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HomeContentsThemes > Scientific

Contents

Introduction
10.01   Introduction to scientific photography
Contemporary examples
10.02   Contemporary scientific imagery
Themes
10.03   Anthropology
10.04   19th century botany
10.05   Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays
Worlds fairs and international exhibitions
10.06   The relationships between science and the World Fairs and International Exhibitions
Field books
10.07   Smithsonian Field Book Project
Photographers
10.08   Berenice Abbott: Science
10.09   Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee
Science and religion
10.10   Evolution and the Biblical flood
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.
 
  
Introduction 
  
10.01   Scientific >  Introduction to scientific photography 
  
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Human perception is based upon a continuous stream of sensory impulses that are never exactly the same - when the first photograph captured a single moment permanently the way we perceived the world changed in the same way that when we saw the first picture of the Earth from space. It was a defining moment that forced us to examine the preservation of a single view of a captured reality. Since that moment photography has been extended by new scientific discoveries and approaches to push forward our understanding of the world around us in ways that our 'normal' vision does not permit.
 
There are incalculable benefits of scientific photography in industry, medicine, forensics and defense. In the natural science every branch of it has been fundamentally enhanced by images that allow us to extend our limited vision by the use of specialized techniques.[1] Examples include high speed photography to capture an instant such as the falling of a droplet of milk, the passing of a bullet through an apple or the spinning of a rotor blade.[2] At the opposite end slow motion demonstrates trends in movement such as the swinging of an arm or the movement of a horses' leg.[3]  
  
Eadweard Muybridge: Animals in motion 
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Ottomar Anschütz: Horse and rider jumping over an obstacle (1885-1886) 
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Harold Edgerton: High speed and stroboscopic photography 
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Still other techniques extend the range of the visible light spectrum by the use of x-rays, infrared and ultraviolet light and improved night vision cameras allow us to examine the nocturnal habits of species in ways that were not previously possible.  
  
Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays 
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The use of photomicroscopy[4] allows us to go into the structure of objects, down the blood vessels and nervous systems of animals and using higher powered techniques into the atoms themselves. The advances in medical photography and imaging have through the works of Lennart Nilsson[5] and Alexander Tsiaris[6] revealed how the body functions with clarity.  
  
Photomicrographs 
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Alexander Tsiaris: Bookcovers 
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At the macro level of astronomy we see universes in a single image and study the inter-relationships of gravitational forces between objects.[7] Using data visualization techniques we can create images that appear to be photographs but are in fact representations of data - the patterns revealing understanding of weather patterns or fluid dynamics in novel and informative ways.  
  
Astronomy 
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Putting these points together we can see:  
  
  Scientific Astronomy 
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Scientific Microscopy 
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Contemporary examples 
  
10.02   Scientific >  Contemporary scientific imagery 
  
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   Scientific Contemporary 
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Themes 
  
10.03   Scientific >  Anthropology 
  
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Anthropology (from the Greek anthropos, "man", and -logia, "discourse" or "study“) is the study of humanity.
 
Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning "people, nation, race") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.
 
The sensitivities and standards of collecting and research have improved considerably since the nineteenth century and collectors are no longer photographed in front of trophy collections of tattooed Maori heads as Major General Horatio Gordon Robley was in 1895.[8] 
  
10.04   Scientific >  19th century botany 
  
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Botany is the study of plant life in all its complexity. From the eighteenth century increasingly sophisticated classifications of plant species were being developed the most famous of which was the Species Plantarum[9] of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)[10] published in 1753. The book was important, and still is, as it established a hierarchical binominal genus species nomenclature that could act as a foundation for research but still be added to and refined over time.  
  
Botanical illustrations by Georg Dionysius Ehret (1707-1770) 
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The bedroom walls of Linnaeus were papered with proofs of botanical illustrations by Charles Plumier (French botanist and ecclesiastic, 1646-1704) and Georg Dionysius Ehret (botanical artist, 1707-1770)[11] and his bed curtain was printed with designs based on the Linnaea borealis[12] which was his favourite flower.[13]  
  
Emma Schenson (1827-1913), Memorials of Linnaeus 
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The works of Linneaus went through numerous editions and it is important to appreciate that the concepts proposed were only eighty years old by the 1830s when experimentation on photography was commencing in earnest prior to the official announcement by Daguerre in 1839. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was born in 1765 when Carl Linnaeus was still alive and other pioneers of photography including Jacques Mandé Daguerre, Henry Fox Talbot and John Herschel were born within 25 years of his death.[14]
 
As scientific nomenclature was relatively recent there were innumerable gaps with new species awaiting discovery and description encouraging both professional interest from botanists and from large numbers of enthusiastic amateurs amongst the leisured classes supported by books[15] and microscopes.[16] The collecting of fossils, rocks, insects and plants along with the preservation of dried specimens was a widespread hobby in the nineteenth century.[17] Scientific taxonomies were being prepared in Germany, France, Italy, England and elsewhere - all countries where photography was going to have a profound impact. Polymaths like Henry Fox Talbot[18] and amateur botanists like Anna Atkins[19] combined their interests in photography and botany - Talbot with the photogenic drawings that he sent to Italian botanist Antonio Bertoloni[20] and Atkins with her cyanotypes of algae[21] and flowering plants.[22]
 
Gardens have been the basis of plant study and their applications to medicine, agriculture, herbs, scents and natural aesthetics since the Ancient World. Evolving through the Physic gardens of the Medieval period and the enlightenment into the scientific botanical gardens, herbariums and research centres of today. The writings of Linnaeus encouraged scientific rigour by providing an agreed structure for plant identification and description. The spread of botanical interest occurred during the most intense period of Colonialism which was partly based on the exploitation of natural, including plant-based, resources. The foundation of botanical gardens throughout the world from the early eighteenth century was an offshoot of this taxonomic zeal.[23] Botanists with their plant presses and vasculums[24] were travelling the world to collect specimens for research and nurseries.  
  
Botanists 
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Veitch, a nursery company in England, funded the first plant hunting expeditions in 1840.[25] Photography was used for educational magic lantern slides of plants and in plant catalogues and on first glance it would seem ideal for taxonomic analysis but this is not the case. Herbariums and botanical gardens relied on original specimens for their work and a photograph could never be a substitute for that. Although botanists accompanied expeditions they were rarely the sole reason and therefore their photographic needs would be subservient to the military, railroad construction and survey objectives. This has the result that nineteenth century photographic botanical documentation is not as common as one would imagine.[26] At the very end of the nineteenth century Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) undertook plant hunting expeditions for the English nursery firm Veitch and Sons and later for the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University. Travelling widely between 1899 and 1922 in China, Japan and Korea Wilson brought back 2,488 glass plates showing botanical studies and landscapes but this was a rare exception.[27]  
  
Botanical gardens 
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Botanical teaching laboratories 
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   Scientific Botany 
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10.05   Scientific >  Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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With the discovery of x-rays[28] by Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen (1845-1923) on 8th November 1895 there was realization that their applications to medicine,[29] metallurgy, the non-destructive testing of materials, and other scientific and industrial processes would be immense. As the New York Times of 26 January 1896 said:
Rontgen's photographic discovery increasingly monopolizes scientific attention. Already numerous successful applications of it to surgical difficulties are reported from various countries, but perhaps even more striking are proofs that it will revolutionize methods in many departments of [the] metallurgical industry.[30]
Experiments were carried out around the world as the news of the discovery spread and accounts appeared in contemporary newspapers. New York Times reported on Mr. Bumstead's experiments at Yale University:
Probably the most interesting of Mr. Brunstead's experiments were those with animals. For this purpose he used a fish, a mouse and a frog. After the usual exposure the backbone of the fish was easily distinguishable and another particularly opaque substance, evidently the swimming bladder. The frog displayed a portion of its sketeton with more or less vividness, the most apparent part being the leg bones, which were clearly visible. Perhaps the mouse was the most entertaining of all. The most evident part of its skeleton was the skull, which could be traced with little difficulty. [31]
Their power to reveal the hidden was exposed in a 1896 ditty:
I’m full of daze,
Shock and amaze;
For nowadays
I hear they’ll gaze
Thro’ cloak and gown — and even stays,
These naughty, naughty Roentgen Rays.
The discovery had such significant applications in the furtherance of science that Röntgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 - "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays)." 
  
   Scientific X rays 
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Worlds fairs and international exhibitions 
  
10.06   Scientific >  The relationships between science and the World Fairs and International Exhibitions 
  
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Field books 
  
10.07   Scientific >  Smithsonian Field Book Project 
  
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The Smithsonian Field Book Project (FBP) commenced in 2010 to put online the thousands of field books and research notes created by scientists. Although this registary has commenced with the material held within the numerous Smithsonian collections the intention is to extend it to include field books from around the USA. The photographic richness within these collections has yet to be explored.[32] 
  
Photographers 
  
10.08   Scientific >  Berenice Abbott: Science 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Berenice Abbott is well know in photography for her advocacy of the documentation of Paris by Eugène Atget and for her project Changing New York.[33] What is not so well known is her innovative body of work on the depiction of science. In the late 1950s following the impetus of Sputnik she worked for two years at MIT documenting mechanics, electromagnetism, and waves. As Berenice said:
"The scientific photographs had to be carefully composed, but they couldn't look that way. I didn't want the composition to be so obvious as to take over . . . when you look at a photograph and all you can see is the composition then you know it is a big flop." [34]
The aim was to create photographs that clearly showed in a comprehensible way the scientific concepts to be illustrated. This was a challenge and Bereince Abbott developed cameras, lighting systems and techniques to achieve visual clarity to aid understanding.
 
For her photograph Beams of Light Through Glass she described the process:
"Multiple beams of light from a source change direction when they go into a glass plate and when they emerge. Some waves are reflected inside the glass and then escape. The prism photograph was done very carefully. The prism was filled with water and not one drop of air was inside. The box that held the light source was specially designed and purposely looks as it does to make for a better composition."[35]
 
  
10.09   Scientific >  Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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The loss of scale through high levels of magnification takes us into undreamt of world of visual forms. In the series Bee by Los Angeles photographer Rose-Lynn Fisher an exploration of the honeybee takes us from the commonplace into a world of spikes, hooks, scales and complex shapes:
Photographs of a honeybee through a scanning electron microscope reveal a realm of design and function that stretches our sense of scale and wonder to another order of magnitude and brings science to the threshold of art. With highly magnified views of the bee’s eyes, antennae, wings, legs, hair, and abdomen through the perspective of microscopy, these images present a new frontier right here in our everyday world. In the process of exploring a bee under a microscope, we enter a realm of design, structure and pattern at an astonishing level of detail; and as the magnifications increase, the integrity of form is continuously revealed. When our sense of scale has no frame of reference, the micro and macro worlds seem interchangeable. Our familiar context confounded, the interplay of observation and imagination can inspire new ideas, connections, and applications. Seeing what exists at the micro level naturally extends to a more sensitized awareness of what is all around us in the visible and invisible worlds. Considering the endless structures and forms that comprise a little bee at higher and higher magnifications, we get a hint of the amazing, unending complexity of nature all around us. This can be startling and inspiring, and my hope is to foster deeper curiosity, greater appreciation, awe and marvel for the honeybee. After looking up close at the honeybee, one can never think of this tiny amazing creature in the same way again.[36]
 
  
   Rose-Lynn  Fisher 
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Science and religion 
  
10.10   Scientific >  Evolution and the Biblical flood 
  
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The nineteenth century was an age of technological progress and intellectual rigour that used scientific evidence to confront religious doctrine. This was the age of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913). Their expeditions and analysis of evidence from the natural world provided the foundation for evolutionary biology. When On the Origin of Species was published in 1859 it questioned beliefs in the stability of a God-given natural order. Investigations of fossil beds were uncovered bones of life forms that no longer existed on Earth and although the Biblical Flood could be used the reason it was becoming increasingly difficult to support. By 1855 at the Crystal Palace Exhibition large models of extinct animals were placed in the grounds and these were photographed by Philip Henry Delamotte.[37] At this point it had only been about 16 years since the announcement of photography by Daguerre and photography was being used to provide scientific evidence to support hypotheses that would fundamentally alter how humans understood time and biology. A photograph by an unidentified photographer Two workmen in the gravel pit near the Seminary of St Acheul, 27 April 1859. The standing workman is pointing to the in situ flint[38] taken on 27 April 1859 is critical in our understanding of human evolution. Within the section of a gravel pit there and human-made lithic tools beneath layers of bones for extinct animals. The new science of photography was being harnessed to reassess everything that had previously been thought about the development of humans. 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ There are numerous studies of scientific photography and some useful overviews - Jon Darius, 1984, Beyond Vision: One Hundred Historic Scientific Photographs, (Oxford University Press); Kelley Wilder, 2009, Photography and Science, (Reaktion Books); Corey Keller (ed.), 2008, Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible, 1840-1900, (Yale University Press), Exhibition catalogue; Jennifer Tucker, 2006, Nature Exposed: Photography as Eyewitness in Victorian Science, (Johns Hopkins University Press) 
      
  2. Λ For high speed and scroboscopic camera photography - Harold Edgerton; Estelle Jussim & Gus Kayafas (ed.) , 1987, Stopping Time, The Photographs of Harold Edgerton, (New York: Abrams); Harold E. Edgerton & James, R. Killian, 1954, Flash!: Seeing the Unseen By Ultra High-speed Photography, (Boston: Charles T. Branford); Harold E. Edgerton & James, R. Killian, 1984, Moments of Vision: The Stroboscopic Revolution in Photography, (The MIT Press) 
      
  3. Λ For animals in movement the works by Muybridge are the classics - Muybridge_01 
      
  4. Λ Henry Fox Talbot appreciated the utility of the microscope for photography and took early examples. During the nbineteenth century books were published on it including - René Patrice Proudhon Dagron , 1864, Traité de Photographie Microscopique, (Paris) 
      
  5. Λ Lennart Nilsson, 1966, A Child is Born: The Drama of Life Before Birth, (New York: Delacorte Press); Lennart Nilsson, 1987, The Body Victorious: The Illustrated Story of our Immune System, (New York: Delacorte Press) 
      
  6. Λ Alexander Tsiaras, 1997, Body Voyage: A Three-Dimensional Tour of a Real Human Body, (Warner Books); Alexander Tsiaras, 2002, From Conception to Birth : A Life Unfolds, (Doubleday) 
      
  7. Λ For examples of astrophotography - David Malin, 1993, A View of the Universe, ( Cambridge University Press); David Malin, 2009, Ancient Light: A Portrait of the Universe, (Phaidon); Stefan Hughes, 2013, Catchers of the Light: A History of Astrophotography, (Stefan Hughes self-published) 
      
  8. Λ The photograph of "Major General Horatio Gordon Robley with his collection of tattooed Maori heads" (1895) in the Wellcome Images (L0032965) collection is disturbing. In E. G. Allingham, 1924, A romance of the rostrum, being the business life of Henry Stevens together with some account of famous sales, pp. 204-205 an account is provided:
    The most gruesome offerings [auctoned by Henry Stevens] were shrunken human heads, sold by Stevens on several occasions, the most remarkable being, in 1902, the collection of thirty-three tattooed Maori heads, the property of General Robley, who, it is said, decorated his bedroom wall with these relics and 'when unable to sleep at night would rise and comb his Maoris' hair, and felt himself soothed'
    The Wellcome Library says - "The accuracy of Allingham's account is questionable" but does not provide the reason for doubt. 
      
  9. Λ Carl Linnaeus, 1753, Species Plantarum, (Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius) 
      
  10. Λ Also known as Carl von Linné. 
      
  11. Λ For Georg Dionysius Ehret [1708-1770] - E.S. Barton, 1896, "A Memoir of Georg Dionysius Ehret [1708-1770]", Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. 1894-95, pp. 41-58; C. Murdoch, 1970, G.D. Ehret: Botanical artist: A tribute to his genius, (Inverness), 28pp.
     
    Georg Dionys Ehret Collection - Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Melloon University
    (Accessed: 9 March 2014)
    huntbot.andrew.cmu.edu/HIBD/Departments/Art/Ehret.shtml 
      
  12. Λ Commonly known as "Twinflower" or "Twin flower". 
      
  13. Λ Curatorial notes for - Emma Schenson (1827-1913), "The Bedroom of Linnaeus" [Memorials of Linnaeus], 1864, Albumen print, from glass negative, 16.3 x 13.8 cm, Victoria and Albert Museum, Museum number: 72:382 
      
  14. Λ The life dates are: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1833); Louis Daguerre (1787-1851); John Herschel (1792-1871); Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) 
      
  15. Λ Examples of some of the key books on nineteenth century botany include - Matthias Schleiden, 1842, Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen Botanik (Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann) published in English in 1849 as Principles of Scientific Botany, (Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans); George Bentham, 1858, Handbook of the British flora, (London: Lovell Reeve); G. Bentham and J.D. Hooker, 1862-1883, Genera plantarum :ad exemplaria imprimis in Herberiis Kewensibus servata definite, (London), 3 volumes.
     
    This is a small selection of a highly intensive period of botanical research around the world. 
      
  16. Λ William J, Croft, 2006, Under the Microscope: A Brief History of Microscopy, (World Scientific), Volume 5 of Series in popular science 
      
  17. Λ There are many examples of books on collecting specimens that went through multiple editions - Thomas Brown, 1881, The Taxidermist's Manual: Or, the Art of Collecting, Preparing, and Preserving Objects of Natural History, Designed for the Use of Travelers, Conservators of Museums and Private Collectors, (G.P. Putnam) ; John Ellor Taylor (ed.), 1883, Notes on Collecting and Preserving Natural-history Objects, (London: W.H. Allen), New edition 
      
  18. Λ For Henry Fox Talbot and the Bertoloni Album - Malcolm Daniel, 1992, 'L’Album Bertoloni', in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 
      
  19. Λ Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  20. Λ Malcolm Daniel, 1992, ‘L’Album Bertoloni‘, in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 
      
  21. Λ Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication] 
      
  22. Λ Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication) 
      
  23. Λ Examples of botanical gardens with their foundation dates:
     
    Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden (1714)
    Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (1755)
    Kew Gardens (1759)
    Botanic Gardens St. Vincent, West Indies (1764)
    Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1808)
    Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, (1816)
    Singapore Botanical Gardens (1822)
    Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis (1859)
    Hong Kong Botanic Gardens, (1871)
    Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University (1872)
    Orman Garden, Cairo, Egypt (1875)
    New York Botanical Garden (1891)
    Huntington Botanical Gardens (1906)
     
    Along with botanical gardens specialist libraries were founded:
     
    Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh (1961) now the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation 
      
  24. Λ Vasculum - a usually metal and commonly cylindrical or flattened covered box used in collecting plants. (Merriam-Webster) 
      
  25. Λ Veitch Nurseries - Wikipedia
    (Acquired: 1 April 2014)
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Veitch_Nurseries
     
    William Lobb, a notable early plant collector, left Falmouth in England in November 1840 for Brazil, the Andes and Chile on an expedition for James Veitch (1792-1863) the son of John Veitch (1752-1839) who founded the nursery. 
      
  26. Λ Thanks to Dan Weinstock for his thoughts on early botanical photography. (pers. emails, Dan Weinstock to Alan Griffiths, 31 March 2014) 
      
  27. Λ Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) - The Arnold Arboteum of Harvard University
    (Accessed: 31 March 2014)
    arboretum.harvard.edu/library/image-collection/botanical-and-cultural-images-of-eastern-asia/ernest-henry-wilson/ 
      
  28. Λ George F. Barker, 1899, Röntgen Rays: Memoirs by Röntgen, Stokes and J.J. Thomson, (Harper & Brothers) 
      
  29. Λ September, 1896, "X Rays in Surgery", Appletons' Popular Science Monthly, pp. 711-712; William James Morton & Edwin W. Hammer, 1896, The X-ray; or, Photography of the invisible and its value in surgery, (American Technical Book Co.); Carl Beck, 1904, Röntgen ray diagnosis and therapy, (New York: D. Appleton) 
      
  30. Λ January 26, 1896, The New York Times 
      
  31. Λ February 5, 1896, "Some Startling Results at Yale - Prof. Bumstead Secures Some Very Interesting Pictures", The New York Times 
      
  32. Λ The Smithsonian Field Book Project (FBP)
    (Accessed: 30 October 2013)
    The Field Book Project 
      
  33. Λ Elizabeth McCausland & Berenice Abbott, 1939, Changing New York, (New York: E. P. Dutton); Berenice Abbott, 1973, New York in the Thirties, (Dover Publications); Bonnie Yochelson, 1997, Berenice Abbott: Changing New York, (New York: The New Press; New York: Museum of the City of New York) 
      
  34. Λ Hank O'Neal & Berenice Abbott, 1982, Berenice Abbott: American Photographer, (Steidl) 
      
  35. Λ Hank O'Neal & Berenice Abbott, 1982, Berenice Abbott: American Photographer, (Steidl) 
      
  36. Λ Rose-Lynn Fisher, 2010, Bee, (Princeton Architectural Press) 
      
  37. Λ For the Philip Henry Delamotte photographs of the models of extinct animals - British Library, Shelfmark: Tab.442.a.5
     
    For a contemporary description of the extinct animals - Samuel Phillips, 1857, Guide to the Crystal Palace and Park, p. 189-197 
      
  38. Λ  Unidentified photographer/creatro, "Two workmen in the gravel pit near the Seminary of St Acheul, 27 April 1859. The standing workman is pointing to the in situ flint", 1859, 27 April, Albumen print, Bibliothèques d'Amiens Métropole 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Bendavid-Val, Leah, 1994, National Geographic: The Photographs, (Washington, National Geographic) [Δ
  
Bracegirdle, Brian, 1998, Microscopical Mounts and Mounters, (London: Quekett Microscopical Club) isbn-10: 0951444131 isbn-13: 978-0951444139 [Δ
  
Darius, Jon, 1984, Beyond Vision: One Hundred Historic Scientific Photographs, (Oxford University Press) isbn-10: 0198532458 isbn-13: 978-0198532453 [Δ
  
Edwards, Elizabeth, 2001, Raw Histories: Photographs, Anthropology and Museums, (Berg Publishers) isbn-10: 1859734979 isbn-13: 978-1859734971 [Δ
  
Ellenbogen, Josh, 2012, Reasoned and Unreasoned Images: The Photography of Bertillon, Galton, and Marey, (Penn State University Press) isbn-10: 0271052597 isbn-13: 978-0271052595 [Δ
  
Escard, F., 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot) [Δ
  
Figuier, Louis, 1869, Merveilles de la Science, (Paris) [Δ
  
Girard, Jules, 1869, La Chambre Noire et le Microscope, (Paris: F. Savy) [Δ
  
Heiferman, Marvin (ed.) & Foresta, Merry, 2012, Photography Changes Everything, (Aperture / Smithsonian) isbn-10: 1597111996 isbn-13: 978-1597111997 [Δ
  
Hughes, Stefan, 2013, Catchers of the Light: A History of Astrophotography, (Stefan Hughes self-published) [Over 1550 pages, more than 1800 photographs/illustrations, in excess of 2000 references/notes, containing also 46 in-depth pioneer biographies in 9 Parts with 8 Appendices] [Δ
  
Keller, Corey, 2008, Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible, 1840-1900, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300142102 isbn-13: 978-0300142105 [Δ
  
Krauss, Rolf E., 1978, ‘Photographs as Early Science Book Illustrations‘, History of Photography, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 291-314 [Δ
  
Libbrecht, Kenneth, 2007, The Art of the Snowflake: A Photographic Album, (Voyageur Press) isbn-10: 0760329974 isbn-13: 978-0760329979 [Δ
  
Malm, A.W., 1867, Monographie illustrée du baleinoptère trouvé le 29 Octobre 1865 sur la côte occidentale de Suède, (tockholm: P. A. Norstedt et fils) [Δ
  
Ostroff, Eugene (ed.), 1987, Pioneers of Photography: Their Achievements in Science and Technology, (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology) [Δ
  
Pinney, Christopher, 2011, Photography and Anthropology, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 1861898045 isbn-13: 978-1861898043 [Δ
  
Scott, Jean, 2002, Stanhopes: A Closer View - A History and Handbook for Collectors of Microphotographic Novelties, (Greenlight Publishing) isbn-10: 1897738099 isbn-13: 978-1897738092 [Δ
  
Thomas, Ann (ed.), 1997, Beauty of Another Order: Photography in Science, (New Haven: Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300073402 isbn-13: 978-0300073409 [Δ
  
Tucker, Jennifer, 2006, Nature Exposed: Photography as Eyewitness in Victorian Science, (Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 0801879914 isbn-13: 978-0801879913 [Δ
  
Valens, Evans G., 1969, The Attractive Universe: Gravity and the Shape of Space, (Cleveland: World Publishing Co.) [Illustrations by Berenice Abbott] [Δ
  
Wilder, Kelly, 2009, Photography and Science, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 186189399X isbn-13: 978-1861893994 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Berenice Abbott 
  
Abbott, Berenice, 2012, Documenting Science, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869304316 isbn-13: 978-3869304311 [Reprint edition] [Δ
  
Anna Atkins 
  
Atkins, Anna, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication] [Δ
  
Atkins, Anna, 1853, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Ferns, (Private publication) [Copy at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, USA] [Δ
  
Atkins, Anna, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication) [Δ
  
Schaaf, Larry J. (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) [Δ
  
Hugo Bernatzik 
  
Byer, D., 1999, Der Fall H. A. Bernatzik. Ein Leben zwischen Ethnologie und Öffentlichkeit 1897-1953, (Cologne: Böhlau) isbn-10: 3412083992 [German] [Δ
  
Adolphe Bertsch 
  
Bertsch, Auguste-Adolphe, 1857-1858 (ca), Etudes d'histoire naturelle au microscope, (Paris: no publisher) [Δ
  
Golding Bird 
  
Bird, Golding, 1844, Elements of Natural Philosophy: Being an Experimental Introduction to the Study of the Physical Sciences, (London: John Churchill) [2nd edition, and later editions] [Δ
  
Bird, Golding, 1939, 20 April, ‘Fac-Simile of a Photogenic Drawing‘, Mirror, vol. XXXIII, no. 945 [With reprint of Bird’s article in Magazine of Natural History] [Δ
  
Bird, Golding, 1939, April, ‘Observations on the Application of Heliographic or Photogenic Drawing to Botanical Purposes‘, Magazine of Natural History, vol. n.s. 3, pp. 188-92 [Δ
  
Charles Brooke 
  
Brooke, Charles, 1847, ‘On the Automatic Registration of Magnetometers, and other Meteorological Instruments, by Photography‘, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Part I, vol. 137, pp. 69-77 [Δ
  
Brooke, Charles, 1850, ‘On the Automatic Registration of Magnetometers, and Meteorological Instruments, by Photography. No. III‘, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 140, pp. 83-97 [Δ
  
Brooke, Charles, 1852, ‘On the Automatic Registration of Magnetometers, and Meteorological Instruments, by Photography. No. IV‘, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 142, pp. 19-24 [Δ
  
René Patrice Proudhon Dagron 
  
Dagron, R.P.P., 1864, ‘Microscopic photography‘, British Journal of Photography, p. 402 [Δ
  
Dagron, R.P.P., 1864, Traité de Photographie Microscopique, (Paris) [Δ
  
John Benjamin Dancer 
  
Arden, L.L., 1960, John Benjamin Dancer: The Originator of Microphotography, (London: The Library Association) [Δ
  
Bracegirdle, Brian & McCormick, James B., 1993, The Microscopic Photographs of J.B. Dancer, (Chicago: Science Heritage Ltd) isbn-10: 0940095106 isbn-13: 978-0940095106 [Δ
  
Délié & Béchard 
  
Mariette, Auguste, 1872, Album du Musée de Boulaq: Comprenant quarante planches photographiées par MM. Délié et Béchard avec un texte explicatif, (Le Caire: Mourths & Cie, Imprimeurs-Editeurs) [Δ
  
Harold E. Edgerton 
  
Bruce, Roger (ed.), 1994, Seeing the Unseen: Dr. Harold Edgerton and the Wonders of Strobe Alley, (Rochester, NY: George Eastman House) [Δ
  
Edgerton, Harold E., 2000, Exploring the Art and Science of Stopping Time: A CD-ROM Based on the Life and Work of Harold E. Edgerton, (The MIT Press) [Δ
  
Edgerton, Harold E. & Killian, James R., 1954, Flash!: Seeing the Unseen By Ultra High-speed Photography, (Boston: Charles T. Branford) [Second edition] [Δ
  
Edgerton, Harold E. & Killian, James R., 1984, Moments of Vision: The Stroboscopic Revolution in Photography, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262550105 isbn-13: 978-0262550109 [Δ
  
Edgerton, Harold; Jussim, Estelle & Kayafas, Gus (ed.), 1987, Stopping Time, The Photographs of Harold Edgerton, (New York: Abrams) [Δ
  
Elkins, James & Edgereton, Harold, 2003, After & Before: Documenting the A-bomb, (Roth Horowitz, LLC/PPP Editions) isbn-10: 0971548005 isbn-13: 978-0971548008 [Δ
  
Albert Londe 
  
Londe, Albert, 1888, La Photographie dans les arts, les sciences et l'industrie, (Paris: Gauthier -Villars et fils) [Δ
  
Londe, Albert, 1893, La photographie dans les voyages d'exploration et les missions scientifique, ([Paris?: Association Pour L'Avancement des Sciences?]) [Δ
  
Étienne Jules Marey 
  
1977, E. J. Marey, 1830–1904: La Photographie du Mouvement, (Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou) [Δ
  
Braun, Marta, 1994, Picturing Time: The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey (1830–1904), (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press) [Δ
  
Eadweard Muybridge 
  
Adam, Hans-Christian, 2010, Eadweard Muybridge: The Human and Animal Locomotion Photographs, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836509415 isbn-13: 978-3836509411 [Δ
  
Haas, Robert Bartlett, 1976, Muybridge: Man in Motion, (Berkeley: University of California Press) [Δ
  
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1893, Descriptive Zoopraxography or the Science of Animal Locomotion made popular, (University of Pennsylvania: Bureau of Education at the World's Columbian Exposition, in Zoopraxographical Hall) [Δ
  
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1972, Eadweard Muybridge: The Stanford Years, 1872–1882, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Museum of Art) [Introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley] [Δ
  
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1979, Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion, (New York: Dover) [Introduction by Anita Ventura Mosley] [Δ
  
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1979, Muybridge’s Complete Human and Animal Locomotion, (New York: Dover Publications) [3 volumes, Introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley] [Δ
  
Stillman, J.D.B., 1882, The Horse in Motion, As Shown by Instantaneous Photography, With a Study on Animal Mechanics, (Boston: James R. Osgood and Company) [Δ
  
Lennart Nilsson 
  
Forsell, Jacob (ed.), 2002, Lennart Nilsson: Images of His Life, (Stockholm: Bokförlaget Max Ström) [Δ
  
Nilsson, Lennart, 1966, A Child is Born: The Drama of Life Before Birth, (New York: Delacorte Press) [Reprinted 1971] [Δ
  
Nilsson, Lennart, 1987, The Body Victorious: The Illustrated Story of our Immune System, (New York: Delacorte Press) [Δ
  
Charles Piazzi Smyth 
  
Smyth, C. Piazzi, 1858, Teneriffe - An Astronomer's Experiment, (Lowell Reeve) [Δ
  
B.L. Spackman 
  
Physick, John, 1975, Photography and the South Kensington Museum, (London: Victoria & Albert Museum) [Benjamin L. Spackman, pp. 3-4] [Δ
  
Henry Fox Talbot 
  
Brusius, Mirjam; Dean, Katrina & Ramalingam, Chitra (eds.), 2013, William Henry Fox Talbot: Beyond Photography, (Yale University Press / Yale Center for British Art and the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art) isbn-13: 978-0300179347 [With essays by Katrina Dean, Eleanor Robson, Mirjam Brusius, Graham Smith, Larry J. Schaaf, Simon Schaffer, Herta Wolf, Vered Maimon, Anne Secord, Chitra Ramalingam, and June Barrow-Green] [Δ
  
Smith, Graham, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 [Δ
  
Alexander Tsiaras 
  
Tsiaras, Alexander, 1997, Body Voyage: A Three-Dimensional Tour of a Real Human Body, (Little, Brown & Company) isbn-10: 0446520098 isbn-13: 978-0446520096 [Δ
  
Tsiaras, Alexander, 2002, From Conception to Birth : A Life Unfolds, (Doubleday) isbn-10: 0385503180 isbn-13: 978-0385503181 [Δ
  
Tsiaras, Alexander, 2005, The InVision Guide to a Healthy Heart, (Harper Paperbacks) isbn-10: 0060855932 isbn-13: 978-0060855932 [Δ
  
Tsiaras, Alexander, 2008, The InVision Guide to Lifeblood, (Collins Living) isbn-10: 0060879106 isbn-13: 978-0060879105 [Δ
  
Tsiaras, Alexander & Boskey, Elizabeth, 2006, The InVision Guide to Sexual Health, (Harper Collins) isbn-10: 0060879092 isbn-13: 978-0060879099 [Δ
  
Joseph Janvier Woodward 
  
Woodward, J.J., 1873, November, U.S. Army Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 262, The Toner Lectures, Washington, U.S.A., Lecture I: "On the Structure of Cancerous Tumours, and the Mode in which Adjacent Parts are Invaded." [Δ
  
Woodward, Joseph Janvier, 1871, Report to the Surgeon General of the United States Army on an Improved Method of Photographing Histological Preparations by Sunlight, (Washington D.C.) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Nineteenth Century Balloons 
http://www.geh.org ... 
  
Images from Science 
http://www.rit.edu ... 
Images from Science: An Exhibition of Scientific Photography. Was on view at Rochester Institute of Photography from Oct 12 - Nov 8, 2002 
  
Andrew Davidhazy - Professor - Imaging and Photographic Technology, Rochester Institute of Technology 
http://www.rit.edu ... 
Has an amazing range of different studies in high speed and scientific photography. If you like the work of Harold Edgerton you will certainly like these. 
  
Lennart Nilsson 
http://www.rit.edu ... 
A pioneer in scientific and medical photography. 
  
German physicist Ernst Mach (1838-1916) 
http://www.bath.ac.uk ... 
Ernst Mach worked in the fields of optics, acoustics, ballistics, and gas dynamics. He and his colleagues took nearly 950 original photographs between 1885 and 1895 and this site includes examples. 
  
Medical and scientific photography 
http://msp.rmit.edu.au ... 
  
Eadweard Muybridge 
http://www.cmp.ucr.edu 
Go to the "Collections - Permanent" page. 
  
Inventions 
http://www.geh.org ... 
  
The Moon 
http://www.geh.org ... 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Laure Albin-Guillot  (1879-1962) • Ottomar Anschütz  (1846-1907) • François Arago  (1786-1853) • Anna Atkins  (1799-1871) • George F. Atkinson  (check) • Arthur Clive Banfield  (1875-1965) • Wilson A. Bentley  (1865-1931) • Adolphe Bertsch  (1813-1871) • Golding Bird  (1814-1854) • Antonio Giulio Bragaglia  (check) • Charles Brooke  (1804-1879) • Cora Huidekoper Clarke  (1851-1916) • Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre  (1787-1851) • Andrew Davidhazy  (1941-) • John Edward Davis  (1815-1877) • John William Draper  (1811-1882) • Harold E. Edgerton  (1903-1990) • Armand Hippolyte Fizeau  (1819-1896) • Sir Francis Galton  (1822-1911) • Frank B. Gilbreth  (1868-1924) • Lillian Gilbreth  (1878-1972) • Gilbreth & Gilbreth • Ernst Mach  (1838-1916) • Étienne Jules Marey  (1830-1904) • Gjon Mili  (1904-1984) • Eadweard Muybridge  (1830-1904) • Richard Neuhauss • Lennart Nilsson  (1922-) • Gary Schneider  (1954-) • Thomas Smillie  (1843-1917) • Henry Fox Talbot  (1800-1877) • A.M. Worthington
HomeThemes > Scientific 
 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Scientists and innovators 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Scientific

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAerial photography 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 13, 2010) Satellite imagery has been transferred into a separate exhibition. (30 May 2010)
ThumbnailAnna Atkins 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 9, 2010)
ThumbnailAntarctica - Le Grand Blanc 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 21, 2010)
ThumbnailDr. Hugh Welch Diamond: Patients at Surrey Asylum (ca. 1855) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 30, 2013)
ThumbnailGalerie Universelle des Peuples: Alsace (Strasbourg, 1865) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 17, 2006)
ThumbnailJens Knigge: Foreign Bodies and the Bowel 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 9, 2008)
ThumbnailKarl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 3, 2006)
ThumbnailPortraits: Ethnic 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 4, 2006)
ThumbnailPrince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (August 17, 2006)
ThumbnailProfessor Albert Richards: X-rays of Flowers 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (April 16, 2010)
ThumbnailRose-Lynn Fisher: Bee 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 23, 2010) A miniature world of wondrous beauty.
ThumbnailSatellite imagery of Earth 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 30, 2010) Further iconic examples requested.
ThumbnailScientific: 19th Century Archaeology 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 10, 2010)
ThumbnailScientific: 19th Century Botany 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 27, 2010)
ThumbnailScientific: 19th Century Expeditions 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 19, 2010) Suggestions for additional expeditions that utilized photography are most welcome.
ThumbnailScientific: 19th Century Geology and Palaeontology 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 13, 2011)
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomical Snapshots - 1911-1915 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (September 1, 2008)
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy - Early examples 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (November 3, 2010) Still seeking further examples of observatories and the Transit of Venus Expeditions in 1874 and 1882.
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy - The Modern Age 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 13, 2010)
ThumbnailScientific: Medical 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 16, 2010) Warning: These images may be considered disturbing and I would recommend that you do not view this exhibition if you are of a sensitive disposition.
ThumbnailScientific: Medical - Guillaume-Amant Duchenne de Boulogne 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 8, 2010)
ThumbnailScientific: Medical - Mental health and hypnosis 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 22, 2010) Warning: These images may be considered disturbing and I would recommend that you do not view this exhibition if you are of a sensitive disposition.
ThumbnailScientific: Movement 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 8, 2010)
ThumbnailScientific: Photomicroscopy - An introduction 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 22, 2010) Thanks to Prof. Brian Stevenson for providing the Frederick Henry Evans and Alfred Reeves examples. If anybody has J.B. Dancer examples or a copy of his list of microscopic slides I would be grateful.
ThumbnailScientific: Photomicroscopy of Carl Strüwe (1898–1988) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (February 15, 2008)
ThumbnailScientific: Photomicroscopy of Joseph Janvier Woodward (1833-1884) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 23, 2006)
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 22, 2010)
ThumbnailThe Atomic Age 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (January 17, 2010)
ThumbnailTimothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (March 23, 2008)
ThumbnailWilson A. Bentley: Snowflakes 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 19, 2011)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Scientific

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   People 
  
ThumbnailAlbert Einstein 
ThumbnailCharles Darwin 
ThumbnailCharles Lyell 
ThumbnailLouis Agassiz 
ThumbnailMichael Faraday 
 
 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailA. Hardy & A de Montméja: Clinique Photographique de l'hopital Saint-Louis 
ThumbnailA.M. Worthington: Splash of a Drop of Water falling 40 cm. into Milk 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAdolphe Bertsch: Photomicrographs 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlbert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAlfred Ehrhardt: Photomicroscopy 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAnna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Ferns 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailAnna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBerenice Abbott: Science 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCharles Lewis Gazin: Field note books 
ThumbnailDr. Richard Neuhauss: Snowflakes and ice crystals 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEder & Valenta: X-rays 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailEdward Chapin: Field note books 
ThumbnailFrederick H. Evans: Photomicroscopy 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGeorg Dionysius Ehret: Botanical illustrations 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot : Botany 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: Photomicrographs 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Fox Talbot: The Bertoloni Album 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHugh Welch Diamond: Surrey County Lunatic Asylum 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJohn Charles Slovin: Microphotographs 
ThumbnailJohn Dillwyn Llewelyn: Thereza Dillwyn Llewelyn with Her Microscope 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail John Edward Saché: Studies of Indian insects 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoseph Janvier Woodward: Head Louse 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoseph Janvier Woodward: Photomicroscopy 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJoseph Janvier Woodward: Striated Muscular Fibres of Mouse 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJulia Margaret Cameron: Portraits of Sir John Frederick William Herschel 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailNadar: Hermaphrodite 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailOtto Muller: Photomicrographs of plants 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhilippe Potteau: Ethnographic portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhillipe Potteau and Louis Pierre Rousseau: Ethnographic portraits 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailPhillipe Potteau: Portraits of Moustafa ben Ouarga 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailRichebourg: Carte géologique détaillée de la France, Feuille 48.- Paris 
ThumbnailRoger Fenton: Skeleton of Man and of the Male Gorilla 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThe Physiognomy of Insanity, by Dr. Conolly. Photographs taken from Life. By Dr. Diamond 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailThomas Child: China: Pekin: Observatory 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWhipple & Black: Astronomy 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilliam Henry Jackson: La Veta Pass, Colorado (July 1877) 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailTimothy H. O'Sullivan - Charles Lewis Gazin 
 
 
  
   Occupationals 
  
ThumbnailBotanists 
 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailSaädang-Toradja's (Celebes, Dutch Indies) 
ThumbnailScientific: Anthropology 
ThumbnailScientific: Anthropology: Tipos 
ThumbnailScientific: Archaeology 
ThumbnailScientific: Archaeology: Mr. Prestwich and the quarries at St. Acheul 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Comets and meteors 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Constellations 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Meterorites 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Moon 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Planetariums 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Solar eclipses 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Telescopes 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: The Modern Age 
ThumbnailScientific: Astronomy: Transit of Venus 
ThumbnailScientific: Botany 
ThumbnailScientific: Chemistry 
ThumbnailScientific: Contemporary 
ThumbnailScientific: Ethnic and traditional costume 
ThumbnailScientific: Expeditions: Greeley 
ThumbnailScientific: Expeditions: The 19th century American surveys 
ThumbnailScientific: Expeditions: Wheeler Survey (1871-1874) 
ThumbnailScientific: Geology: Geysers 
ThumbnailScientific: Geology: Glaciers 
ThumbnailScientific: Geology: Rock formations 
ThumbnailScientific: Geology: Volcanoes and volcanic eruptions 
ThumbnailScientific: Laboratories 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Dermatology 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Blindness 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Deafness 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Disability and advertising 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Disability in film 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Eugenics 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Missing limbs 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Wheelchairs 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Disabilities: Wounds 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Instruments 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Operations 
ThumbnailScientific: Medical: Visible Human Project 
ThumbnailScientific: Movement and motion 
ThumbnailScientific: Movement and motion: Marey Wheel photographs 
ThumbnailScientific: Museums 
ThumbnailScientific: Palaentology 
ThumbnailScientific: Photomicroscopy 
ThumbnailScientific: Photomicroscopy: Microscopes 
ThumbnailScientific: Photomicroscopy: Texts and portraits 
ThumbnailScientific: Satellite imagery of Earth 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Animals 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Feet 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Flowers 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Hands 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Miscellany 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Skull 
ThumbnailScientific: X-rays: Sources 
ThumbnailSmithsonian Institution: Field Book Project 
ThumbnailStroboscopes and stroboscopy 
ThumbnailThe relationships between science and the World Fairs and International Exhibitions 
 
 
  
   Techniques 
  
ThumbnailCyanotypes: Themes: Botany 
ThumbnailDaguerreotypes: Themes: Scientific 
ThumbnailScanning electron microscope 
 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailBotany laboratory of the Philadelphia Normal School for Girls 
ThumbnailEvolution vs. The Biblical Flood 
Thumbnail[The pond in front of the Linnean House, Shaw's Missouri Botanical Garden 
 
 
  
Refreshed: 13 April 2014, 22:13
 
  
 
  
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