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HomeContentsThemes > Japan


The Japanese
10039.01   Japanese
10039.02   Ainu
10039.03   Japanese ambrotypes
10039.04   Photographers
10039.05   Eliphant Brown: Daguerreotypist on Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s)
10039.06   Felice Beato: Japan: Places
10039.07   Felice Beato: Japan: Occupational portraits
10039.08   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Japan: People
10039.09   Ogawa Kazuma: Japan
Japanese artists and colourists
10039.10   Felice Beato: My artists
10039.11   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists
Royal family
10039.12   Royal family of Japan
Cultural stereotypes
10039.13   Samurai
10039.14   Japanese men with tattoos
10039.15   Japanese women sleeping
10039.16   Geishas
10039.17   Courtesans
10039.18   Sedan chairs (kago) in Japan
10039.19   Crime and punishment in Japan
10039.20   External cultural influences in Japan
The Far East
10039.21   The Far East
Contemporary accounts
10039.22   Photograph of the deceased on a grave at a cemetery in Yokohama, Japan (1881)
Concealed meanings
10039.23   T. Enami: A Japanese Farmer and his Wife
The Great Earthquake (1891)
10039.24   Ogawa Kazumasa: The Great Earthquake of Japan (1891)
A calling card to the West
10039.25   Japan: Described and illustrated by the Japanese (1897)
10039.26   Pictorialism in Japan
10039.27   Japanese pictorialism - Bunka Shashin-shu (1922)
10039.28   Japanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
10039.29   Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): Introduction
10039.30   Photographers of the Russo-Japanese War
Second World War (1939-1945)
10039.31   Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945)
10039.32   War: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima
10039.33   War: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki
Post-War Japan
10039.34   Provoke
10039.35   Japanese protest books
10039.36   W. Eugene Smith: Minamata
10039.37   Japanese photobooks
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
The Japanese 
10039.01   Asia >  Japanese 
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The first portraits of the Japanese were the shipwrecked crew of the Eiriki-Maru who were brought to San Francisco in February 1851 where they stayed until March 1852 when they were taken to Hong Kong.[1] The crew was daguerreotyped by Baltimore Harvey R. Marks (1821-1902)[2] whilst they were on board the Polk and these photographs were used for woodblock illustrations that were published in the Illustrated News (22 January 1853).[3]  
The crew of the Eiriki-Maru (1853) 
One of the crew of the Eiriki-Maru Simpatch (Sampachi or Sentaro) would gain a place in history as he accompanied Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s).[4] 
10039.02   Asia >  Ainu 
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The Ainu are an aboriginal group within islands to the north of Japan.[5] 
10039.03   Asia >  Japanese ambrotypes 
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These rare Ambrotypes rank as unique photographic treasures on a number of counts. It is important to note that the images you see before you were not intended for a Western audience. Rather, they are unique, one-of-a-kind images created by Japanese photographers exclusively for Japanese clients. Only in the last few years have they come to attention in the West.
Until now, the best-known images from Japan’s Meiji Period (1868-1912) were taken by Western photographers - Beato, Stillfried, Farsari, et al. They are paper prints (not unique glass, albumen works, as we see here), made by appreciative Western photographers for export to a Western public craving Japan’s exotic, cultural charm. Often the Japanese posed in them as paid sitters, garbed in outmoded forms of dress (a coat of multi-layered, medieval Samurai armour, for instance) or arranged in improbably artistic setups (a bare-chested lady at her toilette). They are exotic specimens of a time that had, or was soon to pass.
Once Westerners taught the Japanese the art of photography, the next wave of images that followed - by the Japanese - were also intended for Western eyes. Not so, here, however. Culled from villages and remote family collections, these photographs (small-scale images, encased in wood) were very private, personal, intended to be passed down as precious heirlooms. The "reformed Samurai" warrior, for instance, pictured here, may have sat for such a photo in order to give his family a record of his life, lest he die in battle. The woman whose traditional whiteface makeup is framed so perfectly by her black (Western) umbrella, would have seemed smartly Westernized to her contemporaries - despite her traditional "geta" wooden platform shoes. Such visual and cultural incongruities of East and West (now marvellous to our eyes) abounded for the Japanese as they found themselves, in the late 1800s, on the brink of huge political and cultural upheaval.
Note a few other formal points of interest: the way the Japanese photographers tend to craft their portraits in full-length pose - from head to feet; the slightly lowered, more respectful position of the camera angle (vs. to the more confrontational approach to portraiture of the West). Then, there is the Ambrotype medium itself, which creates one-of-a-kind images on glass, without a negative. Though the West had already begun to favour the Albumen paper-print process, Japanese photographers set about perfecting the soon-to-be retrograde Ambrotype process, teasing from it a greater tonal range. And finally, note the kiri-wood presentation cases, in which these photographs are housed: they are feather-light, perfectly hand-crafted to fit, just so, in your palm. Thanks to the wood’s natural drying properties, these ambrotypes have withstood the test of time (and humidity, quite prevalent in Japan) and have been preserved in amazing condition. The original owners of the photos have handled these cases, turned them over and over again - proof of their durability. On occasion, they personalized them with inscriptions. They are fascinating objects, in and of themselves. [6] 
   Portrait Japanese Ambrotypes 
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10039.04   Asia >  Photographers 
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10039.05   Asia >  Eliphant Brown: Daguerreotypist on Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Eliphalet Brown Jr., who had previously been a lithographer, was the daguerreotypist on the voyage of Commodore M. C. Perry (U. S. Navy) to the China Seas and Japan (1852-1854). He took, according to a report to Congress, over 400 pictures[7] but was underpaid for his services an issue that was not resolved for years.
March 14, 1860 - Order to be printed
Mr. Hale made the following
[To accompany Bill S. 286.]
The Committee on Naval Affairs, to whom was referred the petition of Eliphalet Brown, jr., asking for compensation for services rendered as an artist in the Japan expedition, have had the same under consideration, and ask leave to submit the following report:
The authority to employ artists for the Japan expedition was not directly conferred by Congress on the department having charge of it. As the employment of artists was so very essential to the success of an expedition like that in charge of Commodore Perry, the failure on the part of Congress to confer the authority may be safely charged to inadvertence rather than design. Commodore Perry foresaw what he supposed must be the evil results of this inadvertency, and engaged artists to join the expedition. They were enlisted as master's mates, with the understanding and expectation that they would seek a suitable compensation from Congress after the return of the expedition.
It appears from the rolls on file in the Treasury Department, that Mr. Brown served as master's mate on board the several vessels of the Japan expedition from the 24th of March, 1852, to the 15th of December, 1854, two years, eight months, and twenty-two days, for the insufficient sum of $300 per annum. He was the daguerreotypist of the expedition, as well as draughtsman, &c., and to him the country is undoubtedly largely indebted for much of the accurate delineations of the inhabitants, costumes, buildings, landscapes, &c., of that remarkable and heretofore almost unknown people and country.
Besides being employed in various ways on shipboard and on shore, in different artistic employment, he provided himself with all the apparatus necessary to the daguerreotypist, and took over four hundred pictures, all of which became the property of the government, and many of which were used in illustrating Commodore Perry's work on the expedition.
Commodore Perry, in a letter dated February 19, 1857, says: "I take pleasure in stating that Mr. E. Brown was employed as one of the artists of the naval expedition to Japan, and executed his work with talent and skill, and to my entire satisfaction."
As Mr. Brown left a profitable business, and joined the expedition on invitation of those having charge thereof, trusting to the equity of his country for only a just remuneration, your committee report a bill granting him a compensation at the rate of $1,500 per annum, for his entire services as artist and master's mate while attached to and engaged in the expedition.[8]
10039.06   Asia >  Felice Beato: Japan: Places 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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10039.07   Asia >  Felice Beato: Japan: Occupational portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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10039.08   Asia >  Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Japan: People 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Baron Raimund von Stillfried[9] was an Austrian photographer active in Japan in the 1870s. He formed a partnership with Hermann Andersen known initially as Stillfried & Andersen and later as the "Japan Photographic Association". Captain S.H. Jones-Parry in his book My Journey around the World (1881) wrote of purchasing the photographs of|person|1_Stillfried_Andersen|Stilfried & Andersen[10] in Yokohama:
I took advantage of the lovely day to walk round the suburbs of the town, and then looked over "Stilfried and Anderson's" magnificent collection of photographs. In all my travels I have never come across anything to equal them. In Italy I have seen finer specimens of architectural subjects; in America finer portraits; but, taken all round, Stilfried and Anderson rank first. I selected fifty costumes and scenery that were especially interesting to me, and had them bound up; this book has been the admiration of hundreds to whom I have shown it.[11]
They purchased the negatives of Felice Beato in 1877 and this leads to confusion over who took which photographs. After he returned to Austria in 1883 his stock was sold to Farsari & Co.
10039.09   Asia >  Ogawa Kazuma: Japan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Japanese artists and colourists 
10039.10   Asia >  Felice Beato: My artists 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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10039.11   Asia >  Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
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From as early as the eighth century woodblock-printed works were seen in Japan. Although initially the technique was used for texts and religious works by the sixteenth century moveable type was being used. Gaining popularity with artists the technique expanded and individual prints became available. With the popularity for prints there became a need for artists who could paint them or had the skills to use multiple woodblocks for different colours. As photography became available within Japan, predominantly with foreign photographers such as Felice Beato[12] and Baron Raimund von Stillfried, most of the prints through the second half of the nineteenth century had the brownish tones of the albumen print. Their skills with woodblock prints were perfect for painting photographs and some of the finest photographs of this type came from Japan
Royal family 
10039.12   Asia >  Royal family of Japan 
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The Meiji Restoration[13] of 1868 brought the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan and the return of centralized Imperial power under Emperor Meiji.[14] His reign was one of social upheaval along the technological and military growth. Although the arrival of the "Black Ships" of Commodore Matthew Perry in July 1853 and the raising of awareness of the outside world were significant they were a part of a complex series of changes taking place in Japan.
Uchida Kuichi (1844-1875) was the only photographer granted permission to photograph Emperor and Empress Haruko and he photographed them in full court clothing and everyday clothing (1872) and Western style clothing (1873). 
Cultural stereotypes 
10039.13   Asia >  Samurai 
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In history, literaure, art, folkore and religion the Samurai have been a core component of Japanese culture.[15] Photographs of the Samurai by foreign photographers resident in Japan such as Felice Beato, Baron Raimund von Stillfried and Adolfo Farsari along with those by Japanese photographers such as Kusakabe Kimbei recorded the armour and weapons at a time when Japanese society was undergoing the immense changes of Meiji Restoration of 1868.[16] Effectively the Meiji Restoration broke the power of the SamuraI class by taxing their stipends, removing their rights to carry weapons and allowing lower class peasants into a reformed military with nationwide conscription. The loss of financial stability and status within the Samurai class led to rebellion and upheaval. Speaking of Tosa in 1877 one contemporary account states:
Last month the photograph of the Emperor was exhibited to the people in the public garden. The samurai availed themselves of the occasion to create a row by throwing stones at the troops of the garrison, and causing a fight which was only quelled by the intervention of the members of the Tokio police stationed at Kfichi.[17]
Photographs of Samurai are therefore important as historical documents but also they are reminders of nationalistic pride. 
10039.14   Asia >  Japanese men with tattoos 
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The use of decorative tattoos in Japan was appreciated and studied in the nineteenth century. The head, neck, feet, hands were not tattooed but apart from that whole body tattoos were common and one study from 1885 estimated that as many as 30,000 men were tattooed in Tokyo alone and pointed out that:
The tattooing of the skin by Japanese, generally those of the lower classes, has attracted much observation from Europeans, due partly to the extraordinary elaboration and artistic skill displayed, partly to the fact that the occupations and customs of the class in which tattooing is most practised are such as to render it necessary frequently to wear none but the most indispensable garments. [18]
Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore in her book Jinrikisha days in Japan (1891) described Japanese coolies:
Back, breast, arms, and thighs are often covered with elaborate tattooed pictures in blue, red, and black on the raw-umber ground. His philosophy of dress is a simple one. When the weather is too hot to wear clothes they are left off, and a wisp of straw for the feet, a loin-cloth, and a huge flat hat, a yard in diameter, weighing less than a feather, are enough for him. When there is no money to buy raiment he tattoos himself with gorgeous pictures, which he would never hide were there not watchful policemen and Government laws to compel him into some scanty covering.[19]
10039.15   Asia >  Japanese women sleeping 
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Pictures of Japanese women sleeping are surprisingly common in photographs and prints.[20] 
10039.16   Asia >  Geishas 
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Geisha are female entertainers in Japan normally highly skilled in classical dance and dance, storytelling and games. Although there are exceptions there is a distinction between geishas and cortesans or prostitutes. Seen as a novelty in the nineteenth century and with a sense of the exotic geisha were widely photographed.[21]
The first-class or "number one" geisha, as they are called in the vernacular, are only a little less seldom seen by the " globe-trotting" foreigner than the lady of aristocratic lineage, for the charges for their services are very high, and they do not care to lower their standing by being hired in a chance way by ordinary foreigners or common Japanese. Their services are frequently arranged for weeks in advance, so that money alone cannot always command their presence.

A "number one" geisha must be cultivated and well read besides being able to dance and sing. Gentlemen who are giving dinner-parties or entertaining guests engage two or three or more geisha to come and amuse the company. They sing, dance, and talk, play various little games with their hands and fingers, and tell stories—anything, in fact, which seems to interest and amuse their patrons. [22]
10039.17   Asia >  Courtesans 
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The "Oiran" were the courtesans of Japan and have a long history.[23] Merriam-Webster defines a courtesan as "a woman who has sex with rich or important men in exchange for money: a prostitute who has sex with wealthy and powerful men". This raises the question of who applied the captions to the photographs and what proof is there that the people depicted were courtesans? Were there any clues in the clothing, adornment, hairstyles or make-up that would prove the women depicted were courtesans?[24] In one book it points out how they can be recognised:
The Eastern courtesan is confined to a certain quarter of the town, and distinguished by a peculiarly gaudy costume, and by a headdress which consists of a forest of light tortoiseshell hair-pins, stuck round her head like a saint’s glory—a glory of shame which a modest woman would sooner die than wear.[25]
There were other characteristics such as the way her obi was tied into a bow that distinguished her from other women.[26] 
10039.18   Asia >  Sedan chairs (kago) in Japan 
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In Japan a kago is a single beam litter carried by two bearers with a basket hung beneath it to carry the occupant.[27] As an unusual means of transportation for early visitors to Japan it was documented by early photographers including Felice Beato and Kusakabe Kimbei. There is an illustration published in 1856 of a Japanese Cago[28] based possibly on a now lost daguerreotype by Eliphalet Brown
10039.19   Asia >  Crime and punishment in Japan 
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10039.20   Asia >  External cultural influences in Japan 
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Following the first visit of Commodore M.C. Perry[29] of the U. S. Navy to Japan on 8 July 1853 and particularly following the Meiji Restoration[30] of 3 January 1868 visits by foreign ships started to increase. The wearing of Western clothing by Japanese civilians and the Emperor Meiji[31] is a reflection of the influence of foreign powers.  
Emperor Meiji in Western clothing 
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The Far East 
10039.21   Asia >  The Far East 
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The Far East was initially a fortnightly journal published in Yokohama, Japan by John R. Black 1870-75. The journal was a newspaper covering events mainly in Japan but also in other countries in the Far East. Importantly it was illustrated with actual photographs which were tipped in to each issue. Although the occasional volume has appeared at auction it remains an exceptionally rare work. Only two or three complete runs of the first series are known to exist. One regrettable reason is that when issues or the odd volume appears the rare photographs are sometimes removed and sold separately. After a short break, Black commenced a second series in July 1876 and the journal was then published monthly. It ran until December 1878. The second series was published in Shanghai, Tokyo and Hong Kong and had a much greater focus on China and appears to be even rarer than the first series.[32] 
Contemporary accounts 
10039.22   Asia >  Photograph of the deceased on a grave at a cemetery in Yokohama, Japan (1881) 
On a visit to a cemetery in Japan Captain S.H. Jones-Parry noted that a photograph had been set into a headstone a practise still widely found today:
Next day I took advantage of seeing the gate open to stroll into the cemetery, a sweet, sunny spot, very well looked after. Pretty shrubs are dotted about here and there; and many a sorrowing relative will be cheered by knowing that their dear ones, buried in this distant land, are still cared for, and that their graves are hidden by lovely camellias, cherry and almond trees. The tombs in some cases were very quaint. On the headstone of one I noticed half an orange and a saucer, put, as I afterwards learnt, by some faithful Japanese or Chinese servant, a simple token of love and regard for the little one whose body rested beneath; it was the one touch of nature, and made me feel so sad and choky that I had to turn away. I love that nigger, as they stupidly call these men, for that act. Another had a bouquet with a Christmas card attached, placed reverently on the grassy mound. Another foreign one had a ghastly photograph of the deceased lying surrounded by his sorrowing friends and active servants; it was let into the headstone, and covered with glass, but was much faded by the action of the atmosphere. I confess I liked the bouquet and pretty flowers better. Some English and American tombs were handsome. Altogether I was pleasantly impressed with this spot, and felt that I should not mind being buried there myself.[33]
Concealed meanings 
10039.23   Asia >  T. Enami: A Japanese Farmer and his Wife 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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A single photograph can have multiple facets to it and the stereoview of "A Farmer and his Wife" taken in around 1897 is an excellent example of this. On the surface all is quite straight forward - a Japanese farmer wearing a grass cloak against the rain, a hoe over his right shoulder and a harvest of long white radishes, daikon, in the other. Behind him is his wife carrying a teapot.
All appears obvious but the photographs were taken in the T. Enami studio in Yokohama as part of a larger series and in this exhibition we can see several other images using the same models and props that were presumably taken during the same session.
The pose itself tells us about the roles of men and women in nineteenth century Japan - in one image she walks behind him and in another she stands whilst he sits to eat. Perhaps we might be reading too much into the image, and those radishes to the unwary eye are just vegetables but look again. In the past in the rural areas of Japan, there were common expressions about the shape of a woman‘s daikon ashi "Legs like a Radish" as indicator of her potential fertility -- a large family being a good thing for a man and the labors of the farm. At the time of these photos, a typical mother might tell her son to look for a more "plump" set of legs, but the radishes seen here point to what most Japanese men really desire as ideal: long, slender, and white as snow...
In Japan the saying Daikon Ashi had deeper sexual meanings that become clearer with a re-examination of the images but were probably overlooked by the western audiences who purchased the stereoviews in the first decade of the twentieth century. In the Griffith & Griffith card from the 1905 series note the way the daikon are laying resting on the hoe. In the card sold by Rose in Australia the title is "Typical Japanese Farmer. See his grass cloak to keep the rain off, his pipe, his hoe for digging the ground, and the bunch of radishes he is carrying" and the farmer is proudly holding up his radishes or perhaps there is another message in this image about his desires?
The original images were taken around 1897 and so the question arises as to why photographs from the same session were first being sold as stereocards by Griffith & Griffith in the USA and by Rose in Australia in 1905. The answer to this lies in the commercial possibilities offered by global politics. Between February 1904 and September 1905 the Russo-Japanese War was fought and it stemmed from rivalry for control of Manchuria. Japanese forces consistently vanquished the Russian army and navy and this was a shock to both Europe and America. As the news spread the interest in Japan and all things Japanese was widespread and older photographs were purchased and reproduced to meet the demand.[34] 
   T  Enami 
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The Great Earthquake (1891) 
10039.24   Asia >  Ogawa Kazumasa: The Great Earthquake of Japan (1891) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Some after 6:30 in the morning of the 28th October 1891 a major earthquake hit Japan with its center close to the towns of Gifu and Ogaki.[35] Japanese photographer Ogawa Kazumasa provided 29 photographs for John Milne and W.K. Burton's[36] book The Great Earthquake of Japan, 1891 (ca. 1892).[37] 
A calling card to the West 
10039.25   Asia >  Japan: Described and illustrated by the Japanese (1897) 
In the 1890s the Boston publishing house of J.B. Millet embarked on a project to create a visual photographic record of life in Japan. The project required subscriptions from collectors and financial backing from the Japanese government to see it through to competition. Captain Francis Brinkley was selected to edit the volumes as he was married to the daughter of a samurai and had good understanding of the country. He approached Japanese writers to prepare the texts and these were edited to match western tastes prior to publication. The first edition of the twelve volume work was published as Japan, Described and Illustrated by the Japanese in 1897.[38]
The books included ten full-page collotypes of flowers by Ogawa Kazuma[39].  
Ogawa Kazuma: Collotypes of flowers 
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The books with their governmental support were seen as means of introducing an increasing influential Japan to Western audiences. As one source has said it was a "calling-card to the world".[40] 
10039.26   Asia >  Pictorialism in Japan 
The Aiyu Photography Club was founded in Nagota (Japan) in 1912 and the Tenkyukai group was also influential. Yasuzo Nojima (1889-1964) started as a Pictorial photographer and a patron during this period and can be compared to his American contemporary Alfred Stieglitz.[41] His photographic work made the transition between pictorialism and the New Photography that was embraced by Nakayama Iwata who founded the Ashiya Camera Club in 1930. 
10039.27   Asia >  Japanese pictorialism - Bunka Shashin-shu (1922) 
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Bunka Shashin-shu was the magazine published by the Tokyo-based photo group Shashin Bunka Kyokai. The publication was influenced by Stieglitz‘s Camera Work.[42] The group held regular juried exhibitions that included work by leading Japanese pictorialists of the 1920s. Top selections were published their magazine. There were only three issues: June, August, and September of 1922.[43] 
   Pictorialism Japanese Bunka Shashin-shu 
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10039.28   Asia >  Japanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards 
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Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) 
10039.29   Asia >  Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): Introduction 
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The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) was a conflict between the Imperial powers of Russia and Japan each with colonial expansion plans for Manchuria and Korea. After negotiations had failed on territorial rights hostilities began on 8 February 1904.[44]
The Japanese army had recently been modified and although it was nowhere near as large as the Russian army it was well able to hold it's own due to the shorter supply lines. A large amount of the war concentrated on the Japanese siege of the well fortified naval base at Port Arthur which was held by the Russians. The Russian fleet was destroyed at the Battle of the Yellow Sea (1904) and Port Arthur fell on 2 January 1905 after a series of brutal assaults. The Japanese army now attacked northwards driving the Russians out of Shenyang (March 1905). The most extraordinary aspect of the war was the departure of the Russian Baltic Fleet under Admiral Zinovi Petrovich Rozhdestvenski to support the war in the east. This incredible trip was seemingly doomed from its start when on 21 Oct 1904 it fired on a group of British fishing boats that it mistakenly thought were attacking it. When the fleet finally arrived in the war zone the Japanese fleet under Admiral Togo was waiting for them. At the Battle of Tsushima (27-28 May 1905), named after the straits between Korea and Japan where the sea battle was fought, the Japanese fleet sunk 21 Russian ships and captured a further 7.[45] The successive defeats both on land and sea broke the will of the Russian Government to fight on particularly as the internal politics of Russia were becoming increasingly unstable with the Russian Revolution of 1905. At the Treaty of Portsmouth on 5 September 1905, under the mediation of President Theodore Roosevelt, a peace agreement was signed that gave Japan control over the disputed areas. This eventually led to the full annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910. 
10039.30   Asia >  Photographers of the Russo-Japanese War 
Photographers of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905):
  • Victor Bulla, son of the established St. Petersburg photographer, Karl Bulla, worked as a reporter and photographer for the Russian Magazine Niva during the war.
  • Jimmy Hare (1856-1946)[46] covered the war for Colliers Magazine.
Second World War (1939-1945) 
10039.31   Asia >  Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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The "Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945)" by Joe Rosenthal holds as one of the iconic propaganda photographs of the Second World War (1939-1945).[47] It remains a symbol of hard-won patriotic duty during a time of national stress and symbolised shared valour within the US Marine Corp. On 11 July 1945 the United States Postal Service issued a 3 cent postage stamp with a rendition of the image.[48] 
10039.32   Asia >  War: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima 
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At 8:15 on the morning of 6th August 1945 B-29 bomber (Enola Gay) of US Air force 393d Bombardment Squadron piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets dropped an atom bomb, "Little Boy", on the city of Hiroshima in Japan.
The mission  
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The city  
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The bombing
A small number of photographs were taken from only 7km from the blast site as the mushroom cloud was rising about the city by Seizo Yamada. Mitsuo Matsushige also photographed the explosion. Remarkably some photographs by an unidentified photographer were also found at Honkawa Elementary School.  
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The aftermath
Wayne Miller who was a part of Edward Steichen's Naval Aviation Photographic Unit took photographs in Hiroshima in September 1945.  
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Swiss photojournalist Werner Bischof[49] in 1951 took a photograph of a survivor with a terribly scarred back.  
Japanese photographers were not surprising deeply affected by the atom bomb. The Post-War pacifist and no-nuclear-weapons policies of Japan were a result of an immediacy to the physical destruction and the long-term medical affects.
In 1958 Ken Domon's book Hiroshima was published. The book had photographs by Ken Domon a dust jacket design by Jean Miro and was designed by Shigejiro Sano.[50]  
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On the twentieth anniversary of the bombing Kikuji Kawada's book The Map was published. The book with its complex meanings, gatefolds and highly abstract photographs showing the wall stains left by the bomb was difficult at the time the book was first published.[51]  
Kenji Ishiguro's 1970 book Hiroshima Now[52] is about a city that is survived the tragedy. It has not forgotten but it is moving forward.  
Photographic reflections on tragedy
The survivors of the two atomic bombs on Japan are known as the Hibakusha.[53] Photographers, including Marissa Roth, have returned to document them.  
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10039.33   Asia >  War: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki 
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Soon after 11.00 on the morning of 9th August 1945 B-29 bomber (Bockscar) of US Airforce 393d Bombardment Squadron piloted by Major Charles W. Sweeney dropped an atom bomb, "Fat Man", on the city of Nagasaki in Japan.
The bombing  
The aftermath  
Photographic reflections on tragedy
Shomei Tomatsu's 1966 book 11 ji 02 fun Nagasaki ("11:02" Nagasaki) takes its name from the exact time of the explosion.[54] The opening photograph of a glass bottle twisted into a repulsive form by the heat of the explosion is almost a metaphor for the changes in Japanese society that had been brought about by the Second World War and the post-War occupation.  
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Post-War Japan 
10039.34   Asia >  Provoke 
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Provoke (1968-) was a Japanese magazine with Takuma Nakahira as the founding editor.[55] The founding editor The term "Provoke" within Japanese photography is inclusive of photographers from the 1960s and 1970s who were active in experimental and confrontational photography and includes photographers whose work was not in the magazine.
Significant photographers of the time included Shõmei Tõmatsu, Eikoh Hosoe with his portraits of the highly controversial novelist, poet, playwright and nationalist Yukio Mishima, the voyeuristic surveillance-like night photographs of groping heterosexual and homosexual lovers in three Tokyo parks (Shinjuku, Yoyogi, and Aoyama) by Kohei Yoshiyuki, Daido Moriyama, Kikuji Kawada, the ever-prolific Nobuyoshi Araki, the Ravens of Masahisa Fukase and the founding editor of Provoke Takuma Nakahira.
Japan had been devastated by the Second World War, traumatised by the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, shamed by the American occupying forces and its impact on Imperial authority. There was no marketplace for photographic prints in Japan in the post-war period small apartment sizes restricted wall space and books, magazines and Xerox copies were the only ways to disseminate works by this prolific group of photographers. The work of the immediate post-war period was largely grainy black and white which reflects a hard documentary style which was often chauvinistic in its attitudes to women - women photographers were rare in Provoke world. 
10039.35   Asia >  Japanese protest books 
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10039.36   Asia >  W. Eugene Smith: Minamata 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
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Between 1971 and 1973 W. Eugene Smith lived with his Japanese wife Aileen in Minamata, Japan during the period that deformities and health issues in the surrounding area were being caused by mercury poisoning. The poisoning was caused by the discharge of heavy metals from a Chisso factory into the water sources which was taken up by fish and so affected the human population. W. Eugene Smith documented the health issues and the public meetings leading to him being attacked by Chisso employees.[56]
The most famous photograph of the series was Tomoko Uemura in Her Bath which showed a severly deformed and naked child being held by her mother while being bathed. The photograph was withdrawn from circulation out of the respect for the family.[57] 
10039.37   Asia >  Japanese photobooks 
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  1. Λ PhotoHistory 1646-1867 - Philbert Ono
    (Accessed: 10 June 2014) 
  2. Λ Daguerreotype plates of the crew of the are in the collections of Kawasaki City Museum and Yokohama Museum of Art. 
  3. Λ The significance of the daguerreotype plates was revealed by Izakura Naomi in June 1996. For an account of "The Sentaro Daguerrotype - First Japanese to be Photographed" by Terry Bennett
    (Accessed: 10 June 2014) 
  4. Λ George Feifer, 2006, Breaking Open Japan: Commodore Perry, Lord Abe, and American Imperialism in 1853, (Smithsonian) 
  5. Λ Rev. John Batchelor, 1892, The Ainu of Japan: The Religion, Superstitions, and General History of the Hairy Aborigines of Japan, (London: Religious Tract Society) 
  6. Λ Text courtesy of Charles Schwartz. 
  7. Λ Published in "Reports of Committee: 36th Congress, 1st Session, Rep. Com. no. 144", pp. 1-2 
  8. Λ Five surviving daguerreotypes from the over four hundred taken by Eliphalet Brown are known to exist. The is one of Gohachiro Namura in the Visual Collections of the Bishop Museum, Honolulu. Four others are in Japan. Bruce T. Erickson, "Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr., An Early Expedition Photographer", The Daguerreian Annual 1990, Official Yearbook of the Daguerreian Society, pp. 145-156.
    Although some of the daguerreotypes by Eliphalet Brown were destroyed in a Philadelphia print shop fire it is unclear what happened to the rest. If you have further information let me know - 
  9. Λ For Baron Raimund von Stillfried - Luke Gartlan, 2001, ‘A Chronology of Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz (1839–1911)‘, in Clark, John (ed), Japanese Exchanges in Art, 1850s to 1930s with Britain, Continental Europe, and the USA: Papers and Research Materials, (Sydney: Power Publications); Luke Gartlan, 2005, March, ‘Views and costumes of Japan: a photograph album by Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz‘, La Trobe Journal, no. 76, pp. 5-26 
  10. Λ Captain S.H. Jones-Parry made a making in the spelling of Stillfried. 
  11. Λ Captain S.H. Jones-Parry, 1881, My Journey Round the World via Ceylon, New Zealand, Australia, Torres Straits, China, Japan, and the United States, two volumes (London: Hurst and Blackett), Volume II, p.25-26 
  12. Λ Felice Beato is one of the most interesting peripatetic photographers of the nineteenth century - Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); John Clark, John Fraser & Colin Osman, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) 
  13. Λ The Meiji Restoration restored Imperial rule to Japan removing the powers of the Shoguns.
    W. Beasley, 1972, The Meiji Restoration, (Stanford University Press), Marius B. Jansen, 2002, The Making of Modern Japan, (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press) 
  14. Λ In Japan the Emperor takes the name of the period over which they ruled. Emperor Meiji ruled 3 February 1867 – 30 July 1912. 
  15. Λ Stephen Turnbull, 2004, Samurai: The Story of Japan's Great Warrior, (PRC Publishing), Mitsuo Kure, 2002 , Samurai: An Illustrated History, (Tuttle Publishing) 
  16. Λ The Meiji Restoration restored Imperial rule to Japan removing the powers of the Shoguns.
    W. Beasley, 1972, The Meiji Restoration, (Stanford University Press), Marius B. Jansen, 2002, The Making of Modern Japan, (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press) 
  17. Λ Dec. 22, 1877, The Japan Weekly Mail, p. 1155 
  18. Λ For a detailed early study see - 8 October 1885, "Japanese Tattooing", Nature, p. 566-567. The analysis of tattoos argues that their purpose is decorative rather than ceremonial but this may miss their significance with Japanese crime syndicates - the Yakusa. 
  19. Λ Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, 1891, Jinrikisha days in Japan, (Harper & Brothers), p. 253-254 
  20. Λ For book illustration of Japanese women sleeping - Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, 1885, The voyage of the Vega round Asia and Europe: with a historical review of previous journeys along the north coast of the Old World, (Macmillan and Co.), p. 638, "Japanese bedroom" 
  21. Λ Stanley B. Burns & Elizabeth A. Burns, 2006, Geisha: A Photographic History, 1872–1912, (Brooklyn, N.Y.: powerHouse Books) 
  22. Λ Helen Gregory-Flesher, 1893, "The Professional Beauties of Japan", The Californian, vol. IV, no. 5, p. 643-660 
  23. Λ Cecilia Segawa Seigle, 1993, Yoshiwara: The Glittering World of the Japanese Courtesan, (University of Hawaii Press) 
  24. Λ If you have information on how the clothing, adornment, hairstyles or make-up of a nineteenth century woman in Japan would show she was a courtesan I'd be interested - 
  25. Λ A.B. Mitford, 1871, Tales of Old Japan, (Macmillan), vol. 1, p. 59 
  26. Λ Henry Norman, 1893, The Real Japan: Studies of Contemporary Japanese Manners, Morals, Administration, and Politics, (T.F. Unwin), p. 292 
  27. Λ There is a description of a Japanese kago in - W.J. White, 1 September 1881, "A Japanese Kago", The Missionary Herald, pp. 381-382:
    This picture will give our readers an idea of a mode of travelling which has now become almost obsolete. It is a representation of a Japanese sedan-chair. Before the invention of the Jin-riki-sha (meaning man-power-cart), there were only two modes of making a journey in this country—either to foot it, or engage a kago, as the Japanese call the sedan chair. These kagos were of various sizes and shapes; some were very costly and elaborate. The one shown in the picture below is of the ordinary or common kago used by the commonalty, and it is only used now in carrying passengers who are either unable or too lazy to walk over the mountain passes.
    Its construction is simple, being of heavy bamboo basket-work, with a wooden bottom ; a long pole three or four inches thick passes through two strong bamboo suspenders, by which, as is shown in the engraving, the kago is carried. Above the kago and attached to the pole is a piece of grass matting, which, when unfolded, serves as an awning to screen from the sun.
    The bearers carry two thick sticks, which serve as walking-sticks in the one case, and when the men change the pole from one shoulder to the other they serve as rests for the kago. The ordinary posture in the kago is that of the woman shown in the picture. Foreigners, however, unable to sit for any length of time in this fashion, when they use the kago, sit astride, as on horseback, with a leg dangling on either side, their feet just touching the ground, and, as a matter of course, when going up-hill, half-walk and half-ride.
    It is only since foreigners came to Japan that the natives of any station were permitted to use a carriage of any description drawn by animals.
    Tokio, Japan. W. J. White.
  28. Λ This illustration is entitled "Kago Car." on the plate but in the errata list is corrected to "Japanese Cago". This illustration is included in the 1856 volume Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan; Performed in the Years 1802, 1853, and 1854, Under the Command of Commodore M. C. Perry, U. S. Navy, (New York : D. Appleton & Co.). 
  29. Λ Francis Hawks, 1856, Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854 under the Command of Commodore M.C. Perry, United States Navy, (Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson by order of Congress), originally published in Senate Executive Documents, No. 34 of 33rd Congress, 2nd Session. 
  30. Λ The Meiji Restoration takes its name from the restoration of power under Emeror Meiji after the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate. 
  31. Λ For a portrait of the Emeror Meiji in Western clothing - Uchida Kuichi, "Portrait of the Emperor Meiji", 1873, Albumen print, Cleveland Museum of Art 
  32. Λ Courtesy of Terry Bennett, (Old Japan -
  33. Λ Captain S.H. Jones-Parry, 1881, My Journey Round the World via Ceylon, New Zealand, Australia, Torres Straits, China, Japan, and the United States, Two Volumes (London: Hurst and Blackett), vol. II, pp. 28-29 
  34. Λ Text prepared by Rob Oechsle and Alan Griffiths. 
  35. Λ Charles Davison, June 1901, "The Great Japanese Earthquake of October 28, 1891", The Geographical Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 635-655 
  36. Λ John Milne (F.R.S. Professor of Mining and Geology, Imperial University of Japan) and W.K. Burton, (C.E. Professor of Sanitary Engineering, Imperial University of Japan) 
  37. Λ John Milne, W.K. Burton, W.K. & Ogawa Kazumasa, 1892 (ca.), The Great Earthquake of Japan, 1891, (Yokohama: Lane, Crawford & Co) 
  38. Λ Captain Francis Brinkley (ed.), 1897, Japan, Described and Illustrated by the Japanese, (Boston: Millet) [Twelve volumes and numerous later editions]. This book was republished by The Folio Society in a limited edition of two volumes in 2012 with an essay on Japanese art by Kakuzo Okakura and a historical essay by David Perkins. 
  39. Λ Sometimes called Ogawa Kazumasa. 
  40. Λ Japan - The Folio Society
    (Accessed: 23 April 2014) 
  41. Λ William Innes Homer, 1977, Alfred Stieglitz and the American Avant-Garde, (Boston: New York Graphic Society); Sarah Greenough, 2000, Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and his New York Galleries, (Washington: National Gallery of Art.); Lisa Mintz Messinger, 2011, Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keefe, (Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art)
    Archival material - Alfred Stieglitz/Georgia O'Keeffe Archive, Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University
    (Accessed: 10 September 2013) 
  42. Λ For Camera Work - Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) 
  43. Λ With thanks to Charles Schwartz. 
  44. Λ R. M. Connaughton, 1988, The War of the Rising Sun and the Tumbling Bear: A Military History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904–5, (London); Geoffry Jukes, 2002, The Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905, (Osprey Essential Histories)
    The Russo-Japanese War Research Society
    (Accessed: 4 November 2013) 
  45. Λ Sir Julian Stafford Corbett, 1994, Maritime Operations In The Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905, (US Naval Institute Press),Two volumes. 
  46. Λ Lewis L. Gould & Richard Greffe, 1977, Photojournalist: The Career of Jimmy Hare, (Austin & London: University of Texas Press) 
  47. Λ James Bradley, 2006, Flags of Our Fathers, (New York: Bantam); Hal Buell (ed), 2006, Uncommon Valor, Common Virtue: Iwo Jima and the Photograph that Captured America, (Berkley, CA: Penguin)
    Clint Eastwood directed the film Flags of our Fathers (2006)
    (Accessed: 4 November 2013)
    Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 11 November 2013) 
  48. Λ Marines at Iwo Jima - Perf 10½ x 11, Washington, D.C. - July 11, 1945, 137,321,000 issued 
  49. Λ Werner Bischof published several books on his photographs of Japan including - Werner Bischof & Robert Guillain, 1954, Japan, (Simon & Schuster), in German; Werner Bischof, 1961, Japan by Werner Bischof, (Bantam Books) 
  50. Λ Ken Domon, 1958, Hiroshima, (Tokyo): (Kenko-sha) 
  51. Λ Kikuji Kawada, 1965, The Map, (Tokyo: Bijutsu Shuppansha)
    For a background to this book - Ryuichi Kaneko & Ivan Vartanian, 2009, Japanese Photobooks of the 1960s and '70s, (New York: Aperture), pp. 86-93 
  52. Λ Kenji Ishiguro, 1970, Hiroshima Now, (Tokyo: Shinya Sosho-sha) 
  53. Λ The Japanese word Hibakusha literally translates as "explosion-affected people".
    Hibakusha - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 13 January 2014) 
  54. Λ Shomei Tomatsu, 1966, 11 ji 02 fun Nagasaki ("11:02" Nagasaki), (Tokyo: Shashin Dojinsha)
    For a context to this book - Ryuichi Kaneko & Ivan Vartanian, 2009, Japanese Photobooks of the 1960s and '70s, (New York: Aperture) 
  55. Λ Original copies of Provoke are difficult to obtain as it had a subscription of less than a thousand copies in its early years. It has been reprinted - Christoph Schifferli, 2001, The Japanese Box, (Steidl / Edition 7L) [Includes works from Provoke. Six volumes in a wooden box] 
  56. Λ In 1973 W, Eugene Smith''s portfolio, Minamata: Life-Sacred and Profane ([Tokyo], [1973]) was published with 12 reproductions of Smith's chilling photographs of Japan's environmental victims; with text in Japanese and English. The book which came out in 1975 is a classic of activist environmental photojournalism - W. Eugene Smith and Aileen M. Smith, 1975, Minamata: Words and photographs by W. Eugene Smith and Aileen M. Smith, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston). The front cover carries a blunt message "The story of the poisoning of a city, and of the people who choose to carry the burden of courage." 
  57. Λ Jim Hughes, 2000, "Tomoko Uemure, R.I.P.", Camera Arts magazine, available online -


HomeContents > Further research

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General reading 
1980, A Century of Japanese Photography, (New York: Pantheon Books) [Introduction by John Dower] [Δ
1995, The Founding and Development of Modern Photography in Japan, (Tokyo: Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography) [Δ
2011, Dawn of Japanese photography, (Tokyo) [Δ
Aubenas, S. & Lacarrière J., 1999, Voyage en Orient, (Paris: Hazan) isbn-10: 2850256889 isbn-13: 978-2850256882 [Δ
Bennett, Terry, 1997, Early Japanese Images, (Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Publishing Co.) [Δ
Bennett, Terry, 2006, Old Japanese Photographs. Collectors' Data Guide, (London: Quaritch) [Δ
Bennett, Terry, 2006, Photography in Japan 1853-1912, (Rutland, Vermont, Singapore & Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing) isbn-10: 0804836337 isbn-13: 978-0804836333 [Δ
Bethel, Denise, 1991, Spring/Summer, ‘The J. B. Millet Company’s Japan: Described and Illustrated by the Japanese‘, Image, vol. 34, pp. 3-21 [Δ
Boyd, T., 2000, Portraits in Sepia. From the Japanese Carte de Visite Collection of Torin Boyd and Naomi Izakura, (Tokyo: Izakura & Boyd) [Δ
Brinkley, Captain Francis (ed.), 1897, Japan: Described and Illustrated by the Japanese, (Boston: J.B. Millet) [12 volumes - 1897 Mikado edition. Various editions 1897-1910] [Δ
Brinkley, Captain Francis (ed.), 2012, Japan, Described and Illustrated by the Japanese, (London: The Folio Society) [Two volumes. Essay on Japanese art by Kakuzo Okakura and a historical essay by David Perkins. Limited edition of 1000 copies] [Δ
Burns, Stanley B. & Burns, Elizabeth A., 2006, Geisha: A Photographic History, 1872-1912, (Brooklyn, NY: powerhouse Books) [Δ
Clark, John, 2001, Japanese Exchanges in Art, 1850s to 1930s with Britain, Continental Europe, and the USA: Papers and Research Materials, (Sydney: Power Publications) [Δ
Dobson, Sebastian, 2004, ‘'I been to keep up my position': Felice Beato in Japan, 1863–1877‘, in Rousmaniere & Hirayama, (eds.), 2004, Reflecting Truth: Japanese Photography in the Nineteenth Century, (Amsterdam: Hotei), pp. 30-39, ISBN 978-9074822763. [Δ
Dobson, Sebastian; Morse, Anne Nishimura & Sharf, Frederic A., 2004, Art & Artifice: Japanese Photographs of the Meiji Era - selections from the Jean S. and Frederic A. Sharf Collection at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, (Boston: MFA Publications) isbn-10: 0878466835 isbn-13: 978-0878466832 [Δ
Fraser, Karen M., 2011, Photography and Japan, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 1861897979 isbn-13: 978-1861897978 [Δ
Funkhouser, Elmer, 1999, March/April, ‘Japan: Described and Illustrated by the Japanese‘, Arts in Asia, vol. 29, pp. 133-138 [Δ
Gartlan, Luke (ed.), 2009, May, Photography in Nineteenth-Century Japan [Δ
Hight, Eleanor M., 2011, Capturing Japan in Ninetenth-Century New England Photography Collections., (Burlington, VT: Ashgate) [Δ
Holborn, Mark, 1986, Black Sun: The Eyes of Four, Roots and Innovation in Japanese Photography, (Aperture) isbn-10: 0893811858 isbn-13: 978-0893811853 [Δ
Kaneko, Ryuichi & Vartanian, Ivan, 2009, Japanese Photobooks of the 1960s and '70s, (New York: Aperture) isbn-10: 1597110949 isbn-13: 978-1597110945 [Δ
Maddox, Brent, 1990, winter, ‘Depictions of 19th Century Japan‘, Visual Resources Association Bulletin, vol. 17, pp. 35-37 [Δ
Morris, Rosalind C., 2009, Photographies East: The Camera and Its Histories in East and Southeast Asia, (Duke University Press Books) isbn-10: 0822342057 isbn-13: 978-0822342052 [Δ
Odo, David, 2008, Unknown Japan: Reconsidering 19th Century Photographs, (Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum) [Δ
Romer, Grant, 1986, August, ‘Near the Temple at Yokushen‘, Image, vol. 29, no. 2 [Δ
Rousmaniere, Nicole Coolidge & Hirayama, Mikiko (eds.), 2005, Reflecting Truth: Japanese Photography in the Nineteenth Century, (Hotei Publishing) isbn-10: 9074822762 isbn-13: 978-9074822763 [Δ
Schifferli, Christoph, 2001, The Japanese Box, (Steidl / Edition 7L) isbn-10: 3882433019 [Includes works from Provoke. Six volumes in a wooden box] [Δ
Tucker, Anne et al., 2003, The History of Japanese Photography, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) [Δ
Vartanian, Ivan; Hatanaka, Akihiro & Kambayashi, Yutaka (eds.), 2006, Setting Sun: Writings by Japanese Photographers, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1931788839 isbn-13: 978-1931788830 [Δ
Winkel, Margarita, 1991, Souvenirs from Japan: Japanese Photography at the Turn of the Century, (London: Bamboo Publishing in association with Ukiyo-e Books, Leiden, The Netherlands) [Δ
Worswick, Clark & Morris, J., 1979, Japan. Photographs 1854-1905, (New York: A. Pennwick/Alfred A. Knopf Book) [Δ
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
Felice Beato 
Clark, John; Fraser, John & Osman, Colin, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) [Δ
Lacoste, Anne, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) [Δ
Werner Bischof 
Bischof, Werner, 1961, Japan by Werner Bischof, (Bantam Books) [Δ
Bischof, Werner & Guillain, Robert, 1954, Japan, (Simon & Schuster) [German] [Δ
Eliphalet Brown 
Erickson, Bruce T., 1990, ‘Eliphalet M. Brown, Jr., An Early Expedition Photographer‘, The Daguerreian Annual 1990, Official Yearbook of the Daguerreian Society, pp. 145-156 [Δ
Domon Ken 
Domon, Ken, 1960, Chikuho no Kodomotchi [The Children of Chikuho], (Tokyo: Patoria Shoten) [Δ
Ikko Kagari 
Kagari, Ikko, 1982, Document Tsuken Densha [Document Tsuken Express Train], (Hama Shobo) [Japanese] [Δ
William Klein 
Klein, William, 1964, Tokyo, (New York: Crown Publishers) [Δ
Klein, William, 1964, Tokyo, (Tokyo, Japan: Zokeisha Publications) [Δ
Kohei Yoshiyuki 
Yoshiyuki, Kohei, 1980, Document Koen / Document Park, (Tokyo, Seven Sha) [Δ
Kusakabe Kimbei 
Savelyeva, Anna, 2010, ‘Kusakabe Kimbei’s Photographs in the State Hermitage Collection‘, Reports of the State Hermitage Museum, vol. LXVII [Δ
Merchand & Meffre 
Marchand, Yves & Meffre, Romain, 2013, Gunkanjima, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869305460 isbn-13: 978-3869305462 [Δ
Moriyama Daidõ 
Bauret, Gabriel, 2013, Daido Moriyama, (Thames and Hudson) isbn-10: 0500411050 isbn-13: 978-0500411056 [Δ
Ogawa Kazumasa 
Milne, John, Burton, W.K. & Ogawa Kazumasa, 1892(ca), The Great Earthquake of Japan, 1891, (Yokohama: Lane, Crawford & Co) [Δ
W. Eugene Smith 
Smith, W. Eugene & Smith, Aileen M., 1975, Minamata: Words and Photographs, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) [Δ
Baron Raimund von Stillfried 
Gartlan, Luke, 2001, ‘A Chronology of Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz (1839–1911)‘, in Clark, John (ed), Japanese Exchanges in Art, 1850s to 1930s with Britain, Continental Europe, and the USA: Papers and Research Materials, (Sydney: Power Publications) [Δ
Gartlan, Luke, 2005, March, ‘Views and costumes of Japan: a photograph album by Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz‘, La Trobe Journal, no. 76, pp. 5-26 [Δ
Shõmei Tõmatsu 
Jeffrey, I., 2002, Shomei Tomatsu, (London: Phaidon) [Δ
Rubinfien, L.; Phillips, S. S. & Dower, J. W., 2004, Shomei, Tomatsu: Skin of the Nation, (San Francisco: Museum of Modern Art in association with New Haven, CT: Yale University Press) [Preface by Daido Moriyama] [Δ
Tomatsu, Shomei, 1966, 11 ji 02 fun Nagasaki ("11:02" Nagasaki), (Tokyo: Shashin Dojinsha) [Δ
Tomatsu, Shomei, 1969, Okinawa, Okinawa, Okinawa, (Tokyo: Shaken) [Δ
Tomatsu, Shomei, 1969, Oo! Shinjuku, (Tokyo, Shaken) [Δ
Tomatsu, Shomei, 1972, I am a King, (Tokyo: Dai Nippon Printing) [Δ
Tomatsu, Shomei, 1998, Visions of Japan, Tomatsu Shomei, (Korinsha Press, Distributed Art Publishers, New York) [Δ
Tomatsu, Shomei, 2000, Tomatsu Shomei 1951–1960, (Tokyo, Japan: Sakinsha) [Δ
Tomatsu, Shomei, 2014, Chewing Gum and Chocolate, (Aperture) isbn-13: 978-1597112505 [Δ
Ed Van der Elsken 
Van der Elsken, Ed, 1988, De ontdekking van Japan, (Tokyo: Fragment Uitgeverij) [Δ
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - 
Japan, hand-colored photographs, ca. 1880 ... 
Photographic Views of Meiji: A Portrait of Old Japan ... 
Japanese Old Photographs in the Bakumatsu-Meiji Period (1860-1899) ... 
Database of early photographs of Japan held by Nagasaki University Library. 
Views and Costumes of Japan: A Photograph Album by Baron Raimund von Stillfried-Ratenicz ... 
by Luke Gartlan (Reproduced from The La Trobe Journal No 76, Spring 2005) Very detailed description of an album with excellent scholarship. 
Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) - Botanical explorer in China, Japan &Korea ... 

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

Ryoji Akiyama  (1942-) • Hermann Andersen • Felice Beato  (1832-1909) • Werner Bischof  (1916-1954) • Earnest Gordon Bradford • Eliphalet Brown • Wilhelm Burger  (check) • Linda Butler  (1947-) • Emile de Montgolfier  (1842-1896) • Domon Ken  (1909-1990) • T. Enami  (1859-1929) • Adolfo Farsari  (1841-1898) • Hideki Fujii  (1934-) • T. Fukasawa • Fukase Masahisa  (1934-2012) • Hamaya Hiroshi  (1915-1999) • Hatakeyama Naoya  (1958-) • Hisaji Hara  (1964-) • Hiromi Horikoshi  (1968-) • Eikoh Hosoe  (1933-) • Tetsuya Ichimura  (1930-) • Ikkõ  (1931-) • Ishimoto Yasuhiro  (1921-2012) • Bishin Jumonji  (1947-) • Ikko Kagari • Kawada Kikuji  (1933-) • Michael Kenna  (1953-) • Kimura Ihei  (1901-1974) • Ken Kitano • Shinchiro Kobayashi • Kohei Yoshiyuki • Kon Michiko  (1955-) • Tamamura Kozaburo • Koichiro Kurita  (1943-) • Kusakabe Kimbei  (1841-1934) • Shinzo Maeda • Yoshito Matsushige  (1913-2005) • Kozo Miyoshi  (1947-) • Moriyama Daidõ  (1938-) • Nagano Shigeichi  (check) • Naitoh Masatoshi  (1938-) • Nojima Yasuzõ  (1889-1964) • Ogawa Kazuma  (1860-1929) • Ogawa Kazumasa • Ken Ohara  (1942-) • Herbert G. Ponting  (check) • John Cooper Robinson  (check) • Pierre Joseph Rossier  (check) • Yuji Saiga  (1951-) • Tomoko Sawada  (1977-) • Shibata Toshio  (1949-) • Shimooka Renjõ  (1823-1914) • Kishin Shinoyama  (1940-) • Jun Shiraoka  (1944-) • W. Eugene Smith  (1918-1978) • Kiyoshi Sonobe  (1921-1996) • Chris Steele-Perkins  (1947-) • Baron Raimund von Stillfried  (1839-1911) • Hiroshi Sugimoto  (1948-) • John Swope  (1908-1979) • Shõmei Tõmatsu  (1930-2012) • Kunihiko Takada  (1953-) • Shigeru Tamura  (1947-) • Tsuchida Hiromi  (1939-) • Uchida Kuichi  (1844-1875) • Ueda Shõji  (1913-2000) • Watanabe Yoshio  (1907-2000) • Ernest Henry Wilson  (1876-1930) • Shikanosuke Yagaki  (1897-1966) • Masao Yamamoto  (1957-) • Yokoyama Matsusaburõ  (1838-1884)
HomeGeographical regionsAsia > Japan 
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Daguerreotypists - Japan 
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) 
Second World War (1939-1945) 
Sedan chairs - Kago 
Key dates 
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) 
Second World War (1939-1945) 

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Japan

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailChris Steele-Perkins: An Evolving Retrospective 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 30, 2007) Thanks to Chris Steele-Perkins and Magnum Photos for their assistance with this exhibition.
ThumbnailFelice Beato - Japan 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 20, 2010)
ThumbnailJapan in the 19th Century 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 20, 2010)
ThumbnailJapanese Ambrotypes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 5, 2007)
ThumbnailJapanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 22, 2008)
ThumbnailJapanese pictorialism: Bunka Shashin-shu (1922) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 1, 2006)
ThumbnailPeter Engblom 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 18, 2008)
ThumbnailT. Enami: A Japanese Farmer and his Wife 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 15, 2008)
ThumbnailT. Enami: A rediscovered Meiji master 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 8, 2008)

HomeVisual indexes > Japan

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan -

ThumbnailAraki Nobuyoshi: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBaron Raimund von Stillfried: Japan: Views 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBaron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from Japan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBronislaw Pilsudski: The Ainu 
ThumbnailEliphalet Brown: Japan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEmile de Montgolfier: Japan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Book illustrations 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Japan: Cartes de visite 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Japan: Japanese shop 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Japan: My Artists 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Japan: Portrait of the Satsuma Clan Envoys 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Japan: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Japan: Samurai of the Satsuma clan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Japan: The Executioner 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorge Rose: 6010 Japanese Schoolboys Waiting to see Soldiers bound for the War 
ThumbnailGeorge Rose: 6101 Japanese factory girls packing biscuits 
ThumbnailKen Domon & Shomei Tomatsu: Hiroshima-Nagasaki, Document 1961 
ThumbnailKen Domon: Hiroshima 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKusakabe Kimbei: Harakiri 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKusakabe Kimbei: Japan: Landscapes 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKusakabe Kimbei: Man with Tattoos 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKusakabe Kimbei: Shinto priest 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailKusakabe Kimbei: Writing a letter 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOgawa Kazuma: Japan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOgawa Kazumasa: The Great Earthquake of Japan, 1891 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailShõmei Tõmatsu: Nagasaki 11:02 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailT. Enami: A Famer and his Wife 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailT. Enami: Lantern slides 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW. Eugene Smith: Minamata 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWayne Miller: Hiroshima 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilhelm Burger: Japan 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailYamabe Photo Co: Price list 
ThumbnailAdolfo Farsari - Kusakabe Kimbei: Carrying children 
   Thematic Connections 
ThumbnailJapanese women sleeping 
ThumbnailDocumentary: Tsunamis, Japan (2011) 
ThumbnailJapanese courtesans 
ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: The Far East 
ThumbnailSports and pastimes: Sumo wrestling 
ThumbnailThe Face Acrobatic Morimoto, Kyoto, Japan 
ThumbnailTransportation: Sedan chairs (Kago) 
ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima (6 August 1945) 
ThumbnailWar: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki (9 August 1945) 
ThumbnailJapan: Edo 
ThumbnailJapan: General views 
ThumbnailJapan: Hakone 
ThumbnailJapan: Kamakura 
ThumbnailJapan: Kanagawa 
ThumbnailJapan: Kanasawa - Kanazawa 
ThumbnailJapan: Mount Fuji 
ThumbnailJapan: Nagasaki 
ThumbnailJapan: Tokyo 
ThumbnailJapan: Tomioka 
   Ethnic groups and races 
ThumbnailJapanese: Ainu 
ThumbnailMurders of foreigners in Japan in the 1860s 
ThumbnailJapanese photobooks 
   Still thinking about these... 
ThumbnailCrime and punishment in Japan 
ThumbnailEliphalet M. Brown Jr. shooting Daguerreotypes in Okinawa (1856) 
ThumbnailExternal cultural influences in Japan 
ThumbnailHiroshima: Before and after 
ThumbnailJapan, Torii 
ThumbnailJapan: Japanese artists and colorists 
ThumbnailJapanese actors and performers 
ThumbnailJapanese carte-de-visite and cabinet card album 
ThumbnailJapanese men with tattoos 
ThumbnailJapanese photograph albums 
ThumbnailLocal photographers: Japan 
ThumbnailMeiji-era engraved stereocard backs 
ThumbnailPhotographers in Japan 
ThumbnailR. Konishi Illustrated Catalogue of Photographic Apparatus & Materials, 18, 2 & 3, Nichome, Honcho, Tokyo, Japan 
ThumbnailThe Snow Pine - A Winter Scene in Old Rural Japan 
Refreshed: 13 August 2014, 09:30
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