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Contents

Instruction manuals
10048.01   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions: France
Daguerreotypes
10048.02   Daguerreotypes: Paris
10048.03   Daguerreotypes: France: Landscapes and cityscapes
10048.04   Floods in Nantes, France (1843)
10048.05   Daguerreotypes: Paris: Notre-Dame
Publications
10048.06   France: Photography magazines and journals
Landscape
10048.07   Early French landscape photographers
10048.08   Reasons for French pre-eminence in nineteenth century landscape photography
10048.09   Eugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau
10048.10   Camille de Silvy - River Scene (1858)
10048.11   Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s)
10048.12   John Stewart: Pyrenees (1850s)
10048.13   Farnham Maxwell Lyte: The Pyrenees
Documentary projects
10048.14   Mission Héliographique
10048.15   Charles Nègre: Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859)
10048.16   Édouard Baldus: Inondations du Rhône à Lyon et Avignon (1856)
10048.17   Adolphe Terris: Rénovation de la Vieille Ville de Marseille (1862)
10048.18   Édouard Baldus: Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1860s)
10048.19   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris
10048.20   Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875)
10048.21   Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882)
10048.22   Richebourg: Carte geologique detaillee de la France, Feuille 48.- Paris (1879)
Portraits
10048.23   Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique
Souvenirs
10048.24   Souvenir sets of travel photographs
Pictorialism in France
10048.25   Pictorialism in France
10048.26   The Photo Club of Paris (Le Photo Club de Paris)
Illustrated magazines
10048.27   Illustrated magazines in France
10048.28   VU
Street photography
10048.29   The humanism of street photography in France
10048.30   Classic French street photography
10048.31   Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Decisive Moment
10048.32   Robert Doisneau: Humanistic photography
10048.33   Édouard Boubat: Street photography and tender moments
Social conflict and war
10048.34   Year of Revolutions (1848): France - Paris
10048.35   Gustave Le Gray: Camp de Châlons (1857)
10048.36   Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): Introduction
10048.37   Photomontage during the Paris Commune (1871)
10048.38   Robert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944)
Photobooks
10048.39   French photobooks
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Instruction manuals 
  
10048.01   Europe >  Daguerreotype manuals and instructions: France 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Daguerreotypes 
  
10048.02   Europe >  Daguerreotypes: Paris 
  
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It should not be surprising that as the daguerreotype was first announced in Paris that it was exceptionally well documented in the early days of photography.[1]
 
Daguerreotypists photographing in Paris included:
Vincent Chevalier
Choiselat & Ratel
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
Armand Hippolyte Fizeau
Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gros
Paul Michel Hossard
Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours
M. Thibault
This listing is an indication of some daguerreotypists worthy of further research and no more than that.[2]  
  
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Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre  
  
 
  
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Paul Michel Hossard 
  
 
  
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Choiselat & Ratel 
  
 
  
10048.03   Europe >  Daguerreotypes: France: Landscapes and cityscapes 
  
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The daguerreotypes taken in Paris have been well illustrated and described[3] and there are a wide variety of volumes on the French daguerreotypes.[4] John Wood in his book The Scenic Daguerreotype: Romanticism and Early Photography (1995)[5] wrote about the use of daguerreotype to document to exterior world of buildings, monuments, cityscapes and, the far rarer, landscapes. Research on exteriors outside of Paris captured on the "silver mirror" remain in need of a catalogue.[6] 
  
10048.04   Europe >  Floods in Nantes, France (1843) 
  
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The identity of the photographer who took this whole plate daguerreotype of the floods at Nantes on the Loire River in France is unknown. However Charles Isaacs, a New York photography dealer, has stated that it was undoubtedly done by the same photographer who has a series of engravings published in La Loire Infériure, Vues de Nantes et de ses Environs (1842).[7] 
  
10048.05   Europe >  Daguerreotypes: Paris: Notre-Dame 
  
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Publications 
  
10048.06   Europe >  France: Photography magazines and journals 
  
Le Daguerreotype, revue de la photographie (1847)
La Lumière (1851-1867)
Bulletin de la Société Française de Photographie (1855-) 
  
Landscape 
  
10048.07   Europe >  Early French landscape photographers 
  
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During the nineteenth century a group of French painters including Georges Michel, Theodore Rousseau, Jean-Francois Millet, and Camille Corot sought their inspiration by going to the landscape and painting what they saw. Collectively they are known as the Barbizon school of painting named after a village in northern France.
 
The links between the painters and French landscape photography in the middle of the century are numerous. André Giroux (1801-1879) for example was a talented painter as well as a master photographer and the photographs by Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884) of the Forest of Fontainebleau were used as templates for paintings. 
  
   Fontainebleau 
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10048.08   Europe >  Reasons for French pre-eminence in nineteenth century landscape photography 
  
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Towards the middle of the nineteenth century three factors came together that made France preeminent in early landscape photography - early technological availability, the artistic perception of landscape painting at the time photography was announced and the talent of the people who took up photography. Within painting there had been a move to paint outdoors and to paint what was there rather than imagined within the studio and this flourished with the Barbizon artists who frequented the Fontainebleau forest near Paris. When photography was announced in 1839 it was a tool that matched their aesthetic needs by recording exactly what was seen.
 
If we look at the photographs of André Giroux (1801-1879) all three factors can be seen working together. André Giroux was the son of Alphonse Giroux who made the first commercial Daguerreotype cameras. He was also a talented landscape artist who won the prestigious "Rome Prize for Historical Landscape" ("Prix de Rome en Paysage Historique") and had painted in Italy in the 1820s at the same time as Camille Corot (1796-1875). With a father who knew how to make cameras and understood photography, a highly refined understanding of capturing the visual essentials of a landscape and artistic ability it is not surprising that his photographs, on which he retouched the glass negatives, should be so remarkable.
 
André Giroux was not alone in creating outstanding photographs that capture the balance of the landscape with the eyes of a painter. Within the works of Gustave Le Gray, Henri Le Secq who studied with the painter Delacroix, Charles Marville, Louis-Rémy Robert, Camille Silvy and others there are photographs that pull one in to share the experience of the moment. 
  
10048.09   Europe >  Eugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The close connection between artists and photographers is demonstrated by Eugène Cuvelier[8] who was a friend of the painter Camille Corot and who was acquainted with the Barbizon painters. To emphasize the connection one of the photographs shown here was taken in Barbizon.[9] 
  
   Fontainebleau 
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10048.10   Europe >  Camille de Silvy - River Scene (1858) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The best landscape photographs go beyond the arrangements and proportions of land, water and sky and take the viewer into the realms of memory and emotion.
 
Here we see the Huisne river near the birthplace of Camille Silvy[10] as he saw it in 1858 with the bands of clouds, wooden rural buildings and brick walls scattered on the left bank with column-like trees cutting vertical lines into the sky - a boat with a man sitting in it and a woman standing close by. On the right there is the meadow with some people on the grass. We can see the details of the picture but it represents far more than that - it has within it a harmony of elements that we feel comfortable with. We can all wish that we had been on the bridge that day with him and we yearn for past that has gone but are glad that he has shared a moment of Arcadian tranquility with us.
 
All is not as simple as it seems in this Arcadia; the print is a complex combination print that merges different images to create the harmonious whole. In the book on this image by Mark Haworth-Booth[11] he argues the intriguing point that it is proto-impressionist - bringing together the edge of a town where it melds into a rural setting and at the same time mixes the social levels of the society with the country bourgeoisie and the working class.
 
In 1990 one of the leading exponents of color photography, Stephen Shore, was commissioned by the J. Paul Getty Museum to re-photograph the location and he obtained a very different image.[12] You get a rephotographic shot of a place as it is but with none of the emotion. It is not that Stephen Shore is not a great photographer, he is, but his approach and sensibilities to landscape photography are totally different.
 
[Thanks to Mark Haworth-Booth for his insights on this.] 
  
10048.11   Europe >  Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The article Scientific Intelligence: A Photographic Ascent of Mont Blanc in the The London Review (1876) gave an account of the climb:
M. Auguste Bisson, the well-known Alpine photographer, has recently put into execution a project which has occupied his thoughts for some years past. This is no less than the ascent of Mont Blanc with all the paraphernalia necessary to the obtaining large photographic views from the summit; but, in spite of the well-known energy and talent of this operator, and the experience he has gained during his many photographic excursions at lower elevations, so formidable an enterprise occasioned many of M. Bisson's friends to have serious misgivings as to the success of the attempt. He started from Chamonix with the guide, Auguste Balmat, and twenty-five porters; for in order to carry the large amount of apparatus to such an altitude it was necessary that it should be well distributed. When they reached the Petits Mulets they encountered a terrible storm of wind, accompanied with avalanches falling on every side, whioh compelled the party to beat a retreat to the Grands Mulets. Arriving there, some of the bearers were too ill to proceed, and had to be sent back, while the party waited until seven hardier porters could be sent up to them from below. Upon these arriving the ascent was recommenced, and at length the summit was reached. There, almost all the party were so overcome by sleep or exhausted by fatigue and suffering as to be unable to move, leaving Balmat and Bisson, whose photographic ardour sustained his strength, the only ones capable of thinking of the reproduction of that magnificent panorama which lay stretched out beneath them. The photographer and his brave companion set up the tent and arranged the materials, but when they attempted to melt the snow in order to supply themselves with water, the fuel which they had brought with them for this purpose refused to light on account of the rarity of the atmosphere. In spite of all these difficulties three pictures were obtained, of which two are said to be very satisfactory. The time occupied on the summit of the mountain did not exceed two hours and a half.[13]
 
  
10048.12   Europe >  John Stewart: Pyrenees (1850s) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10048.13   Europe >  Farnham Maxwell Lyte: The Pyrenees 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Farnham Maxwell Lyte was mining engineer by profession but a user and innovator of photographic processes. For health reasons he lived in France from 1853 until 1880 and became interested in photography in the company of John Stewart and Jean-Jacques Heilmann. He helped to found the Société Française de Photographie in 1854 and was a member of the Photographic Society of Great Britain. Through the 1850s and 60s he exhibited widely showing his prints of the Pyrenees.[14] 
  
Documentary projects 
  
10048.14   Europe >  Mission Héliographique 
  
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Mission Héliographiques was a project initiated by writer Prosper Mérimée in 1851 to document with photography the state of architecturally significant monuments in France so they could be preserved and restored.[15] The photographers were Édouard Baldus, Hippolyte Bayard, Gustave Le Gray, Henri Le Secq and Auguste Mestral. On occasion Le Gray & Mestral travelled and worked together and it is unclear which one took the photographers or if they were taken together. Henri Courmont (1813-1855) was a commissioner for the Mission Héliographiques but did not contribute photographs.
 
The photographers normally worked independently with the exception of Le Gray & Mestral who on occassion both signed the same photograph. The regions surrounding Paris were assigned to the photographers:
North and east (Including the cathedrals of Reims, Laon, Troyes, and Strasbourg) - Henri Le Secq
 
South and east (Palace of Fontainebleau, Lyon and the Roman archaeological sites in Orange, Nîmes and Arles) - Édouard Baldus
 
Southwest (The Loire chateaux of Blois, Chambord, Amboise, and Chenonceaux and the towns of Carcassonne, Albi, Perpignan, Le Puy and Clermont-Ferrand) - Le Gray & Mestral consisting of Gustave Le Gray and Auguste Mestral
 
West (Brittany and Normandy including the towns of Caen, Bayeux, and Rouen) - Henri Le Secq
Prints from the 258 photographs they made are exceedingly rare as they were locked away and not published after they were delivered in the fall of 1851. Of the group works by Gustave Le Gray and Auguste Mestral are more common and this might indicate that they had a second set of negatives but this is not certain. 
  
10048.15   Europe >  Charles Nègre: Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The following contemporary account was published on the "Imperial Asylum at Vincennes for Convalescent Workman" in The Medical News and Library in December 1860:
Imperial Asylum at Vincennes for Convalescent Workman. - The Moniteur Universal of the 9th of July contains an interesting account of the convalescent hospital, established by the Emperor of the French, in the neighbourhood of Paris, from which we extract the following particulars: —
 
The Asylum of Vincennes was founded by a decree of the 8th March, 1855, for the temporary reception, during their convalescence, of workmen who had received injuries or contracted diseases. The building having been finished, and the internal arrangements completed, the inauguration of the Imperial Asylum took place on the 31st of August, 1857. It has now been in operation for nearly three years.
 
Nearly forty acres of forest, belonging to the domains of the Crown, were consecrated to the Asylum, which is built upon an elevated terrace, freely exposed to the air from all quarters. Since the opening of the institution, up to the end of June 1860 (comprehending a period of two years and ten months), the number of convalescents admitted has amounted to 14,000. These convalescents belong to the following categories: 1st. Convalescents sent from the hospitals of Paris and the suburbs; 2d. Convalescents sent by the local charitable institutions of the city; 3. Convalescents from injuries received in the public works; 4th. Members of societies of workmen established for their mutual assistance; 5th. Workmen belonging to establishments, the directors of which have obtained from the Minister of the Interior authorization to send, on payment of a subscription, their convalescents to the Asylum, such as the railroads, gasworks, and some large private establishments; 6th. Workmen who have been treated at their own homes, and who have received from their medical attendant certificate of convalescence.
 
It is by the express orders of the Emperor that the Asylum is now open, without distinction, to every convalescent workman. There are at present 411 beds.
 
Two elegant vehicles are attached to the institution, and bear the imperial arms. One of these is of the same size as an ordinary omnibus, the other is somewhat smaller. Every day one or other of these vehicles, according to the number requiring removal, goes to the various hospitals to pick up the convalescents, and even goes to the residences of those who have been treated at their own homes. The same vehicles convey the inmates back to Paris when they leave the Asylum. The first time that the large omnibus stopped in front of the Hotel-Dieu a crowd of spectators speedily assembled; people asked one an other what could be the meaning of this elegant vehicle with the imperial arms in such a locality; but when the spectators saw the poor convalescents, weakened by disease, come out of the hospital and get into the omnibus, and when it was known that they were about to be conveyed to the Imperial Asylum, they broke out into hearty applause. How, in fact, could they help being affected on seeing the paternal cares of the Emperor lavished indiscriminately on all the workmen, on all the laborious classes?
 
The mean term of residence in the Asylum is 22 days. Thanks to the hygienic resources of the institution, the period of convalescence from fevers is comparatively short. The principle of the Asylum is that every convalescent shall remain in the Asylum until he is completely restored to health, or until his disease has been recognized as incurable.
 
Diet of the Institution. — The diet is regulated by the director, and by the superintending medical officer of the establishment. Care has been taken to fix the hours of the different meals, in conformity with the usual habits of the working classes. At half past seven in the morning the inmates get a bowl of soup. Breakfast is at half past ten, and consists of stewed meat and vegetables. Five o'clock is the dinner hour: this meal consists of soup, roast meat, and vegetables. Each convalescent receives daily about a pint of wine, and as much bread of the first quality as he desires. On the average, each inmate consumes daily about a pound and a half of bread. If necessary, a special dietary is prescribed in particular cases. The sum allotted for the food of each inmate is tenpence-halfpenny a day, not comprehending the general expenses of the establishment.
 
If the convalescents desire it, and if their strength permits, they are employed in various capacities about the establishment, under the direction of the gardener, the smith, the carpenter, etc. In this case, they receive a small sum of money and half a pint of wine in addition to the regular allowance Those of the inmates who do not work have various amusements provided for them, such as bowls, skittles, dominoes, etc.; cards are prohibited.
 
The library is open daily, and contains 4000 volumes, and illustrated newspapers. Most of the volumes have been presented by the booksellers of Paris. In general, about 50 readers may be found in the library at a time; on one occasion 96 were counted.
 
The conduct of all in the Asylum is exemplary. They submit without a word to the rules of the institution, are courteous to one another, take care of the furniture of the establishment and of the flowers in the garden, and keep their dormitories in a state of perfect cleanliness. Although not required, the majority of the inmates attend chapel on Sunday.
 
The staff of the establishment consists of a director, a treasurer, a medical superintendent, with three resident pupils; six Sisters of the Order of the Ladies of St. Augustine of Belgium ; a secretary and five clerks ; a storekeeper; four overseers; and at least forty persons in subordinate positions, such as cooks, grooms, gardeners, etc.
 
An infirmary is connected with the Asylum. During the year 185S, 1859, nearly 1100 patients, presenting various affections more or less severe, have been under treatment ; during this time only 30 deaths occurred.
 
The anticipated expenses for the present year are between fourteen and fifteen thousand pounds.— Ed. Med. Journ., Sept. 1860.[16]
 
  
10048.16   Europe >  Édouard Baldus: Inondations du Rhône à Lyon et Avignon (1856) 
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In 1856 there was serious flooding along the Rhone River in France and Édouard Baldus[17] photographed the situation. As he had been a part of the La Mission Héliographique[18] in 1851 his appreciation of the historic sites affected was ideal. 
  
10048.17   Europe >  Adolphe Terris: Rénovation de la Vieille Ville de Marseille (1862) 
  
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In 1860 Adolphe Terris (1820-1900) founded the Société Marseillaise de Photographie with Leo Vidal. Terris is noted for his photographs of the urban tansformations of Marseille in southern France in the 1860s. He recorded the road building to create wider streets and boulevards, bridges, and the destruction of the older city monuments to make way for a modern city. He also photographed the renovation of Church Saint Vincent de Paul (Marseille) and copies of these photographs are in the collection of the Rijksmuseum
  
10048.18   Europe >  Édouard Baldus: Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1860s) 
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Édouard Baldus (1813-1889)[19] was one of the photographers selected in 1851 by the French government's Historic Monuments Commission to document the historically significant architecture of France in the Mission Héliographique.[20] In 1855 he was commissioned by Baron James de Rothschild, President of Chemin de Fer du Nord, to do a series on the railway as a gift for Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.[21]
 
Between 1858 and 1862 the Paris-Lyon and Lyon-Méditerranée railway companies amalgamated to become the Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée with lines in south-east France and a main line from Paris going through Dijon, Lyon and Marseille. Édouard Baldus had covered Lyon and the Roman archaeological sites in Orange, Nîmes and Arles for the Mission Héliographique so wWhen a photographic series documenting the Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée was required Baldus was ideal and he returned to the region to photograph the localities, bridges and monuments that were significant along the railway.[22][23] 
  
10048.19   Europe >  Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Eugène Atget is best known for his photographs late nineteenth and early twentieth century Paris that detail the streets, architecture, shops, parks and trees of the city.[24] He sold photographs to archives and museum and to artists who used them to develop their painting skills. He lived very close to Man Ray in Paris who knew his work and purchased prints. In his final years his work was promoted by Berenice Abbott[25] and the New York gallery owner Julian Levy
  
10048.20   Europe >  Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The construction of the new Opera House in Paris in the nineteenth century was a statement in quarried stone of civic and national pride. On 29 December 1860 a resolution was passed that commenced a competition for suitable designs and plans. The unanimously chosen winner was Charles Garnier and by July 1861 the site had been selected and the following month the excavation of the foundations commenced. This was far from an ideal time for new public works with both the Franco-Prussian War and the following dark times of the Paris Commune coinciding with the construction. Despite this Garnier completed the project by December 1874 and in January 1875 it opened:
The opening of the New Opera House at Paris took place on Tuesday last. The Government had engaged the entire house for the opening night, which was, therefore, a state festivity, to which the diplomatic corps, the deputies, &c, were invited. The regular performances were to commence last evening with Hamlet.[26]
This vast undertaking was described in a contemporary account as follows:
The historian of the new temple of song rounds off his record with an array of not uninteresting figures, and with a few of these I too shall close. The gas-pipes, if connected, would form a pipe twenty-five kilometres in length; fourteen furnaces and four hundred and fifty grates heat the house; a battery of seventy cups generates electricity for the scenic effects; nine reservoirs and two tanks hold a hundred thousand litres of water, and distribute their contents through six thousand nine hundred and eighteen metres of piping, and there are twenty-five hundred and thirty-one doors, and seven thousand five hundred and ninety-three keys, which latter M. Gamier delivered formally, but figuratively, I imagine, to M. Halanzier when the manager took possession of the premises.[27]
During the process Louis-Emile Durandelle photographed both the construction and the ornamental sculptures that decorated the immense building. Illustrations clearly based on Durandelle's photographs were published in Le Nouvel Opera de Paris par Charles Garnier (1875-81)[28] and in Charles Nuitter's, Le Nouvel Opera (1875)[29].  
  
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Photographs by Louis-Emile Durandelle of the Paris Opera House and printed illustrations 
  
The project remains as one of the key documentations of a nineteenth century architectural project. Durandelle recorded many other key projects in Paris including the construction of Sacre Coeur, the Hotel de Ville, and the Eiffel Tower
  
   Louis-Emile  Durandelle Paris Opera 
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10048.21   Europe >  Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
  
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In the middle of the nineteenth century a large number of public works were being constructed in France for the benefit of society. The bridges, roads, canals, port improvements, lighthouses and beacons were under the direction of the Ministère des Travaux Publics and photographs were shown at the Universal Exhibition in Vienna (1873). It was decided to create a publication of the photographs and this was organised by James de Rothschild and additional photographs were added. The five volume Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882)[30] stands as one of the great documentary studies but is little known.
 
The photographs taken show the marvels of the construction and to emphasise the grandeur they are largely devoid of people and are similar to the typological works of Bernd & Hilla Becher[31] which came much later.
 
This publication included many of the best regional photographers working in France from the middle of the 19th century including:
Édouard Baldus (Paris)
Michel Berthauld (Paris)
De Bray (Nice)
Cabibel (Perpignan)
Cognac (La Rochelle)
Hippolyte-Auguste Collard (Paris)
Louis Alphonse Davanne (Paris)
Eugène Delon (Toulouse)
J. Duclos (Quimper)
Joguet (Lyon)
De Labrador (Bayonne)
Letellier (Le Havre)
Magny (Coutances)
Pacault (Pau)
Prompt (Albi)
Provost (Béziers)
Romanowski (Montpellier)
Sarault (Asnières)
Alphonse Terpereau (Bordeaux)
Adolphe Terris (Marseille)
 
  
   Documentary 19thc Les Travaux Publics De La France 
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10048.22   Europe >  Richebourg: Carte geologique detaillee de la France, Feuille 48.- Paris (1879) 
  
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Photographs from the Carte géologique détaillée de la France (1879) 
  
Portraits 
  
10048.23   Europe >  Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Numerous portraits by Parisian photographer Nadar[32] were included in the Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique. A complete listing of photographs by Nadar with this publication requires further research[33] but are thought to include:
Edmond About
Th. Barriere
Adolphe Belot
de Broglie
Champfleury
Chatrousse
Francois Coppée
Maurice Cossmann
duc Decazes
Gustave Doré
Gustave Droz
Ferdinand Fabre
Louis Figuier
Edmond de Goncourt
Gondinet
Jacquet
Edouart-René Laboulaye
Lecomte du Nouÿ
Ernest Legouvé
Ferdinand de Lesseps
(Mme) Marc de Montifaud
Marie Pape-Carpantier
Aimé Perret
Isaac Pereire
Pils
Francis Planté
George Sand
Scribe
Baron Taylor
Thiers
Hector Viger
Viollet Le Duc
 
  
   Nadar Galerie Contemporaine 
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Souvenirs 
  
10048.24   Europe >  Souvenir sets of travel photographs 
  
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Small wallets made of stiff card containing miniature views of tourist destinations were common souvenirs through the nineteenth century.[34] 
  
Pictorialism in France 
  
10048.25   Europe >  Pictorialism in France 
  
In 1894 The Photo-Club of Paris (le Photo Club de Paris) with Constant Puyo, Robert Demachy, René Le Begue, Hachette and De Singly held its first exhibition in 1894 Première exposition d'art photographique but its roots went back to 1890. The club published the Bulletin du photo-club de Paris with its Art Nouveau stylistic designs. Robert Demachy (1859-1937) in Paris popularized the pictorialist style through the 1890s. 
  
10048.26   Europe >  The Photo Club of Paris (Le Photo Club de Paris) 
  
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Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1894 
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Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1895 
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Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1896 
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Pictorialism Photo Club de Paris 1897 
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Illustrated magazines 
  
10048.27   Europe >  Illustrated magazines in France 
  
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The dominant style of photography in French magazines up to the mid-1920's was pictorialism and because of this photomontages and collages were uncommon. Photographic magazines were common if rather traditional with titles such as Violà, Match (1926-) but with major changes in 1938 brought about by Jean Prouvost, Regards, Marianne and Vu (1928-1938) which was founded by Lucien Vogel. There were also cultural magazines of a far smaller distribution such as Verve and Minotaure (1933-1939) that were more adventurous in the photographers they selected: images by surrealist artists were included such as Salvadore Dali, Hans Bellmer, Man Ray, Brassaï, Raoul Ubac and Manuel Álvarez Bravo
  
10048.28   Europe >  VU 
  
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Street photography 
  
10048.29   Europe >  The humanism of street photography in France 
  
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Different countries have artistic styles that reflect national sensitivities and France has had a remarkable group of photographers who have recorded life with humanity and humor - just looking at the photographs one is sucked into other people's lives. Jacques-Henri Lartique[35], Robert Doisneau and Henri Cartier-Bresson have shown all strata of society but they are not the portraits of alienated people passed in the street as Garry Winogrand[36] would take them - here the photographer captures the rich small intimate moments of people's lives. Photographers such as Brassaï (Translyvanian born) and André Kertész (Hungarian) who adopted France for periods of their lives also reflected this approach. 
  
10048.30   Europe >  Classic French street photography 
  
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There are so many timeless images from street photography in France that selected iconic examples is difficult but one should include:
  • Behind the Gare St. Lazare / Place de l'Europe, Paris - showing a man seemingly levitating as he jumps across over a puddle (1932) - Henri Cartier-Bresson  
      
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  • Sunday on the Banks of the Marne - where four well-nourished friends, presumably two middle aged couples, have nearly finished their picnic and are relaxing with a drink that is in the process of being poured (1938) - Henri Cartier-Bresson  
      
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  • Kiss by the Hotel de Ville - showing a gentle kiss in a busy Paris street (1950) - Robert Doisneau. This last one of more problematic as it was later found to have been staged with models hired by the photographer.  
      
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  • These are timeless images reprinted in the classic histories of photography and hung as posters on the walls of students around the world. Basically they show humanity with humor and warmth. When in 1952 the book The Decisive Moment (Images a La Sauvette) came out with the photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson it became apparent that there was a mass market for this type of photography. They were creators of a trend towards a more ironic type of photography that evolved with the optimism and freedoms of the 1950's in the USA and western Europe - this included people like John Deakin (1916-1972) in the UK, or the Swiss-born Robert Frank in his book The Americans that was based on the images he took during his 1955 Guggenheim grant. 
      
    10048.31   Europe >  Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Decisive Moment 
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    The liberation of Paris during the Second World War took place on 25 August 1944 with the arrival of the 2nd French Armoured Division in the center of the city.[37] After over four years of German occupation there was increasing optimism as Allied Forces were pushing towards Germany. It is perhaps not surprising that photography in France during the second half of the 1940s and 50s reflected the national mood of a joyful release. Street photographers searched for elusive moments that would sum up the entirety of an event, emotion or person.
     
    Working with 35mm Contax and Leica cameras Henri Cartier-Bresson sought out the fractions of a second where an everyday occurrence in the street would create the perfect full-frame composition. Five years before the seminal book The Decisive Moment (1952) was published Beaumont Newhall wrote of the connections between art and photography in the photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson :
    As a result of this plastic interest, each of Cartier's pictures is not only a moment, rich with significance, arrested; it is also a moment seen in such a powerful way, and with such a strong sense of the purely formal organization, that the transitory is made permanent.[38]
    This is best known by the famous phrase 'the decisive moment' that is associated with Henri Cartier-Bresson [39]:
    The decisive moment is the fleeting moment when the apex of the occurring action coincides with the other graphic elements within the frame to create the best possible composition.
    and...
    "Above all, I craved to seize the whole essence, in the confines of one single photograph, of some situation that was in the process of unrolling itself before my eyes..."
    Photographers in post-war France, such as Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Doisneau, Édouard Boubat and Willy Ronis, are particularly interesting as they appear to be non-judgmental and are not about changing society but rather about recording it's diversity. It's the very humanity and joy in the images that makes them so universal. The photographs in 1952 book The Decisive Moment covered Henri Cartier-Bresson's work in France, Spain, Italy and Great Britain but the majority of the photographs come from his travels to the United States, Mexico,[40] India,[41] Pakistan, China and Indonesia. This is not a complete list of the countries but indicates that the book is essentially a retrospective of his travel reportage with sections of French celebrities. The book includes his photographs taken from 1932 until 1951 with none taken between 1939 and 1943 during the Second World War.[42] The key factor here is the period when it published in 1952 as the world was recovering from the war. When examined critically the book includes some of the best known photographs of Henri Cartier-Bresson but not all are outstanding but that would be setting the bar very high. If we ignore the relaxed portraiture often in domestic settings what the book did was free photographers to seek out those fractions of a second that highlight a longer experience - there was the freedom to travel and use a 35mm camera to record seemingly inconsequential moments rather than tourist stereotypes and monuments. The Decisive Moment was also influential as it showed to other photographers and publishers that there was a market for books of street photography and informal reportage. This lead the way for books in the 1950s by William Klein (1955),[43] Ed Van der Elsken (1956)[44] and Robert Frank (1958).[45] 
      
    10048.32   Europe >  Robert Doisneau: Humanistic photography 
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    Robert Doisneau (1912-1994) was an outstanding Parisian street photographer who explored everyday moments within public space.[46] Joyful moments of children doing handstands, a balloon seller (Le Garde et les Ballons, a couple waltzing in the street at night (La Dernier Valse du Juillet 14, Paris) or a sneaky look at a nude painting Un regard Oblique are what made his body of work both touching and approachable. Later in his career his work would have to be reassessed when it was revealed that one of his most famous photographs Le Basier de L'Hotel de Ville (1950) used hired participants. Despite the controversy over this incident Robert Doisneau's photographs have become a significant part of French visual culture. 
      
    10048.33   Europe >  Édouard Boubat: Street photography and tender moments 
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    Social conflict and war 
      
    10048.34   Europe >  Year of Revolutions (1848): France - Paris 
      
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    In 1848 Paris was in a state of revolution and this was the period described by Victor Hugo (1802-1885) in his novel Les Miserables:
    "In less than an hour twenty-seven barricades rose from the ground in the single quartier of the markets...The narrow, uneven, sinuous streets full of turns and corners, were admirably chosen; the environs of the markets in particular, a network of streets more intricate than a forest..."[47]
    There are surviving photographs by Hippolyte Bayard (1801-1887)[48] of the remains of barricades in Rue Royale and two daguerreotypes by M. Thibault of those on Rue Saint-Maur-Popincourt set up during the 1848 revolution in Paris. The Thibault photograph secured it's place in history as being the first daguerrotype that was copied as an engraving[49] and published in L'Illustration on 1 July 1848 (nos 279-280, 1er-8 juillet 1848, p. 276.) with the title La barricade de la rue Saint-Maur-Popincourt le lundi après l'attaque, d'après une planche daguerréotypée par M. Thibault. When the Thibault daguerreotypes were sold at Sotheby's in 2002[50] they were claimed to be the first examples of photoreportage. 
      
    10048.35   Europe >  Gustave Le Gray: Camp de Châlons (1857) 
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    The 1857 albumen prints by Gustave Le Gray (1820-1884) of the French troop maneuvres at Chalon in France clearly show the limitations of the equipment available with the static shots and remote shots that were characteristic of war photography until fast films and hand held cameras became available far later.
     
    A contemporary account of the military maneuvers of 1857 was published in The Spectator:
    "L'empire c'est la paix," but in the fashion of perfect equipment for the field. France possesses at the present moment two enormous assemblies of troops—one near Lyons, one at Chalons. This double muster would appear to be dictated by two objects, and we can easily divine them. Lyons is a point from which a weight could be brought to bear either upon Spain, upon Switzerland, or upon Italy. The other camp at Chalons offers a ground upon which the empire can develop its military resources to the highest degree of perfection; it is this camp over which the Emperor presides in person, surrounded by the elite of his generals, in Marshals Pelissier, Canrobert, Magnan, and General de Grammont, with many officers of high rank. Marshal Canrobert is the permanent Commander-in-chief. The camp comprises a complete army, with its infantry, cavalry, artillery, engineers, and even commissariat. Since June it has been undergoing thorough training, even in grand manoeuvres. Speaking in laudation of the Chalons Camp, the Moniteur says, that "the most redoubtable armies at the opening of a campaign have always been those familiarized by a long stay under canvass, in time of peace, with the rough exigencies of discipline and fatigue." Napoleon the First liked to have troops trained as armies, habituated to move in organized masses, and his nephew preserves the same strategy. The prime object in rendering the army available for immediate service, has already been attained. "It may now be said," the Moniteur announces, "that the education of the troops is complete, not only in a limited sense, as applied to one branch of the service, but as applied to the whole body of troops acting together on a vast field of operations." Has this camp a further purpose, or has it not?[51]
    In 1860 Gustave Le Gray photographed the abandoned barricades of the fighting in Palermo led by Guiseppe Garibaldi
      
    10048.36   Europe >  Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): Introduction 
      
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    The name Franco-Prussian War commonly used in English is inaccurate as it implies that only France and Prussia was involved and this was not the case as an alliance of German states including Prussia, Baden, Bavaria and Württemberg fought together. In French the war is called the La guerre franco-allemande de 1870 (French-German War of 1870) and in German Deutsch-Französischer Krieg (German-French War), both of these names are more appropriate.
     
    The war was the result of growing international tensions between France and a confederation of German states led by Prussia with the catalyst being the possibility of a member of Prussia's Hohenzollern royal family being in line for the Spanish throne. Although after an ultimatum from France Prussia withdrew the candidacy it was forced into a humiliating series of demands that King Wilhelm could not agree to and this led to military conflict.
     
    The French forces did not mobilize quickly enough and the German armies surrounded Strasbourg and on 15 August 1870 started a siege that lasted fifty days. The city was devastated by the bombardment and albumen prints of the ruins were made by:
    • Charles Winter  
        
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    • Firms: Baudelaire, Saglio & Peter  
        
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    • Firms: Saglio & Peter
       
    • Unidentified photographers  
        
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    By the 17 December 1870 the German forces had surrounded Paris and a siege continued through the winter until the armistice of 28 January 1871 and Paris capitulated the following day. The siege of Paris is notable for the use of the pigeon post and delivery of mail by balloons in which photographed documents were regularly sent.
     
    In the treaty that ended the war France ceded the lands of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany and this became one of the issues that provoked the First World War (1914-1918). The Franco-Prussian War also led to the unification of the German Empire on 18 January 1871 at the Palace of Versailles and that was to have significant impact upon subsequent European history. Within Paris the church of Sacre Coeur in Montmartre[52] was built originally by subscription and later with government funding to commemorate the Franco-Prussian War.
     
    Very few photographs survive of the battlefields - most are albums of carte de visite of the officers involved. The British Library has a series of albumen prints by an unknown German photographer that document the war from the battlefields of Alsace through to the German occupation of Versailles. 
      
    10048.37   Europe >  Photomontage during the Paris Commune (1871) 
      
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    During and after the Paris Commune of 1871 Eugène Appert (1814-1891) created photomontage albumen prints to highlight key events in a series entitled Crimes of the Commune (Crimes de la Commune). Each of the printed composites was accompanied with printed details that provided the evidence for what was being supposedly being shown. The prints were used as propaganda by the French National Government, led by Adolph Thiers, to justify the brutal suppression of the commune and the executions that followed. 
      
      War Paris Commune 
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    10048.38   Europe >  Robert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944) 
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    Photojournalist Robert Capa landed on Omaha Beach with the 16th Regiment of the 1st Infantry Division on D-Day 6th June 1944 with the soldiers.[53] His photographs show the backs of heavily laden troops at they waded past the steel landing craft obstructions, the "steel obstacles" of Capa towards the Normandy beaches.
     
    In his autobiography Slightly Out of Focus (1947) Capa proved an account of the early stages of the landing as he attempted to take photographs with his Contax:
    The flat bottom of our barge hit the earth of France. The boatswain lowered the steel-covered barge front, and there, between the grotesque designs of steel obstacles sticking out of the water, was a thin line of land covered with smoke — our Europe, the 'Easy Red' beach.
     
    My beautiful France looked sordid and uninviting, and a German machine gun, spitting bullets around the barge, fully spoiled my return. The men from my barge waded in the water. Waist-deep, with rifles ready to shoot, with the invasion obstacles and the smoking beach in the background gangplank to take my first real picture of the invasion. The boatswain, who was in an understandable hurry to get the hell out of there, mistook my picture-taking attitude for explicable hesitation, and helped me make up my mind with a well-aimed kick in the rear. The water was cold, and the beach still more than a hundred yards away. The bullets tore holes in the water around me, and I made for the nearest steel obstacle. A soldier got there at the same time, and for a few minutes we shared its cover. He took the waterproofing off his rifle and began to shoot without much aiming at the smoke-hidden beach. The sound of his rifle gave him enough courage to move forward, and he left the obstacle to me. It was a foot larger now, and I felt safe enough to take pictures of the other guys hiding just like I was.[54]
    He exposed 106 frames on three rolls of film before he waded across to an LCI (landing craft, infantry) and was taken aboard to get the raw film back to England as soon as possible. The next phase has become a legend of photographic history. He delivered the film to the LIFE magazine offices in London and a darkroom assistant in his haste overheated the film melting the emulsion and destroying most of what would have been historic images.[55] Only eleven blurry negatives survived and one of those was lost shortly after.[56] 
      
    Photobooks 
      
    10048.39   Europe >  French photobooks 
      
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    Footnotes 
      
    1. Λ Musee Carnavalet, 1989, Paris et le daguerreotype, (Paris-Musees) 
        
    2. Λ If an exhaustive listing of daguerreotypists who took images of Paris does exist please let me know - alan@luminous-lint.com 
        
    3. Λ Musee Carnavalet, 1989, Paris et le daguerreotype, (Paris-Musees) 
        
    4. Λ For French daguerreotypes - W.J. Naef & B. Marbot, 1980, After Daguerre. Masterworks Of French Photography (1848-1900) From The Bibliothèque Nationale, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art); Janet E. Buerger, 1989, French Daguerreotypes, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press); Quentin Bajac & Dominique Planchon-de Font-Réaulx et al., 2003, The Dawn of Photography: French Daguerreotypes, 1839–1855, CD-ROM, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Christopher Noey, producer]
       
      For daguerreotypes of the city of Paris - Musee Carnavalet, 1989, Paris et le daguerreotype, (Paris-Musees) 
        
    5. Λ John Wood, 1995, The Scenic Daguerreotype: Romanticism and Early Photography, (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press) 
        
    6. Λ If you know of research on exterior daguerreotypes taken in France I would be most interested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
        
    7. Λ 1842, La Loire Infériure, Vues de Nantes et de ses Environs, (Nantes: Jules Forest) 
        
    8. Λ Eugene Cuvelier, Henning Weidemann & Daniel Challe, 1997, Eugene Cuvelier: Legend of the Forest, (Cantz); Malcolm Daniel, 1996, Eugène Cuvelier: Photographer in the Circle of Corot, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
        
    9. Λ Thanks to Nadia Valla for bringing this to my attention. 
        
    10. Λ Mark Haworth-Booth, 1992, Camille Silvy: River Scene, France, (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum); Mark Haworth-Booth, 2010, Camille Silvy: Photographer of Modern Life, (London: National Portrait Gallery) 
        
    11. Λ Mark Haworth-Booth, 1992, Camille Silvy: River Scene, France, (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum) 
        
    12. Λ Stephen Shore, 1990, "The River Huisne, Nogent-le-Rotrou", C-type chromogenic print (The J. Paul Getty Museum, 97.XM.40.14)
      www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artObjectDetails?artobj=112664
       
      Stephen Shore decribed the scene:
      As I stood on the bridge crossing the River Huisne, holding a copy of the [Camille] Silvy print in front of me and examining it in detail to determine its exact vantage point and framing, I was stunned by the changes I saw. Nearly everything in the scene was different or transformed. The trees in Silvy's original had long since disappeared, the stately old trees there now had not even been planted in Silvy's time. Some of the houses had fallen into disrepair, others had been renovated and now, a hundred years later, the renovations themselves looked old. The growth, again, and alteration that had taken place in this apparent changeless scene were astonishing.
       
        
    13. Λ August 24, 1861, "Scientific Intelligence: A Photographic Ascent of Mont Blanc", The London Review, no. 60, vol. III, p. 236 
        
    14. Λ Hélène Saule-Sorbé, 2004, "Les Pyrénées photographiées de Farnham Maxwell Lyte", Bulletin de la Société Ramond 
        
    15. Λ Philippe Néagu, et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851, (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés) [Exhibition catalogue]; Anne de Mondenard, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux) 
        
    16. Λ December, 1860, "Imperial Asylum at Vincennes for Convalescent Workman", The Medical News and Library, vol. XVIII, no. 216, pp. 184-185 
        
    17. Λ He is also commonly referred to as "Edouard-Denis Baldus" but there is no trace of this name having been used during his lifetime. He was born "Eduard" and adopted the French spelling "Edouard" after moving to Paris. [Thanks to Malcolm Daniel for this information.] 
        
    18. Λ For the work of the "Mission Héliographique" - Anne de Mondenard, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux); Philippe Néagu, et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851, (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés), [Exhibition catalogue] 
        
    19. Λ He is also commonly referred to as "Edouard-Denis Baldus" but there is no trace of this name having been used during his lifetime. He was born "Eduard" and adopted the French spelling "Edouard" after moving to Paris. [Thanks to Malcolm Daniel for this information.] 
        
    20. Λ For the work of the "Mission Héliographique" - Anne de Mondenard, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux); Philippe Néagu, et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851, (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés), [Exhibition catalogue]
       
      The photographers for the "Mission Héliographique" were Édouard Baldus, Hippolyte Bayard, Gustave Le Gray, Henri Le Secq and Auguste Mestral. 
        
    21. Λ The album "Chemin de Fer du Nord" is in the Royal Library at Windsor Castle (UK). 
        
    22. Λ Malcolm R. Daniel, 1994, The Photographs of Édouard Baldus, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Montreal: Canadian Centre for Architecture) 
        
    23. Λ A full list of the plates in the Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée by Édouard Baldus is requested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
        
    24. Λ There are a large number of monographs on Eugène Atget and the standard by which all others are judged are the four volumes published by the Museum of Modern Art (1981-1985):
      John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1981, The Work of Atget. vol. 1: Old France, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
       
      John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1982, The Work of Atget. vol. II: The Art of Old Paris, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
       
      John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1983, The Work of Atget. vol. III: The Ancien Regime, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
       
      John Szarkowski & Maria Morris Hambourg, 1985, The Work of Atget. vol. IV: Modern Times, (New York: Museum of Modern Art)
       
        
    25. Λ Clark Worswick, 2002, Berenice Abbott & Eugene Atget, (Santa Fe: Arena Editions) 
        
    26. Λ The Academy, Issue 7, Jan 9, 1875, p. 51 
        
    27. Λ Frederick A. Schwab, "A Temple of Song", Scribners Monthly, May, 1875, Volume X, no. 1, p. 20 
        
    28. Λ 1875-81, Le Nouvel Opera de Paris par Charles Garnier, (Paris: Ducher et Cie) 
        
    29. Λ Charles Nuitter, 1875, Le Nouvel Opera (Paris: Libraire Hachette et Cie) 
        
    30. Λ Les Travaux Publics de la France was published in five parts:
      Volume I: Félix Lukas - Ponts et routes (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Bridges and roads]
      Volume II: Edourd-Charles-Romain Collignon - Chemins de fer (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Railways]
      Volume III: H. de Lagrene - Rivières et canaux (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Rivers and canals]
      Volume IV: Voisin-Bey - Ports de mer (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Sea ports]
      Volume V: Emile Allard - Phares et balises (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Lighthouses and beacons]
       
        
    31. Λ There is a large literature on Bernd and Hilla Becher including - Bernd & Hiller Becher, 2004, Typologies of Industrial Buildings, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press); Bernhard & Hilla Becher, 1970, Anonyme Skulpturen, A Typology of Technical Constructions, (New York: Wittenborn and Co.); Susanne Lange, 2006, Bernd and Hilla Becher: Life and Work, (The MIT Press) 
        
    32. Λ For Nadar - Jean Prinet & Antoinette Dilasser, 1966, Nadar, (Paris: Armand Colin); Nigel Gosling, 1976, Nadar, (Alfred A. Knopf); Nadar, 1979, Nadar, (Milan: Electa Editrice); Maria Morris Hambourg; Francoise Heilburn & Philippe Neagu, 1995, Nadar, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
        
    33. Λ I'm indepted by Michael S. Sachs for his assistance on this listing of prints and would welcome any corrections and additions (17 August 2014) 
        
    34. Λ I have not come across a good book on wallets containing minature views or any articles. If you have done research in this area or know of any I would be most grateful - alan@luminous-lint.com 
        
    35. Λ Jacques-Henri Lartigue, 1966, Boyhood Photos of J. H. Lartigue: The Family Album of a Gilded Age, (Lausanne, Switzerland: Ami Guichard); Martine D’Astier, Quentin Bajac & Alain Saya, 2003, Lartigue: Album of a Century, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) 
        
    36. Λ For the most complete overview on Garry Winogrand - Sarah Greenough, Erin O'Toole, Tod Papageorge, Sandra S. Phillips & Leo Rubinfien (ed.), 2013, Garry Winogrand, (Yale University Press)
       
      For Garry Winogrand's books - Garry Winogrand, 1969, The Animals, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Republished Museum of Modern Art (2004)]; Garry Winogrand, 1975, Women Are Beautiful, (New York: Light Gallery & Farrar, Straus & Giroux); Garry Winogrand, 1977, Public Relations, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Republished by The Museum of Modern Art, New York (2004)]; Garry Winogrand, 1980, Stock Photographs: Fort Worth Fat Stock Show and Rodeo, (Olympic Marketing Corp) 
        
    37. Λ French photographer Robert Doisneau recorded the struggle for the Liberation of Paris - Robert Doisneau, 1944, La semaine héroïque. 19-25 Août 1944, (Paris: S.E.P.E.) 
        
    38. Λ Beaumont Newhall, January 1947, "Vision Plus the Camera: Henri Cartier-Bresson", Popular Photography, vol. 20, pp. 56-57, 134, 136, 138. Reprinted in Beaumont Newhall (ed.), 1980, Photography: Essays & Images, (London: Secker & Warburg), pp. 282-287 
        
    39. Λ Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1952, Images à la Sauvette, (Paris: Editions Verve); Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1952, The Decisive Moment, (New York: Simon and Schuster) An edition was released in 2014 by Steidl.
       
      The Wikipedia page on Henri Cartier-Bresson says:
      Both titles came from publishers. Tériade, the Greek-born French publisher whom Cartier-Bresson idolized, gave the book its French title, Images à la Sauvette, which can loosely be translated as "images on the run" or "stolen images." Dick Simon of Simon & Schuster came up with the English title The Decisive Moment. Margot Shore, Magnum's Paris bureau chief, did the English translation of Cartier-Bresson's French preface
      Unfortunately it did not provide sources for this information. (Accessed: 31 May 2014)
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Cartier-Bresson#The_Decisive_Moment 
        
    40. Λ For Henri Cartier-Bresson in Mexico - Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1996, Henri Cartier-Bresson: Mexican Notebooks 1934-1964, (Thames & Hudson) 
        
    41. Λ For Henri Cartier-Bresson in India - Henri Cartier-Bresson, 2006, Henri Cartier-Bresson: India, (Thames & Hudson) 
        
    42. Λ For thirty-five months during the Second World War Henri Cartier-Bresson was a German prisoner of war. He escaped twice and was recaptured, and on his third attempt he escaped and joined the French Resistance in Paris. Beaumont Newhall, January 1947, "Vision Plus the Camera: Henri Cartier-Bresson", Popular Photography, vol. 20, pp. 56-57, 134, 136, 138. Reprinted in Beaumont Newhall (ed.), 1980, Photography: Essays & Images, (London: Secker & Warburg), pp. 282-287 
        
    43. Λ William Klein, 1955,New York 1954, (Marval); William Klein, 1956, [NEW YORK] Life is good & good for you in NEW YORK, (Editions du Seuil); William Klein, 1958-1959, Rome: The City and its People, (The Viking Press) [Also published by Seuil, Paris (1959) and Feltrinelli, Milan (1960). Republished by Aperture (2009) with texts by Alberto Moravia, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Ennio Flaiano, Federico Fellini.]; William Klein, 1964, Mockba - Moscow, (New York: Crown); William Klein, 1964, Tokyo, (New York: Crown Publishers); William Klein, 1964, Tokyo, (Tokyo, Japan: Zokeisha Publications) 
        
    44. Λ André Deutsch & Ed Van der Elsken, 1956, Love on the Left Bank, (Holland: Export printing office W. vonk); Ed Van der Elsken, 1966, Sweet Life, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) 
        
    45. Λ Robert Frank, 1958, Les Américains, (Paris: Delpire) 
        
    46. Λ There are many books by Robert Doisneau and an overview of life - Peter Hamilton, 1995, Robert Doisneau: A Photographer’s Life, (New York: Abbeville Press) 
        
    47. Λ Victor Hugo, 1862, Les Misérables, (Carleton), vol. 2, pts. 3-5 , p. 347 
        
    48. Λ Eugenia Parry (introduction), 2010, Hippolyte Bayard, (Daniel Blau) [Edition of 1000] 
        
    49. Λ This statement requires verification. 
        
    50. Λ Sotheby's in London (Thursday, 9 May 2002) 
        
    51. Λ 9 October 1857, The Spectator 
        
    52. Λ The construction of Sacre Coeur in Paris was photographed by Louis-Emile Durandelle who also photographed the building of the Paris Opera House.
       
      C. Baillargeon, 2011, ‘Construction Photography and the Rhetoric of Fundraising: The Maison Durandelle Sacre-Coeur Commission‘, Visual resources: an international journal of documentation, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 113-128 
        
    53. Λ As these photographs are of such significance their story has been the subject of ongoing research and one example of this is:
      A.D. Coleman, "Robert Capa on D-Day"
      (Accessed: 14 October 2014)
      www.nearbycafe.com/artandphoto/photocritic/major-stories/robert-capa-on-d-day/ 
        
    54. Λ Robert Capa, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt and Company), pp. 145-146 
        
    55. Λ The darkroom assistant was Dennis Banks.
      Interview: John Morris on his friend Robert Capa - Interviewed by Simon Kuper (FT Magazine, 31 May 2013)
      (Accessed: 13 November 2013)
      www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/3d37a03e-c8be-11e2-acc6-00144feab7de.html#slide0 
        
    56. Λ In his autobiography Capa wrote that only eight survived and this appears to be an error - Robert Capa, 1947, Slightly Out of Focus, (New York: Henry Holt and Company), p. 151 
        

    alan@luminous-lint.com

     
      

    HomeContents > Further research

     
      
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    General reading 
      
    Aubenas, Sylvie & Roubert, Paul-Louis (eds.), 2010, Primitifs de la Photographie: Le Calotype en France 1843-1860, (Gallimard BNF) [Δ
      
    Bajac, Quentin & Planchon-de Font-Réaulx, Dominique et al., 2003, The Dawn of Photography: French Daguerreotypes, 1839–1855. CD-ROM, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Christopher Noey, producer] [Δ
      
    Bajac, Quentin et al., 2003, Le Daguerréotype Français. Un Objet Photographique, (Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux - Musée d'Orsay) [Δ
      
    Bellanger, Claude; Godechot, Jaques; Guiral, Pierre & Terrou, Fernand, 1972-1978, Histoire génerále de la presse française, (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France) [Δ
      
    Boisjoly, François & Badot, Jean-Christophe, 2014, Répertoire des photographes français d'outre-mer du XIXe siècle, (Paris: Héritage Architectural) isbn-13: 978-2915096156 [Δ
      
    Brettell, Richard, with Flukinger, Roy, Keeler, Nancy & Kilgore, Sydney, 1984, Paper and Light: The Calotype in France and Great Britain, 1839–1870, (Boston: David R. Godine) [Δ
      
    Buerger, Janet E., 1982, The Era of the French Calotype, (Rochester, NY: International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House) [Δ
      
    Buerger, Janet E., 1989, French Daguerreotypes, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press) [Δ
      
    Chantal, George, 2007, La forêt de Fontainebleau: un atelier grandeur nature, (Paris) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
      
    Gastaut, Amélie (ed.) et al., 2006, La photographie publicitaire en France: De Man Ray à Jean-Paul Goude, (Editions Les Arts décoratifs) isbn-10: 2901422888 isbn-13: 978-2901422884 [Δ
      
    Jammes, André & Janis, Eugenia Parry, 1983, The Art of French Calotype with a Critical Dictionary of Photographers, 1845-1870, (Princeton: Princeton University Press) [Δ
      
    Jammes, André & Sobieszek, Robert, 1969, French Primitive Photography, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Δ
      
    Janis, Eugenia Parry, 1986, ‘Demolition Picturesque: Photographs of Paris in 1852 and 1853 by Henri Le Secq‘, in Peter Welch & Thomas F. Barrow (eds.), 1986, Perspectives on Photography: Essays in Honor of Beaumont Newhall, (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press), pp. 53 [Δ
      
    Jones, Kimberly, 2008, In the Forest of Fontainebleau: Painters and Photographers from Corot to Monet, (Washington: National Gallery of Art; Yale University Press) [Δ
      
    Kahn, Albert, 1978, Les Archives de la planete: La France, (J. Cuenot) isbn-10: 2863480022 isbn-13: 978-2863480021 [French] [Δ
      
    Kinnear, Charles George Hood, 1857, 21 December, ‘Abstract of an Account of an Architectural and Photographic Tour in the North of France‘, JPS, vol. 4, pp. 116-20 [Δ
      
    Macek, Vaclav, 2011, The History of European Photography 1900-2000, (Central European House of Photography) isbn-13: 978-8085739558 [Three volumes] [Δ
      
    Marbot, Bernard & Challe, Daniel, 1991, Les photographes de Barbizon - La forêt de Fontainebleau, (Catalogue BNF/ Hoebeke) [Δ
      
    Marbot, Bernard & Naef, Weston J., 1980, After Daguerre: Masterworks of French Photography (1848–1900) from the Bibliothèque Nationale, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Paris: Berger-Levrault) [Δ
      
    McCauley, Anne, 2008, February, ‘Merely Mechanical: On the Origins of Photographic Copyright in France and England‘, Art History, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 57-78 [Δ
      
    Mondenard, Anne de, 2002, La Mission Héliographique: Cinq photographes parcourent la France en 1851, (Paris: Centre des Monuments Nationaux) [Δ
      
    Morand, Sylvain & Kempf, Christian, 1989, Le Temps Suspendu: Le Daguerreotype en Alsace au XIXe Siecle, (Editions Oberlin) isbn-10: 2853690954 [Δ
      
    Musee Carnavalet, 1989, Paris et le daguerreotype, (Paris-Musees) isbn-10: 2901414362 isbn-13: 978-2901414360 [French] [Δ
      
    Naef, W.J. & Marbot, B., 1980, After Daguerre. Masterworks Of French Photography (1848-1900) From The Bibliothèque Nationale, (New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Δ
      
    Néagu, Philippe, et al., 1980, La Mission Héliographique: Photographies de 1851. Exhibition catalogue, (Paris: Inspection Générale des Musées Classés et Contrôlés) [Δ
      
    Nilsen, Micheline, 2011, Architecture in Nineteenth-Century Photographs: Essays on Reading a Collection, (Ashgate) isbn-10: 140940904X isbn-13: 978-1409409045 [Δ
      
    Pellerin, Denis, 1995, La Photographie Stéréoscopique Sous Le Second Empire, (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale De France) [Δ
      
    Rice, Shelley, 1999, Parisian Views, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262681072 isbn-13: 978-0262681070 [Δ
      
    Rothschild, James de (sponsor), 1878-1882, Les travaux publics [The work was published in five parts:
    Volume I: Félix Lukas - Ponts et routes (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Bridges and roads]
    Volume II: Edourd-Charles-Romain Collignon - Chemins de fer (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Railways]
    Volume III: H. de Lagrene - Rivières et canaux (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Rivers and canals]
    Volume IV: Voisin-Bey - Ports de mer (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Sea ports]
    Volume V: Emile Allard - Phares et balises (Paris: J. Rothschild, 1878-1882) [Lighthouses and beacons]
    ] [Δ
      
    Rouillé, A., 1989, La Photographie En France, (Paris: Éditions Macula) [Δ
      
    Spearman, Edmund R., 1890, ‘French Police Photography‘, Nature, vol. 42, no. 1096, pp. 642-644 [Δ
      
    Voignier, J.-M., 1993, Répertoire Des Photographes De France Au Dix-Neuvième Siècle, (Chevilly-Larue: Le Pont De Pierre) [Δ
      
     
      
    Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
      
    Eugène Atget 
      
    Szarkowski, John & Hambourg, Maria Morris, 1981, The Work of Atget. Vol. 1: Old France, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
      
    Szarkowski, John & Hambourg, Maria Morris, 1982, The Work of Atget. Vol. II: The Art of Old Paris, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
      
    Szarkowski, John & Hambourg, Maria Morris, 1983, The Work of Atget. Vol. III: The Ancien Regime, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
      
    Szarkowski, John & Hambourg, Maria Morris, 1985, The Work of Atget. Vol. IV: Modern Times, (New York: Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
      
    Édouard Baldus 
      
    Daniel, Malcolm R., 1994, The Photographs of Édouard Baldus, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; Montreal: Canadian Centre for Architecture) [Δ
      
    Ganz, James A, 2006, Edouard Baldus at the Chateau de La Faloise, (Clark Art Institute) [Δ
      
    Bisson frères 
      
    Bisson frères, 1860, Haute-Savoie, Le Mont Blanc et Ses Glaciers: Souvenir du Voyage de M. M. L'Imperatrice, (Paris) [Album] [Δ
      
    Brassaï 
      
    2003, Resonancias: Brassaï > Paris / Colom < Barcelona, (Barcelona: Fundacio Foto Colectania) [Δ
      
    Robert Capa 
      
    Kershaw, Alex, 2002, Blood and Champagne: The Life and Times of Robert Capa, (Macmillan) [Δ
      
    Wertenbake, Charles & Capa, Robert, 1944, Invasion!, (New York: D. Appleton Century) [Includes 16 photographs by Robert Capa] [Δ
      
    Henri Cartier-Bresson 
      
    Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 1952, Images à la Sauvette, (Paris: Editions Verve) [Δ
      
    Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 1952, The Decisive Moment, (New York: Simon and Schuster) [Δ
      
    Cartier-Bresson, Henri, 1998, Henri Cartier-Bresson: Henri Cartier-Bresson: À Propos de Paris, (Bulfinch) isbn-10: 0821224964 isbn-13: 978-0821224960 [Reprint edition] [Δ
      
    Joan Colom 
      
    2003, Resonancias: Brassaï > Paris / Colom < Barcelona, (Barcelona: Fundacio Foto Colectania) [Δ
      
    Jean Baptiste Corot 
      
    Daniel, Malcolm, 1996, Eugène Cuvelier: Photographer in the Circle of Corot, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Δ
      
    Eugène Cuvelier 
      
    Cuvelier, Eugene; Weidemann, Henning & Challe, Daniel, 1997, Eugene Cuvelier: Legend of the Forest, (Cantz) isbn-10: 3893228578 isbn-13: 978-3893228577 [Δ
      
    Daniel, Malcolm, 1996, Eugène Cuvelier: Photographer in the Circle of Corot, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Δ
      
    Robert Doisneau 
      
    Doisneau, Robert, 1997, Three Seconds from Eternity: Photographs by Robert Doisneau, (New York: te Neues Publishing Co) [Δ
      
    Doisneau, Robert, 2012, Robert Doisneau: Paris Les Halles Market, (Flammarion) isbn-10: 2080201085 isbn-13: 978-2080201089 [Δ
      
    Gautrand, Jean Claude, 2012, Robert Doisneau, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836540037 isbn-13: 978-3836540032 [Taschen Icons] [Δ
      
    Gautrand, Jean Claude, 2014, Robert Doisneau, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836547147 isbn-13: 978-3836547147 [Sew edition] [Δ
      
    Hamilton, Peter, 1995, Robert Doisneau: A Photographer’s Life, (New York: Abbeville Press) [Δ
      
    Louis-Emile Durandelle 
      
    Baillargeon, C., 2011, ‘Construction Photography and the Rhetoric of Fundraising: The Maison Durandelle Sacre-Coeur Commission‘, Visual resources: an international journal of documentation, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 113-128 [Δ
      
    Garnier, Charles, 1878, Le Nouvel Opera de Paris par Charles Garnier, (Paris: Ducher et Cie) [Illustrations are based on photographs by Louis-Emile Durandelle] [Δ
      
    Nuitter, Charles, 1875, Le Nouvel Opera, (Paris: Libraire Hachette et Cie) [Illustrations are based on photographs by Louis-Emile Durandelle] [Δ
      
    Claude-Marie Ferrier 
      
    Cameron, John B. & Schimmelman, Janice G., 2012, The Early Paper Stereoviews of Claude-Marie Ferrier, 1852-1858, (The Collodion Press - Privately printed - Blurb / 3400181) [Δ
      
    Robert Frank 
      
    Eskildsen, Ute, 2008, Robert Frank: Paris, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865215246 isbn-13: 978-3865215246 [Δ
      
    Gaudin frères 
      
    Pellerin, Denis, 1997, Gaudin frères: pionniers de la photographie, 1839-1872, (Chalon-sur-Sao^ne: Société des amis du Musée Nicéphore Niépce) [Δ
      
    Germaine Krull 
      
    Suarès, André & Krull, Germaine, 1935, Marseille par Germaine Krull, (Éditions d'histoire et d'art - Librarie Plon) [Δ
      
    Suarès, André & Krull, Germaine, 2013, Marseille par Germaine Krull, (éditions Jeanne Laffitte) isbn-13: 978-2862765099 [Δ
      
    Jacques-Henri Lartigue 
      
    Lartigue, J. H., 2003, Jacques Henri Lartigue: A Life’s Diary, (Paris: Centre Pompidou) [Δ
      
    Lartigue, Jacques-Henri, 1970, Diary of a Century, (New York: Viking Press) [Edited by R. Avedon] [Δ
      
    Moore, Kevin, 2004, Jacques Henri Lartigue: The Invention of an Artist, (Princeton University Press) isbn-13: 978-0691120027 [Δ
      
    Gustave Le Gray 
      
    Aubenas, Sylvie et al., 2002, Gustave Le Gray, 1820–1884, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) [Δ
      
    Barro, Lisa & Kennedy, Nora W., 2005, ‘Gustave Le Gray's Salted Paper Prints‘, in 2005, Pre-Prints of the 14th Triennial Meeting Amsterdam, ICOM Committee for Conservation, pp. 533–540 [Δ
      
    Janis, Eugenia Parry, 1987, The Photography of Gustave Le Gray, (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press) [Δ
      
    Mondenard, Anne de & Pagneux, Marc, 2012, Modernisme ou Modernité - Les photographes du cercle de Gustave Le Gray (1850-1860), (Actes Sud) isbn-13: 978-2330005429 [Δ
      
    Henri Le Secq 
      
    Mondenard, Anne de & Pagneux, Marc, 2012, Modernisme ou Modernité - Les photographes du cercle de Gustave Le Gray (1850-1860), (Actes Sud) isbn-13: 978-2330005429 [Δ
      
    F. Maxwell Lyte 
      
    Saule-Sorbé, Hélène, 2004, ‘Les Pyrénées photographiées de Farnham Maxwell Lyte‘, Bulletin de la Société Ramond [Δ
      
    Charles Marville 
      
    Chambord, Jacqueline (ed.), 1981, Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris, 1852-1878, (French Inst/Alliance Francaise) isbn-10: 0933444397 isbn-13: 978-0933444393 [Δ
      
    Thézy, Marie de, 1994, Marville: Paris, (Hazan) [Δ
      
    Nadar 
      
    Nadar, Félix, 1982, Le Paris Souterrain de Félix Nadar 1861, (Caisse nationale des monuments historiques et des sites) isbn-10: 2858220557 isbn-13: 9782858220557 [Δ
      
    Charles Nègre 
      
    Mondenard, Anne de & Pagneux, Marc, 2012, Modernisme ou Modernité - Les photographes du cercle de Gustave Le Gray (1850-1860), (Actes Sud) isbn-13: 978-2330005429 [Δ
      
    Negre, Charles, 1852 (ca), Le Midi de la France: Sites et Monuments Historiques Photographies, (Paris: Goupil) [Δ
      
    Thomas Milville Raven 
      
    Raven, Thomas Milville, 1858, 1 February, ‘Account of a Photographic Tour from Jersey to the Pyrenees‘, Photographic Notes, vol. 1, pp. 42-45 [Δ
      
    Raven, Thomas Milville, 1858, 21 December, ‘Pau and the Pyrenees, with a Slight Sketch of a Photographic Tour Made to Them through the West of France‘, JPS, vol. 5, pp. 104-8 [Part 1 of 3] [Δ
      
    Raven, Thomas Milville, 1859, 21 January, ‘Pau and the Pyrenees, with a Slight Sketch of a Photographic Tour Made to Them through the West of France‘, JPS, vol. 5, pp. 155-57 [Part 3 of 3] [Δ
      
    Raven, Thomas Milville, 1859, 8 Januay, ‘Pau and the Pyrenees, with a Slight Sketch of a Photographic Tour Made to Them through the West of France‘, JPS, vol. 5, pp. 131-32 [Part 2 of 3] [Δ
      
    Henri-Victor Regnault 
      
    Dahlberg, Laurie, 2005, Victor Regnault and the Advance of Photography: The Art of Avoiding Errors, (Princeton University Press) isbn-13: 978-0691118796 [Δ
      
    Willy Ronis 
      
    Gautrand, Jean Claude, 2013, Willy Ronis, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836531046 isbn-13: 978-3836531047 [Δ
      
    Ronis, Willy, 1999, Sundays by the River, (Smithsonian Institution Press) isbn-10: 1560988878 isbn-13: 978-1560988878 [Δ
      
    Ronis, Willy, 2004, Willy Ronis: La Vie en Passant, (Prestel Publishing) isbn-10: 3791329308 isbn-13: 978-3791329307 [German and English] [Δ
      
    Ronis, Willy, 2010, Willy Ronis: Une poétique de l'engagement, (Democratic Books) isbn-10: 2361040034 isbn-13: 978-2361040031 [Δ
      
    Camille Silvy 
      
    Haworth-Booth, Mark, 1992, Camille Silvy: River Scene, France, (Malibu, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum) [Δ
      
    Paul Strand 
      
    Duncan, Catherine & Eskildsen, Ute, 2004, Paul Strand: The World On My Doorstep 1950-1976, (Aperture) isbn-10: 0893815454 isbn-13: 978-0893815455 [Δ
      
    Roy, Claude & Strand, Paul, 1952, La France de Profil, (Lausanne: Guilde du Livre) [Δ
      
    Félix Thiollier 
      
    Galifot, Thomas, 2012, Félix Thiollier: Photographies, (Editions courtes et longues) isbn-10: 2352901014 isbn-13: 978-2352901013 [Δ
      
     
      
    If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      

    HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

     
    François Arago  (1786-1853) • Eugène Atget  (1857-1927) • Alfred Backhouse  (1823-1888) • Édouard Baldus  (1813-1889) • Hippolyte Bayard  (1801-1887) • Robert Bingham  (1824-1870) • Auguste Rosalie Bisson  (1826-1900) • Louis Auguste Bisson  (1814-1876) • Bisson frères • Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard  (1802-1872) • Félix Bonfils  (1831-1885) • Édouard Boubat  (1923-1999) • Louis Boutan  (1859-1934) • Léon Bouzerand  (1907-1972) • Constantin Brancusi  (1876-1957) • Brassaï  (1899-1984) • Adolphe Braun  (1812-1877) • René Burri  (1933-2014) • Jean-Marc Bustamante  (1952-) • Claude Cahun  (1894-1954) • Désiré Charnay  (1828-1915) • Choiselat & Ratel • Antoine Claudet  (1797-1867) • Alexandre-Jean-Pierre Clausel  (1802-1884) • Lucien Clergue  (1934-2014) • Hippolyte-Auguste Collard  (1812-1897) • Jean Baptiste Corot  (1796-1875) • Henri Courmont  (1813-1855) • Eugène Cuvelier  (1837-1900) • Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre  (1787-1851) • John Davies  (1949-) • Edgar Degas  (1834-1917) • L. Delaroche • Delmaet & Durandelle • Eugène Delon • Robert Demachy  (1859-1936) • Thierry des Ouches  (1958-) • Achille Devéria  (1800-1857) • Théodule Devéria  (1831-1871) • Jean Dieuzaide  (1921-2003) • André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri  (1819-1889) • Robert Doisneau  (1912-1994) • Tom Drahos  (1947-) • Maxime Du Camp  (1822-1894) • Pierre Dubreuil  (1872-1944) • Louis Ducos du Hauron  (1837-1920) • Louis-Emile Durandelle  (check) • Eugène Durieu  (1800-1874) • Constant Alexandre Famin  (1827-1888) • Claude-Marie Ferrier  (1811-1889) • Armand Hippolyte Fizeau  (1819-1896) • Gisèle Freund  (1912-2000) • Gilbert • Jean-Jacques Heilmann  (1822-1859) • Holder • Paul Michel Hossard  (1787-1862) • Georges Hugnet  (1906-1974) • Izis  (1911-1980) • Pascal Kern  (1952-) • Charles George Hood Kinnear  (1832-1894) • Jacques-Henri Lartigue  (1894-1986) • Gustave Le Gray  (1820-1884) • Henri Le Secq  (1818-1882) • Auguste Lumière  (1862-1954) • Louis Lumière  (1864-1948) • F. Maxwell Lyte  (1828-1906) • Man Ray  (1890-1976) • Étienne Jules Marey  (1830-1904) • Paul Martin  (1864-1944) • Charles Marville  (1813-1879) • Séraphin Médéric Mieusement  (1840-1905) • Pierre Molinier  (1900-1976) • Alphonse Marie Mucha  (1860-1939) • Nadar  (check) • Charles Nègre  (1820-1880) • Joseph Nicéphore Niépce  (1765-1833) • Roger M. Parry  (1905-1977) • Louis Pierson  (1822-1913) • Julia Pirotte  (1911-) • Henri Plaut  (check) • Bernard Plossu  (1945-) • Alphonse-Louis Poitevin  (1819-1882) • Emile Joachim Constant Puyo  (1857-1933) • François Puyplat  (1937-) • Thomas Milville Raven  (1828-1896) • Henri-Victor Regnault  (1810-1878) • Louis-Rémy Robert  (check) • Willy Ronis  (1910-2009) • Georges Rousse  (1947-) • Jean-Baptiste Sabatier-Blot  (1801-1881) • Camille Silvy  (1834-1910) • Emmanuel Sougez  (1889-1972) • Charles Soulier  (check) • John Stewart  (1814-1887) • J. Stone • Jean-Pierre Sudre  (1921-1997) • Thomas Sutton  (check) • Arthur A. Taylor  (check) • E.K. Tenison  (1805-1878) • Alphonse Terpereau  (1839-1897) • Adolphe Terris  (1820-1900) • Terris & Vitigliano • Iltid Thomas  (1812-1889) • T. Thomson • Charles Trampus • Raoul Ubac  (1910-1985) • Julien Vallou de Villeneuve  (1795-1866)
    HomeGeographical regionsEurope > France 
    A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
      
    Calotypists - France 
    Daguerreotypists - France 
    First World War (1914-1918) 
    Forest of Fontainebleau 
    Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
    Imprimerie photographique Blanquart-Evrard 
    Mission Héliographiques 
    Paris Commune (1871) 
    Paris Match 
    Photo-Club de Paris 
    Second World War (1939-1945) 
    Societé Héliographique 
    Société Française de Photographie 
    VU 
     
    Key dates 
      
    Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
    Paris Commune (1871) 
    First World War (1914-1918) 
    Second World War (1939-1945) 
     
      

    HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > France

    Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
    Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

     
      
    ThumbnailArchitecture: Missions Héliographiques 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (December 6, 2010) CLARIFICATION: This exhibition is of works by the photographers who participated in the Missions Héliographiques and NOT the photographs taken specifically for the survey. Further advice is welcome.
    ThumbnailAutochromes: Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (March 1, 2006)
    ThumbnailBisson frères - Mt. Blanc 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (December 4, 2010)
    ThumbnailCarl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (June 22, 2007)
    ThumbnailCharles Marville 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (December 5, 2010)
    ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Charles Nègre and the Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (August 23, 2010)
    ThumbnailDocumentary: 19th Century Louis-Emile Durandelle and the Paris Opera (1860-1874) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (October 30, 2010)
    ThumbnailDocumentary: Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (January 8, 2011)
    ThumbnailÉdouard Baldus (1813–1889): 19th Century French Photographs 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (September 13, 2007) To coincide with the exhibition at the Lee Gallery (September 1 - October 29, 2007).
    ThumbnailEugène Atget (1857-1927) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (September 3, 2006)
    ThumbnailFontainebleau, Barbizon - the relationships between painters and photographers 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (November 6, 2010) Further examples sought showing direct parallels between individual paintings and photographs.
    ThumbnailGalerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace (Strasbourg, 1865) 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (December 17, 2006)
    ThumbnailImages of a Capital - The Impressionists in Paris 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (November 6, 2010) Coincides with the exhibition at the Museum Folkwang, Essen, Germany (2 October 2010 - 30 January 2011).
    ThumbnailNadar: Galerie Contemporaine 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (November 14, 2010)
    ThumbnailNeil Folberg: The French Impressionists 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (April 23, 2007)
    ThumbnailThe Second Empire through the Lens of A.A.E. Disdéri 
    Title | Lightbox | Checklist
    Released (August 14, 2006)
     
      

    HomeVisual indexes > France

    Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
    Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

     
      
       Photographer 
      
    ThumbnailA. Foncelle: People of Brittany 
    ThumbnailAchille Quinet: France: Paris 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailAdolphe Terris: France: Marseille 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailAdolphe Terris: Rénovation de la Vieille Ville de Marseille (1862) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailAlfred Fauvarque-Omez: Stylistic changes (ca. 1930s) 
    ThumbnailAndré Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: Self portraits 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailAndré Kertész: Day of Paris 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailBaudelaire, Saglio & Peter: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
    ThumbnailBisson freres: France: Bourges 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailBisson freres: France: Chartres 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailBisson freres: France: Paris: Notre Dame 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailBisson frères: Mt. Blanc 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailCharles Breed: The Wellcome Photographic Exposure Record and Diary - 1910 - French trip 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailCharles Marville: Old Paris 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailCharles Nègre: Chartres 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailCharles Nègre: France: Vincennes Imperial Asylum 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailÉdouard Baldus: Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailÉdouard Baldus: Inondations du Rhône à Lyon et Avignon 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailÉdouard Baldus: Les chemins de fer du Nord. Ligne de Paris à Boulogne. Vues photographiques 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailÉdouard Baldus: Notre Dame 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailÉdouard Boubat: Street photography and tender moments 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailEugène Delon: Les Travaux Publics de la France 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailFarnham Maxwell Lyte: The Pyrenees (1850-1860s) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailFélix Fescourt: Nîmes et ses environs 
    ThumbnailHenri Le Secq: France: Chartes: Cathedral 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailHenri Le Secq: France: Paris: Notre Dame 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailHenri Le Secq: France: Reims - Rheims: Cathedral 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailHenri Le Secq: Premier Cahier de lithophotographie (1853) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailHenri Plaut: Paris 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: France: Orleans 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: France: Paris 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailHippolyte-Auguste Collard: Les Travaux Publics de la France 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailIlse Bing: Eiffel Tower 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJ. Duclos: Les Travaux Publics de la France 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJohn Stewart: Pyrenees (1850s) 
    ThumbnailJoseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Notre Dame 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailJules Robuchon: Paysages et Monuments du Poitou (1880) 
    ThumbnailLallemand & Hart: Galerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailLes frères Macaire: Le Havre (France) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRobert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944) 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailRobert Demachy: Rouen 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailSéraphin Médéric Mieusement: Souvenir des Bords de la Loire 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailVicomte Joseph Vigier: Pyrénées 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailVincent Chevalier: View of Paris 
    ThumbnailWilliam Drooke Harrison: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
    ThumbnailWilly Ronis: Paris 
    About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
     
      
       Connections 
      
    ThumbnailÉdouard Baldus - Unidentified photographer - Bruno Braquehais - Henri Plaut 
     
     
      
       Themes 
      
    ThumbnailDocumentary: Floods: Rhone (1856) 
    ThumbnailDocumentary: Organizations: Mission Héliographique 
    ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: Paris Match 
    ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: VU 
    ThumbnailWar: Franco-Prussian War (1871) 
    ThumbnailWar: Paris Commune (1871) 
     
      
       Geography 
      
    ThumbnailFrance: Amiens 
    ThumbnailFrance: Angoulême 
    ThumbnailFrance: Arles: Amphitheatre 
    ThumbnailFrance: Arles: St. Trophime 
    ThumbnailFrance: Auvers 
    ThumbnailFrance: Avignon 
    ThumbnailFrance: Boulogne 
    ThumbnailFrance: Bourges 
    ThumbnailFrance: Cannes 
    ThumbnailFrance: Chamonix 
    ThumbnailFrance: Chartres 
    ThumbnailFrance: Forest of Fontainebleau 
    ThumbnailFrance: La Rochelle 
    ThumbnailFrance: Le Havre 
    ThumbnailFrance: Les Eaux Chaudes 
    ThumbnailFrance: Lyons 
    ThumbnailFrance: Marseille 
    ThumbnailFrance: Marseille: The Transporter Bridge 
    ThumbnailFrance: Mont St. Michel 
    ThumbnailFrance: Nantes 
    ThumbnailFrance: Nimes 
    ThumbnailFrance: Nimes: Amphitheatre 
    ThumbnailFrance: Nimes: Maison Carrée 
    ThumbnailFrance: Orange 
    ThumbnailFrance: Orleans 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Arc de Triomphe 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Bois de Boulogne 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Eglise de Clotilde 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Eglise Saint Sulpice 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Eiffel Tower 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Hôtel de Ville 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: L'Ecole des Beaux-Arts 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Les Halles 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Montmartre 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Notre Dame 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Notre Dame: La Porte Rouge 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Notre Dame: The facade 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Pantheon 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Place de l'Étoile 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Place du Concorde 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Place Vendôme 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Pont Neuf 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Sacre Coeur 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Saint-Cloud 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: The Louvre 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: The Seine 
    ThumbnailFrance: Paris: Tuileries 
    ThumbnailFrance: Rheims 
    ThumbnailFrance: Rouen 
    ThumbnailFrance: Sète 
    ThumbnailFrance: Sèvres 
    ThumbnailFrance: Strasbourg 
    ThumbnailFrance: Toulon 
    ThumbnailFrance: Versailles 
     
      
       Photobooks 
      
    ThumbnailFrench photobooks 
     
     
      
       Still thinking about these... 
      
    ThumbnailFrance: Le Pont du Gard 
     
     
      
    Refreshed: 20 December 2014, 20:26
     
      
     
      
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