwood in his researches on the subject, and for this purpose he first used the nitrate of silver, which was mentioned to him by a friend, as a substance very sensible to the influence of light; but all his numerous experiments as to their primary end proved unsuccessful.
In following these processes, I have found, that the images of small objects, produced by means of the solar microscope, may be copied without difficulty on prepared paper. This will probably be a useful application of the method; that it may be employed successfully, however, it is necessary. that the paper be placed at but a small distance from the lens.
With regard to the preparation of the solution, I have found the best proportions those of 1 part of nitrate to about 10 parts of water. In this case, the quantity of the salt applied to the leather or paper will be sufficient to· enable it to become tinged, without affecting its composition, or injuring its texture.
In comparing the effects produced by light upon muriate of silver with those produced upon the nitrate, it seemed evident that the muriate was the susceptible, and both were more readily acted upon when moist than when dry, a fact long ago known. Even in the twilight, the colour of moist muriate of silver spread upon paper slowly changed from white to faint violet; though under similar circumstances no immediate alteration was produced upon the nitrate.
The nitrate, however, from its solubility in water, possesses an advantage over the muriate: though leather or paper may, without much difficulty, be impregnated with the last substance, either by diffusing it through water, and applying it in this form, or by immersing paper moistened with the solution of the nitrate in very diluted muriatic acid.
To those persons not acquainted with the properties of the salts containing oxide of silver, it may be useful to state that they produce a stain of some permanence, even when momentarily applied to the skin, and in employing them for moistening paper or leather, it is necessary to use a pencil of hair, or a brush.
From the impossibility of removing, by washing, the colouring matter of the salts from the parts of the surface of the copy which have not been exposed to light, it is probable that, both in the case of the nitrate and the muriate of silver, a portion of the' metallic acid abandons its acid to enter into union with the animal or vegetable substance, so as to form with it an insoluble compound. And, supposing that this happens, it is not improbable, but that substance may be found capable of destroying this compound, either by simple or complicated affinities. Some experiments on this subject have been imagined, and an account of the results of them may possibly appear in a future number of the Journals. Nothing but a method of preventing the unshaded parts of the delineation from being coloured by exposure to the day is wanting, to render the process as useful as it is elegant.
1. The facts above mentioned are analogous to those observed long ago by Scheele, and confirmed by Senebier. Scheele found, that in the prismatic spectrum, the effect produced by the red rays upon silver muriate was very faint, and scarcely to be perceived; whilst it was speedily blackened by the violet rays. Senebier states, that the time required to darken silver muriate by the red rays, is 20 minutes, by the orange 12, by the yellow S minutes and 30 seconds, by the green 31 seconds, by the blue 29 seconds, and by the violet only 15 seconds. " Senebier sur la Lumière"" vol. iii. p. 199. Some new experiments have been lately made in relation to this subject, in consequence of the discoveries of Dr. Herschel concerning the invisible heatmaking rays existing in the solar beams, by Dr. Ritter and Bockmann in Germany, and Dr. Wollaston in England. It has been ascertained, by experiment upon the prismatic spectrum, that no effects are produced upon the muriate of silver by the invisible: heatmaking rays which exist on the red side, and which are least refrangible, though it is powerfully and distinctly affected in a space beyond the violet rays out of the visible boundary. See "Annalen der Physik, siebenter Band," 527.-D.
Occupations of early photographers 
10058.06    Occupations of early photographers 
It is not surprising that early photographers had occupations that included science, optics, printing, chemistry, engraving, printing and the arts. Within this list some people fall into multiple categories, whilst others maintained their primary occupations as they experimented with photography, others took up photography and then reverted to their earlier occupation or took up a totally different one. Some people such as those involved in the early faltering steps of photography such as Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre, Henry Fox Talbot and Sir John Frederick William Herschel were blends of secretive scientists, showmen of the age and agile-minded polymaths.
Scientists Henry Fox Talbot
Sir John Frederick William Herschel
Robert Hunt
Carl Curman
Ernst Mach
James Maxwell
C.E. Kenneth Mees
Comte de Montizon
Lord Charles Stanhope
Opticians and scientific instrument makers Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours
Charles Chevalier John Benjamin Dancer
Ferenc Hopp
P. Klier
Carlo Ponti
Ernst Abbe
Christian Eduard Littmann
Henry Negretti
Joseph Zambra
Chemists Humphry Davy
Johann Heinrich Schulze
Hermann Carl Eduard Biewend
René Patrice Proudhon Dagron
John Frederick Goddard
Robert Adamson
John Dillwyn Llewelyn
Henri-Victor Regnault
Nevil Story-Maskelyne
Hermann Vogel
Printers, etchers, engravers and draftsmen James Robertson
John Cooke Bourne
Charles Francois Daubigny
Comte Frederic Flacheron
Charles Desavary
Theodule Deveria
Carl Durheim
Frederick Fiebig
Napoleon Sarony
Artists Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
Eugène Cuvelier
Gustave Le Gray
Johann Baptist Isenring
Carol Szathmari
Julien Vallou de Villeneuve
Styles and movements 
10058.07    Styles and movements 
Bauhaus Dusseldorf School
f/64 Futurism
Modernism Naturalism
New Bauhaus / Art Institute of Chicago New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit
New Topographics Orientalism
Photo-Secession Pictorialism
Post-modernism Subjective photography - Subjektive fotografie
Surrealism Vorticism
Processes and products 
10058.08    Process and product 
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Process and product addresses each of major types of photographs from the earliest days of photography through to the present day.
Albumen prints
Bon Tons
Bromoil prints
Carbon prints
Cased photographs
Colour: Hand-painted photographs
Fresson prints
Gelatin silver prints
Imprimerie photographique Blanquart-Evrard
Infrared photography
Iphone applications
Kirlian photography
Lantern slides
Magic lanterns
Paget plates
Painting on photographs
Photo postcards
Photogenic drawings
Platinum prints
Salt prints
Scanning electron microscope
Stereoviews, stereographs and stereocards
Waxed paper negatives
   Photographic types 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
10058.09    Daguerreotype plate sizes 
During the Daguerreian period daguerreotypes were generally of standardized sizes.
NameSize (ins)Size (cm)
Whole / Full Plate6.5 x 8.516.5 x 21.5
Half Plate 4.25 x 5.511 x 14
Quarter Plate3.25 x 4.258 x 11
Sixth Plate2.75 x 3.257 x 8
Ninth Plate2 x 2.55 x 6
Sixteenth Plate1.375 x 1.6253.5 x 4
Daguerreotype plates were produced in inches and therefore applying a metric scale is done here for convenience but they should be referred to using inches for consistency.[24]
Photographers cut down and trimmed plates, particularly for making photo-jewelry, so sizes varied. With the Voigtländer daguerreotype camera circular plates were used and there is some variation in the diameter.  
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Daguerreotype plates made with Voigtländer daguerreotype cameras 
10058.10    Card photograph types 
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Slideshow (Be patient as this has 20 slides to load.) 
TypeSize (ins)Size (cm)Notes
Carte de visite / CDV2 1/2 x 4 ins6.4 x 10 cm 
Cabinet card / CC4 1/4 x 6 1/2 ins11 x 17 cm 
Boudoir5 1/2 x 8 1/2 ins14 x 21.06 cm 
Imperial / Imperial cabinet card7 x 10 ins17.8 x 25.4 cm 
Kodak4 1/4 x 4 1/4 ins10.8 x 13.3 cm 
Panel card13 x 7 1/2 ins33 x 19 cm 
Paris card9 3/4 x 6 3/4 ins24.8 x 17.1 cm 
Promenade7 1/2 x 4 ins19 x 10.2 cm 
Swiss6 1/2 x 2.85 ins16.5 x 7.3 cm 

Carte de visite and the later Cabinet cards most commonly used albumen prints but other processes such as cyanotype and gelatin silver prints were also used. 
10058.11    Books about photobooks 
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Slideshow (Be patient as this has 21 slides to load.) 
Prior to 2000 photobooks were purchased by collectors but there was little research on the books themselves and there were few books that discussed the historical significance or the cultural context of monographs. Knowled was mostly limited to occassional book sellers catalogues and specialist publications.  
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Specialist publications and catalogues on photographica 
There were sporadic studies such as the 1977 introduction to a bibliography on the New York Public Library holdings by Julia van Haften[25] and the The Truthful Lens: A Survey of the Photographically Illustrated Book, 1844–1914 (1980)[26] by Lucien Goldschmidt & Weston J. Naef and these were curatorial volumes for bibliophiles. The move towards systematic studies with intense collector-driven enthusiasm was still to come.  
Andrew Roth: The Book of 101 Books: Seminal Photographic Books of the Twentieth Century (2001) 
In 2001 the two books were published that started a flood of interest in the books themselves that started to give them equal weight to prints. One of the two books was Photography and the Printed Page in the Nineteenth Century: An exhibition at the Bodleian Library (2001)[27] but it was the second one The Book of 101 Books: Seminal Photographic Books of the Twentieth Century (2001)[28] edited by Andrew Roth that started the market for photobooks. For each book the cover is shown, some page spreads with accompanying text. The book served as a widely available catalogue that collectors could use as a shopping list and by purchasing all the books they would "own" the most significant books published on photography in the twentieth century. The list might be arbitrary and limited as it only dealt with 101 books but it was a starting point.  
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Martin Parr & Gerry Badger: The Photobook: A History 
Andrew Roth edited a further book in 2004 The Open Book: A History of the Photographic Book from 1878 to the Present[29] that pushed back in time to cover photographically illustrated books from the late nineteenth century. It was the books for Martin Parr and Gerry Badger that built on the work of Andrew Roth and greatly extended the number of books included and also the worldwide tradition of photobooks. They included not only the "classics" but included many obscure works because of the highly diverse interests of the authors. The first volume on The Photobook[30] was published in 2004, the second volume[31] in 2006 and a third in 2014.[32] With these books collectors saw the opportunity to add volumes to their libraries along with an investment opportunity. Books were stockpiled and stored in pristine condition in the hope that prices would rise and such has indeed happened.[33] Any book listed in these volumes now has a value and scarcity within the open market has increased. Specialist auctions for photobooks developed such as Swanns Galleries in New York and most photography auctions now include photobook lots.
Although the speculation in photobooks has been negative the research into the history of photobooks has been beneficial. Without this surge in collector interest it is unlikely that the specialist volumes dealing with a personal collection, as in the M. & M. Auer collection published on 2008,[34] or a history of photobooks relating to the nude[35] would have appeared.  
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Books on photobooks 
One immense benefit has been the publication of surveys of photobooks in different parts of the world - splendid volumes that use the Martin Parr and Gerry Badger structure as a model have appeared on Japan (2009),[36], Switzerland (2011),[37] Latin America (2011),[38] Germany (2012),[39] The Netherlands (2012)[40] and Spain (2014).[41] In 2014 Les Rencontres Arles Photographie[42] had at exhibition on Chinese photobooks curated by Martin Parr and photographer team WassinkLundgren and this was published in 2015.[43]
Exhibitions of photobooks are increasingly common and include surveys of individual countries such as Fotos y libros. España 1905-1977 (Photos & Books, Spain 1905-1977) at the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in Madrid in 2014-2015[44] and The Chinese Photobook at the Aperture Gallery, New York, in 2015.[45]
These studies have highlighted many classic monographs that have been long out of print and so publishers are taking the opportunity to reissue them. Specialist publishers such as Errata Editions[46] have also appeared that concentrate on books that deserve a new edition but are unlikely to get it. New editions of long forgotten photobooks have been a tremendous benefit to researchers.
The explosion of photobook blogs and the blocks of collectors, institutions and self-publishing photographers has coincided with low cost Internet driven publishing companies such as Blurb who will publish anything with low cost runs. On-demand publishing has reduced the risks for content creators and as they can generate content and the purchasers decide whether to buy it. Vast numbers of photobooks are now produced and there are innumerable lists of the "Best of the Year"[47] and there are lists of these lists[48] because there are so many. There are private photobook libraries, collections of photobooks within institutions, travelling exhibitions of photobooks and travelling libraries that open up shows and have discussions in different cities. The enthusiasm for the fragmented market of photobooks has never been stronger and in 2014 planning started for a physical museum dedicated to the photobook in Germany.[49]  
Martin Parr's Best Books of the Decade 
As speculation in the photobook market increases they change from information resources to financial futures based on scarcity and the signatures of the photographers.[50] Collections of "recommended" books are brought together not because of quality but because of the potential for monetary gain.  
The creative process 
In addition to numerous blogs and social media websites in the production of photobooks volumes are now starting to be published on the creative process including the Photographers' Sketchbooks (2014).[51] 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
10058.12    British photobooks 
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10058.13    French photobooks 
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10058.14    German photobooks 
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10058.15    Dutch photobooks 
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10058.16    Czech photobooks 
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10058.17    American photobooks 
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10058.18    Japanese photobooks 
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Ken Domon 
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Eikoh Hosoe 
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Hiroshi Hamaya 
Kenji Ishiguro 
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Miyako Ishiuchi 
Kazuo Kenmochi 
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Ihei Kimura 
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Kazuo Kitai 
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Keizo Kitajima 
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Ichiro Kojima 
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Ikko / Ikko Narahara 
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Jun Morinaga 
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Daido Moriyama 
Ken Ohara 
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Kohei Yoshiyuki 
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Nobuyoshi Araki 
Deaths of photographers 
10058.19    Suicides of photographers 
Some, but not all, the dangers of handling the chemicals used in photography were known in the nineteenth century but accidents are recorded in contemporary liteature.
The Photographic News, Vol.1, No.2, Sept 17, 1858, p.20,
A Photographic Accident. As M. Courtais, a photographer of Bordeaux, was a few evenings ago engaged in his laboratory, a bottle of sulphuric ether suddenly burst, and igniting at a candle set fire to his clothes. In a short time he was enveloped in flames, and rushed down stairs, where some persons extinguished the fire. He was, however, so horribly burned that he expired the next day.  
Anthony's Photographic Bulletin, Volume 18, No. 4, February 26, 1887, p.128.
A Fire on February 6th, in Brydon's drug store, at Danville, West Va., extended to Frazer's photographic studio, which was entirely destroyed.
Fowler, ot Indianapolis, lost $4,000 from a fire in his studio on Washington street on February 6th, which, unfortunately, was not fully insured.
Harry Lay, of Wilkesbarre, Pa., lost his studio from a fire in the building in which he was located on February I3th. Loss about $3,000; insurance small.
We regret to note the loss by fire on February I7th of the Artotype rooms of Mr. Edward Bierstadt, of Reade street, New York. Many valuable pictures were destroyed that were in process of reproduction by photo-mechanical means.  
Pharmaeutical Journal: A Weekly Record of Pharmacy and Allied Studies, Second Series, Vol.III, No.VI, December 2nd, 1861, p.342.
Poisoning by Cyanide of Potassium. An inquest has been held at the Red Cow, Chapel Street, Stratford, on Henry Giblett, aged two years and six months. The deceased accompanied some other persons into a photographic van in Bridge Road, Stratford, and as they were having their portraits taken he suddenly became alarmingly ill, and by the time Mr. Kennedy, the surgeon, arrived, had expired from the effects of a quantity of cyanide of potassium, which it is supposed he swallowed out of a phial which was in a cupboard. The jury found an open verdict, "That the child died from the effects of the poison, but how administered there was no evidence to show."  

Transactions of the American Medical Association, Volume 4, 1851, p.65. [This event was widely reported in medical literature - see for example Therapeutics and Materia Media by Alfred Stille, M.D. (Philadelphia: Blanchard and Lea, 1864), Volume II, p.757-758.]
Pathological Anatomy of Bromine-poisoning. Dr. J. N. Snell reports the case of a daguerreotypist, who committed suicide by taking an ounce of bromine, which caused death in seven and a half hours. A dissection, sixteen hours later, showed that the peritoneum was tinged a reddish yellow throughout the upper two-thirds, the parts lining the stomach, duodenum, and liver, having been highly injected. The omenta and transverse mesocolon were deeply tinged with bromine, and injected, as were the anterior surface and the lesser curvature of the stomach. The latter had ecchymosed spots, surrounded by red borders, on the posterior portion; the whole interior surface was covered with a thick black layer, resembling thick tanned leather, which readily peeled off; the lower portion was smooth, hard, and tanned, as were the valvulae conniventes, and the surfaces of the duodenum. The sulci were softened and injected.  

Canada Medical Jopurnal (Montreal), Vol.I, No.3, May, 1852,p.131.
"ART. XIII. Fatal Case of Poisoning by Sulphuric Acid, with Observations", by James Sewell, M. D., Physician to the Hotel Dieu, Quebec.
A Sad case, possessing more than usual interest, both from the poison selected, and the quantity swallowed, having recently occurred in my practice, I think it my duty to submit its history to the Profession.
Mrs, E., aged 23, the mother of two children, had about three weeks since suffered a miscarriage, which left her feeble and nervous. In this state, more easily acted upon by depressing causes, she heard a sermon the effects of which on her mind (according to her own statement to me) she could not throw off; she fancied herself without the pale of salvation her soul condemned and lost in fact, she became insane with this predominant idea. In this state she remained, with some shades of variation, until Monday the 16th of February; her husband had been repeatedly warned that she would probably attempt to commit suicide, and he fortunately arrived in time to prevent her committing it by suspension on the Friday previous to the fatal accomplishment of her purpose. Her husband's business led him to the employment of Tincture of Bromine, Iodine, and other poisonous materials; these he had carefully disposed of beyond her reach. A day or two before the sad affair, he bought at a Druggist's one pound by weight of concentrated sulphuric acid, which shews about 5 fluid drachms to the oz.; he poured the whole of this into two large tumblers, dividing the quantity equally to form what these Artists call "a battery," by which they galvanize the silvered plates, previous to submitting them to the vapour of iodine in the production of daguerreotype likenesses; he had placed, as I have said, the Bromine and Iodine, &c, under lock, but, never suspecting the probability of her using this powerful acid for the purpose of self-destruction, he took no precaution with it. She was absent from her usual sitting apartment about 3 o'clock, P. M., of the 16th February, for somewhat less than two minutes, but she had time to effect her purpose, an she told him on returning to the room; on instant examination he found that she had emptied one of the tumblers of its contents, except about 1/2 a fluid oz., and the already excoriated state of her mouth and chin fearfully corroborated her story.
Assistance was quickly sought, and, on my arrival, finding that the stomach-pump had been imperfectly used, I re-introduced it. At this time about 40 minutes had elapsed since the acid had been swallowed. I found her pale and perfectly collapsed, cold skin, no pulse at the wrists, and the action of the heart feeble and indistinct. The first effect of the poison had been to prostrate all the powers of life nearly to extinction. Milk and oil were first injected into the stomach and quickly withdrawn, but the appearance presented, destroyed all hope; it was dark, grumous looking blood, mixed with a shred like filamentous substance. Oil, chalk, and carbonate of magnesia were freely used, with a view to neutralize the acid or blunt its action. Some re-action came on in about an hour, when her sufferings became dreadful to witness; she could scarcely be held in bed, her mind had cleared at once, and "she wondered what could have made her do it," and then "she was burning alive," were expressions incessantly uttered; she could, and did, swallow every thing that was offered to her, till delirium and coma closed the scene.
The body was carefully examined the next day, about 20 hours after death, and it is quite a hopeless task to give an adequate idea, by any description, of what we saw. The whole of the forepart of the stomach, that is, its greater curvature was destroyed, and fluid of the same appearance as that drawn up by the first action of the stomach pump, was on the surface of the intestines, and welled up from amongst their convolutions. The omentum was to a great extent in shreds, the back part of the stomach was likewise injured and look charred, but in a less degree, the food, (and she had dined heartily at noon,) was pushed toward, and lay at and near, the Pylorus. I apprehend, that the mass of food prevented the immediate contact of the acid, and thus accounted for its different state of disorganization; the great arch of the colon, where in contact with the stomach and omentum, was in some trifling degree affected. The stomach was literally dissolved in Sulphuric Acid; one or two drops from the scalpel fell upon some linen, and a hole, through which the finger could be thrust, was quickly made, showing how active this powerful acid still was. Doubtless the acid had continued to destroy the texture of all parts itcame in contact with. Even after death, but much of the disorganization, that we witnessed, had been effected by this destructive agent in the three hours that intervened between the time of her swallowing it, 3 p.m., and 6 p.m. the hour she died.
It is pretty evident, that no plan of treatment could have been adopted in this sad case with any chance of success, either with a view to withdraw the acid before it had time to work irreparable injury, or to neutralize it. There was a well marked excoriation at each angle of the mouth and beneath the chin, much more apparent after death. The inside of the mouth and lips were of a dead white, as if burnt by a hot iron.
It would have been interesting to have examined the fauces oespohagus, &c, but it could not be done. I am indebted to Drs. Boswell and Painchaud for their assistance upon this sad occasion.  
The Musical World (New York), Volume X, No.9, Oct 28, 1854, p.208.
In a recent journal we have observed reports of four cases of poisoning in children, by the introduction of visiting cards into the mouth. They all recovered, though the symptoms were of an alarming character. It should be generally known, that in the manufacture of cards, in the enamelling and coloring, various salts of arsenic, copper and lead are used, which are capable of producing very serious sickness and even death. Children should not be allowed to play with them.  
Notable photographers who have committed suicide include:
Platt D. Babbitt (1822-1879)
Dr. Emil Mayer (1871-1938), one of the great bromoilists, committed suicide with his wife when the Nazis annexed Austria in 1938.
Diane Arbus (1923-1971)
Francesca Woodman (1958-1981).
10058.20    The Holocaust: Photographers who died 
Photographers who died in the Holocaust included:  
10058.21    reGeneration 
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Understanding trends and finding talent within the vast amount of contemporary photography is a difficult task and curators William A. Ewing and Nathalie Herschdorfer set out to do this with their exhibition reGeneration [55]. The books title "reGeneration 2005-2025: 50 Photographers of Tomorrow" hints as the predictive nature of the idea - here by selecting photographers with innovative bodies of work in 2005 there was the implicit idea that they would become significant over time. This is to a certain extent a self-fulfilling prophecy as the exhibition was so successful that it booted careers for those involved.
The project was described in a 2014 press release as follows:
The project «reGeneration», produced by Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne, (Switzerland), is dedicated to discovering and representing emerging young photography. From 2005 to 2009 original exhibition was successfully shown in ten different cities across North America, Europe, and Asia. It received more than 120 000 visitors, who were also able to enjoy the catalogue, that was available in Europe, USA, Korea and Japan.
Most of the authors represented in the original edition of the exhibition have already become recognized photography artists. Following on the success, the latest edition of the Musée de l’Elysée exhibition, which will be presented at ROSPHOTO, turns the spotlight on 80 up-and-coming talents. They represent 30 countries and 120 of the world's top photography schools. The curators William A. Ewing and Nathalie Herschdorfer were to select the works mostly from Europe and North America, as the western photography schools still remain at the top of educational tradition in the field. Another initial rule was to consider only students or the recent graduates.
The Musée de l’Elysée selected for the exhibition the most promising candidates from some 700 entries submitted by 120 of the world’s top photography schools. The result is an inspiring and dynamic collection, featuring both documentary and fictive approaches, film and digital mediums, and spontaneous and highly conceptual work. It showcases young (most of them are not over 30 yet) practitioners focusing on major themes as diverse as the urban environment, globalization, issues of identity and memory, as well as their hybrid techniques, which allow them to obscure as never before the distinction between reality and fiction.[56]
The original reGeneration series was followed by reGeneration2.[57] 
Acceptance of photography 
10058.22    Photography as an academic discipline 
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The teaching of photography as a distinct academic discipline is relatively new.
  • 1929 - At the Bauhaus Walter Peterhans was appointed to teach photography.
  • 1939 - László Moholy-Nagy, formerly at the Bauhaus, started teaching photography at the Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago (now the Art Institute of Chicago).
  • 1940s - Ansel Adams and established a photography program at the California School of Fine Arts (now San Francisco Art Institute).
  • 1940s - Clarence White, Jr., son of photographer and educator Clarence Hudson White, established a photography program at Ohio University.
  • 1940s - Henry Holmes Smith established a photography course at Indiana University.
  • 1946 - Harry Callahan joined the Institute of Design at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago.
  • 1961 - Harry Callahan becomes the head of the Rhode Island School of Design.
These are some key points in German and American education and are not intended to be inclusive of what was happening globally. 
10058.23    A history of photographic galleries 
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The start of galleries showing photography in America was with Alfred Stieglitz at 291 Fifth Avenue, New York City where he held photography and art exhibitions from 1907 and 1913.[58] The gallery was called the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession or just 291 and was in a former studio of Edward Steichen.[59]
Julien Levy[60] ran the Julien Levy Gallery (1931-1949) in New York City[61] showing artists including, Constantin Brancusi, Joseph Cornell, Salvador Dali, Walt Disney, Marcel Duchamp, Max Ernst, Leonor Fini, Naum Gabo, Alberto Giacometti, Arshile Gorky, Frida Kahlo, Fernand Léger, René Magritte, Ben Shahn and Dorothea Tanning. Julien Levy also exhibited photographers including Eugene Atget, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Walker Evans, Lee Miller and Man Ray but sales of photography proved difficult. Julien Levy appreciated and sold works by earlier masters including Nadar and Alfred Stieglitz. Just has Stieglitz had done with the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession Levy was a pioneer in appreciating contemporary art and he promoted Surrealism and the work of Salvador Dali.
In May 1954 Helen Gee[62] started the Limelight Photography Gallery next to a Coffee House in Greenwich Village, NYC which had exhibitions of Harry Callahan, Bill Brandt, Imogen Cunningham, and Lisette Model at a time when photography was rarely shown.[63] Helen Gee's obituary in the New York Times gave a brief description of the activities of Limelight:
An Atget show, with the prints made by Berenice Abbott and priced at $20 each, was almost a sellout. More than half the pictures in an Edward Weston exhibition, at $75 a print, were bought. But rare photographs, photograms and photomontages by Laszlo Moholy-Nagy (priced between $100 and $200) failed to sell. Prints by Robert Frank ($25 each) and Julia Margaret Cameron ($65 each) found only a few buyers. Limelight was the showcase for a wide variety of photographic styles, from classic straight photography (Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham) to social documentary (Brassai, Lisette Model, W. Eugene Smith) and subjective and experimental work (Rudolph Burckhardt, Harry Callahan, Aaron Siskind). Such a roster differed sharply from the generally homogeneous fare found in popular picture magazines like Life and Look.[64]
The Limelight Photography Gallery lasted for seven years and hosted 70 exhibitions.[65]
In 1971 Harry H. Lunn Jr. (1933-1998) began selling photographs. Ex-CIA Harry Lunn understood the potential of photography as a part of the art market well before most scholars and curators. During the 1970s it was the collectors and dealers who understood the history of the medium, its range and what was truly significant rather than the art curators at major institutions. Histories of photography were limited, educational courses dedicated to photography almost nonexistent and most curators were trained in art history which rarely included photography. Harry Lunn was one of the first who saw the potential in specializing in the photography market.[66]  
In 1972 the Impressions Gallery started in the UK and it was the first gallery dedicated solely to photography to Europe.[67]
1979 AIPAD (Association of International Photography Art Dealers) founded. It continues today with a Code of Ethics that is straightforward:
AIPAD Members have agreed to a Code of Ethics: Members agree to conduct dealings with the public, museums, artists and other dealers with honesty and integrity. Members agree to provide accurate descriptions of photographs in all disclosures, including but not limited to, invoices, wall labels and price lists. All descriptions shall include the following: (1) Artist, (2) Title/ Subject, (3) Process, (4) Date of negative, (5) Date of print, (6) Price. Members agree to honor all contracts, invoices and consignment agreements.
10058.24    Beaumont Newhall and the History of Photography 
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Beaumont Newhall (1908-1993) and his wife Nancy are amongst the relatively small group of photohistorians who established the overall framework for understanding and discussing the development of photography. This was achieved through exhibition, catalogues, journal articles and pioneering books. In retrospect there are gaps within the books and genres which are now deemed important were ignored or given short shrift but they helped to establish the canon of significant photographers and that still has an impact today. There are many risks to a canon as it promotes certain photographers such as Edward Weston or Ansel Adams to an iconic status whilst ignoring others or appreciating the significance of vernacular photography, advertising or commercial. By concentrating on fine art, documentary, photojournalism and other genres one is rejecting others. The early books of Beaumont Newhall should be viewed within their historical context when photography was seeking its acceptance within museums, there were few art galleries handling photography in the 1930s and it was only rarely taught as an academic discipline.[68]
The 1937 exhibition "Photography 1839-1937" at the Museum of Modern Art (New York), curated by Beaumont Newhall, was a thematic survey of the history of photography. The catalogue of the exhibition was revised into Photography: A Short Critical History (1938)[69] and the framework was modified for The HIstory of Photography from 1839 to the Present Day (1949)[70] which through its different editions remains a popular introductory text. 
10058.25    Museums and photography 
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This topic has been divided into the following topics: We can see this is an evolving field with the staged development of the PBM - PhotoBookMuseum being planned for Cologne (2014).[71] The intention is to create exhibitions, online exhibitions, a mobile museum and finally a public institution as they say:
"Photography is no longer about the wall. The book form is basic to photography."

  1. Λ Abelardo Morell & Luc Sante, 2004, Camera Obscura, (Bulfinch); Elizabeth Siegel, Brett Abbott & Paul Martineau, 2013, Abelardo Morell: The Universe Next Door, (Art Institute of Chicago) 
  2. Λ Randy Kelly, 8 October 2012, "‘Fossilizing’ With a Camera", The New York Times, Art & Design
    (Accessed: 10 May 2014) 
  3. Λ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 1, Physics, (Taipei: Caves Books Ltd.), p. 82
    Some sources give the phrase a "locked treasure room" for the chamber where the image could be seen. An authoritative source for this has not been located and I would welcome further information - 
  4. Λ Aristotle - trans. E.S. Forster, 1927, Works of Aristotle, Volume VII, Problemata, (Oxford: Claredon Press), 15.11
    The preface to this book states that although the Problemata is included in the works of Aristotle it was prepared, and probably written by, his followers. 
  5. Λ The dates given for Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham can vary between sources.
    For a biography - Bradley Steffens, 2006, Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist, (Morgan Reynolds) 
  6. Λ Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham was born at Basra in modern day Iraq - at the time of his birth it would have been a Persian state but his ethnicity is not certain. 
  7. Λ Alhazen wrote a seven-volume treatise work on optics Kitab al-Manazir (Book of Optics), written from 1011 to 1021 that was translated into Latin in 1270 as Opticae Thesaurus. Printed by Friedrich Risner in 1572 as Opticae thesaurus: Alhazeni Arabis libri septem, nuncprimum editi; Eiusdem liber De Crepusculis et nubium ascensionibus (English: Optics treasure: Arab Alhazeni seven books, published for the first time: The book of the Twilight of the clouds and ascensions
  8. Λ Perspective communis libri tres, (Cologne, 1580), cited in Bill Jay, "From Magic to Mimesis" 
  9. Λ Ms. no. 7281. folio 143. Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris cited in Bill Jay, "From Magic to Mimesis" 
  10. Λ Roger Bacon, Perspective, (Frankfurt, 1714) cited in Bill Jay, "From Magic to Mimesis" 
  11. Λ Leonardo da Vinci, The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, Translated by Jean Paul Richter (London, 1883), 70 
  12. Λ Gemma Frisius, De radio astronomico et geometrico liber, (Antwerp and Louvain, 1545) p. 32, cited in Bill Jay, "From Magic to Mimesis" 
  13. Λ De Subtilitate, (Nurnberg, 1550) Book IV, p. 107, cited in Bill Jay, "From Magic to Mimesis" 
  14. Λ Cited in Bill Jay, "From Magic to Mimesis" 
  15. Λ On Vermeer's possible use of the camera obscura there is a vast amount written including: Charles Seymour Jr., 1964, September, ‘Dark Chamber and Light-Filled Room: Vermeer and the Camera Obscura‘, The Art Bulletin, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 323-331; Daniel A. Fink , 1971, December, ‘Vermeer's Use of the Camera Obscura - a Comparative Study‘, The Art Bulletin, pp. 493-505; Philip Steadman, 2001, Vermeer's Camera, (New York: Oxford University Press), and David Hockney, 2001, Secret knowledge: Rediscovering the lost techniques of the Old Masters (Viking Studio). 
  16. Λ There are drawings by Canaletto in the collection of the Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice, that were made using a camera obscura. 
  17. Λ Dr. William Cheselden, 1733, Osteographia, Or The Anatomy Of The Bones (London: [William Bowyer for the author?]), preface. On the title page of William Cheselden's The Anatomy of the Human Body (1784) the same illustration of the medical illustrator at work is used. 
  18. Λ John Barrow, 1735, Dictionarium Polygraphicum: Or, The Whole Body of Arts Regularly Digested ... Adorned with Proper Sculptures, Curiously Engraven on More Than Fifty Copper Plates (C. Hitch and C. Davis in Pater-noster Row, and S. Austen in St. Paul's Church-Yard) 
  19. Λ George Adams, 1794, Lectures on Natural and Experimental Philosophy: Considered in It's [sic] Present State of Improvement : Describing, in a Familiar and Easy Manner, the Principal Phenomena of Nature, and Shewing, that They All Co-operate in Displaying the Goodness, Wisdom, and Power of God, (R. Hindmarsh) vol. 2, p. 197-198. 
  20. Λ Contemporary photographer Abelardo Morell has used the camera obscura to capture city life and his series are published in various volumes including: Abelardo Morell & Luc Sante, 2004, Camera Obscura, (Bulfinch) and Elizabeth Siegel; Brett Abbott & Paul Martineau, 2013, Abelardo Morell: The Universe Next Door, (Art Institute of Chicago) 
  21. Λ Excerpted from Richard Buckley Litchfield, "Tom Wedgwood, Journals of the Royal Institution: Davy's 'Account.'" In The The First Photographer (London: Duckworth and Co.), 1903. pp. 188-195. 
  22. Λ Larry Schaaf, 1980, ‘Herschel, Talbot, and Photography: Spring 1831 and Spring 1839‘, History of Photography, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 181-204; Larry Schaaf, 1992, Out of the Shadows: Herschel, Talbot and the Invention of Photography, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) 
  23. Λ Excerpted from Richard Buckley Litchfield, "Tom Wedgwood, Journals of the Royal Institution: Davy's 'Account.'" In The First Photographer (London: Duckworth and Co.), 1903. pp. 188-195. 
  24. Λ With thanks to Alan Bekhuis for this observation. (Facebook, 28 May 2014) 
  25. Λ Julia van Haften (introduction), 1977, Spring, ‘Original Sun Pictures: A Check List of the New York Public Library's Holdings of Early Works Illustrated with Photographs, 1844-1900‘, Bulletin of the New York Public Library, vol. 80, no. 3. This publication included 465 listings plus 96 album listings. 
  26. Λ Lucien Goldschmidt & Weston J. Naef, 1980, The Truthful Lens: A Survey of the Photographically Illustrated Book, 1844–1914, (New York: The Grolier Club) 
  27. Λ 2001, Photography and the Printed Page in the Nineteenth Century: An exhibition at the Bodleian Library, (Oxford : Bodleian Library, University of Oxford) 
  28. Λ Andrew Roth (ed.), 2001, The Book of 101 Books: Seminal Photographic Books of the Twentieth Century, (New York: PPP Editions in association with Roth Horowitz LLC) 
  29. Λ Andrew Roth (ed.), 2004, The Open Book: A History of the Photographic Book from 1878 to the Present, (Goteborg: Hasselblad Center) 
  30. Λ Martin Parr & Gerry Badger, 2004, The Photobook: A History, Volume I, (New York: Phaidon) 
  31. Λ Martin Parr & Gerry Badger, 2006, The Photobook: A History, Volume II, (New York: Phaidon) 
  32. Λ Martin Parr & Gerry Badger, 2014, The Photobook: A History, Volume III, (New York: Phaidon) 
  33. Λ Over two weeks Andreas Schmidt carried out an analysis of the prices of the books included in the second volume of the Martin Parr and Gerry Badger series - Andreas Schmidt, October 2011, The Cost of Photobooks : A History Volume II, (Blurb), 246 pages. In March 2014 this book was available for US $164.79. 
  34. Λ M+M Auer collection (authors), 2008, Photobooks: 802 Photo Books. A selection from the M+M. Auer collection, (Hermance, Editions M.+M.) 
  35. Λ Alessandro Bertolotti, 2007, Books of Nudes, (Abrams) 
  36. Λ Ryuich Kanekoi & Ivan Vartanian, 2009, Japanese Photobooks of the 1960s and '70s, (New York: Aperture) 
  37. Λ Peter Pfrunder (ed.) et al., 2011, Swiss Photobooks from 1927 to the Present, (Lars Muller Publishers; Mul edition) 
  38. Λ Horacio Fernandez, 2011, The Latin American Photobook, (New York: Aperture) 
  39. Λ Manfred Heiting, Autopsie, Band I: Deutschsprachige Fotobücher 1918 bis 1945, (Steidl, 2012) 
  40. Λ Frits Gierstberg & Rik Suermondt, Rik (eds.), 2012, The Dutch Photobook, (Rotterdam: NAi publishers) 
  41. Λ Horacio Fernández, 2014, Photobooks Spain 1905-1977, (RM/Museo Nacional Centro De Arte Reina Sofía) 
  42. Λ Les Rencontres Arles Photographie
    (Accessed: 21 August 2014) 
  43. Λ Martin Parr & WassinkLundgren, 2015, The Chinese Photobook, (Aperture) 
  44. Λ Fotos y libros. España 1905-1977 (Photos & Books, Spain 1905-1977), Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, Spain, (28 May, 2014 – 5 January, 2015) curated by Horacio Fernández. 
  45. Λ The Chinese Photobook, Aperture Gallery, New York, USA (11 February - 2 April 2015)
    (Accessed: 9 January 2015)
    China has a fascinating history of photobook publishing, and The Chinese Photobook will reveal for the first time the richness and diversity of this heritage. Curated by Martin Parr and WassinkLundgren, this exhibition is based on a collection Parr compiled with the Beijing- and London-based Dutch photographer team. And while the collection was inspired initially by Parr’s interest in propaganda books—and in finding key works of socialist realist photography, from the early days of the Communist Party and the Cultural Revolution era—the selection of books includes key volumes published as early as 1900, as well as contemporary volumes by emerging Chinese photographers. Each and every featured photobook offers a new perspective on the complicated history of China from the beginning of the twentieth century onward.
  46. Λ Errata Editions
    (Accessed: 11 January 2014)
    The first question we ask any artist or estate when considering pursuing a Books on Books edition is "Are you open to reprinting a modern edition?" If they respond "Yes" then we usually cross that title off our list. If they respond that they don't forsee that ever happening, we push hard to include that title in our series.
    Errata has published numerous classics of which the first eight were:
    Eugene Atget, Photographe de Paris
    Walker Evans, American Photographs
    Sophie Ristelhueber, Fait
    Chris Killip, In Flagrante
    William Klein, Life is Good...New York!
    Yutaka Takanashi, Toshi-e
    David Goldblatt, In Boksburg
    Koen Wessing, Chili September 1973 
  47. Λ There are vast number of lists of the "Best Photobooks" but for an example of professionalism take a look at - "2013 Best Photobooks" on the Photo-Eye blog. The advantage of being a bookstore that specializes in Photobooks is that you see more of the available ones.
    (Accessed: 11 January 2014) 
  48. Λ For a list of lists for 2013 see the one by Blake Andrews
    (Accessed: 11 January 2014) 
  49. Λ ThePhotobookMuseum
    (Accessed: 30 June 2014) 
  50. Λ "Martin Parr's best books of the decade, a collection of 31 books in a specially designed bookcase", Sold at Botterweg Auctions, Wednesday, October 22, 2014, Lot: 1332 is an example of this growing trend. 
  51. Λ Stephen McLaren & Bryan Formhals, 2014, Photographers' Sketchbooks, (Thames and Hudson) 
  52. Λ Emil Meyer & Edward Rosser, 1999, Viennese Types, (Blind River Editions) 
  53. Λ Erich Salomon, 1931, Berühmte Zeitgenossen in unbewachten Augenblicken, (Stuttgart: Engelhorns Nachf.) ["Celebrated Contemporaries in Unguarded Moments"]
    Erich Salomon was one the first photojournalists in the 1920s to user the light Ermanox and Leica cameras. His "candid portraits" of the politicians and royalty of the pre-Second World War era remain popular - Erich Salomon, 1963, Porträt einer Epoch, (Frankfurt and Berlin: Verlag Ullstein); Peter Hunter-Salomon, 1967, Erich Salomon: Portrait of an Age, (New York: Macmillan); Erich Salomon, 1975, Portrait of an Age, (New York: Collier Books); Erich Salomon, 1978, Erich Salomon, (Millerton, NY: Aperture)
    There is a film The Candid Image: A Portrait of Erich Salomon (1992) on Erich Salomon. Description of this documentary:
    His camera hidden in his hat, he sat in a courtroom and photographed two accused murderers being sentenced; photographed Von Hindenburg from a bathroom window across from the presidential palace; hid his camera in a music stand to photograph Toscanini in performance. But he had artistic talent as well as nerve. This program tells Salomon’s story, the famous photos augmented by some of the negatives hidden from the Nazis and now restored. Salomon was killed in Auschwitz, but his astonishing documentation of the 20th century survives.
  54. Λ Edward Serotta, 2009, Imre Kinszki, (Budapest: Vintage Gale´ria ; Vienna: Centropa) {Hungarian , English] 
  55. Λ William Ewing & Nathalie Herschdorfer, 2006, reGeneration: 50 Photographers of Tomorrow (Aperture). The Amazon book description (accessed: 4 July 2013) describes it as follows:
    "What are young photographers up to at the outset of the twenty-first century? How do they see the world? How much do they respect, build on or reject tradition? Are they busy in the darkroom or in the computer lab--or both? reGeneration sets out to discover answers to these intriguing questions, previewing the work of 50 photographers who may well emerge as some of the finest of their generation. This remarkable book, the broadest and most enterprising survey of its kind, showcases the creativity, ingenuity and inspiration of these up-and-coming artists in over 200 superb images. Curators at the world-renowned Musee de l'Elysee in Lausanne, France, selected the featured photographers from hundreds of candidates submitted by more than 60 of the world's top photography schools. The panel's choice was made with one key question in mind: are these images likely to be known in 20 years' time? The results show that, as the new century builds momentum, the art of photography is alive and well, and photographers of extraordinary talent are already making their mark."
  56. Λ Press release sent through photography-now (4 July 2013) on the ROSPHOTO exhibition (9 July - 11 August 2013) of "reGeneration2: tomorrow's photographers today" which included works by Kristoffer Axén, Jen Davis, David Favrod, Robin Friend, Audrey Guiraud, DI Liu, Grana Camila Rodrigo, Simone Rosenbauer, Sasha Rudensky, Geoffrey H. Short, Tereza Vlcková, LIU XiaoFang and other. 
  57. Λ William Ewing & Nathalie Herschdorfer, 2010, reGeneration2: Tomorrow's Photographers Today (Thames and Hudson). The exhibition toured widely from 2010 with venues including including: Rencontres d´Arles, France; Musée de l´Elysée, Lausanne, Sitzerland; Milan, Italy; Michaelis Galleries, Cape Town, South Africa and Pingyao international photography festival, China. 
  58. Λ William Innes Homer, 1977, Alfred Stieglitz and the American Avant-Garde, (Boston: New York Graphic Society); Sarah Greenough, 2000, Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and his New York Galleries, (Washington: National Gallery of Art.); Lisa Mintz Messinger, 2011, Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keefe, (Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art)
    Archival material - Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O'Keeffe Archive, Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University
    (Accessed: 10 September 2013) 
  59. Λ Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946) and His Circle - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    (Accessed: 10 September 2013) 
  60. Λ Ingrid Schaffner and Lisa Jacobs, 1998, Julien Levy: Portrait of an Art Gallery, (The MIT Press), [Published in conjunction with an exhibition at the Equitable Gallery, New York.]
    Julien Levy Gallery records - Philadelphia Museum of Art Archives
    (Accessed: 10 September 2013) 
  61. Λ Between 1931 and 1949 the Julien Levy Gallery had three locations in New York City:
    602 Madison Avenue (1931-1937)
    15 East 57th Street (1937-1943)
    42 East 57th Street (1943-1949) 
  62. Λ Margaret Locke, 13 October 2004, "Helen Gee, Pioneer in Sales of Photos as Art, Dies at 85", New York Times, [Obituary]
    (Accessed: 10 September 2013) 
  63. Λ Peter C. Bunnell, 1977, Helen Gee and the Limelight: A Pioneering Photography Gallery of the Fifties, (Carlton Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue, February 12-March 8, 1977]; Peter C. Bunnell, 2001, Helen Gee and the Limelight: The Birth of the Photography Gallery, (New York: Stephen Daiter Gallery); Helen Gee, 1997, Limelight: A Greenwich Village Photography Gallery and Coffeehouse in the Fifties - A Memoir, (University of New Mexico Press) 
  64. Λ Margaret Locke, 13 October 2004, "Helen Gee, Pioneer in Sales of Photos as Art, Dies at 85", New York Times, [Obituary]
    (Accessed: 10 September 2013) 
  65. Λ Jerry Tallmer, 20-26 October 2004, "Helen Gee, 85, proprietor of famed Limelight cafe", The Villager, vol. 74, no. 25, [Obituary]
    (Accessed: 10 September 2013) 
  66. Λ Mark Haworth Booth wrote an obituary on Harry Lunn for The Independent (UK newspaper), 8 Sept 1998; Harry Lunn & Peter C. Jones, 1995, 1 May, ‘Connoisseurs and Collections‘, Aperture 
  67. Λ On 23 May 2013 it was announced that the Impressions Gallery archives would be preserved at the National Media Museum (UK). 
  68. Λ At the Bauhaus in Germany photography was taught - In 1929 Walter Peterhans was appointed to teach photography. László Moholy-Nagy was also there and developed insightful ways of utilizing photography - he would go on to teach photography at the Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, in Chicago (now the Art Institute of Chicago). 
  69. Λ In the Preface to the 2nd edition of Photography: A Short Critical History (1938) it stated:
    "Three thousand copies of this revised edition were printed for the trustees of the Museum of modern art by the Spiral press, New York." "In the spring of 1937 the Museum of modern art held an exhibition 'Photography 1839-1937' ... The introduction and plates to the catalog of that exhibition form the body of this book. The text has been revised in part, and considerable hitherto uncollected data has been included in the outlines forming the Biographical index, which takes the place of the now obsolete catalog lists of the original publication."
  70. Λ Beaumont Newhall, 1949, The History of Photography from 1839 to the Present Day, (New York: The Museum of Modern Art)
    In the "Foreword and Acknowledgements" (p. 5) it says:
    The present text, although based on this earlier research, has been entirely rewritten and a new selection of illustrations has been made. Two of the chapters first appeared in the Magazine of Art and Antiques.
  71. Λ The PhotobookMuseum
    (Accessed: 13 April 2014)


HomeContents > Further research

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General reading 
Badger, Gerry, 2011, The Genius of Photography, (Quadrille Publishing Ltd) isbn-10: 1844006093 isbn-13: 978-1844006090 [Accompanies the BBC TV series of the same name] [Δ
Chiesa, Gabriele & Gosio. Paolo, 2012, Dagherrotipia, Ambrotipia, Ferrotipia: Positivi unici e processi antichi nel retratto fotografico, (youcanprint - Self-published) isbn-13: 978-8867519071 [Δ
Coe, Brian, 1976, The Birth of Photography: The Story of the Formative Years 1800-1900, (New York: Taplinger) [Δ
Crawford, William, 1979, The Keepers of Light: A History and Working Guide to Early Photographic Processes, (New York: Morgan & Morgan) [2nd edition] [Δ
Daval, Jean-Luc, 1982, Photography: History of an Art, (New York: Rizzoli International Publications, Inc.) [Translated by R. F. M. Dexter] [Δ
Davis, Keith F., 1999, An American Century of Photography: From Dry-Plate to Digital, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.) [2nd edition] [Δ
Davis, Keith F., 2007, The Origins of American Photography: From Daguerrotype to Dry-Plate, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) [Δ
Dyer, Geoff, 2007, The Ongoing Moment, (Vintage) isbn-10: 1400031680 isbn-13: 978-1400031689 [Δ
Eder, Josef Maria, 1945, History of Photography, (New York: Columbia University Press) [4th edition, translated by Edward Epstean] [Δ
Frizot, Michel, 1994, Nouvelle Histoire De La Photographie, (Paris: Bordas) [Δ
Frizot, Michel (ed.), 1998, A New History of Photography, (New York: Könemann) [English language edition] [Δ
Gernsheim, Helmut, 1955, The History of Photography from the Earliest Use of the Camera Obscura... up to 1914, (Oxford University Press) [Δ
Gernsheim, Helmut, 1986, A Concise History of Photography, (NY: Dover) [3rd edition] [Δ
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison, 1965, A Concise History of Photography, (London: Thames & Hudson) [Δ
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison, 1982, The Origins of Photography. Vol. 1 of The History of Photography, (New York: Thames and Hudson) [Δ
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison, 1988, The History of Photography: From the Camera Obscura to the Beginning of the Modern Era, (London: Thames and Hudson) [3rd edition] [Δ
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison, 1988, The Rise of Photography, 1850–1880: The Age of Collodion. Vol. 2 of The History of Photography, (New York: Thames and Hudson) [Δ
Goldberg, Vicki (ed.), 1981, Photography in Print: Writings from 1816 to the Present, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ
Guadagnini, Walter (ed.), 2011, Photography: The Origins 1839-1890, (Skira) isbn-10: 8857207188 isbn-13: 978-8857207186 [The Skira History of Photography (Volume 1)] [Δ
Guadagnini, Walter (ed.), 2012, Photography: A New Vision of the World 1891-1940, (Skira) isbn-10: 8857210324 isbn-13: 978-8857210322 [The Skira History of Photography (Volume 2)] [Δ
Hacking, Juliet, 2012, Photography: The Whole Story, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791347349 isbn-13: 978-3791347349 [Δ
Henisch, Heinz K & Henisch, Bridget A, 1996, The painted photograph 1939-1914: Origins, techniques, aspirations, (Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press) [Δ
Henisch, Heinz K & Henisch, Bridget A., 1993, The Photographic Experience, 1839–1914: Images and Attitudes, (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press) [Δ
Hirsch, Robert, 1999, Seizing the Light: A History of Photography, (McGraw-Hill) isbn-10: 0697143619 isbn-13: 978-0697143617 [Δ
Hirsch, Robert, 2009, Seizing the Light: A Social History of Photography, (McGraw-Hill) isbn-10: 0073379212 isbn-13: 978-0073379210 [Second edition] [Δ
Lécuyer, R., 1945, Histoire de la photographie, (Paris: Baschet) [Δ
Lemagny, Jean-Claude & Rouillé, André (eds.), 1987, A History of Photography: Social and Cultural Perspectives, (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press) [English edition, translated by Janet Lloyd] [Δ
Marien, Mary Warner, 2006, Photography: A Cultural History, (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall,) [2nd edition] [Δ
Marien, Mary Warner, 2010, Photography: A Cultural History, (Pearson) isbn-10: 0205708005 isbn-13: 978-0205708000 [3rd Edition] [Δ
Marien, Mary Warner, 2011, Photography and its Critics: A Cultural History, 1839-1900, (Cambridge University Press) isbn-10: 1107403383 isbn-13: 978-1107403383 [Δ
Marien, Mary Warner, 2012, 100 Ideas that Changed Photography, (Laurence King Publishers) isbn-10: 1856697967 isbn-13: 978-1856697965 [Δ
Marien, Mary Warner, 2013, Photography: A Cultural History, (Pearson) isbn-10: 0205988946 isbn-13: 978-0205988945 [4th Edition] [Δ
Moholy, Lucia, 1939, 100 Years of Photography: 1839–1939, (Hammondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, Ltd) [Δ
Newhall, Beaumont, 1938, Photography: A Short Critical History, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [2nd edition] [Δ
Newhall, Beaumont, 1949, The History of Photography from 1839 to the Present Day, (New York: The Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
Newhall, Beaumont, 1967, Latent Image: The Discovery of Photography, (Garden City, NY: Doubleday) [Δ
Newhall, Beaumont, 1967, Latent Image: The Discovery of Photography, (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books) [Δ
Newhall, Beaumont, 1982, History of Photography from 1839 to the Present, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Revised edition] [Δ
Newhall, Beaumont, 1982, The History of Photography: From 1839 to the Present Day, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [5th edition] [Δ
Newhall, Beaumont, 1983, Photography and the book: delivered on the occasion of the eighth Bromsen lecture, May 3, 1980, (Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston) [Δ
Pirker, Christain & Girandon, Daniel, 2012, Controversies: A Legal and Ethical History of Photography, (Actes Sud) isbn-10: 2742797009 isbn-13: 978-2742797004 [Δ
Pollack, Peter, 1969, The Picture History of Photography from the Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.) [Δ
Pollack, Peter, 1977, The Picture History of Photography: From the Earliest Beginnings to the Present Day, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) isbn-10: 0810920565 [Concise edition] [Δ
Roberts, Pam, 2007, A Century of Colour Photography: From the Autochrome to the Digital Age, (London: Andre Deutsch) [Δ
Rosenblum, Naomi, 1984, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press) [First edition] [Δ
Rosenblum, Naomi, 1994, A History of Women Photographers, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Δ
Rosenblum, Naomi, 2000, A History of Women Photographers, (New York: Abbeville Press) [2nd edition] [Δ
Rosenblum, Naomi, 2007, A World History of Photography, (New York: Abbeville Press) [4th edition] [Δ
Story, Alfred Thomas, 1898, The Story of Photography, (London: George Newnes) [Δ
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre 
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison, 1968, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [Second revised edition. Reprint of the 1956 London edition] [Δ
Helmut Gernsheim 
Gernsheim, Helmut & Gernsheim, Alison, 1968, L. J. M. Daguerre: The History of the Diorama and the Daguerreotype, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [Second revised edition. Reprint of the 1956 London edition] [Δ
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - 
History of Photography: Guide to research ... 
Rochester Institute of Technology guide produced by the library. Excellent starting point for anybody looking into the history of photography. The reference numbers relate to the resources held at RIT but the information is still very useful. 

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

Alison Gernsheim  (check) • Helmut Gernsheim  (1913-1995) • L. Fritz Gruber  (1908-2005) • Beaumont Newhall  (1908-1993)
HomeHistory of photography 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
Prehistory of photography 

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > History of photography

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailPhotobooks: Reference Books on Photobooks 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 3, 2012)

HomeVisual indexes > History of photography

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailHelmut and Alison Gernsheim: Books on the History of Photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHermann Krone: Diadactic boards on the history of photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMartin Parr & Gerry Badger: The Photobook - A History 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAmerican photobooks 
ThumbnailBooks about photobooks 
ThumbnailBritish photobooks 
ThumbnailCzech photobooks 
ThumbnailDutch photobooks 
ThumbnailFrench photobooks 
ThumbnailGerman photobooks 
ThumbnailJapanese photobooks 
   Still thinking about these... 
ThumbnailGallery owners 
ThumbnailMary Warner Marien: Photography - A Cultural History (Different editions) 
Refreshed: 12 January 2015, 04:20
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