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HomeContentsThemes > Stereoviews, stereographs and stereocards

Contents

Information requests
10030.01   Improving content on photographic techniques
Introduction
10030.02   Introduction to stereoviews
Introduction
10030.03   Different types of stereo images
10030.04   Understanding stereovision
10030.05   The process of making card-based stereoviews
10030.06   Stereo daguerreotypes
10030.07   Stereo ambrotypes
10030.08   Stereo tintypes
10030.09   Stereo cyanotypes
Colour
10030.10   Stereoviews: Colour
Themes
10030.11   Painted stereoviews
10030.12   Stereoviews: Events
Themes - Diablerie
10030.13   Stereoviews: Diablerie
Themes - Erotica
10030.14   Stereoviews: Erotica
Themes - Nature
10030.15   Stereoviews: Nature
Places
10030.16   Stereoviews: Places and locations
Themes - Photography-related
10030.17   Stereoviews: Photographic studios
10030.18   Stereoviews: Photographic vans, wagons and cars
10030.19   Stereoviews: Photographica
Themes - Portrait
10030.20   Stereoviews: Portraits: Celebrities
10030.21   Stereoviews: Military
Themes - Still life
10030.22   Stereoviews: Still life
Themes - Transportation
10030.23   Stereoviews: Transportation
Books illustrated with stereoviews
10030.24   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857)
10030.25   Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860)
10030.26   William Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860)
10030.27   Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878)
Themes - War
10030.28   Stereocard series on the American Civil War
Manufacture and packaging of stereoviews
10030.29   Interior of an English Stereographic Manufactory
10030.30   H.C. White Manfacturing Plant for Stereoscopes and StereoViews - North Bennington, Vermont, USA
10030.31   Packaging for stereoviews
Stereocards marketing and salesrooms
10030.32   Marketing stereocards
10030.33   Stereoviews: Lists of views
10030.34   Salesrooms for stereoviews
Stereocard storage for home and education
10030.35   Stereoview libraries for the armchair traveler
Photographers
10030.36   Elias A. Bonine: Stereocards: Florida Series
Cameras
10030.37   Stereoview cameras
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Information requests 
  
10030.01   Process and product >  Improving content on photographic techniques 
  
We are seeking to expand the themes covering photographic techniques and processes. These sections will include:
  • Invention of the process
     
  • Any related patents
     
  • Trade literature
     
  • Contemporary advertisements and announcements of the innovation
     
  • A description of the process and its variants
     
  • Historical examples and details of where examples can be located in public collections
     
  • Contemporary examples by photographers using the exact process.
Conservation will not initially be included but may be in the future if required.
 
  
Introduction 
  
10030.02   Process and product >  Introduction to stereoviews 
  
Stereoviews are often undervalued in the history of photography in favour of other contemporary formats such as the albumen print favoured by collectors and institutions.[1] This is not surprising as their size and format makes them difficult to show in exhibitions without specialised stereoscopes making mass viewing impractical whereas carte de visites, cabinet cards and non-stereo photographs have no such limitation. In the nineteenth century there were popular crazes for stereoviews and carte de visites making them the photography of the masses – never intended as fine art but as a means of disseminating photographic imagery widely. There were stereo versions of daguerreotypes, ambrotypes, salt prints, cyanotypes but the most popular process used was the albumen print although later gelatin silver prints and cheaper, and frequently lower quality, photo-mechanical prints were used. Most stereoviews were made by affixing the stereo photographs to cards of a standardized size but with metal-based daguerreotypes, tintypes and the rarer glass-based ambrotypes and other glass positive stereoviews this could not be done or was not necessary. Occasionally stereoviews were tipped-in to books but this was rare and notable examples include:
Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857)
 
Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860)
 
William Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860)
 
Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878)
The terms used vary and include stereoviews, stereocards (or stereo cards) and stereographs. 
  
Introduction 
  
10030.03   Process and product >  Different types of stereo images 
  
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The overwhelming majority of Stereoviews, stereographs and stereocards consist of two albumen prints or gelatin silver prints pasted onto card but there are other formats. From soon after photography was discovered there were stereo daguerreotypes including some in Masher cases, and rarer stereo salt prints, ambrotypes, tintypes and cyanotypes
  
10030.04   Process and product >  Understanding stereovision 
  
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The scientific understanding of stereo vision during the seventeenth century was enhanced through the work of Giovanni Battista della Porta, Jacopo Chimenti da Empoli, and Francois d’Aguillion. It was with the publication of Sir Charles Wheatstone's[2] "Contributions to the Physiology of Vision" in 1838 that an understanding of stereo vision was presented along with methods for viewing stereoscopic images.[3] 
  
10030.05   Process and product >  The process of making card-based stereoviews 
  
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The process of making card-based stereoviews required a number of steps:
  1. Taking the photographs with a two-lens stereo camera  
      
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  2. Printing and washing the photographs  
      
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  3. Trimming the photographs  
      
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  4. Preparing the cards (printing on front and back if required) Details on the companies who provided the card stock such as The Photographic Card Warehouse of A. M. Collins, Son & Co. of Philadelphia, Pa.[4]  
      
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  5. Affixing the trimmed photographs to the cards[5]
  6. Painting the photographs if required  
      
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  7. Bending the card (a later refinement to increase the stereo illusion used by some companies)
  8. Packaging (special boxes for sets used by various companies) along with furniture for larger collections  
      
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Early cards frequently had no captions or handwritten ones and as the market expanded printed captions were added beneath the photographs on the front of the card. Both the front and the back afforded additional opportunities for printed marketing information or explanatory details about the photograph itself. 
  
10030.06   Process and product >  Stereo daguerreotypes 
  
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   Stereo Daguerreotypes 
View exhibition 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
 
  
10030.07   Process and product >  Stereo ambrotypes 
  
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10030.08   Process and product >  Stereo tintypes 
  
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Tintypes are amongst the rarest of all Stereographic photographs. 
  
10030.09   Process and product >  Stereo cyanotypes 
  
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Colour 
  
10030.10   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Colour 
  
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Themes 
  
10030.11   Process and product >  Painted stereoviews 
  
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10030.12   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Events 
  
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Themes - Diablerie 
  
10030.13   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Diablerie 
  
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Themes - Erotica 
  
10030.14   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Erotica 
  
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Themes - Nature 
  
10030.15   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Nature 
  
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Places 
  
10030.16   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Places and locations 
  
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Themes - Photography-related 
  
10030.17   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Photographic studios 
  
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10030.18   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Photographic vans, wagons and cars 
  
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10030.19   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Photographica 
  
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Themes - Portrait 
  
10030.20   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Portraits: Celebrities 
  
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10030.21   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Military 
  
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Themes - Still life 
  
10030.22   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Still life 
  
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Themes - Transportation 
  
10030.23   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Transportation 
  
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Books illustrated with stereoviews 
  
10030.24   Process and product >  Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Charles Piazzi Smyth[6] became the Astronomer Royal for Scotland in 1845 and during a trip to South Africa he had the distinction of being the first calotypist in the country. In 1856 he made a voyage to Tenerife to assess its possibilities as an observatory.[7] The results of his observations were published in Teneriffe - An Astronomer's Experiment (1858) which included stereoviews.[8] A contemporary review of this volume was published in Notes and Queries on 31st October 1857:
Stereoscopic Book Illustrations. Mr. C. Piazzi Smith's forthcoming account of his Astronomical Expedition to the Peak of Teneriffe is to be illustrated by twenty, double vignette photo-stereographs. This is such an important step in the application of photography to book illustration that we must quote the publisher's remarks upon the subject.
 
"The publisher, anxious as the author to put all the actual facts of nature in the elevated regions that were visited as completely as possible before the public, has been earnestly at work for some time past, and has now succeeded in maturing plans for illustrating the letterpress with a series of photo-stereographs, which will be found to do neither more nor less than veritable reproductions of the scenes themselves.
 
"This method of book-illustration never having been attempted before, may excuse a word on this part of the subject. By its necessary faithfulness, a photograph of any sort must keep a salutary check on the pencil or longbow of the traveller; but it is not perfect; it may be tampered with, and may suffer from accidental faults of the material. These, which might sometimes produce a great alteration of meaning in important parts of a view, may, however, be eliminated, when, as here, we have two distinct pictures of each object
 
"Correctness is thus ensured; and then if we wish to enjoy the effects either of solidity or of distance, effects which are the cynosures of all the great painters, we have only to combine the two photographs stereoscopically, and those bewitching qualities are produced. Stereographs have not hitherto been bound up, as plates, in a volume; yet that will be found a most convenient way of keeping them, not incompatible with the use of the ordinary stereoscope, provided it is glazed at the base with clear in place of ground glass, and well adapted for a new form of the instrument, which the publisher anticipates being able to produce at a very moderate cost, under the name of the ' Book Stereoscope.'
 
"The plates, though packed up between the flat boards of a book, will appear on examination to have all the solidity, and all the appearance of distance, that the spectator could have acquired from viewing the scenes themselves."[9]
He traveled widely and wrote Three Cities in Russia (1862)[10] and during his visit he took some of the earliest street photographs. In 1865 he traveled to Egypt to measure the Great Pyramid[11] and he took the earliest known photographs inside the monument some of these were reproduced in his book Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid.[12] 
  
10030.25   Process and product >  Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Roger Fenton, well known for his photographs taken during the Crimean War,[13] also took a number of stereoviews of the River Conway in Wales that were published in The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860).[14]
 
The book was published by Lowell Reeve in London, a publishing firm that already had experience in tipping-in[15] stereo photographs as they had published Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment by Charles Piazzi Smyth in 1857.[16] 
  
10030.26   Process and product >  William Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Dr. William Despard Hemphill (1816-1902) was an early Irish photographer who took stereoscopic photographs and used them early on for book illustration. His, presumably privately printed, book The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860) is a very early example of this. 
  
10030.27   Process and product >  Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Edward Bierstadt (1824-1906) was an engraver and photographer of landscapes and portraits and the brother of the painter Albert Bierstadt. on 17 November 1875 Edward Bierstadt filed a US Patent for Improvement in stereoscopes which was granted on 21 March 1876. The patent was for a method of adding stereoviews into books with eyeglasses built in to allow for their viewing.[17] His book Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains, [1878][18] included stereoviews of the White Mountains in New Hampshire, an area that had been photographed by dentist, and amateur daguerreotypist, Samuel A. Bemis in the early 1840s. 
  
Themes - War 
  
10030.28   Process and product >  Stereocard series on the American Civil War 
  
During and after the American Civil War (1861-1865) there was a commercial opportunity for marketing series of stereoviews of the personalities, battlefields, equipment and camp life. The study of these is complex as the photographer is frequently not recorded, the studio or studio owner claimed rights over the photographs they had financed or purchased without giving credit to the photographer, publishers obtained photographs from multiple sources, studios went out of business, negatives were sold from one studio to another, the captions and attributions on occasion were not accurate.
Photographic incidents of the War 
  
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Includes photographs by Alexander Gardner
 
The War for the Union 
  
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Includes photographs by George N. Barnard[19], Thomas C. Roche and others by The War Photograph & Exhibition Company (Hartford), and Taylor & Huntington (Hartford).
 
War Views 
  
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War Views - Army of the Potomac 
  
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Includes photographs by Thomas C. Roche.
 
Home Views 
  
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American Scenery 
  
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Manufacture and packaging of stereoviews 
  
10030.29   Process and product >  Interior of an English Stereographic Manufactory 
  
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10030.30   Process and product >  H.C. White Manfacturing Plant for Stereoscopes and StereoViews - North Bennington, Vermont, USA 
  
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10030.31   Process and product >  Packaging for stereoviews 
  
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Stereocards marketing and salesrooms 
  
10030.32   Process and product >  Marketing stereocards 
  
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10030.33   Process and product >  Stereoviews: Lists of views 
  
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For collectors the backs of stereocards can be as important as the front. Frequently photographers and publishers printed the name of the series on the back along with a numbered list of all the views. This allows those interested to seek out missing examples taken by the same photographer. 
  
10030.34   Process and product >  Salesrooms for stereoviews 
  
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Stereocard storage for home and education 
  
10030.35   Process and product >  Stereoview libraries for the armchair traveler 
  
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Stereoviews[20] were enormously popular in the nineteenth century supported by the research and use of influential figures like David Brewster[21] and Oliver Wendell Holmes.[22] Some photographers such as Charles Piazzi-Smyth (1858),[23], Roger Fenton (1860),[24] William Despard Hemphill (1860),[25] and Edward Bierstadt (1878)[26] produced books illustrated with stereoviews.
 
Photographers who are now a significant part of the history of photography such as Timothy H. O'Sullivan took stereoviews on the Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) and Carleton E. Watkins recorded the landscapes of the American West in his Pacific Coast Views which continued until around 1876 and later in the Watkins New Series.
 
Companies such as Underwood & Underwood,[27] the Keystone View Company[28], Kilburn Brothers[29] and H.C. White massed produced sets of stereocards allowing the family to virtually travel the wonders of the world from their own home. For the wealthy specialist furniture was available to shelve these ever-growing sets. 
  
Photographers 
  
10030.36   Process and product >  Elias A. Bonine: Stereocards: Florida Series 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Cameras 
  
10030.37   Process and product >  Stereoview cameras 
  
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Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Early research on stereoviews was largely carried out by collectors such as William Culp Darrah and T.K. Treadwell - William Culp Darrah, 1964, Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and Their Collection, (Gettysburg, PA: Times and News Publishing Co.); William Culp Darrah, 1977, The World of Stereographs, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah); T.K. Treadwell & William C. Darrah, 1994, Stereographers of the World. Vol. 1: Foreign; vol. 2: United States, (National Stereoscopic Association); John S. Waldsmith, 2002, Stereo Views: An Illustrated History and Price Guide, (Iola, WI: Gazelle) 
      
  2. Λ For a biography of Sir Charles Wheatstone - Brian Bowers, 2001, Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS: 1802-1875, (IET), [Issue 29 of History of technology series, Volume 29 of IEE Monographs] 
      
  3. Λ Charles Wheatstone, 1838, 1 January, ‘Contributions to the Physiology of Vision. Part the First. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, Phenomena of Binocular Vision‘, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., vol. 128, pp. 37-394
    (Accessed: 10 March 2014)
    www.stereoscopy.com/library/wheatstone-paper1838.html 
      
  4. Λ Afred M. Collins was a Philadelphia firm that manufactured card stock used by photographers. Price lists from the company are available. Copies of these price lists are requested - alan@luminous-lint.com
     
    When A.M. Collins died on 26 May 1895 he left an estate of over $200,000 which was a vast sum at the time - Margaret Hill Collins & Ellinor Collins Aird, 1976, The Collins Family: The Collins family in America, (Collins), vol. 2, p. 48-49 
      
  5. Λ What glue was used to affix photographs onto carte de visites, cabinet cards and stereocards? This has to be de confirmed but they were most likely animal glues or starch based natural adhesives made from flour or rice. - alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  6. Λ Hermann Alexander Brück & Mary T. Brück, 1988, The Peripatetic Astronomer: The Life of Charles Piazzi Smyth, (Bristol: Adam Hilger); Roger Taylor & Larry J. Schaaf, 2007, Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840-1860 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2007) 
      
  7. Λ Larry Schaaf, 1980, ‘Piazzi Smyth at Tenerife: Part 1: The Expedition and the Resulting Book‘, History of Photography, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 289-307; Larry Schaaf, 1981, ‘Piazzi Smyth at Tenerife: Part 2: Photography and the Disciples of Constable and Harding‘, History of Photography, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27-50 
      
  8. Λ C. Piazzi Smyth, 1858, Teneriffe - An Astronomer's Experiment, (Lowell Reeve) 
      
  9. Λ Oct. 31, 1857, "Stereoscopic Book Illustrations", Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, no. 96, p. 356 
      
  10. Λ C. Piazzi Smyth, 1862, Three Cities in Russia, (London: Lovell, Reeve & Co.) [2 volumes] 
      
  11. Λ Larry Schaaf, 1979, ‘Charles Piazzi Smyth's 1865 Conquest of the Great Pyramid‘, History of Photography, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 331-354 
      
  12. Λ Charles Piazzi Smyth, 1864, The Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid, (London: Alexander Strahan), [ Photographic frontispiece by Francis Bedford of 'The great Pyramid of Jizeh.' ] 
      
  13. Λ Roger Fenton is the best known of Crimean War photographers and there is a considerable amount written about him - Gordon Baldwin et al., 2004, All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852–1860, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); Helmut & Alison Gernsheim, 1954, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the Crimean War, (London: Secker & Warburg); John Hannavy, 1975, Fenton of Crimble Hall, (Boston: David R. Godine); Valerie Lloyd, 1988, Roger Fenton: Photographer of the 1850s, (London: South Bank Board); Richard Pare, 1987, Roger Fenton, (New York: Aperture).
     
    For a rephotographic study - David R. Jones, 2012, In the Footsteps of Roger Fenton, Crimean War Photographer, (www.lulu.com: self-published) 
      
  14. Λ Roger Fenton, 1860, The Conway in the Stereoscope, (London: Lowell Reeve) 
      
  15. Λ Tipped-in - ILAB: International League of Antiquarian Booksellers
    (Accessed: 7 November 2013)
    www.ilab.org/eng/glossary/557-tipped-in.html
    Attached to, but not integral to the binding of the book. We usually use this term to indicate something that has been added: a letter from the author, a newspaper or magazine review or obituary, etc. The nature of what is tipped-in will determine whether this addition will enhance or devalue the book.
     
      
  16. Λ C. Piazzi Smyth, 1858, Teneriffe - An Astronomer's Experiment, (Lowell Reeve) 
      
  17. Λ Edward Bierstadt, Improvement in stereoscopes (US Patent: US174893 A, filed: 17 Nov 1875, published: 21 Mar 1876) 
      
  18. Λ Edward Bierstadt, [1878], Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains. With descriptive text. Illustrations by the Artotype Process, (New York: Harroun & Bierstadt) 
      
  19. Λ For the photographic work of George N. Barnard during the American Civil War - George N. Barnard, 1866 (ca), Photographic Views of Sherman's Campaign, Embracing Scenes of the Occupation of Nashville, the Great Battles around Chattanooga and Lookout Mountain, the Campaign of Atlanta, March to the Sea, and the Great Raid through the Carolinas, (New York: Press of Wynkoop & Hallenbeck); George N. Barnard, 1977, Photographic Views of Sherman’s Campaign, (New York: Dover Publications) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall]; Keith F. Davis, Keith (ed.), 1990, George N. Barnard: Photographer of Sherman’s Campaign, (Kansas City, MO: Hallmark Cards) 
      
  20. Λ For stereoviews - William Culp Darrah, 1964, Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and Their Collection, (Gettysburg, PA: Times and News Publishing Co.); William Culp Darrah, 1977, The World of Stereographs, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah); T.K. Treadwell & William C. Darrah, 1994, Stereographers of the World. Vol. 1: Foreign; vol. 2: United States, (National Stereoscopic Association); John Waldsmith, 2002, Stereo Views: An Illustrated History and Price Guide, (Iola, WI: Gazelle) 
      
  21. Λ For writings by Sir David Brewster - David Brewster, 1856, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory, and Construction, (London: John Murray); Sir David Brewster, 1870, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory and Construction, (London: John Camden Hotton) 
      
  22. Λ For Oliver Wendell Holmes - Oliver Wendell Holmes, 1861, July, ‘Sun-Painting and Sun-Sculpture; With a Stereoscopic Trip Across the Atlantic‘, Atlantic Monthly, pp. 13-29 
      
  23. Λ Biography of Charles Piazzi Smyth - Hermann Alexander Brück & Mary T. Brück, 1988, The Peripatetic Astronomer: The Life of Charles Piazzi Smyth, (Bristol: Adam Hilger); Roger Taylor & Larry J. Schaaf, 2007, Impressed by Light: British Photographs from Paper Negatives, 1840-1860 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art)
     
    Work on Teneriffe - Larry Schaaf, 1980, ‘Piazzi Smyth at Tenerife: Part 1: The Expedition and the Resulting Book‘, History of Photography, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 289-307; Larry Schaaf, 1981, ‘Piazzi Smyth at Tenerife: Part 2: Photography and the Disciples of Constable and Harding‘, History of Photography, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27-50
     
    His book which included stereographic photographs - C. Piazzi Smyth, 1858, Teneriffe - An Astronomer's Experiment, (Lowell Reeve) 
      
  24. Λ Roger Fenton, 1860, The Conway in the Stereoscope: illustrated by Roger Fenton, with Notes, Descriptive and Historical by James Bridge Davidson, (London: Lovell Reeve) 
      
  25. Λ William Despard Hemphill, 1860, The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (Privately printed) 
      
  26. Λ Edward Bierstadt, 1878, Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains, (New York: Harroun & Bierstadt) 
      
  27. Λ The Keystone View Company purchased a large portion of the Underwood & Underwood photographs in 1920. 
      
  28. Λ The Keystone-Mast Collection (1870-1963) is housed at University of California Riverside and is part of the California Museum of Photography. The collection consists of 250,000 stereoscopic glass-plate and film negatives and 100,000 vintage prints.
    (Accessed: 3 December 2013)
    www.oac.cdlib.org/items/ark:/13030/ft1q2n999m 
      
  29. Λ The University of Washington provides the following information on the Kilburn Brothers - B.W. Kilburn & Co. was started in Littleton, New Hampshire in 1876, by the Kilburn Brothers, Benjamin West and Edward Kilburn, and became one of the major publishers of sterographs at the turn of the century. After B.W. Kilburns demise in 1909, the entire set of Kilburn negatives were acquired by the Keystone View Co.
    (Accessed: 3 December 2013)
     
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail Thumbnail  
  
General reading 
  
American Stereoscopic Company (Philadelphia), 1861, Catalogue of Langenheim's New and Superior Style of Colored Photographic Magic Lantern Pictures - Also a Catalogue of Langenheim's Stereoscopic Pictures on Glass and Paper, and Microscopic Photographs of a Superior Quality, (E. Ketterlinus, printer) [Δ
  
Darrah, William Culp, 1964, Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and Their Collection, (Gettysburg, PA: Times and News Publishing Co.) [Δ
  
Darrah, William Culp, 1977, The World of Stereographs, (Gettysburg, Pa.: William C. Darrah) [Δ
  
Earle, Edward W. (ed.), 1979, Points of View: The Stereograph in America - Cultural History, (Rochester, NY: The Visual Studies Workshop Press in collaboration with the Gallery Association of New York Stat) [Δ
  
Fanelli, Giovanni, 2001, L’anima dei luoghi. La Toscana nella fotografia stereoscopica, (Firenze: Mandragora) [Δ
  
Ginns, Page & Ginns, Bryan, 2013, ‘The Art of the Stereo Daguerreotype in England & France‘, in Bryan Ginns & Page Ginns, 2013, Antique Photographica: The Collector's Vision (Schiffer), pp. 121-130 [Δ
  
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1859, June, ‘The Stereoscope and the Stereograph‘, Atlantic Monthly, vol. 3, pp. 738-48 [Δ
  
Jenkins, Harold F., 1957, Two Points of View: The History of the Parlor Stereoscope, (Elmira, NY: World in Color Productions) [Δ
  
Jones, John, 1976, Wonders of Stereoscope, (New York: Alfred A. Knopf) [Δ
  
Mabie, Roy W., 1942, The Stereoscope and Stereograph, (New York: Privately printed) [Δ
  
Moss, George H., 1995, Double exposure, (Ploughshare Press) [Δ
  
Patterson, J.R., 1929, May, ‘Lantern slides and Stereographs in the Library‘, ALA Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 366-367 [Δ
  
Pecci, Stanislao, 1920, Stereofotografia, Manuale pratico per il cinema e la fotografia tridimensionale, (Gengotti Editore) [Reprinted 2012 with a pair of red/cyan anaglyph glasses and a 3D color postcard] [Δ
  
Pellerin, D., 1995, La Photographie Stéréoscopique Sous Le Second Empire, (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale De France) [Δ
  
Pellerin, Denis; May, Brian & Fleming, Paula, 2013, Diableries: Stereoscopic adventures in Hell, (The London Stereoscopic Company) [Δ
  
Reynaud, Francoise; Tamburn, Catherine & Timby, Kim (eds.), 2000, Paris in 3D: From Stereoscopy to Virtual Reality 1850-2000, (Paris musees / Booth-Clibborn Editions) isbn-10: 1861541627 isbn-13: 978-1861541628 [Δ
  
Rosen, Kenneth H., 2013, ‘Early American Stereoviews‘, in Bryan Ginns & Page Ginns, 2013, Antique Photographica: The Collector's Vision (Schiffer), pp. 131-143 [Δ
  
Schimmelman, Janice, 2013, Brewster, Duboscq & the Early Printed Stereoview, 1851-1853, (Blurb - Self-published) [Δ
  
Smith, Lyndsay, 1989, ‘The Elusive Depth of Field: Stereoscopy and the Pre-Raphaelites‘, in Marcia Pointon (ed.), 1989, Pre-Raphaelites Re-Viewed, (Manchester: Manchester University Press), pp. 84-99 [Δ
  
Thomson, Arthur, 1912, The Anatomy of the Human Eye, (Oxford: Clarendon Press) [Includes sixty-seven “enlarged stereoscopic photographs” of human eyeballs in various stages of dissection] [Δ
  
Treadwell, T.K. & Darrah, William C., 1994, Stereographers of the World. Vol. 1: Foreign; vol. 2: United States, (National Stereoscopic Association) [Δ
  
Waldsmith, John S, 2002, Stereo Views: An Illustrated History and Price Guide, (Iola, WI: Gazelle) [Δ
  
Wing, Paul, 1996, Stereoscopes, the First One Hundred Years, (Nashua, NH: Transition Publishing) [Δ
  
Zone, Ray, 2014, Stereoscopic Cinema and the Origins of 3-D Film, 1838-1952, (University Press of Kentucky) isbn-10: 0813145899 isbn-13: 978-0813145891 [Δ
  
Zotti, Arlo Alberto Minici, 2003, Il Fascino Discreto della Stereoscopia: Venezia e altre suggestive immagini in 3D - Subtle Charm of Stereoscopy: Venice and other impressive views, (Padova: Grafiche Turato) [Introduction by Italo Zannier] [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Edward Anthony 
  
Marder, William & Marder, Estelle, 1982, Anthony: the Man, the Company, the Cameras, (Pine Ridge Publishing Co) [Δ
  
E. & H.T. Anthony & Co. 
  
Marder, William & Marder, Estelle, 1982, Anthony: the Man, the Company, the Cameras, (Pine Ridge Publishing Co) [Δ
  
Edward Bierstadt 
  
Bierstadt, Edward, 1878, Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains, (New York: Harroun & Bierstadt) [Δ
  
David Brewster 
  
Brewster, David, 1856, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory, and Construction, (London: John Murray) [Δ
  
Brewster, Sir David, 1870, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory and Construction, (London: John Camden Hotton) [Δ
  
Brewster, Sir David, 1971, The Stereoscope: Its History, Theory and Construction. Facsimile edition, (Hastings-on-Hudson, NY: Morgan & Morgan) [Reprint] [Δ
  
Gordon, Margaret Maria, 2010, The Home Life of Sir David Brewster, (New York: Cambridge University Press) [Δ
  
Antoine Claudet 
  
Claudet, Antoine François Jean, 1853, Du stereoscope et de ses applications a` la photographie, par A. Claudet ... et derniers perfectionnements apportes au Dauerreotype, par F. Colas., (Paris) [Δ
  
Joseph Ellis Jr. 
  
Ellis Jr., Joseph, 1856, Progress of Photography — Collodion, the Stereoscope: A Lecture by Joseph Ellis, (London: Bell & Daldy) [Δ
  
Roger Fenton 
  
Fenton, Roger, 1860, The Conway in the Stereoscope: illustrated by Roger Fenton, with Notes, Descriptive and Historical by James Bridge Davidson, (London: Lovell Reeve) [Δ
  
Claude-Marie Ferrier 
  
Cameron, John B. & Schimmelman, Janice G., 2012, The Early Paper Stereoviews of Claude-Marie Ferrier, 1852-1858, (The Collodion Press - Privately printed - Blurb / 3400181) [Δ
  
William Despard Hemphill 
  
Hemphill, William Despard, 1860, The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside [Δ
  
Oliver Wendell Holmes 
  
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 1861, July, ‘Sun-Painting and Sun-Sculpture; With a Stereoscopic Trip Across the Atlantic‘, Atlantic Monthly, pp. 13-29 [Δ
  
Charles Piazzi Smyth 
  
Smyth, C. Piazzi, 1858, Teneriffe - An Astronomer's Experiment, (Lowell Reeve) [Δ
  
Charles Wheatstone 
  
Bowers, Brian, 2001, Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS: 1802-1875, (IET) isbn-10: 0852961030 isbn-13: 978-0852961032 [Issue 29 of History of technology series, Volume 29 of IEE Monographs] [Δ
  
Wheatstone, Charles, 1838, 1 January, ‘Contributions to the Physiology of Vision. Part the First. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, Phenomena of Binocular Vision‘, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., vol. 128, pp. 37-394 [Online at: http://www.stereoscopy.com/library/wheatstone-paper1838.html] [Δ
  
Wheatstone, Charles, 1852, 15 January (read), ‘The Bakerian Lecture - Contributions to the Physiology of Vision. Part the Second. On some remarkable, and hitherto unobserved, Phenomena of Binocular Vision (continued)‘, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 142, pp. 1-17 [Online at: http://www.stereoscopy.com/library//wheatstone-paper1852.html] [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Edward Bierstadt  (1824-1906) • David Brewster  (1781-1868) • John Benjamin Dancer  (1812-1887) • Claude-Marie Ferrier  (1811-1889) • William Despard Hemphill  (1816-1902) • Oliver Wendell Holmes  (1809-1894) • Frederick Langenheim  (1809-1879) • W. & F. Langenheim • William Langenheim  (1807-1874) • Charles Wheatstone  (1802-1875)
HomeTechniquesProcess and product > Stereoviews, stereographs and stereocards 
 
A wider gazeRelated topics 
  
Card photographs 
Stereoscopes 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Stereoviews, stereographs and stereocards

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAmerican Civil War (1861-1865: Robin Stanford Civil War Photography Collection 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 3, 2013)
ThumbnailStereo Daguerreotypes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 12, 2006)
ThumbnailStereo images 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 12, 2006)
ThumbnailStereo images: Storage and display 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (December 7, 2006)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Stereoviews, stereographs and stereocards

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAntoine Claudet: Portrait of a Lady (Stereo Daguerreotype) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailB.W. Kilburn: 11538 Seeking knowledge through the Saturn 
ThumbnailBenjamin West Kilburn: Cutting Department of B.W. Kilburn & Co.'s Celebrated Stereoscopic View Factory 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailC.H. Shute & Son (Edgartown, Mass): No. 348. First day of April 
ThumbnailClaude-Marie Ferrier: The train station at Fontainebleau (1855-1856) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailD. Appleton / J.T. Heald: Similarities 
ThumbnailD. Appleton: Stereoscopes and Views 
ThumbnailD: Appleton: Stereoscopes and Views 
ThumbnailE. & H.T. Anthony & Co.: Interior View. Anthony's Photographic and Stereoscopic Warehouse 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailE.O. Beaman: Stereoviews 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878) 
ThumbnailElias A. Bonine: Stereocards: Florida Series 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Haes: Stereocard details of London Zoo (ca. 1865) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrank Haes: Stereocards of London Zoo (ca. 1865) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGiorgio Sommer: Stereoviews 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGriffith & Griffith: Innocence 
ThumbnailH.C. White Co.: 5201 Venus Junior at the Bath 
ThumbnailJ.T. Heald: Stereoscopes and Views 
ThumbnailRoger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailUnderwood & Underwood: "Tall Oaks from little Acorns Grow." 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer: Interior of an unknown stereoview production workroom 
ThumbnailWilliam Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Donati's Comet - Stereocard, Tissue 
ThumbnailStereo daguerreotype of French soldier 
ThumbnailStereoview series: American Scenery 
ThumbnailStereoview series: HomeViews 
ThumbnailStereoview series: Photographic incidents of the War 
ThumbnailStereoview series: The War for the Union 
ThumbnailStereoview series: War Views 
ThumbnailStereoview series: War Views - Army of the Potomac 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Stereo 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Cameras 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Colour 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Lists of views 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Manufacture 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Packaging 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Painted 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Sales 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Stereoscopes: Becker style 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Stereoscopes: Book and magazine illustrations 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Stereoscopes: Brewster style 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Stereoscopes: Desktop 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Stereoscopes: Holmes-Bates Style 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Stereoscopes: Lewis Patent 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Stereoscopes: Mascher 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Storage boxes 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Storage cabinets 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Storage racks 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Storage sets 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Diablerie 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Erotica 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Ethnic 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Events 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Military 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Nature 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Photographic studios 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Photographic vans, wagons and cars 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Photographica 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Portrait: Celebrities 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Post-mortem 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Still life 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Strange 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Themes: Transportation 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Tissue views 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailAutobiography of S. Hunter Smith 
ThumbnailH.C. White Manfacturing Plant for Stereoscopes and StereoViews - North Bennington, Vermont, USA 
ThumbnailMeiji-era engraved stereocard backs 
ThumbnailRêves et visions - Dreams - Traumbilder 
ThumbnailStereocard, tissue, Black mount Diablerie - Devil tissue view - 30 Theatre de Satan 
ThumbnailStereocard, tissue, White mount Diablerie - Devil tissue view - 64 Entrée de L’Enfer 
ThumbnailStereographic tintype: A personal portrait 
ThumbnailStereographic tintype: Child on staircase 
ThumbnailStereoviews: Cityscapes 
ThumbnailThe Snow Pine - A Winter Scene in Old Rural Japan 
 
  
Refreshed: 11 July 2014, 12:34
 
  
 
  
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