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HomeContentsThemes > Africa

Curatorial and planning notes 
  
The history of photography in Africa is fragmentary with North Africa and South Africa being well studied and most other areas based on a few notable photographers. This is an invitation for anybody who has researched the history of any country or region to get in touch so we can share findings for the benefit of all. Is anybody researching the archives of the missionary societies and archives of expeditions? Any research on newspaper or regional archives would be appreciated.
 
The Basel Misson Archives will prove to be an exceptional source as the photographs become available online.
 
  
Contents

Introduction
10032.01   An introduction to photography in Africa
10032.02   Early photography in North Africa
10032.03   Early photography in West Africa
10032.04   Colonialism in Africa
10032.05   Expeditions within Africa
10032.06   Gustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872)
10032.07   Joseph Thomson and photography in East Africa
10032.08   The liberation of Africa
Photographers
10032.09   Pierre Tremaux: Voyage au Soudan Oriental et dans l'Afrique Septentrionale (1847-1854)
10032.10   William Ellis: Madagascar
10032.11   Désiré Charnay: Madagascar
Wars
10032.12   L. Fiorillo: Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)
10032.13   Anglo-Egyptian War (1882): Bombardment of Alexandria (1882)
10032.14   Anglo-Zanzibar War (27 August 1896)
10032.15   Felice Beato: Khartoum Relief Expedition (1884-1885)
10032.16   Examples of photography from the Boer War (1899-1902)
Photojournalism
10032.17   Drum
Portraits
10032.18   Malick Sidibe: Portraits
10032.19   Seydou Keita: Portraits from Mali
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
10032.01   Africa >  An introduction to photography in Africa 
  
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Africa is a vast continent of political, ethnic, linguistic, cultural and social complexity where each region has distinct histories and colonial legacies. Any attempt at reducing this down to generalisations will be simplistic and miss many of the nuances. Here the discussion is to elaborate trends and point out connections with different regions of the world and how trade, missionaries, expeditions and military interventions produced different photographic responses but this is with the proviso that it is an introduction to encourage further research rather than a comprehensive survey.  
  
Preparing museum exhibit in America on Africa 
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There exist overviews of the history of African photography[1] and there are regional and country-based histories [2]. Since around 1990 the amount of research has increased due to a perceived need to better understand the global nature of photography but this need is part based on cultural and marketing foundations. American and European institutions are mounting exhibitions on African photography,[3] there are publishers such as Revue Noire[4] in Paris with an emphasis on Africa, and there are curators, collectors, gallery owners and dealers vying to discover the African talent.[5]
 
With the exceptions of well studied countries such as Algeria, Egypt and South Africa there is the risk is that we view the continent through a small number of twentieth century photographers who have received fame outside of their own countries such as J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere[6] in Nigeria, Mama Casset[7] in Senegal, Seydou Keita[8] or Malick Sidibe[9] in Mali and Samuel Fosso[10] in the Central African Republic
  
10032.02   Africa >  Early photography in North Africa 
  
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Our understanding of the North Africa, particularly Egypt, was influenced by the those who accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte during his campaigns.[11] With the announcement of the daguerreotype in 1839 it was appreciated that the public's interest could be answered by the creation of plates or the use of photographs as the basis for lithographs and engravings as in the case of Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours' book Excursions daguerriennes: vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (1842)[12]  
  
Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes: vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe 
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There are surviving daguerreotypes by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey[13] and Jules Itier in Egypt. The early travellers usually followed the course of the Nile and rarely ventured as far as Nubia and what is now the Sudan.  
  
Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Daguerreotypes taken in Egypt 
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The attractions of Egypt expanded rapidly with visits by many photographers including Felix Teynard,[14] Maxime Du Camp,[15] Francis Frith,[16] John Beasly Greene,[17] Francis Bedford accompanying the Prince of Wales[18], and lastly William de Wiveleslie Abney who did a an excellent series on Thebes and its Five Greater Temples (1876) whilst awaiting to photograph the Transit of Venus, a rare astronomical event.[19] Charles Piazzi Smyth photographed inside the Great Pyramid using magnesium light and Gustave Le Gray settled in Egypt.
 
The archaeological interest meant that sites, monuments and hieroglyphics are well documented and there are some photographs of excavations taking place and studies of archaeological finds by photographers such as Emil Brugsch and Délié & Béchard but this is a poor reflection of the complexities of Egyptian society or the whole of Africa!
 
To see the streets of Cairo and Alexandria in Egypt and the ethnically diverse populations we need not only foreign visitors with their cameras. We need foreigners with the technical skills to reside in the country, establish studios, train dynasties of their families and local photographers, to build up businesses that would record local events, personal rights of passage and make photographs a part of local family life. Photographers like Émile Béchard recorded local scenes such as Arab ladies going to the bath (1870s) and a Group of Islamic scholars (ca. 1870s).  
  
Émile Béchard: Egyptian daily life 
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Henri Béchard took photographs of the streets of Cairo showing architectural details.[20]  
  
Henri Béchard?: Egyptian architectural details 
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Algeria became a French colony in 1830, only nine years before the announcement of the daguerreotype, and remained under French control until independence in 1962. Proximity to France, a large bureaucracy with a resident population and a military presence encouraged photography. An auction at Sotheby's in Paris in 2013 sold a group of daguerreotypes taken in Algiers in 1844.[21]  
  
Unidentified daguerreotypist: Daguerreotypes of Algiers 
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Within Algeria there were multiple photographers with studios in Algiers, Constantine, Biskra and other cities taking portraits of the local population in all its' diversity - Arabs, Berbers, Bedouin, Muslims, Jews, Christians, locals and foreigners. Notable photographers of Algeria included: Jean-Baptiste Antoine Alary, Alary & Geiser, Gustave de Beaucorps (1825-1908), Alexandre Bougault, Alphonse De Launay (1827-1906), Emile Fréchon (1848-1921), J. Geiser, Alexandre Leroux (1836-1912), Auguste Maure, C. Portier and Maison Prod’hom.  
  
Algerian portraits 
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The sense of the outsider photographing exotic cultures is shown by the way the Ouled Nails were photographed. The Ouled Nails were Bedouin women who lived as dancers and prostitutes for part of their lives to raise money for their own dowries. Their distinctive costumes, jewelry and hairstyles gave them a prominent place in early photography in Algeria.  
  
Ouled Nails 
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10032.03   Africa >  Early photography in West Africa 
  
Whilst North Africa, particularly Egypt and Algeria, have reasonable coverage in the nineteenth century it would be an error to assume that there was little photography in other parts of the continent. The coast of West Africa can be used as an example of the establishment of photography.
 
Augustus Washington,[22] who had been a noted daguerreotypist in America was a part of the movement of African Americans[23] who saw that their future lay in a return to Africa rather than wait for their emancipation. The country of Liberia was made by purchases of land from local chiefs and the colony that was founded under the auspices of the American Colonization Society was run on American lines were English was spoken and the architectural styles were reminiscent of those in America.  
  
Augustus Washington: Daguerreotype portraits 
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Washington took portraits of the prominent citizens of Liberia and of the city of Monrovia.[24] The daguerreotypes that Washington sent were published in the New-York Colonization Journal and in the Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New-York Colonization Society (1856) and were part of a campaign to show how the funds coming from America through the American Colonization Society were being put to good use.[25]
 
We know of early photographs taken at Elmina in Ghana.[26] The Scottish-born Rev. Daniel West was asked by the Missionary Committee of the Wesleyan Methodist Church to go to West Africa and the Cape Coast to examine the state of missionary work.[27] Attitudes of missionaries were often based in the idea of the "primitive" and that foreign societies were in a degraded state that could only be saved by Christianity but West's descriptions of taking and showing photographs during his four month stay in West Africa gives us a sense of the enthusiasm of the local population for photography. At Bathhurst in the Gambia he wrote:
I managed to take a few photographic pictures. The natives never having seen such a process, were filled with wonder, which they variously expressed - clapping of hands, screeching and jumping. One picture was taken from the piazza of the Mission-House. It includes a view of the barrack tower.[28]
In another account Rev. West related the pleasure of a local lady:
Some ladies from Elmina attended our late services at Cape Coast Castle, and I pleased them by taking their likenesses. But when I went over on this visit, I found that one of them, as soon as she go home from Cape Coast, was so excited as to let it fall and break it. She came to me, and said she would give any amount of money if I would make another! So it appears I might do any amount of business in this line; but I have something else to do. It is impossible to describe the excitement and wonder which the photographic process creates in the minds of these people.[29]
None of the photographs of Rev. Daniel West have survived and so we can only guess at his work through the lithographic reproductions in his book.
 
The evidence for photographers is limited and sometimes it is not known if they were European or African. For Jonathan Adagogo Green the first African-born professional photographer in Nigeria, Francis W. Joaque[30] of Fernando Po, now Bioko or Bioco in Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon, George Goethe[31] also in Gabon or John Parkes Decker in Sierra Leone there is little besides some surviving prints.[32]  
  
Jonathan Adagogo Green [attributed to] 
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Francis W. Joaque 
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José Agusto da Cunha Moraes photographed on the River Zaire (now the Congo River) in the 1880s.  
  
José Agusto da Cunha Moraes: River Zaire 
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10032.04   Africa >  Colonialism in Africa 
  
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Western attitudes to Africa in the nineteenth century were created by the popular accounts of the explorers who searched for the sources of rivers, mapped vast tracts of land and carried with them Christian values and attitudes. The exploits and misadventures of John Hanning Speke, Richard Francis Burton, Thomas Baines, Mary Kingsley, David Livingstone, and Henry Morton Stanley were reported in the press and their books sold in large numbers. They were seen as intrepid figures who could cope with hardship and were the very characters required in an age of empire building. Generations of school children had them as examples as they featured in school textbooks and populist encyclopaedias. Their adventures were the basis for fictional characters like Alain Quartermain,[33], Charles Marlow,[34] Tarzan[35] and many others. Hollywood films continued the same tales, and attitudes, with She[36] and innumerable Tarzan films. This is not the place for an in-depth analysis of how Africa has been shown in literature, film and the popular press as there are detailed studies elsewhere.[37] The point here is that photography is a reflection of the attitudes prevalent within popular culture. If bold explorers are what the public expects that is what a photographer provides.  
  
Mr. Stanley 
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This was an age when the entire continent was divided up into countries and spheres of influence under European control - the Berlin Conference (1884-1885), the Fashoda Incident (1898) and the "Scramble for Africa" were about access to raw resources and control of trade and markets.[38] The names of regions took on the names of European powers, Italian Somaliland, German East Africa, French Kongo - the traditional trade patterns, seasonal movements and ethnic groupings were deemed irrelevant and these decisions are reflected in the current boundaries of African countries.
 
Henry Morton Stanley, lauded by the press as an heroic explorer, was hired in 1878 by King Leopold II under the guise of a charitable venture, the International African Society, to establish a colony in the Congo.[39] This was a move towards the establishment of the Congo Free State (1885) which King Leopold II ran as a personal business with extreme brutality. The worst atrocities were over the production of rubber that was a source of immense wealth to King Leopold II.[40] Millions died and vast numbers were mutilated in this colonial hell until 1908 when Leopold placed the region under Belgian government control.  
  
Congo atrocities 
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Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin noted for his work on The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954) was partly financed by the Kimberley's McGregor Museum and the diamond mines of De Beers with whom he'd worked as a security officer.[41] We are seeing Africa until post-World War II liberation struggles largely through colonial eyes. This is not to say that there weren't local studios, itinerant photographers, commercial photographers but most publications were using "official" photographs. There remains a vast amount of work still to be done to improve our visual understanding of the region. 
  
10032.05   Africa >  Expeditions within Africa 
  
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There have been a significant number of expeditions to, and within, Africa as Colonialist impulses from Western Europe strove to establish dominance over land and hence the raw resources of the continent.[42] The expeditions can be divided into a series of distinct but interrelated groups and what follows is a highly selective sampling.
  • Scientific research
     
    John Hanning Speke[43], Richard Francis Burton[44] and the search for the source of the Nile[45] (1857-1863)
    James Chapman and artist Thomas Baines on the Zambezi (1861-1862)[46] during which Chapman took photographs of Victoria Falls.
    Joseph Thomson on his Royal Geographical Society expeditions in East Africa (1878-1880, 1883-1884)[47]
    Mary Kingsley and her explorations in West Africa (1893-1895)[48]
    Gustav Fritsch from 1863 to 1866 travelled through Orange Free State, Basutoland, Natal and Bechuanaland in what is now South Africa and Botswana carrying out ethnological research.[49]
    The Cudahy-Massee Expedition (1928-29)
    Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin between 1919 and 1939 carried out numerous expeditions to photograph the San and other groups around Kimberley in South Africa.[50]
     
  • Military intervention and control
     
    There were innumerable wars between indigenous peoples and with colonizing forces in Africa in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Some of these wars have surviving photographs including the Anglo-Zulu War (1879), Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) photographed by Luigi Fiorillo and the Relief Expedition sent to Khartoum (1884-1885)[51], photographed by Felice Beato, to relieve General Gordon but which arrived too late to prevent his defeat and death at the hands of the forces led by the Mahdi, the forty minute Anglo-Zanzibar War (1896), First Italo–Ethiopian War (1895–1896), and the Boer War (1899-1902).
     
  • Missionary work
     
    The photography undertaken by missionaries is now being examined[52] and the accounts of Rev. William Ellis in Madagascar[53] and Rev. Daniel West in The Gambia[54] provide insights but further research is necessary.
     
    Heinrich Barth and his work with the Central African Mission (1849-1855)
    This includes the important work of the Basel Mission with their important photographic archives.[55]
A large part of the way Africa is viewed in the Western World is based on how the Victorian world perceived the explorations of John Hanning Speke (1827-1864), Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890), Richard Dorsey Mohun (1865-1915), Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza (1852-1905), David Livingstone (1813-1873), Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904) and Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902). They were celebrated as heroes who took civilization to the "Dark Continent"[56] through dangerous expeditions. Certain parts of the expeditions were undoubtedly hazardous with natural barriers, animals and the confrontations with indigenous peoples but the tales of exploration have influenced Western attitudes to the whole of Africa.
 
As civil engineering projects, particularly railways, were built so they were documented by photographers such as P.F. Gomes in Uganda and William D. Young who was the official photographer for the construction of the Mombasa-Kampala line.
 
Within photo-history only North Africa and Southern Africa were studied in any detail until recently. Since the 1990s there has been increasingly interest in the history of African photography with monographs, articles and exhibitions. In the future our examinations will be based of scholarship rather than cultural preconceptions. If we view Africa only through western media there would appear to be no middle class, no shopping malls or industry and this is obviously ridiculous. 
  
10032.06   Africa >  Gustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Gustav Fritsch was a German anatomist and ethnologist with wide-ranging interests in neurophysiology, archaeology, photography and astronomy[57]. From 1863 to 1866 he was in southern Africa[58] travelling through Orange Free State, Basutoland, Natal and Bechuanaland in what is now South Africa and Botswana carrying out ethnological research during which he photographed the different races and this was published as Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872).[59] 
  
10032.07   Africa >  Joseph Thomson and photography in East Africa 
  
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Joseph Thomson (1858-1895)[60] travelled through East Africa on Royal Geographical Society expeditions and in his book Through Masai Land: a Journey of Exploration Among the Snowclad Volcanic Mountains and Strange Tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa (1887)[61] he recounted the difficulties of taking photographs.
 
Attempting to take photographs in East Africa:
I was anxious to obtain some photographs of the natives, and I tried hard to win their confidence. Putting on my most engaging manner, I exhibited tempting strings of beads as bribes. In vain, however, did I appeal to their love of gaudy ornaments. With soothing words, aid by sundry pinches and chuckings under the chin, I might get the length of making them stand up; but the moment that the attempt to focus them took place they would fly in terror to the shelter of the woods. To show them photos, and try to explain what I wanted, only made them worse. They imagined I was a magician trying to take possession of their souls, which accomplished they would be entirely at my mercy. They would not in the end even look at a photo, and the men began to drive the women away. I spoiled several negatives, and finally gave up the attempt on finding I was "wasting my sweetness on the desert air."[62]
When photographing the Masai:
I contrived by a little dexterity to photograph some Masai women, though thereby I came dangerously near raising a serious row, as it was supposed I was bewitching them.[63]
On showing photographs to the Masai:
A few photographs of some of their white sisters which I happened to have with me were a great source of delight. They actually supposed them to be living beings, and if told that they were asleep, they were quite satisfied.[64]
Whilst to late nineteenth century audiences these are regarded as strange and show the "primitive" nature of society and folk beliefs they are naive in the extreme. They don't take in account local customs, superstitions or issues relating to how outsiders are treated. One only needs to examine literature on folklore in Europe and America in the nineteenth century to see how difficult it is for outsiders to grasp local usages - language and cultural misunderstandings were, and are, commonplace and colonial attitudes to the local populations encountered by travellers went along with notions of superiority.[65] 
  
10032.08   Africa >  The liberation of Africa 
  
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The period between 1950 to 1993 was a period of moving from colonial control to independence for almost all African countries.[66] Liberia had been independent since 1847 but was the exception and Western Sahara is under Moroccan control but considered an independent, but occupied, state - the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR). Each country has a different history of liberation from civil wars, foreign interventions and military conflict to relatively smooth transitions. The multiplicity of colonial powers with distinct languages along with the regional languages and dialects has meant that publications have restricted readership. The photographic archives are scattered between the original countries and the administrations and museums of controlling powers. Examples would be Ethiopia in Italy, material from Senegal and Chad In France, from the Congo in Belgium and so on. This means that a lot of the research has to be carried out in scattered archives where Western scholars, with access to research and travel grants, are more likely to do it. This is an over-simplification I appreciate and there are exceptions - but it has undeniably affected the way photography is viewed.
 
Revue Noir, based in Paris, is important as it has published examine how communities represented themselves through the urban centres and the social activities within them. The clubs, bars and social life of Kinshasa[67] in the Democratic Republic of Congo is a part of the documentary history of Africa that has been missing until recently but it is an equally valid part. Some of the largest 70 cities in the world in 2013 included Kinshasa, Lagos, Cairo, Alexandria, Johannesburg, Abidjan, Cape Town, Durban, Casablanca, Nairobi and Addis Ababa [68] but they have until recently been overlooked as sources of the history of photography. Photohistory has largely missed the exploding middle classes of Africa because western media has concentrated on famines, natural catastrophes and conflict.
 
One of the few countries with well-developed photohistory in South Africa[69]. The Statute of Westminster (1931) effectively removed the country from being a British Dominion and it became an independent country but with the same racial policies that had been in place. Over the years it became Apartheid which lasted from 1948 until 1994. From the 1950s black identity and culture was reflected in the articles and photographs of the magazine Drum[70]. Censorship limited the visual evidence for how the racist policies suppressed the majority of the population but some books, particularly Ernest Cole's House of Bondage (1967), showed the reality and had a profound effect on international public opinion.[71] The dismantling of Apartheid in South Africa from the early 1990s led to the first universal elections in 1994 with the African National Congress led by Nelson Mandela getting over 62%.[72] Photographs that would have been censored under Apartheid are no longer taboo indeed they are a reappraisal of the struggles towards a national reconciliation and a more enlightened society. This has meant that there has been an increase in books by photographers including Jürgen Schadeberg and Peter Magubane
  
Photographers 
  
10032.09   Africa >  Pierre Tremaux: Voyage au Soudan Oriental et dans l'Afrique Septentrionale (1847-1854) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Salts prints by Pierre Tremaux were included in Voyage au Soudan Oriental et dans l'Afrique Septentrionale, pendant les années 1847 à 1854[73].
 
The National Gallery of Canada has a set of Exploration archéologique en Asie-mineure comprenant les restes non-connus de plus de quarante cités antiques which was published in parts 1862- ca. 1868 which covers his work in Turkey[74] 
  
10032.10   Africa >  William Ellis: Madagascar 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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William Ellis (1794-1872) was a 19th century English Nonconformist missionary who was taught photography by Roger Fenton. He visited Madagascar three times (1853-1857)[75] on behalf of the London Missionary Society and returned there in 1863. He took some of the earliest photographs of Madagascar.[76] 
  
10032.11   Africa >  Désiré Charnay: Madagascar 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Désiré Charnay (1828-1915) is best known for his work documenting archaeological sites in Mexico but he also took photographs in Madagascar[77] 
  
Wars 
  
10032.12   Africa >  L. Fiorillo: Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10032.13   Africa >  Anglo-Egyptian War (1882): Bombardment of Alexandria (1882) 
  
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During the Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) the port city of Alexandria in Egypt was subject to an intense British naval bombardment of the forts[78] and the resulting devastation was photographed by L. Fiorillo, Maison Bonfils and N. Comianus.[79] 
  
10032.14   Africa >  Anglo-Zanzibar War (27 August 1896) 
  
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The Anglo-Zanzibar War lasted for 40 minutes on 27 August 1896 and is the shortest war in history. 
  
10032.15   Africa >  Felice Beato: Khartoum Relief Expedition (1884-1885) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The National Archives in the UK have a series of albumen prints[80] by Felice Beato[81] of the Khartoum Relief Expedition, 1884-1885.
 
The expedition went under several names including the "Nile Expedition", the "Gordon Relief Expedition" and the "Khartoum Relief Expedition" and was described in Winston Churchill's first hand account The River War (1899).[82] The force was sent to relief General Gordon who was besieged by the forces of the Mahdi in Khartoum. The relief force arrived too late and the city was lost along with General Gordon who became a symbol of British heroism despite the fact that he had disobeyed orders to withdraw to Egypt.[83]
 
General Gordon was wilful and at times eccentric. When he sent Emin Pasha to be governor-general in an African province Gordon's responses to official requests were blunt and unhelpful:
When he [Emin Pasha] arrived in his new province he found it fertile and badly cultivated; so he sent to Gordon and asked him to procure him some seeds for sowing. Gordon replied, "I sent you to be a governor, not a gardener." Later he asked for a photographic apparatus which he knew was lying idle at Khartoum. Gordon replied again, "I sent you to be a governor, not a photographer; " and he returned the apparatus to Cairo.[84]
 
  
10032.16   Africa >  Examples of photography from the Boer War (1899-1902) 
  
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Photojournalism 
  
10032.17   Africa >  Drum 
  
African Drum had been founded by Jim Bailey but by 1951 it was losing money fast and was in need of a different editor. Bailey telegraphed his friend Anthony Sampson (1926-2004) for help. This was a critical time both for the magazine and for South Africa as apartheid was becoming increasing entrenched within the country.[85] Sampson was the editor of Drum 1951-1955 and went on to work at The Observer newspaper in the UK (1955-1966) and edited the Observer Colour Magazine.
 
Photographers who provided stories for Drum included:
Ernest Cole (1940-90)[86]
Bob Gosani (1834-72)
Alf Kumalo (b. 1930)
Peter Magubane
The significance of Drum has been written about in books[87] and exhibitions.[88]
  
Portraits 
  
10032.18   Africa >  Malick Sidibe: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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10032.19   Africa >  Seydou Keita: Portraits from Mali 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Seydou Keita (1921-2001)[89] was a self-taught studio photographer from Mali who took black and white portraits that respected the sitter. Whether the sitter was clothed in traditional or European clothing they are at ease and props are included such as bycycles and radios that show their aspirations or possessions.[90] 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ For overviews of the history of photography in Africa - A.D. Bensusan, 1966, Silver Images. History of Photography in Africa, (Cape Town: Howard Timmins); Nicolas Monti, 1987, Africa Then, (New York: Knopf); David Killingray & Andrew Roberts, 1989, ‘An Outline History of Photography in Africa to ca. 1940‘, History in Africa, vol. 16, pp. 197-208; Jürg Schneider, 2010, ‘The Topography of the Early History of African Photography‘, History of Photography, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 134-146; Erin Haney, 2010, Photography and Africa, (London: Reaktion Books)
     
    For a bibliography - Massimo Zaccaria, 2001, Photography and African studies: a bibliography, (Universita di Pavia Dipartimento di studi politici e sociali) 
      
  2. Λ Different regions have their own histories and here are a few examples.
     
    Egypt - K.S. Howe, 1993, Excursions Along The Nile: The Photographic Discovery Of Ancient Egypt, (Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum Of Art); Maria Golia, 2009, Photography and Egypt, (Reaktion Books)
     
    Sierra Leone - Viditz-Ward, Vera, 1987, ‘Photography in Sierra Leone, 1850-1918‘, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 510-518
     
    South Africa - Marjorie Bull & Joseph Denfield, 1970, Secure the Shadow: The Story of Cape Photography from Its Beginnings to the End of 1870, (Cape Town: Terence McNally) 
      
  3. Λ Some key exhibitions that encouraged the understanding of African photography include - Clare Bell (ed.), 1996, In/sight: African Photographers, 1940 to the Present, (New York: Guggenheim Museum); Gerald Matt & Thomas Miessgang, 2001, Flash Afrique!, (Kunsthalle Wien) [Exhibition catalogue]
     
    On an African-American Daguerreotypist who went to Liberia and West Africa - Ann M. Shumard, 1999, A Durable Memento: Portraits by Augustus Washington, African American Daguerreotypist, (Washington, DC: National Portrait Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  4. Λ Revue Noire
    (Accessed: 6 December 2013)
    www.revuenoire.com/index.php?lang=en 
      
  5. Λ The Walther Collecton of Thomas Walther with exhibition spaces in Germany and New York is an example of a collector specialising in African photography. It has hosted an impressive range of exhibitions and published extensively.
    (Accessed: 5 December 2013)
    www.walthercollection.com 
      
  6. Λ J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere, Andre Magnin & Elizabeth Akuyo Oyairo, 2000, J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere: Photographs, (Scalo Publishers) 
      
  7. Λ G,E. Foadey; J.-L.Pivin & Seye, B. Medoune, 1994, Mama Casset et les précurseurs de la photographie au Sénégal, (Editions Revue Noire); Pascal Martin Saint Leon & Jean Loup Pivin , 2011, Mama Casset: The Studio African Photo in Dakar's Medina, (Revue Noire) 
      
  8. Λ A. Magnin (ed.), 1997, Seydou Keïta, (New York: Scalo Publishers); Michelle Lamunière, 2001, You Look Beautiful Like That: The Portrait Photographs of Seydou Keïta and Malick Sidibé, (Cambridge: Harvard University Art Museums) 
      
  9. Λ Michelle Lamunière, 2001, You Look Beautiful Like That: The Portrait Photographs of Seydou Keïta and Malick Sidibé, (Cambridge: Harvard University Art Museums); Malick Sidibe, 2009, Malick Sidibe, (Fondation Zinsou); Laura Incardona & Laura Serani (eds.), 2010, Malick Sidibé: La Vie en Rose, (Silvana Editoriale); Laura Serani; Sabrina Zannier & Laura Incardona (ed.), 2012, Malick Sidibe, (Skira) 
      
  10. Λ Maria Francesca Bonetti & Guido Schlinkert, 2008, Samuel Fosso, (5Continents); Ingrid Hoelzl, 2009, "Self-Portrait/Self-Vision: The Work of Samual Fosso", Nka - Journal of Contemporary African Art, no. 24, pp. 40-47 
      
  11. Λ Vivant Denon, 1817, Voyages dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte pendant les campagnes de Bonaparte, en 1798 et 1799, (London: Chez Taylor).
    gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k28861q.
    There are other editions.
     
    For an account of the expedition - Franco Serino, 2003, Déscription de L'Egypte: Napoleon's Expedition to the Discovery of Ancient Egypt, (White Star Publishers) 
      
  12. Λ Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours 1842, Excursions daguerriennes: vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe, (A Paris: Chez Rittner et Goupil, Boulevard Montmartre, 15; Lerebours, Opticien de l'Observatoire, Place du Pont-Neuf, 13; Hr Bossange, Quai Voltaire, 11)
     
    This important early work is available at:
     
    Musée français de la Photographie (Inventory no: 2004.16.1)
    New York Public Library (Image id: 1690382)
    St. Andrews University Library (Special collections, Classmark: Photo NE2600.L4) 
      
  13. Λ In 1842 Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey set off on a tour of Italy, Greece and the Middle East taking between 800 and 900 daguerreotypes of ancient monuments.
     
    On Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey - 1998, Girault de Prangey (1804-1892): dessins, peintures, photographies, études historiques, (Langres: Musées de Langres / D. Guéniot) [Exhibition catalogue]
     
    Sales catalogues - 2003, 20 May, Important Daguerreotypes by Joseph-Philbert Girault De Prangey from the Archive of the Artist - Part I - Christie's London, (London: Christies); 2004, 18 May, Important Daguerreotypes by Joseph-Philbert Girault De Prangey from the Archive of the Artist - Part II - Christie's London, (London: Christies) 
      
  14. Λ Félix Teynard, 1853, Égypte et Nubie, sites et monuments les plus intéressants pour l'étude de l'art et de l'histoire, (Paris: Adolphe Goupil); Kathleen Stewart Howe & Hans P. Kraus (ed.), 1992, Felix Teynard: Calotypes of Egypt - A Catalogue Raisonne, (New York: Hans P. Kraus, Jr. Inc.) 
      
  15. Λ Maxime Du Camp, 1852, Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie [Egypt, Nubia, Palestine and Syria], (Paris: Gide et J. Baudry) [Published in installments starting in September 1851]; Michel Dewachter & Daniel Oster, 1987, Un voyageur en Egypte vers 1850: Le Nil de Maxime Du Camp, (Paris: Sand/Conti); Daniela Bonanome, 2007, Fotografia e appunti di viaggio: l’Egitto di Maxime Du Camp e Gustave Flaubert, (Roma: Nuova Cultura) 
      
  16. Λ There are multiple versions of books by Francis Frith and as they included tipped-in plates the illustrations can vary between copies. Some of the books are undated making a full listing with dates a challenge. If you have a listing I'd be most grateful - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  17. Λ John Beasley Greene, 1854, Le Nil - monuments - paysages [The Nile - Monuments - Landscapes], (Lille: Imprimerie Photographique de Blanquart-Evrard) [2 volumes] 
      
  18. Λ For Francis Bedford - Francis Bedford, 1863, Photographic Pictures Made By Mr. Francis Bedford During the Tour in the East in which, by command, he accompanied His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, (London: Day & Son); W.M. Thompson & Francis Bedford, 1860s, The Holy Land, Egypt, Constantinople, Athens: a series of forty-eight photographs, (London: Day) [Text and introduction by W.M. Thompson, photographs by Francis Bedford]; Linda Wheatley-Irving, 2007, Summer, ‘Holy Land Photographs and Their Words: Francis Bedford and the 'Tour in the East'‘, Jerusalem Quarterly, vol. 31, pp. 79-96; Sophie Gordon, John McCarthy & Badr El-Hage, 2013, Cairo to Constantinople: Francis Bedford's Photographs of the Middle East, (Royal Collection Publications) 
      
  19. Λ Captain W. de W. Abney, 1876, Thebes and its five greater temples, (London: Sampson, Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington) 
      
  20. Λ It may be that H. Béchard refers to "Hippolyte Bechard" who was the brother of Émile Bechard. "Hippolyte Bechard" never visited Egypt but may have been responsible for printing and/or marketing his brother's Egyptian photographs in France.
     
    F. Fiorelli, 2013, Viaggio in Oriente: Fotografie dell'Africa a Casa Martelli, (Sillabe) 
      
  21. Λ Sotheby's - Paris, Photographies , 29 May 2013, Auction: PF1310 
      
  22. Λ Ann M. Shumard, 1999, A Durable Memento: Portraits by Augustus Washington, African American Daguerreotypist, (Washington, DC: National Portrait Gallery) [Exhibition catalogue] 
      
  23. Λ The American Colonization Society was formed in 1817 to resettle Afro-Americans in Liberia. The borders were not settled but Libreria declared its independence in 1847. Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1809-1876) was elected the first president of the independent Liberia in 1848.
    (Accessed: 10 December 2013)
    www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam002.html 
      
  24. Λ A wood engraving "View of Monrovia from the Anchorage" based on a daguerreotype by Augustus Washington was published Twenty-fourth Annual Report of the Board of Managers of the New-York Colonization Society (New York, 1856) 
      
  25. Λ Marcy J. Dinius, 2012, The Camera and the Press: American Visual and Print Culture in the Age of the Daguerreotype, (University of Pennsylvania Press) has a useful account of Augustus Washington and his daguerreotypes of Monrovia. 
      
  26. Λ Larry W. Yarak, 1995, "Early Photography in Elmina", Ghana Studies Council Newsletter, pp. 9-11 
      
  27. Λ Rev. Daniel West, 1857, The Life and Journals of the Rev. Daniel West. Wesleyan Minister on Deputation to the Wesleyan Missions Stations on the Gold Coast, Western Africa, (London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.). T. Jack Thompson, 2012, Light on Darkness?: Missionary Photography of Africa in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing) 
      
  28. Λ Rev. Daniel West, 1857, The Life and Journals of the Rev. Daniel West. Wesleyan Minister on Deputation to the Wesleyan Missions Stations on the Gold Coast, Western Africa, (London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.), p. 176 
      
  29. Λ Rev. Daniel West, 1857, The Life and Journals of the Rev. Daniel West. Wesleyan Minister on Deputation to the Wesleyan Missions Stations on the Gold Coast, Western Africa, (London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.), p. 193 
      
  30. Λ There are prints by Francis W. Joaque in the British Musem, London. 
      
  31. Λ George Goethe - African Photography
    (Accessed: 15 December 2013)
    africaphotography.org/collections/george-goethe 
      
  32. Λ There are prints by Francis W. Joaque and John Parkes Decker in the albums of Carl Passavant at the Basel Ethnographic Museum (Museum der Kulturen). Passavant was a Swiss doctor who had traveled in West and Central Africa in the 1880s. 
      
  33. Λ Alain Quartmain is the protagonist in several novels by Rider Haggard. The first was King Solomon's Mines (1885) followed by Alain Quartermain (1887). 
      
  34. Λ Charles Marlow is the protagonist in Joseph Conrad's book Heart of Darkness first published as a three-part serial story in Blackwood’s Magazine (February 1899) 
      
  35. Λ The first account of Tarzan by Edgar Rice Burroughs was in the story Tarzan of the Apes published in the magazine The All-Story (October, 1912) . 
      
  36. Λ There have been multiple productions of She:
     
    1935 (Directors: Lansing C. Holden, Irving Pichel)
    1965 (Director: Robert Day) 
      
  37. Λ For photography in Africa - Erin Haney, 2010, Photography and Africa, (London: Reaktion Books) 
      
  38. Λ Muriel E. Chamberlain, (1999), The Scramble for Africa, (London: Longman) 2nd ed.; Thomas Pakenham, 1992, Scramble for Africa: The White Man's Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876-1912, (Avon Books) 
      
  39. Λ Adam Hochschild, 1998, King Leopold's Ghost: A story of greed, terror, and heroism in colonial Africa, (Pan Macmillan) 
      
  40. Λ For the Congo Atrocities - Kevin Grant, May 2001, ‘Christian Critics of Empire: Missionaries, Lantern Lectures, and the Congo Reform Campaign in Britain‘, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 27-58
     
    Contemporary accounts include - E. D. Morel, 1904, King Leopold's rule in Africa; Mark Twain, 1905, King Leopold's Soliloquy: A Defense of His Congo Rule, (Boston: The P. R. Warren Co.), Second edition
     
    A letter to The Times from a Baptist missionary told of the horror of the amputations and deaths caused because of the rubber quotas. The hands were cut and taken to the commissaire as proof that the penalties had been carried out:
    These hands - the hands of men, women, and children - were placed in rows before the Commissary, who counted them to see that the soldiers had not wasted cartridges.
     
      
  41. Λ For the major work of A.M. Duggan-Cronin, 1928-1954, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa, (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell) [Eleven volumes]
     
    See also - Michael Godby, 2010, ‘Alfred Martin Duggan-Cronin's photographs for the Bantu tribes of South Africa (1928-1954): the construction of an ambiguous idyll‘, Kronos (Bellville), vol. 36, no. 1 
      
  42. Λ Frank McLynn, 1993, Hearts of Darkness: European Exploration of Africa, (Pimlico); Dane Kennedy, 2013, The Last Blank Spaces: Exploring Africa and Australia, (Harvard University Press) 
      
  43. Λ Alexander Mailand, 1971, Speke, (London: Constable) 
      
  44. Λ Edward Rice, 2001, Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton: A Biography, (Da Capo Press) 
      
  45. Λ Christopher Ondaatje, 2006, Journey to the Source of the Nile, (The Long Riders' Guild Press) 
      
  46. Λ Both James Chapman and Thomas Baines wrote books on the Zambezi expedition - James Chapman, 1868, Travels in the interior of South Africa, comprising fifteen years' hunting and trading; with journeys across the continent from Natal to Walvis Bay, and visits to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls, (London, Bell & Daldy); Thomas Baines, 1864, Explorations in South-West Africa: being an account of a journey in the years 1861 and 1862 from Walvisch Bay, on the Western Coast to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green) 
      
  47. Λ Biography of Joseph Thomson - J.B. Thomson, 1896, Joseph Thomson: African Explorer; A Biography by his Brother, (London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company), Robert I. Rotberg, 1971, Joseph Thomson and the exploration of Africa, (Chatto & Windus)
     
    1878-80 Royal Geographical Society Lake Tanganyika expedition (The leader of the expedition, Keith Johnston, died of dysentery and 20 year old Joseph Thomson had to take charge.)
    1883-84 Royal Geographical Society expedition to Mount Kenia and Lake Nyanza 
      
  48. Λ Mary Kingsley's books - Mary H. Kingsley, 1897, Travels in West Africa. Congo Francais, Corisco and Cameroons, (London: Macmillan); Mary H. Kingsley, 1899, West African Studies, (London: Macmillan), [Second, expanded ed.] 
      
  49. Λ Gustav Fritsch, 1868, Drei Jahre in Südafrika: Reiseskizzen nach Notizen des Tagebuchs zusammengestellt, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Three years in South Africa: Travelogues arranged after notes of the diary]
     
    Gustav Fritsch, 1872, Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Ethnographic and anatomic research in South Africa] 
      
  50. Λ For the major work of A.M. Duggan-Cronin, 1928-1954, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa, (Cambridge: Deighton, Bell) [Eleven volumes]
     
    See also - Michael Godby, 2010, ‘Alfred Martin Duggan-Cronin's photographs for the Bantu tribes of South Africa (1928-1954): the construction of an ambiguous idyll‘, Kronos (Bellville), vol. 36, no. 1 
      
  51. Λ A collection of the Felice Beato photographs of the Khartoum Relief Expedition (884-1885) is held in the National Archives UK (catalogue reference: COPY 1/373/ - check contents) 
      
  52. Λ T. Jack Thompson, 2012, Light on Darkness?: Missionary Photography of Africa in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing); Thomas Hendriks, 2013, "Erotics of Sin: Promiscuity, Polygamy and Homo-Erotics in Missionary Photography from the Congolese Rainforest", Visual Anthropology, Special Issue: Records of the Subaltern in Colonial and Imperial Societies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 355-382; Paul Jenkins, 1994, "The earliest generation of missionary photographers in West Africa: The portrayal of indigenous people and culture", Visual Anthropology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 115-145 
      
  53. Λ William Ellis, 1858, Three visits to Madagascar during the years 1853-1854-1856: including a journey to the capital: with notices of the natural history of the country and of the present civilization of the people, (London: John Murray) [The illustrations in the book are based upon his photographs.]
     
    Simon Peers, 1995, William Ellis: Photography in Madagascar 1853-1865 / Ny Fakan-Tsary Teto Madagasikara 1853-1865, (The British Council); Simon Peers, 1997, Spring, ‘William Ellis: Photography in Madagascar, 1853-65‘, History of Photography, vol. 21, pp. 23-31 
      
  54. Λ Rev. Daniel West, 1857, The Life and Journals of the Rev. Daniel West. Wesleyan Minister on Deputation to the Wesleyan Missions Stations on the Gold Coast, Western Africa, (London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.). 
      
  55. Λ Basel Mission Image Archive
    (Accessed: 22 July 2013)
    bmpix.usc.edu/bmpix/controller/index.htm 
      
  56. Λ The use of the phrase "Dark continent" appears from the late eighteenth century but is best known from Henry Morton Stanley's 1878 book Through the Dark Continent: Or, The Sources of the Nile Around the Great Lakes of Equatorial Africa, and Down the Livingstone River to the Atlantic Ocean, (Harper & Brothers) 
      
  57. Λ In 1868 Gustav Fritsch took part in an expedition to Aden to observe the solar eclipse of 18 August. In 1874 he went to Isfahan in Iran to observe the Transit of Venus. 
      
  58. Λ Gustav Fritsch, 1868, Drei Jahre in Südafrika: Reiseskizzen nach Notizen des Tagebuchs zusammengestellt, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Three years in South Africa: Travelogues arranged after notes of the diary] 
      
  59. Λ Gustav Fritsch, 1872, Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben, (Breslau: Ferdinand Hirt) [German. Ethnographic and anatomic research in South Africa] 
      
  60. Λ Biography of Joseph Thomson - J.B. Thomson, 1896, Joseph Thomson: African Explorer; A Biography by his Brother, (London: Sampson Low, Marston and Company), Robert I. Rotberg, 1971, Joseph Thomson and the exploration of Africa, (Chatto & Windus) 
      
  61. Λ Joseph Thomson, 1887, Through Masai Land: a Journey of Exploration Among the Snowclad Volcanic Mountains and Strange Tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa, (Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington) 
      
  62. Λ Joseph Thomson, 1887, Through Masai Land: a Journey of Exploration Among the Snowclad Volcanic Mountains and Strange Tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa, (Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington), pp. 46-48 
      
  63. Λ Joseph Thomson, 1887, Through Masai Land: a Journey of Exploration Among the Snowclad Volcanic Mountains and Strange Tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa, (Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington), p. 160 
      
  64. Λ Joseph Thomson, 1887, Through Masai Land: a Journey of Exploration Among the Snowclad Volcanic Mountains and Strange Tribes of Eastern Equatorial Africa, (Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington), p. 266 
      
  65. Λ I'd welcome comments from those with a cultural understanding on nineteenth century Masai belief systems and customs to clarify this - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  66. Λ Diueter Rothermund, 2006, The Routledge Companion to Decolonization, (Arlington & New York: Routledge) 
      
  67. Λ For Kinshasa - N'Gone Fall et al., 2001, Photography in DRCongo, Kinshasa, (Paris: Revue Noire); Pascal Martin Saint Leon & Jean Loup Pivin, 2011, Jean Depara, Night & Day in Kinshasa, 1951-1975, (Revue Noire) 
      
  68. Λ List of cities proper by population - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 7 December 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_proper_by_population 
      
  69. Λ For early photography in South Africa - Marjorie Bull & Joseph Denfield, 1970, Secure the Shadow: The Story of Cape Photography from Its Beginnings to the End of 1870, (Cape Town: Terence McNally) 
      
  70. Λ The magazine Drum was a key part of the establishment of black identity and culture - Anthony Sampson, 1956, Drum: A Venture into the new Africa, (London: Collins) [Republished in 2005 as Drum: The Making of a Magazine (Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball) with a new foreword and afterword]; Jacky Heyns, 1982-1984, The Beat of Drum: The story of a magazine that documented the rise of Africa as told by Drum's publisher, editors, contributors, and photographers, (Ravan Press); 1984, July/August, ‘Drum : South Africa's Black picture magazine‘, Creative Camera; Dorothy C. Woodson, 1988, Drum: An index to Africa's leading magazine, 1951-1965, (University of Wisconsin-Madison, African Studies Programme); Mike Nicol, 1991, Good-looking Corpse: World of Drum - Jazz and Gangsters, Hope and Defiance in the Townships of South Africa, (Secker & Warburg); Michael Chapman (ed.), 2001, The Drum decade: stories from the 1950s, (University of Natal Press) 
      
  71. Λ In South Africa the work of - Ernest Cole & Thomas Flaherty, 1967, House of Bondage: A South African Black Man Exposes in His Own Pictures and Words the Bitter Life of His Homeland Today, (New York: Random House) 
      
  72. Λ South African general election, 1994 - Wikipedia
    (Accessed: 5 December 2013)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_African_general_election,_1994 
      
  73. Λ Pierre Tremaux, 1847-1854, Voyage au Soudan Oriental et dans l'Afrique Septentrionale, pendant les années 1847 à 1854, comprenant une exploration dans l'Algerie, la Régence de Tunis et de Tripoli, l'Asie mineur, l'Égypte, la Nubie, le Déserts, l'Ile de Méroé, le Sennar, le Fa-Zoglo, dans des contrées inconnues de la Nigritie; avec Atlas de Vues pittoresques, scènes de moeurs, types de végetation remarquables, dessins d'objets éthologiques et scientifiques, panoramas, cartes géographiques, un parallèle des édifices antiques et modernes du continent africain, et une Exploration archéologique en Asie Mineure, (Paris: Borrani et Droz, London: J. Madden, St. Petersburg: Hauer A. Cluzel, Berlin: A. Asher et Cie) 
      
  74. Λ Pierre Tremaux, 1862-ca. 1868, Exploration archéologique en Asie-mineure comprenant les restes non-connus de plus de quarante cités antique, (Imprimerie Lemercier) 
      
  75. Λ William Ellis, 1858, Three visits to Madagascar during the years 1853-1854-1856: including a journey to the capital: with notices of the natural history of the country and of the present civilization of the people, (London: John Murray) [The illustrations in the book are based upon his photographs. 
      
  76. Λ Simon Peers, 1995, William Ellis: Photography in Madagascar 1853-1865 / Ny Fakan-Tsary Teto Madagasikara 1853-1865, (The British Council); Simon Peers, 1997, Spring, ‘William Ellis: Photography in Madagascar, 1853-65‘, History of Photography, vol. 21, pp. 23-31 
      
  77. Λ Désiré Charnay, 1864, Madagascar à vol d'oiseau, (Paris: Le Tour du monde) [Extrait de: Le Tour du monde
      
  78. Λ Egypt, 1882 - The National Archives, UK
    (Accessed: 11 November 2013)
    www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/battles/egypt/ 
      
  79. Λ The popular children's author G.A. Henty later wrote a novel on the theme - George Alfred Henty, 1891, A Chapter of Adventures; Or, Through the Bombardment of Alexandria, (London) 
      
  80. Λ Felice Beato, 1884-1885, [Khartoum Relief Expedition], National Archives (UK), Catalogue Reference: COPY 1/373/ 
      
  81. Λ Felice Beato is one of the most interesting photographers of the nineteenth century photographing the Indian Mutiny, the Second Opium War, Japan and Burma - Anne Lacoste, 2010, Felice Beato: A Photographer on the Eastern Road, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum); John Clark, John Fraser & Colin Osman, 1989, A Chronology of Felix (Felice) Beato, (Privately printed by the authors) 
      
  82. Λ Winston Churchill, 1899, The River War: An Historical Account of the Reconquest of the Soudan, (Longmans, Green and Co.), [Two volumes, there was an abridged one volume edition in 1902.] 
      
  83. Λ The film Khartoum (1966) starring Charlton Heston as General Gordon is a fictionalised account of the events. The film has a photography connection as one of the directors for the introductory scenes was Eliot Elisofon (1911-1973) who was both a photographer and a specialist in African art. 
      
  84. Λ 8 March 1890, "General Gordon and Emin Pasha", Littell's Living Age, [Fifth Series, vol. 69], vol. 184, no. 2384, p. 639 [Original source: The London Times.] 
      
  85. Λ Anthony Sampson wrote books based upon his experience in Africa - The Treason Cage: The Opposition On Trial In South Africa (1958) Commonsense About Africa (1960) and South Africa: Two Views Of Separate Development (1960), Black Gold ( (1987), a biography of Nelson Mandela - Mandela: The Authorised Biography (1999) and Drum : The Making of a Magazine (2005). 
      
  86. Λ Ernest Cole, 1967, House of Bondage: A South African Black Man Exposes in His Own Pictures and Words the Bitter Life of His Homeland Today, (Random House) 
      
  87. Λ Anthony Sampson, 1956, Drum: a venture into the new Africa, (London: Collins) republished with a new forword and afterword as Anthony Sampson, 2005, Drum: The Making of a Magazine, (Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball) includes photographs by photographs by Jürgen Schadeberg and Bob Gosani. 
      
  88. Λ Drum 1976-1980 - Exhibition, National Festival of the Arts in Grahamstown, South Africa
    (Accessed: 6 October 2013)
    www.coldtype.net/Assets.06/Essays.06/0606.DrumBook.pdf 
      
  89. Λ A. Magnin (ed.), 1997, Seydou Keïta, (New York: Scalo Publishers); Michelle Lamunière, 2001, You Look Beautiful Like That: The Portrait Photographs of Seydou Keïta and Malick Sidibé, (Cambridge: Harvard University Art Museums) 
      
  90. Λ Is there any evidence of who owned the props used in the photographs of Seydou Keita? alan@luminous-lint.com 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
1999, Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography, (Editions Revue Noire) isbn-10: 2909571491 isbn-13: 978-2909571492 [Δ
  
Behrend, Heike, 2000, ‘Feeling Global: The Likoni Ferry Photographers in Mombasa, Kenya‘, African Arts, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 70-76, 96 [Δ
  
Behrend, Heike, 2003, ‘Photo Magic: Photographs in Practices of Healing and Harming in East Africa‘, Journal of Religion in Africa, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 129-145 [Δ
  
Bensusan, A.D., 1966, Silver Images. History of Photography in Africa, (Cape Town: Howard Timmins) [Δ
  
Butler, Shelley, 2007, Contested Representations: Revisiting ‘Into the Heart of Africa’, (University of Toronto Press) isbn-10: 1551117770 isbn-13: 978-1551117775 [Δ
  
Campt, Tina M., 2012, Image Matters: Archive, Photography, and the African Diaspora in Europe, (Duke University Press Books) isbn-10: 0822350564 isbn-13: 978-0822350569 [Δ
  
Comaroff, John L. ; Comaroff, Jean & James, Deborah, 2007, Picturing a Colonial Past: The African Photographs of Isaac Schapera, (University of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 0226114120 isbn-13: 978-0226114125 [Δ
  
David, Philippe, 1999, ‘Photographer-publishers in Togo‘, in 1999, Anthology of African and Indian Ocean Photography, (Editions Revue Noire), pp. 43-47 [Δ
  
Dennis, Kelly, 1994, ‘Ethnopornography: Veiling the Dark Continent‘, History of Photography, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22-28 [Δ
  
Diserens, Corinne, 2011, Appropriated Landscapes: Contemporary African Photography from the Walther Collection, (Göttingen: Steidl) isbn-13: 978-3869303871 [Δ
  
Enwezor, Okwui, 2001, The Short Century: Independence and Liberation Movements in Africa 1945-1994, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791325027 isbn-13: 978-3791325026 [Δ
  
Enwezor, Okwui, 2008, Snap Judgments: New Positions in Contemporary African Photography, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865212247 isbn-13: 978-3865212245 [Δ
  
Enwezor, Okwui, 2010, Events of the Self: Portraiture and Social Identity: Contemporary African Photography from the Walther Collection, (Göttingen: Steidl) isbn-13: 978-3869301570 [Δ
  
Enwezor, Okwui et al., 1996, In/sight: African Photographers, 1940 to the Present, (New York: Guggenheim Museum) [Catalog for the exhibition May 24-Sept. 29, 1996 at the Guggenheim, New York. Introduction by Clare Bell] [Δ
  
Falconer, John, 1983, ‘African Photographs in the Royal Commonwealth Society Library‘, African Research and Documentation, vol. 31, pp. 12-19 [Δ
  
Fall, N'Gone et al., 2001, Photography in DRCongo, Kinshasa, (Paris: Revue Noire) isbn-10: 290957153X [Essays by Lye M. Yoka, Manda Tchebwa, Françoise Morimont and N'Goné Fall] [Δ
  
Garb, Tamar (ed.), 2013, African Photography from the Walther Collection: Distance and Desire - Encounters with the African Archive, (Steidl) isbn-13: 978-3869306513 [Δ
  
Geary, Christraud, 1998, ‘Different Visions? Postcards from Africa by European and African Photographers and Sponsors‘, in in: Christraud Geary & Virginia-Lee Webb (eds.), 1998, Delivering Views: Distant Cultures in Early Postcards (Washington, DC) [Δ
  
Geary, Christraud M., 1988, Images from Bamum: German Colonial Photography at the Court of King Njoya, Cameroon, West Africa, 1902-1915, (Smithsonian) isbn-10: 0874744555 isbn-13: 978-0874744552 [Δ
  
Geary, Christraud M. & Pluskota, Kryzstof, 2003, In and Out of Focus: Images from Central Africa, 1885-1960, (Philip Wilson Publishers) isbn-10: 0856675520 isbn-13: 978-0856675522 [Δ
  
Grant, Kevin, 2001, May, ‘Christian Critics of Empire: Missionaries, Lantern Lectures, and the Congo Reform Campaign in Britain‘, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 27-58 [Δ
  
Haney, Erin, 2010, Photography and Africa, (London: Reaktion Books) isbn-13: 978-1861893826 [Δ
  
Hendriks, Thomas, 2013, ‘Erotics of Sin: Promiscuity, Polygamy and Homo-Erotics in Missionary Photography from the Congolese Rainforest‘, Visual Anthropology, Special Issue: Records of the Subaltern in Colonial and Imperial Societies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 355-382 [Δ
  
Jenkins, Paul, 1993, ‘The Earliest Generation of Missionary Photographers in West Africa and the Portrayal of Indigenous People and Culture‘, History in Africa, vol. 20, pp. 89-118 [Δ
  
Jenkins, Paul, 1994, ‘The earliest generation of missionary photographers in West Africa: The portrayal of indigenous people and culture‘, Visual Anthropology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 115-145 [Δ
  
Killingray, David & Roberts, Andrew, 1989, ‘An Outline History of Photography in Africa to ca. 1940‘, History in Africa, vol. 16, pp. 197-208 [Δ
  
Landau, Paul S. & Kaspin, Deborah D., 2002, ‘Empires of the Visual: Photography and Colonial Administration in Africa‘, in in: Paul Landau & Deborah Kaspin (eds.), 2002, Images and Empires, Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa, (Berkeley: University of California Press) [Δ
  
Landau, Paul S. & Kaspin, Deborah D. (eds), 2002, Images and Empires, Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa, (Berkeley: University of California Press) isbn-10: 0520229495 isbn-13: 978-0520229495 [Δ
  
Lydon, Jane, 2010, ‘'Behold the Tears': Photography as Colonial Witness‘, History of Photography, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 234-250 [Δ
  
Matt, Gerald & Miessgang, Thomas, 2001, Flash Afrique!, (Kunsthalle Wien) [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Monti, Nicolas, 1987, Africa Then, (New York: Knopf) isbn-10: 0394555783 isbn-13: 978-0394555782 [Δ
  
Nimis, Erika, 1998, Photographes de Bamako de 1935 à nos jours, (Hazan) isbn-10: 2909571211 isbn-13: 978-2909571218 [French] [Δ
  
Njogu, Kimani & Middleton, John (eds.), 2009, Media and Identity in Africa, (Indiana Universty Press) isbn-10: 025322201X isbn-13: 978-0253222015 [Δ
  
Peffer, John & Cameron, Elisabeth L. (eds.), 2013, Portraiture and Photography in Africa, (Indiana University Press) isbn-10: 0253008603 isbn-13: 978-0253008602 [Δ
  
Pieterse J N, 1992, White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture, (New Haven: Yale University Press) [Δ
  
Rizzo, Lorena, 2013, ‘Shades of Empire: Police Photography in German South-West Africa‘, Visual Anthropology, Special Issue: Records of the Subaltern in Colonial and Imperial Societies, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 328-354 [Δ
  
Saint Léon, P.M. & Fall, N’G., 1998, Anthologie Revue Noire de la Photographie Africaine et de l’Océan Indien, (Paris: Editions Revue Noire) [Δ
  
Schneider, Jürg, 2010, ‘The Topography of the Early History of African Photography‘, History of Photography, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 134-146 [Δ
  
Schneider, Jürg, 2010, May, ‘The Topography of the Early History of African Photography‘, History of African Photography, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 134-146 [Δ
  
Stevenson, M. & Graham-Stewart, M., 2001, Surviving The Lens. Photographic Studies of South and East African People, 1870-1920, (Vlaeberg, South Africa: Fernwood Press) [Δ
  
Thompson, T. Jack, 2002, October, ‘Light on the Dark Continent: The Photography of Alice Seely Harris and the Congo Atrocities of the Early Twentieth Century‘, International Bulletin of Missionary Research, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 146-149 [Δ
  
Thompson, T. Jack, 2004, February, Images of Africa: Missionary Photography in the Nineteenth Century: an Introduction, (University of Copenhagen Centre of African Studies) isbn-10: 8791121132 [Occasional Paper] [Δ
  
Thompson, T. Jack, 2012, Light on Darkness?: Missionary Photography of Africa in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing) isbn-10: 0802865240 isbn-13: 978-0802865243 [Δ
  
Viditz-Ward, Vera, 1987, ‘Photography in Sierra Leone, 1850-1918‘, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 510-518 [Δ
  
Vokes, Richard (ed.), 2012, Photography in Africa: Ethnographic Perspectives, (James Currey) isbn-10: 1847010458 isbn-13: 978-1847010452 [Δ
  
Wendl, Tobias, 2001, Spring, ‘Entangled Traditions: Photography and the History of Media in Southern Ghana‘, Res: Anthropology and Aesthetics, vol. 39, pp. 78-101 [Δ
  
Wendl, Tobias & Behrend, Heike, 1998, Snap Me One! Studiofotographen in Afrika, (Prestel / Muncher Stadtmuseum) isbn-10: 3791320351 isbn-13: 978-3791320359 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Zaccaria, Massimo, 2001, Photography and African studies: a bibliography, (Universita di Pavia Dipartimento di studi politici e sociali) [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Alex A. Acolatse 
  
David, Philippe, 1992, Alex A. Acolatse (1880-1975): hommage à l'un des premiers photographes togolais, (Lome´: Ed. Haho / Goethe-Institut) isbn-10: 290671836X isbn-13: 978-2906718364 [Δ
  
Cornélius Yao Augustt Azaglo 
  
Azaglo, Cornélius Yao Augustt, 2002, Cornélius Yao Augustt Azaglo: Photographies, Côte d'Ivoire, 1950-75, (Hazan) isbn-10: 2909571181 isbn-13: 978-2909571188 [French] [Δ
  
Omar Said Bakor 
  
Behrend, Heike, 2009, ‘'To Make Strange Things Possible': The Photomontages of the Bakor Photo Studio in Lamu, Kenya‘, in Kimani Njogu & John F.M. Middleton (eds.), 2009, Media and Identity in Africa, (Edinburgh Universty Press) [Δ
  
Roger Ballen 
  
Ballen, Roger, 1979, Boyhood, (Chelsea House Publishers) [Δ
  
Ballen, Roger, 1994, Platteland: Images from rural South Africa, (William Waterman) isbn-10: 187495917X isbn-13: 978-1874959175 [Δ
  
Ballen, Roger, 2001, Outland, (Phaidon) [Introduction by Peter Weiermair] [Δ
  
Ballen, Roger, 2008, Brutal, Tender, Human, Animal: Roger Ballen Photography, (National Library Australia) isbn-10: 0642276889 isbn-13: 978-0642276889 [Δ
  
Ballen, Roger, 2009, Boarding House, (Phaidon) isbn-10: 0714849529 isbn-13: 978-0714849522 [Δ
  
Ballen, Roger, 2009, Shadow Chamber, (Phaidon) [Δ
  
Ballen, Roger, 2010, Dorps: Small Towns of South Africa, (Protea Book House) [Δ
  
Ballen, Roger, 2013, Platteland Revisited, (Protea Boekhuis) isbn-10: 1869198379 isbn-13: 978-1869198374 [Δ
  
Peter Beard 
  
Beard, Peter, 1965, The End of the Game: The Old Africa and the New, (New York: The Viking Press) [Δ
  
Beard, Peter, 1979, The Last Word from Paradise, ([Tokyo: Seibu Museum of Art]) [Δ
  
Beard, Peter, 1990, The Eyelids of Morning: The Mingled Destinies of Crocodiles and Men [Δ
  
Beard, Peter, 1993, Diary, From a Dead Man's Wallet: Confessions of a Bookmaker, (Tokyo, Japan: Libro Port Publishing Co.) [Δ
  
Beard, Peter, 1999, Peter Beard: Fifty Years of Portraits [Δ
  
Beard, Peter, 2004, Zara's Tales: Perilous Escapades in Equatorial Africa, (Knopf) isbn-10: 0679426590 isbn-13: 978-0679426592 [Δ
  
Beard, Peter & Caujolle, Christian, 2009, Peter Beard (Photofile), (Thames & Hudson) isbn-10: 0500410968 isbn-13: 978-0500410967 [Δ
  
Bowermaster, Jon, 1993, The Adventures and Misadventures of Peter Beard in Africa, (Bullfinch Press) isbn-10: 0821219073 isbn-13: 978-0821219072 [Δ
  
Edwards, Owen et al., 2008, Peter Beard, (Taschen) isbn-10: 383650877X isbn-13: 978-3836508773 [2 volumes] [Δ
  
Richard Buchta 
  
Buchta, Richard, 1881, Die Oberen Nil-Länder: Volkstypen und Landschaften. Dargestellt in 160 Photographien, nach der Natur aufgenommen von Richard Buchta, (Berlin: Verlag Von J. F. Stiehm) [Δ
  
Thomas, H.B., 1960, ‘Richard Buchta and Early Photography in Uganda‘, Uganda Journal, vol. 25, no. 1 [Δ
  
Mama Casset 
  
Foadey, G.E.; Pivin, J.-L. & Medoune Seye, B., 1994, Mama Casset et les précurseurs de la photographie au Sénégal, (Editions Revue Noire) isbn-10: 2909571076 isbn-13: 978-2909571072 [French] [Δ
  
Saint Leon, Pascal Martin & Pivin, Jean Loup, 2011, Mama Casset: The Studio African Photo in Dakar's Medina, (Revue Noire) isbn-13: 978-2841052783 [French and English] [Δ
  
Ernest Cole 
  
Cole, Ernest, 2010, Ernest Cole: The Photographer, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869301376 isbn-13: 978-3869301372 [Δ
  
Jean Depara 
  
Saint Leon, Pascal Martin & Pivin, Jean Loup, 2011, Jean Depara, (La Fábrica) isbn-10: 849284163X isbn-13: 978-8492841639 [Δ
  
Saint Leon, Pascal Martin & Pivin, Jean Loup, 2011, Jean Depara, Night & Day in Kinshasa, 1951-1975, (Revue Noire) isbn-10: 2909571653 isbn-13: 978-2909571652 [French and English] [Δ
  
Walker Evans 
  
Webb, Virginia-Lee, 2000, Perfect Documents Walker Evans and African Art, 1935, (Metropolitan Museum of Art) isbn-10: 0300086814 isbn-13: 978-0300086812 [Δ
  
Samuel Fosso 
  
Njami, Simon, 2011, Samuel Fosso, Dorian Gray in Bangui, (Revue Noire) isbn-10: 2909571661 isbn-13: 978-2909571669 [Δ
  
N. Walwin Holm 
  
Gore, Charles, 2013, ‘Neils Walwin Holm: Radicalising the Image in Lagos Colony, West Africa‘, History of Photography, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 283-300 [Δ
  
Francis K. Honny 
  
2004, Wenn die Ehe eine Erdnuss wäre.... Fotografien von Francis K. Honny, (Bayreuth (Germany): Iwalewa Haus der Universität Bayreuth) [Exhibition catalogue. November 18, 2004-February 27, 2005.] [Δ
  
Seydou Keita 
  
Lamunière, Michelle, 2001, You Look Beautiful Like That: The Portrait Photographs of Seydou Keïta and Malick Sidibé, (Cambridge: Harvard University Art Museums) isbn-10: 1891771205 [Δ
  
John Kirk 
  
Foskett, Reginald (ed.), 1965, The Zambesi Journal and Letters of Dr. John Kirk, 1858 – 63 (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd [John Kirk, pp. 50-51] [Δ
  
Don McCullin 
  
McCullin, Don, 2005, Don McCullin in Africa, (London: Jonathan Cape) [Δ
  
J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere 
  
Ojeikere, J.D. 'Okhai; Magnin, Andre & Oyairo, Elizabeth Akuyo, 2000, J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere: Photographs, (Scalo Publishers) isbn-10: 3908247306 isbn-13: 978-3908247302 [Δ
  
Leni Riefenstahl 
  
Riefenstahl, Leni, 1974, The Last of the Nuba, (Harper & Row) isbn-10: 0060135492 isbn-13: 978-0060135492 [Δ
  
Riefenstahl, Leni, 1988, Vanishing Africa, (Harmony) isbn-10: 051754914X isbn-13: 978-0517549148 [Δ
  
Riefenstahl, Leni, 2010, Africa, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836523175 isbn-13: 978-3836523172 [Δ
  
Sebastião Salgado 
  
Salgado, Sebastião, 2004, Sahel: The End of the Road, (University of California Press) isbn-10: 0520241703 isbn-13: 978-0520241701 [Δ
  
Salgado, Sebastião, 2010, Africa, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836523434 isbn-13: 978-3836523431 [Δ
  
Malick Sidibé 
  
Incardona, Laura &Serani, Laura (eds.), 2010, Malick Sidibé: La Vie en Rose, (Silvana Editoriale) isbn-13: 978-8836617166 [Δ
  
Lamunière, Michelle, 2001, You Look Beautiful Like That: The Portrait Photographs of Seydou Keïta and Malick Sidibé, (Cambridge: Harvard University Art Museums) isbn-10: 1891771205 [Δ
  
Serani, Laura; Zannier, Sabrina & Incardona, Laura (ed.), 2012, Malick Sidibe, (Skira) isbn-13: 978-8857211251 [Δ
  
Sidibe, Malick, 2009, Malick Sidibe, (Fondation Zinsou) isbn-13: 978-9057791048 [Δ
  
Daniel West 
  
West, Daniel, 1857, The Life and Journals of the Rev. Daniel West. Wesleyan Minister on Deputation to the Wesleyan Missions Stations on the Gold Coast, Western Africa, (London: Hamilton, Adams & Co.) [Δ
  
Casimir Zagourski 
  
Loos, Pierre & Bassani, Ezio, 2001, Zagourski: Lost Africa, (Skira Editore) isbn-10: 8884910080 isbn-13: 978-8884910080 [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Photographs of Dogon, Niger, and Lobi (including sculpture and architecture) by Huib Blom 
http://www.dogon-lobi.ch ... 
  
G. I. Jones Photographic Archive of Southeastern Nigerian Art and Culture. Includes examples from Ibibio, Igbo, Ijaw and Ogoni speaking peoples (John C. McCall) 
http://www.siu.edu ... 
  
Images of African Americans from the 19th Century 
http://digital.nypl.org ... 
  
The Arab Image Foundation: promoting photography in the Middle East and North Africa 
http://www.fai.org.lb ... 
  
The Walther Collection 
http://www.walthercollection.com 
The Walther Collection is a private non-profit organization dedicated to researching, collecting, exhibiting, and publishing modern and contemporary photography and video art. The collection has considerable holdings of African photography. 
  
Nigerian photographer J.A. (Jonathan) Green was prolific Ibani (Bonny) Ijo photographer who worked in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria between about 1890 and 1915. 
http://www.skidmore.edu ... 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Alex A. Acolatse  (1880-1975) • Akinbode Akinbyi • Cornélius Yao Augustt Azaglo  (1924-) • Omar Said Bakor  (1932-1993) • Peter Beard  (1938-) • Beckwith & Fisher • Nick Brandt • Richard Buchta  (1845-1894) • Richard Buchta  (1845-1894) • Jean-Dominique Burton • Mama Casset  (1908-1992) • John Parkes Decker • Jean Depara  (1928-1997) • Saidou Dicko  (1979-) • William Ellis  (1794-1872) • Samuel Fosso  (1962-) • Phyllis Galembo • Robert Gardner  (1925-) • George Goethe  (check) • David Goldblatt  (1930-) • A.C. Gomes  (check) • P.F. Gomes  (check) • J.A. Green  (1873-1905) • N. Walwin Holm  (check) • Francis K. Honny  (1914-1998) • Francis W. Joaque • John Kirk  (1832-1922) • Robert Lebeck  (1929-) • Lutterodt family • Peter Magubane  (1932-) • Kurt Markus • Laurent Monlaü  (1957-) • José Agusto da Cunha Moraes • Kazuyoshi Nomachi  (1946-) • J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere  (check) • N.V. Parekh  (1923-) • Irving Penn  (1917-2009) • Leni Riefenstahl  (1902-2003) • Malick Sidibé  (1935-) • Wilfred Thesiger  (1910-2003) • Pierre Tremaux • Daniel West  (1815-1857) • Dale Yudelman • Casimir Zagourski  (1883-1941)
HomeGeographical regions > Africa 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Calotypists - Africa 
Daguerreotypists - Africa 
Drum 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Africa

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailFelice Beato - Sudan 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 20, 2010)
ThumbnailPhyllis Galembo: West African Masquerade 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 9, 2008)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Africa

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailFelice Beato: Khartoum Relief Expedition (1884-1885) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.A. Green (attributed): Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJ.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere: Nigerian hairstyles 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJosé Agusto da Cunha Moraes: Africa Occidental Album Photographico 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMalick Sidibé: Catalogues 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailMalick Sidibé: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: Books 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: Collages and collaborative works 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPeter Beard: The End of the Game 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Bari woman 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Ethnographic expedition to Southern Sudan (1877-1879) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Shilluk girl 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichard Buchta: Zande 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailSeydou Keita: Portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWalker Evans: African Negro Arts (1935) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer - Unidentified artist 
 
 
  
   Geography 
  
ThumbnailAfrica: Portraits 
ThumbnailAfrica: Villages 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailThe Congo atrocities 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 01 August 2014, 07:12
 
  
 
  
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