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HomeContentsThemes > China

Contents

Introduction
10037.01   Introduction to photography in China
The daguerreotype in China
10037.02   Jules Itier: China
10037.03   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese
The Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860)
10037.04   Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860): Introduction
10037.05   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the Pehtang fort
10037.06   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the taking of the Taku Fort
10037.07   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the march to Bejing
10037.08   Felice Beato: Prince Kung / Prince Gong Qinwang of China
The Far East
10037.09   The Far East
Thomas Child in China
10037.10   Thomas Child: China (ca. 1875-1880)
John Thomson in China
10037.11   John Thomson: Illustrations of China and Its People (1873-1874)
10037.12   John Thomson: The Land and People of China
10037.13   John Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China
10037.14   John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist
William Pryor Floyd
10037.15   W.P. Floyd: Hong Kong
Rural landscapes
10037.16   Afong: Banker's Glen, Yuen-foo River
The inhabitants of China
10037.17   Chinese
10037.18   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China
10037.19   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese
Documentary
10037.20   China: Typhoon (September 1874)
10037.21   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Notes de voyage en Chine (1954)
Amateur photographers
10037.22   Amateur Photographers in China: Sketches by the Rev. R. O'Dowd Ross-Lewin, Chaplain R.N. (7 March 1891)
10037.23   Donald M. Mennie: Pictorialist China
China viewed from the outside
10037.24   China: As seen by external photographers
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
10037.25   China and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)
Contemporary Chinese photography
10037.26   Zhang Huan: Performance art
10037.27   Edward Burtynsky: China
10037.28   Thomas Sauvin and photographic waste in China
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
10037.01   Asia >  Introduction to photography in China 
  
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The history of Chinese photography is a reflection of the tumultuous history of the Chinese people and a large part of the visual legacy of the country was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. This has meant that, until recently, research was carried out by foreign researchers such as Clark Worswick[1], Régine Thiriez[2] and Terry Bennett.[3]
 
The collection of scholar Terry Bennett was acquired in July 2013 by the Moonchu Foundation and will go from there to the Hong Kong Museum of History.[4] This collection will be an outstanding resource for all interested in early photography in China 
  
The daguerreotype in China 
  
10037.02   Asia >  Jules Itier: China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Jules Itier was a French daguerreotypist and photographer. He spent his career with the French customs service and traveled widely. He learnt the daguerreotype process soon after its announcement in 1839 and from 1842 to 1843 he traveled to Senegal and Guiana in Africa and Guadaloupe in the West Indies. In 1844 he headed a mission to China and took what are thought to be the earliest images of Macao and Canton.[5] On 24 October 1844 he took a Daguerreotype of the signing of the Sino-French peace Treaty. 
  
10037.03   Asia >  Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese 
  
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The Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) 
  
10037.04   Asia >  Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860): Introduction 
  
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The First (1849-42) and Second Chinese Opium Wars (1856-1860) reflect one of the most unethical aspects of the foreign policy of the British Empire and the American, French and Dutch traders who were involved in the distribution of opium.[6]
 
The wars were fought to prevent the Chinese government clamping down on drug use and the export of opium. British merchants traded opium as part of a global mercantile network and were perfectly prepared to fight for it. The catalyst for action was when the Chinese searched the British ship Arrow on suspicion of piracy and shipping opium - as the ship was Chinese owned they had a right to do this but as it was registered in Hong Kong the jurisdiction was open to dispute. The French joined the British using the execution of a missionary, Father August Chapdelaine, as the justification.
 
The allies began operations late in 1857 and the Chinese soon agreed to terms and signed the treaties at Tientsin (1858) that opened China up for foreign trade and missionaries. Considerable pressure was applied to force the Chinese to accept imports of opium. The Chinese didn't ratify the treaties and hostilities resumed. 
  
   War Second Chinese Opium 
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10037.05   Asia >  Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the Pehtang fort 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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On 2 August 1860 British and French forces took the Pehtang fort[7] during the Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and Felice Beato, who accompanied the British army, photographed it.[8]
 
There was no opposition in taking the fort although quantities of gunpowder had been boobytrapped. General Hope Grant, who was commanding the British forces, noted:
I took up my abode in one of the bastions of the fort, which was cool and airy: perhaps too much so, for I shall never forget one night when a storm of thunder, lightning, wind, and rain broke over us, flooding the place, and converting our beds into the appearance of tubs filled with dirty clothes, and ourselves into half-drowned rats.[9]
 
  
10037.06   Asia >  Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the taking of the Taku Fort 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Felice Beato used multiple wet collodion plates to create panoramas of important sights including the ships and camp at Hong Kong preparing for the North China Expedition (taken 18-27 March 1860). The French and British forces landed at Pei Tang on 1 August 1860 and moved on. During this period Felice Beato documented the campaign and recorded the aftermath of the attacks with the Western allies on the forts at Taku, near Tientsin, on 21 August 1860. The photographs show the ravaged ramparts of the fort strewn with Chinese dead. It has been suggested that on occasion Felice Beato moved corpses around in order to get a more dramatic image - a practice that continues today with the more unethical war photographers. A contemporary account said:
"I walked round the ramparts on the West side. They were thickly strewn with dead - in the North-West angle thirteen were lying in one group around a gun. Signor Beato was there in great excitement, characterising the group as ‘beautiful‘ and begging that it might not be interfered with until perpetuated by his photographic apparatus, which was done a few minutes afterwards.."[10]
 
  
10037.07   Asia >  Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the march to Bejing 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The allied forces marched on and by 26 September they arrived at Bejing and the city fell on 6 October 1860. The war ended with the Convention of Peking on 18 October in which the Chinese agreed to the western demands.
 
Some of the photographs of Felice Beato were used as the basis of illustrations for example in James Furgusson A History of Architecture in all Countries, from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, in three volumes (London: John Murray, 1867). 
  
10037.08   Asia >  Felice Beato: Prince Kung / Prince Gong Qinwang of China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In Robert Swinhoe's book Narrative of the North China Campaign of 1860 (1861) he gave an account of the taking of a portrait of Prince Kung by Signor Beato[11][12] is given:
The imperial edict confirming all that Prince Kung had signed was duly received, and large proclamations on the 6th [November 1860] were posted up all over the city, making the terms of peace patent to all the Celestials. This last performance of the great act was considered so important that the army interpreters were deputed to accompany the mandarins commissioned for the purpose of having the same placarded in all conspicuous parts of the great city; and parcels of proclamations were made up ready for posting at important places on the downward march. Much cordiality now existed between Lord Elgin and Prince Kung, and visits were frequently exchanged. The Prince threw off the nervous restraint and show of bad humour that marked his first interview. He sat with pleasure for his photograph before the camera of Signor Beato, and we are thus enabled to give a view of his far from comely visage to our readers. He is said to bear a strong resemblance to the Emperor; and, indeed, a carefully executed portrait of his Celestial Majesty, which was secured by an officer from the Summer Palace, called so forcibly to our mind the physiognomy of the Prince that we declared it could be no other, until, from the Chinese inscription on the top, it was deciphered to represent the Emperor.[13]
A further account of the occasion was provided by Henry Knollys in Incidents in the China War of 1860 compiled from the Private Journals of General Sir Hope Grant (1875):
In the midst of the ceremony, the indefatigable Signor Beato, who was very anxious to take a good photograph of "the Signing of the Treaty," brought forward his apparatus, placed it at the entrance door, and directed the large lens of the camera full against the breast of the unhappy Prince Kung. The royal brother looked up in a state of terror, pale as death, and with his eyes turned first to Lord Elgin and then to me, expecting every moment to have his head blown off by the infernal machine opposite him—which really looked like a sort of mortar, ready to disgorge its terrible contents into his devoted body. It was explained to him that no such evil design was intended, and his anxious pale face brightened up when he was told that his portrait was being taken. The treaty was signed, and the whole business went off satisfactorily, except as regards Signor Beato's picture, which was an utter failure, owing to want of proper light.[14]
 
  
The Far East 
  
10037.09   Asia >  The Far East 
  
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The Far East was initially a fortnightly journal published in Yokohama, Japan by John R. Black 1870-75. The journal was a newspaper covering events mainly in Japan but also in other countries in the Far East. Importantly it was illustrated with actual photographs which were tipped in to each issue. Although the occasional volume has appeared at auction it remains an exceptionally rare work. Only two or three complete runs of the first series are known to exist. One regrettable reason is that when issues or the odd volume appears the rare photographs are sometimes removed and sold separately. After a short break, Black commenced a second series in July 1876 and the journal was then published monthly. It ran until December 1878. The second series was published in Shanghai, Tokyo and Hong Kong and had a much greater focus on China and appears to be even rarer than the first series.[15] 
  
Thomas Child in China 
  
10037.10   Asia >  Thomas Child: China (ca. 1875-1880) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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John Thomson in China 
  
10037.11   Asia >  John Thomson: Illustrations of China and Its People (1873-1874) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Between 1870 and 1872 John Thomson made four journeys within China:
  • Up the the north branch of the Pearl River
  • Up the River Min to the area around Foochow
  • To Peking
  • Up the Yangtze River
These extensive travels, which were the basis for John Thomson's book Illustrations of China and Its People (1873-1874)[16], and provide one of the first detailed photographic documentations of China in the neneteenth century wth studies of the Treaty Ports and cities including Hong Kong, Hainan, Macau, Taiwan, Swatow, Amoy, Foochow, Ninpo, Shanghai, Nanking, Kiu-kiang, Hanchow, Chefu and Peking. This book is also notable for its occupational portraits of the Chinese. 
  
10037.12   Asia >  John Thomson: The Land and People of China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10037.13   Asia >  John Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The albumen print Physic Street, Canton, China by John Thomson was converted into an illustration, A street in Canton, for one of his books. [17] 
  
10037.14   Asia >  John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The glass plate of Peking, Pechili province, China: a travelling chiropodist is in the collection of the Wellcome Images[18] and it was made into a wood engraving. 
  
William Pryor Floyd 
  
10037.15   Asia >  W.P. Floyd: Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William Pryor Floyd was active in China as a studio assistant with Shannon & Co in Shanghai (1865), Macao (1866) and Hong Kong (1867-1874).[19] 
  
Rural landscapes 
  
10037.16   Asia >  Afong: Banker's Glen, Yuen-foo River 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Whilst landscape photography is now a common genre it was not always the case and this series by the best known early Chinese Afong is unusual. Europeans called the valley the "Banker's Glen" and it is in the hills above Fuzhou, China.John Thomson also photographed in this region at around the same time and his photographs are included in Foochow and the River Min. A series of photographs (1873).[20]
 
The Banker's Glen was a beauty spot frequented by travellers as Arthur Harold Heath wrote in his book Sketches of Vanishing China (1927):
... the next place to visit is the Banker's Glen, up which you can walk a considerable distance under overhanging cliffs covered with ferns and beautiful flowers, especially lovely in spring, when the azaleas are in bloom and the green tints are tender in hue.[21]
 
  
The inhabitants of China 
  
10037.17   Asia >  Chinese 
  
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10037.18   Asia >  Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10037.19   Asia >  William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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British-born William Saunders opened his studio in Shanghai, China ca. 1863. Although he was a portrait photographer, his fascination with the Chinese people prompted him to photograph Chinese at all social levels from the food seller to the high ranking Mandarins. His catalog contained a large number of city views of Shanghai and the surrounding areas. Saunders photographs were sold by other photographers in China and are characteristic in his rectangular shape with rounded corners and oval vignettes. Many of his photographs were reproduced in ‘The Far East Magazine’. 
  
Documentary 
  
10037.20   Asia >  China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
  
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A Chinese photographer, Afong, who was active in the 1860s-1880s in Hong Kong (now China), took an album of albumen prints of the 22 September 1874 typhoon that struck Hong Kong harbor sinking the steamers moored there.[22]
 
A personal account of the 1874 typhoon is provided in Walter William Mundy's 1875 book Canton and the Bogue. The Narrative of an eventful six months in China:
...the storm commenced with a violent wind suddenly springing up, and it soon became so irresistible in its might that no obstacle seemed able to retard it. As the night wore on, the destruction increased, and each fresh blast of the hurricane was the doom of houses and of ships. The bars across the windows snapt one after the other with a report like that of cannon; and the Venetians, torn from their fastenings and banging against the wall, increased the noise, till at last the wind swept them completely off, and rushed into the house with a shriek, as if about to carry everything before it. The washing stands were in the verandah, and the wind caught the jugs and basins up as if they were but leaves, and smashed them in all directions. The glass doors leading into the bedrooms were then taken bodily off their hinges, and fragments of the glass were scattered throughout the house. Many pieces fell on my bed, but I escaped without any bad cuts. The doors throughout the different corridors were the next to succumb; and now the risk became very great that the wind would lift the roof completely off the house, which actually happened to many other houses in the colony. To add to the confusion of the scene, the wind got into the pipes and put the gas out, leaving us in total darkness.[23]
 
  
10037.21   Asia >  Henri Cartier-Bresson: Notes de voyage en Chine (1954) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The photo-essay "Notes de voyage en Chine" on China by Henri Cartier-Bresson published in Photo Monde, No. 31, Special Christmas issue, January 1954. 
  
   Henri  Cartier-Bresson China 
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Amateur photographers 
  
10037.22   Asia >  Amateur Photographers in China: Sketches by the Rev. R. O'Dowd Ross-Lewin, Chaplain R.N. (7 March 1891) 
  
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The perils of being an amateur photographer in China were humorously illustrated in "Amateur Photographers in China: Sketches by the Rev. R. O'Down Ross-Lewin, Chaplain R. N."[24] which was published in the Illustrated London News in 1891:
  1. Messrs. Tripod and Focus go ashore from a river steamer.
     
  2. They decide to photograph a party of natives sleeping in a field.
     
  3. The Chinamen, awakening and alarmed, take flight with yells of terror.
     
  4. The mob of hostile peasantry is kept at bay, dreading the levelled camera as a new kind of artillery.
     
  5. But they drive some of their "water buffaloes," good beasts when yoked to a plough, in a fresh attack on the foreign intruders.
     
  6. Messrs. Tripod and Focus, leave their camera to destruction, take refuge up a tree.
     
  7. Ransomed by paying away all their dollars, they are permitted to embark in safety. China does not yet appreciate every art of civilisation!
 
  
10037.23   Asia >  Donald M. Mennie: Pictorialist China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Donald M. Mennie was a Scottish businessman and amateur photographer who was active in China. He arrived in China in 1899 working first at Mactavish & Lehman & Co. in Peking (now Beijing) and later joined A.S. Watson & Co. in Shanghai. A highly successful entrepreneur of pharmaceuticals, wine, spirits, cigars and photographic chemicals and apparatus he was well-able to support his photographic interests. He was influenced by contemporary pictorialism and his photogravures were well-suited to a slightly romanticised and soft-focus view of China.
 
His photographs were first published in Elizabeth Cooper's book My Lady of the Chinese Courtyard (1914)[25] and through the 1920s he published under the auspices of the company he worked for, A.S. Watson & Co., a number of photographically-illustrated books on China of which the most notable are The Pageant of Peking (1920)[26] and The Grandeur of the Gorges (1926).[27] 
  
China viewed from the outside 
  
10037.24   Asia >  China: As seen by external photographers 
  
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The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) 
  
10037.25   Asia >  China and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) 
  
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The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution commonly known at the Cultural Revolution was socio-political movement in China between 1966 and 1976. The intention was to root out traditional and capiltalist ideologies throughout the country to promote communism. The formation of Red Guard units with their ideological and physical attacks on any ideas, or artifacts, that disagreed with the decreed pathways led to the distruction of cultural material in an unprecented manner. In a world where retaining photographs of pre-communist China could be used as evidence many public and private collections were destroyed. This has lead to a lack of early Chinese material within the country and most of the better photographs documenting China prior to this period being in collections outside the country.[28]
 
In a society where people were denounced for counter-revolutionary thought, actions and possessions it was dangerous to take and preserve photographs during this period without official permission. There are cases where Chinese photographers, such as Li Zhensheng[29], hid their collections and these are proving to be of cultural and historical significance. 
  
Contemporary Chinese photography 
  
10037.26   Asia >  Zhang Huan: Performance art 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10037.27   Asia >  Edward Burtynsky: China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Edward Burtynsky in his 2012 book China[30] captured the vast scale of the industrial plants of China where humanity is lost within organisations. 
  
   Edward  Burtynsky 
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10037.28   Asia >  Thomas Sauvin and photographic waste in China 
  
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One of the most culturally significant projects in China is the work of Thomas Sauvin a photograph collector in Bejing who saw an opportunity to preserve a key part of Chinese history that is being destroyed at an alarming rate.[31] The issue is not only a Chinese one as it involves the destruction of photographs and photograph albums as fashions have changed and digital technology has become pervasive. The issue in China is perhaps more acute in photohistorical terms as during certain periods photographs and emblems of Westernization were destroyed for example during the Cultural Revolution meaning that there are large gaps in the visual record.
 
The rise of personal incomes in China coincided with a rise in personal photography and the switch from silver-based film stock to digital capture. Photo-albums have declined in popularity and being discarded along with old photographs. With a recycling industry that tries to salvage any re-usable minerals and chemicals the sorted waste goes to specialists. Thomas Sauvin realised that by purchasing the photographic waste at source he could capture a significant part of Chinese cultural life from around 1985 onwards as China was booming. He purchased and sorted over 500,000 photographs and parts of this collection are now being published. In 2013 a five volume series of photographs Silvermine was published.[32] 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Clark Worswick & J. Spence, 1978, Imperial China. Photographs 1850-1912, (New York: Penwick/Crown) 
      
  2. Λ Régine Thiriez, 1998, Barbarian Lens: Western Photographers of the Qianlong Emperor's European Palaces, (Routledge) 
      
  3. Λ Terry Bennett has published three well-researched studies on early photography in China - Terry Bennett, 2009, History of Photography in China 1842-1860, (London; Quaritch); Terry Bennett, 2010, History of Photography in China: Western Photographers 1861-1879, (Bernard Quaritch Ltd); Terry Bennett, 2013, History of Photography in China: Chinese Photographers 1844-1879, (Bernard Quaritch Ltd) 
      
  4. Λ Bernard Quaritch (London) negotiated for the Terry Bennett collection of approximately 10,000 photographs of China from 1844 to the end of the Qing Dynasty to go to the Moonchu Foundation and from there to the Hong Kong Museum of History.
     
    Press release from Bernard Quaritch (19 July 2013):
    The range and depth of this collection is renowned, unrivalled in documented private or institutional holdings. It includes a daguerreotype from Jules Itier’s visit in 1844, when he made the earliest surviving photographs of China; 70 albums by amateur and internationally acclaimed photographers such as Felice Beato, Milton Miller, John Thomson, and Lai Fong, William Saunders, Pow Kee, Paul Champion and William Floyd; some 325 cabinet and carte-de-visite portraits by Chinese and Western studios; many lantern slides and glass and paper stereoviews; hundreds of larger-format portraits and views; rare photography periodicals such as "The Far East" and the "China Magazine"; multi-plate panoramas of Peking, Hong Kong, Macau and the treaty ports; awe-inspiring scenes of natural landscape by Lai Fong and Tung Hing; and an early mammoth-plate view of Hong Kong by C. L. Weed. These photographs illuminate China’s history during the second half of the nineteenth century and the history of photography in China. From the introduction of the daguerreotype to the era of the ‘Kodak’, the scope of this collection allows for comparative studies across multiple social, cultural and historical subjects.
     
      
  5. Λ Pierre Brochet, 1990, As Primeiras Fotografias de Macau e Cantao, (Macao: Edicao da Comissao Organizadora); Gilbert Gimon, 1981, July, ‘Jules Itier, Daguerreotypist‘, History of Photography, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 225-244 
      
  6. Λ Arthur Waley. 1958, The Opium War Through Chinese Eyes. (London: George Allen & Unwin); J. Y. Wong, 1998, Deadly Dreams: Opium, Imperialism, and the Arrow War (1856–1860) in China, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); Julia Lovell, 2012, The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams And The Making Of China, (Pan Macmillan Adult) 
      
  7. Λ The spelling of Pehtang varies and it can be spelt Pei Tang. 
      
  8. Λ Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) 
      
  9. Λ Sir James Hope Grant, 1875, Incidents in the China War of 1860: Compiled from the Private Journals of General Sir Hope Grant, (William Blackwood and Sons), p. 58 
      
  10. Λ D.F. Rennie, 1863, British Arms in North China and Japan (Shanghai), p. 112 
      
  11. Λ Signor Beato was Felice Beato. 
      
  12. Λ Felice Beato is one of the most interesting peripatetic photographers of the nineteenth century - Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); John Clark, John Fraser & Colin Osman, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) 
      
  13. Λ Robert Swinhoe, 1861, Narrative of the North China Campaign of 1860; Containing Personal Experiences of Chinese Characters, and of the Moral and Social Condition of the Country; Together with a Description of the Interior of Pekin, (London, Smith, Elder and Co.), {Photograph was used as the basis for the frontispiece, desription of Felice Beato taking the photograph, pp. 377-378.] 
      
  14. Λ Henry Knollys, 1875, Incidents in the China War of 1860 compiled from the Private Journals of General Sir Hope Grant, (Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons), pp. 209-210. 
      
  15. Λ Courtesy of Terry Bennett, (Old Japan - www.old-japan.co.uk
      
  16. Λ John Thomson, 1873-1874, Illustrations of China and Its People, a Series of Two Hundred Photographs with Letterpress Description of the Places and People Represented, 4 vols. (London: Sampson Low, Marston Low, and Searle, 1873 [vols. 1 and 2] and 1874 [vols. 3 and 4]). 
      
  17. Λ John Thomson, 1875, The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China, and China; or Ten Years' Travels, Adventures and Residence Abroad (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low & Searle), between p. 248 and 249. 
      
  18. Λ John Thomson, "Peking, Pechili province, China: a travelling chiropodist", 1869, Glass plate, Wellcome Images, Wellcome Library, London (L0055933)
     
    This plate was later copied for a wood engraving by Henri-Théophile Hildibrand after Etienne Antoine Eugène Ronjat which can be located at the Wellcome Library, London (V0016866, Library reference no. : ICV No 17008) 
      
  19. Λ Jeffrey W. Cody & Frances Terpak, 2011, Brush & Shutter: Early Photography in China, (Getty Publications), p. 26 
      
  20. Λ John Thomson, 1873, Foochow and the River Min. A series of photographs, (London: Autotype Fine Art Company) 
      
  21. Λ Arthur Harold Heath, 1927, Sketches of Vanishing China, (T. Butterworth limited), p. 134 
      
  22. Λ Further examples of the photographs of Afong showing the destruction of the September 1874 typhoon that hit China are requested - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  23. Λ Walter William Mundy, 1875, Canton and the Bogue. The Narrative of an eventful six months in China (London: Samuel Tinsley), pp. 237-238 
      
  24. Λ March 07, 1891, "Amateur Photographers in China: Sketches by the Rev. R. O'Down Ross-Lewin, Chaplain R. N." Illustrated London News (London, England), issue 2707, pp. 311 
      
  25. Λ Elizabeth Cooper, 1914, My Lady of the Chinese Courtyard, (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co.,) [Includes thirty-one duo-tone illustrations from photographs by Donald Mennie] 
      
  26. Λ Donald Mennie & Putnam Weale, 1922, The Pageant of Peking. Comprising sixty-six Vandyck photogravures of Peking and environs from photographs by Donald Mennie, (Shanghai: A.S. Watson & Co.) [With an introduction by Putnam Weale. Descriptive notes by S. Couling. Third edition. The first edition was published in 1920] 
      
  27. Λ Donald Mennie, 1926, The Grandeur of the Gorges. Fifty photographic studies, with descriptive notes, of China's great waterway, the Yangtze Kiang, including twelve hand-coloured prints. From photographs by Donald Mennie, (Shanghai: A.S. Watson & Co.) 
      
  28. Λ Visualising China: China 1850-1950, a project at the University of Bristol (UK), seeks to preserve collections of early photography in China and make it more widely available. - visualisingchina.net [Accessed: 10 July 2013]
    Visualising China is a JISC-funded project to allow users to explore and enhance more than 8000 digitised images of photographs of China taken between 1850 and 1950. It allows access to many previously unseen albums, envelopes and private collections and also major collections such as Historical Photographs of China, the Sir Robert Hart Collection and Joseph Needham's Photographs of Wartime China.
     
      
  29. Λ Li Zhensheng, 2003, Red-Color News Soldier (Phaidon) 
      
  30. Λ Edward Burtynsky, 2012, China, (Steidl) 
      
  31. Λ Julie Makinen, July 13, 2013, "Personal snapshots construct a bigger picture of China: The trove of personal photographs in Beijing Silvermine make up a people's history of China, from the remnants of Mao to society's embrace of capitalism.", Los Angeles Times
    www.latimes.com/entertainment/arts/culture/la-et-cm-beijing-silvermine-photos-20130714,0,2689055.story 
      
  32. Λ Thomas Sauvin, (ed.), 2013, Silvermine, (AMC Books) [A set of five photo albums each containing 20 prints] 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
1978, Mao Tsetung: A Selection of Photographs, (Pékin: The People's Fine Arts Publishing House Foreign Languages Press) [Δ
  
Aubenas, S. & Lacarrière J., 1999, Voyage en Orient, (Paris: Hazan) isbn-10: 2850256889 isbn-13: 978-2850256882 [Δ
  
Bennett, Terry, 2009, History of Photography in China 1842-1860, (London; Quaritch) [Δ
  
Bennett, Terry, 2010, History of Photography in China: Western Photographers 1861-1879, (Bernard Quaritch Ltd) isbn-10: 0956301215 isbn-13: 978-0956301215 [Δ
  
Bennett, Terry, 2013, History of Photography in China: Chinese Photographers 1844-1879, (Bernard Quaritch Ltd) isbn-13: 978-0956301246 [Δ
  
Capa, Cornell (ed.), 1972, Behind the Great Wall of China: Photographs from 1870 to the Present, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art) [Introduction by Weston J. Naef] [Δ
  
Cody, Jeffrey W. & Terpak, Frances, 2011, Brush & Shutter: Early Photography in China, (Getty Publications) isbn-10: 1606060546 isbn-13: 978-1606060544 [Δ
  
Falconer, J. et al., 1994, From Bombay To Shanghai, (Rotterdam: Museum voor Volkenkunde) [Δ
  
Jones, Ed & Welch, James (ed.), 2010, Happy Tonite, (Archive of Modern Conflict) [Δ
  
Li Zhensheng, 2003, Red-Color News Soldier, (Phaidon Press) isbn-10: 0714843083 isbn-13: 978-0714843087 [Δ
  
Morris, Rosalind C., 2009, Photographies East: The Camera and Its Histories in East and Southeast Asia, (Duke University Press Books) isbn-10: 0822342057 isbn-13: 978-0822342052 [Δ
  
Sauvin, Thomas (ed.), 2013, Silvermine, (AMC Books) isbn-13: 978-0957049017 [A set of five photo albums each containing 20 prints] [Δ
  
Shing, Liu Heung, 2012, China in Revolution: The Road to 1911, (Hong Kong University Press) isbn-10: 9888139509 isbn-13: 978-9888139507 [Δ
  
Siren, Osvald, 1924, The Walls and Gates of Peking, (London: John Lane and the Bodley Head) [Δ
  
Thiriez, Régine, 1998, Barbarian Lens: Western Photographers of the Qianlong Emperor's European Palaces, (Routledge) isbn-10: 9057005190 isbn-13: 978-9057005190 [Δ
  
Worswick, Clark & Spence, J., 1978, Imperial China. Photographs 1850-1912, (New York: Penwick/Crown) [Δ
  
Wue, R.; Waley-Cohen, J. & Lai, E.K., 1997, Picturing Hong Kong. Photography 1855-1910, (New York: Asia Society Galleries) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Felice Beato 
  
Clark, John; Fraser, John & Osman, Colin, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) [Δ
  
Lacoste, Anne, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum) [Δ
  
Edward Burtynsky 
  
Burtynsky, Edward, 2012, China, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865211305 isbn-13: 978-3865211309 [Δ
  
Henry Collen 
  
Schaaf, Larry J., 1982, October, ‘Henry Collen and the Treaty of Nanking‘, History of Photography, vol. 6, pp. 353-66 [Δ
  
Schaaf, Larry J., 1983, April - June, ‘Addenda to Henry Collen and the Treaty of Nanking‘, History of Photography, vol. 7, pp. 163-65 [Δ
  
Wood, Rupert Derek, 1996, May, ‘The Treaty of Nanking: Form and the Foreign Office, 1842-43‘, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 24, pp. 181-96 [Δ
  
Ernst Fuhrmann 
  
Fuhrmann, Ernst, 1921, China. Das Land der Mitte, (Hagen: Folkwang Verlag) [Δ
  
Jules Itier 
  
Brochet, Pierre, 1990, As Primeiras Fotografias de Macau e Cantao, (Macao: Edicao da Comissao Organizadora) [Δ
  
Liu Zheng 
  
2004, Liu Zheng: The Chinese, (International Center of Photography; Göttingen, Germany: Steidl) [Δ
  
Carl Mydans 
  
Mydans, Carl & Demarest, Michael, 1981, China: A Visual Adventure, (Bookthrift Co) isbn-10: 0671249460 isbn-13: 978-0671249465 [Δ
  
Leone Nani 
  
Nani, Leone; Bulfoni, Clara & Pozzi, Anna, 2003, Lost China: The Photographs of Leone Nani, (Skira) isbn-10: 8884915716 isbn-13: 978-8884915719 [Δ
  
Eliot Porter 
  
Porter, Eliot, 1985, All Under Heaven: The Chinese World, (Pantheon Books) isbn-10: 0394529278 isbn-13: 978-0394529271 [Δ
  
Pierre Joseph Rossier 
  
Bennett, Terry, 2004, December, ‘The Search for Rossier - Early Photographer of China & Japan‘, The PhotoHistorian (Journal of the Historical Group of the Royal Photographic Society) [Δ
  
Bennett, Terry, 2009, May, ‘Pierre Joseph Rossier - Pioneer Photographer in East Asia‘, Old Photography Study, no. 3, pp. 2-10 [Δ
  
Bennett, Terry; Bourgarel, Gérard & Collin, David, 2006, Pierre Joseph Rossier, photographe: une mémoire retrouvée, (Switzerland: Pro Fribourg) [French] [Δ
  
John Thomson 
  
Thomson, John, 1873, Foochow and the River Min. A series of photographs, (London: Autotype Fine Art Company) [Δ
  
Thomson, John, 1873-1874, Illustrations of China and Its People: A Series of 200 Photographs, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low and Searle) [4 volumes, 1873 [vols. 1 and 2] and 1874 [vols. 3 and 4])] [Δ
  
Thomson, John, 1875, Straits of Malacca, Indo-China, and China, or, Ten Years Travels, Adventures, and Residence Abroad, (New York: Harper and Brothers) [Δ
  
Thomson, John, 1875, The Straits of Malacca, Indo-China, and China; or Ten Years' Travels, Adventures and Residence Abroad, (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low & Searle) [Δ
  
White, Stephen, 1985, John Thomson: Life and Photographs, (London: Thames and Hudson) [Δ
  
White, Stephen, 1986, John Thomson: A Window to the Orient, (NY: Thames and Hudson) [Preface by Robert A. Sobieszek] [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Osvald Siren: (Images of China‘s Forbidden City from the 1920s) 
http://www.photo.ucr.edu ... 
  
The Basel Mission 
http://www.bmpix.org ... 
Photographs mostly taken by missionaries between 1850 and 1950. The primary focus of the site is the West African countries of Ghana and Cameroon, two Indian states (Karnataka and Kerala), China, and Hong Kong. 
  
Illustrations of China and its people: a series of two hundred photographs, with letterpress descriptive of the places and people represented / by J. Thomson. (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Low, and Searle 1873) 
http://lookup.lib.hku.hk ... 
Scanned by Hong Kong University Library. 
  
John Thomson: Glimpses into Life in the Far East 
http://resolver.library.cornell.edu ... 
Scanned by Cornell University Library. 
  
Historical Photographs of China 
http://hpc.vcea.net 
A collaboration between scholars at the University of Bristol, University of Lincoln, the Institut d'Asie Orientale and TGE-Adonis, this project aims to locate, archive, and disseminate photographs from the substantial holdings of images of modern China held mostly in private hands overseas. 
  
Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) - Botanical explorer in China, Japan &Korea 
http://arboretum.harvard.edu ... 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Afong • Eve Arnold  (1912-2012) • Felice Beato  (1832-1909) • Edward Burtynsky  (1955-) • Linda Butler  (1947-) • Giacomo Caneva  (1813-1865) • Chi Peng  (1981-) • Thomas Child  (1841-1898) • Thomas Child  (1841-1898) • Serge Clément  (1950-) • Lois Conner  (1951-) • Antoine Fauchery  (check) • W.P. Floyd • Auguste François  (1857-1935) • Georg Gerster  (1928-) • Richard Harrington  (1911-2005) • Tung Hing • Jules Itier  (1802-1877) • Chen Jiagang  (1962-) • G.R. Lambert & Co. • Jones Lamprey • Lee Yuk Tin • Li Zhensheng  (1940-) • Paul Maurer  (1951-) • Donald M. Mennie  (check) • Milton Miller  (1830-1899) • Hedda Morrison  (1908-1991) • Muchen & Shao Yinong • Carl Mydans  (1907-2004) • Leone Nani  (1880-1935) • Marc Riboud  (1923-) • RongRong & Inri • Pierre Joseph Rossier  (check) • William Saunders • Shannon & Co. • Liang Shitai • Sze Yuen Ming • John Thomson  (1837-1921) • Robert Van der Hilst  (1940-) • Father R. Verbois • Wang Ningde  (1972-) • Stephen Wilkes • Ernest Henry Wilson  (1876-1930) • Michael Wolf • Adam Woolfitt  (1938-) • Zhang Huan  (1965-)
HomeGeographical regionsAsia > China 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Daguerreotypists - China 
Hong Kong 
Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) 
 
Key dates 
  
Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > China

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailChina in the 19th Century 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 20, 2010)
ThumbnailFelice Beato - China and the Second Opium War (1860) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 20, 2010)
ThumbnailHenri Cartier-Bresson: Notes de voyage en Chine 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 19, 2006)
ThumbnailPaul Maurer & Jao Tsung I: Light opens Space - Wisdom Path 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 17, 2006)
ThumbnailRobert Van der Hilst 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (April 4, 2007)
ThumbnailSecond Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 9, 2010)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > China

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAfong: Banker's Glen, Yuen-foo River 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAfong: Western man in Hong Kong in Chinese costume 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBaron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDonald M. Mennie: Pictorialist China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Burtynsky: China: Factories 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Book illustrations 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: China: Pehtang Fort 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: China: Peking: Summer Palace 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: China: Prince Gong Qinwang 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFelice Beato: China: Taku Fort 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHuang Yan: Chinese Landscape 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: Hong Kong facing the harbour 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: Illustrations of China and Its People 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Thomson: The Land and People of China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJules Itier: China 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Chinese man - Soo-Chune aka Le-Kaw-Hin 
ThumbnailLorenzo G. Chase: Chinese woman - Miss Pwan Ye Koo 
ThumbnailPhotostudio Lai Afong: Typhoon damage 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailR. O'Dowd Ross-Lewin: Amateur Photographers in China 
ThumbnailRongRong & Inri: Liulitun 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailT.R. Williams: Four Chinese Missionaries 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Child: China (ca. 1875-1880) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Child: China: Ming Tombs (ca. 1875-1880) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Child: China: Pekin: Observatory 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Child: China: Pekin: Street view 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Child: China: The Great Wall 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Sauvin (ed.): Silvermine 
ThumbnailW.P. Floyd: Canton: Five-storied pagoda 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW.P. Floyd: Hong Kong 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailW.P. Floyd: Studio portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Saunders: China: Studio studies of occupations 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailSylvester Dutton & Vincent Michaels - W.P. Floyd 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailPublications: Illustrated magazines: The Far East 
ThumbnailWar: Boxer Rebellion (1898-1901) 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailChina: Peking, Pekin [Beijing] 
ThumbnailChina: Hong Kong 
ThumbnailChina: Kwangchow, Canton [Guangzhou] 
ThumbnailChina: Macao 
ThumbnailChina: Shanghai 
ThumbnailChina: The Great Wall 
 
  
   Ethnic groups and races 
  
ThumbnailChinese 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailLocal photographers: China 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 13 April 2014, 22:19
 
  
 
  
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