|Contents||This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated.|
10.01 Scientific > Introduction to scientific photography
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Human perception is based upon a continuous stream of sensory impulses that are never exactly the same - when the first photograph captured a single moment permanently the way we perceived the world changed in the same way that when we saw the first picture of the Earth from space. It was a defining moment that forced us to examine the preservation of a single view of a captured reality. Since that moment photography has been extended by new scientific discoveries and approaches to push forward our understanding of the world around us in ways that our 'normal' vision does not permit.
There are incalculable benefits of scientific photography in industry, medicine, forensics and defense. In the natural science every branch of it has been fundamentally enhanced by images that allow us to extend our limited vision by the use of specialized techniques. Examples include high speed photography to capture an instant such as the falling of a droplet of milk, the passing of a bullet through an apple or the spinning of a rotor blade. At the opposite end slow motion demonstrates trends in movement such as the swinging of an arm or the movement of a horses' leg.
Eadweard Muybridge: Animals in motion
Ottomar Anschütz: Horse and rider jumping over an obstacle (1885-1886)
Harold Edgerton: High speed and stroboscopic photography
Still other techniques extend the range of the visible light spectrum by the use of x-rays, infrared and ultraviolet light and improved night vision cameras allow us to examine the nocturnal habits of species in ways that were not previously possible.
Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays
The use of photomicroscopy allows us to go into the structure of objects, down the blood vessels and nervous systems of animals and using higher powered techniques into the atoms themselves. The advances in medical photography and imaging have through the works of Lennart Nilsson and Alexander Tsiaris revealed how the body functions with clarity.
Alexander Tsiaris: Bookcovers
At the macro level of astronomy we see universes in a single image and study the inter-relationships of gravitational forces between objects. Using data visualization techniques we can create images that appear to be photographs but are in fact representations of data - the patterns revealing understanding of weather patterns or fluid dynamics in novel and informative ways.
Canada: Side-scan sonar images of sunken vessels
Putting these points together we can see:
10.02 Scientific > Contemporary scientific imagery
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10.03 Scientific > Anthropology
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Anthropology (from the Greek anthropos, "man", and -logia, "discourse" or "study“) is the study of humanity.
Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning "people, nation, race") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.
Interest in classification of botanical and zoological species was initiated in the middle of the eighteenth century by Carl Linnaeus and well established by the time photography was announced in 1839. The first widespread public discussion of evolutionary biology was published in 1859 with Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. The foundation of these rationalist approaches was that scientific measurement could be applied to anything and would reveal knowledge. With physical anthropology and criminology the measurement of cranial capacity and skull shape was widely used as an indicator of intelligence and inner aspects of personality such as a predisposition to crime. It led to pseudo-sciences such as phrenology and would be used to support racial stereotypes and eugenics.
Anthropology was not immune to the desire to measure humanity and there are many traces of it within the photographic record - front on and profile portraits, subjects with numbers that would link to measurements, backgrounds with sized squares to assist in measurement, measuring sticks beside subjects and researchers with callipers and measuring instruments. The shape of the head was deemed to be highly informative and a variety of terms were used to describe it (symetrical / oval, narrow / elongated, broad / square faced) and these were used for comparative analysis as in the 1851 description by James Cowles Prichard:
The relative proportions and extent, and the peculiarities of formation, of the different parts of the cranium, are more fully discerned by this mode of comparison, which has hitherto been much neglected, than by any other method. In order, however, to form a correct idea of the varieties in the shape of the head which are peculiar to individuals or to races, it is necessary to examine every part, and to compare all the different aspects which the skull presents: the basis of the cranium, the vertical figure, the profile, and the front view, must all be described.
The full face and profile photographs of E. Thiésson, Chase and J.T. Zealy are all a part of this typological approach to humanity.
E. Thiesson: Botocudo [Brazil] (1844)
Chase: "Soo-Chune" aka "Le-Kaw-Hing" (1850)
J.T. Zealy: Drana (March 1850)
Expeditions had instructions on how to take appropriate photographs as this example from the Elder Scientific Exploring Expedition (1891-1892) in Australia stated:
Large-sized portraits of single individuals are much to be preferred to groups. It is desirable to have a standard of measurement, numbered in feet and inches, by which the aboriginal can stand when the portrait is being taken. 
Photography was used to create typologies of "the other" and prove the superiority of those taking the measurements. The tipos photographs showing the range of occupations of a populace and the photographs bought back from expeditions had little standardization and as such they were of limited use to anthropologists and ethnographers - whilst they were useful as curiosities their scientific use was limited. Thomas Huxley proposed a series of "photometric instructions" to take photographs and collect measurements in a standard form to encourage comparisons.
The Ethnological Society, under the presidency of Professor Huxley, is making arrangements to take photographs of specimens of all races of men in all parts of the globe. Such photographs should be taken before a background, ruled off by plainly visible lines into spaces six inches square, so that all the pictures shall show the dimensions of the individual photographed, and be directly comparable. The "sitter" should stand upright, and be in contact with the background.
Huxley proposed that the Colonial Office of the British Empire should be involved in the collection of such information from natives around the Empire. Photographing natives in the nude for the benefit of science was objectionable for multiple reasons, firstly it might be culturally inappropriate to those being photographed, and secondly in an age of Victorian prudery to request nudity was morally suspect.
Charles R. Browne: Anthropometry in Inishbofin
The sensitivities and standards of collecting and research have improved considerably since the nineteenth century and collectors are no longer photographed in front of trophy collections of tattooed Maori heads as Major General Horatio Gordon Robley was in 1895.
Major General Horatio Gordon Robley with his collection of tattooed Maori heads (1895)
The classification of humanity started with portraits of people with different ethnic origins often as single examples and as soon as one got full face portraits and profiles there was a change indicating that the photographers had a methodological framework and they were attempting not only a portrait but a representative set of images to "display a race" to others. The next step was to collect a series of portraits of people of a community who were representative of occupations - these were the tipos and there are series of those by Christiano Júnior (Brazil), Courret Hermanos (Bolivia), François Aubert (Mexico), William Carrick (Russia) and numerous others.
Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil)
Courret Hermanos: Tipos (Bolivia
François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico)
William Carrick: Russian occupationals
The tipos were sets for sale by photographers rather than anthropological studies but they were collected by anthropologists as examples of the different peoples of the world. Once sufficient photographs were available from the world they could be put together in volumes as a visual directory rather like a "rogue's gallery" and C. & F.W. Dammann's volume Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men (1875) was a rare early example of the collecting impulse.
C. & F.W. Dammann: Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men (1875)
In India there were several early examples of projects that attempted to bring together images of the different populations of the vast country. William Johnson & William Henderson published The Oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay (1863-1866) and soon after the multi volume The People of India (1868-1872) came out. In a similar vein Edward Sheriff Curtis would take the photographs and organise The North American Indian (1907-1926) which, despite some faults, stands are one of the finest examples of a comprehensive overview of a population.
Edward Sheriff Curtis: The North American Indian (1907-1926)
A key to understanding this is the progression from stand-alone portraits, to portraits taken to display a race, to the collection of those portraits for publication and on to the increasing detailed scientific studies of populations.
10.04 Scientific > 19th century botany
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Botany is the study of plant life in all its complexity. From the eighteenth century increasingly sophisticated classifications of plant species were being developed the most famous of which was the Species Plantarum of Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) published in 1753. The book was important, and still is, as it established a hierarchical binominal genus species nomenclature that could act as a foundation for research but still be added to and refined over time.
Botanical illustrations by Georg Dionysius Ehret (1707-1770)
The bedroom walls of Linnaeus were papered with proofs of botanical illustrations by Charles Plumier (French botanist and ecclesiastic, 1646-1704) and Georg Dionysius Ehret (botanical artist, 1707-1770) and his bed curtain was printed with designs based on the Linnaea borealis which was his favourite flower.
Emma Schenson (1827-1913), Memorials of Linnaeus
The works of Linneaus went through numerous editions and it is important to appreciate that the concepts proposed were only eighty years old by the 1830s when experimentation on photography was commencing in earnest prior to the official announcement by Daguerre in 1839. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was born in 1765 when Carl Linnaeus was still alive and other pioneers of photography including Jacques Mandé Daguerre, Henry Fox Talbot and John Herschel were born within 25 years of his death.
As scientific nomenclature was relatively recent there were innumerable gaps with new species awaiting discovery and description encouraging both professional interest from botanists and from large numbers of enthusiastic amateurs amongst the leisured classes supported by books and microscopes. The collecting of fossils, rocks, insects and plants along with the preservation of dried specimens was a widespread hobby in the nineteenth century. Scientific taxonomies were being prepared in Germany, France, Italy, England and elsewhere - all countries where photography was going to have a profound impact. Polymaths like Henry Fox Talbot and amateur botanists like Anna Atkins combined their interests in photography and botany - Talbot with the photogenic drawings that he sent to Italian botanist Antonio Bertoloni and Atkins with her cyanotypes of algae and flowering plants.
Gardens have been the basis of plant study and their applications to medicine, agriculture, herbs, scents and natural aesthetics since the Ancient World. Evolving through the Physic gardens of the Medieval period and the enlightenment into the scientific botanical gardens, herbariums and research centres of today. The writings of Linnaeus encouraged scientific rigour by providing an agreed structure for plant identification and description. The spread of botanical interest occurred during the most intense period of Colonialism which was partly based on the exploitation of natural, including plant-based, resources. The foundation of botanical gardens throughout the world from the early eighteenth century was an offshoot of this taxonomic zeal. Botanists with their plant presses and vasculums were travelling the world to collect specimens for research and nurseries.
Veitch, a nursery company in England, funded the first plant hunting expeditions in 1840. Photography was used for educational magic lantern slides of plants and in plant catalogues and on first glance it would seem ideal for taxonomic analysis but this is not the case. Herbariums and botanical gardens relied on original specimens for their work and a photograph could never be a substitute for that. Although botanists accompanied expeditions they were rarely the sole reason and therefore their photographic needs would be subservient to the military, railroad construction and survey objectives. This has the result that nineteenth century photographic botanical documentation is not as common as one would imagine. At the very end of the nineteenth century Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) undertook plant hunting expeditions for the English nursery firm Veitch and Sons and later for the Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University. Travelling widely between 1899 and 1922 in China, Japan and Korea Wilson brought back 2,488 glass plates showing botanical studies and landscapes but this was a rare exception.
Botanical teaching laboratories
10.05 Scientific > Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
With the discovery of x-rays by Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen (1845-1923) on 8th November 1895 there was realization that their applications to medicine, metallurgy, the non-destructive testing of materials, and other scientific and industrial processes would be immense. As the New York Times of 26 January 1896 said:
Rontgen's photographic discovery increasingly monopolizes scientific attention. Already numerous successful applications of it to surgical difficulties are reported from various countries, but perhaps even more striking are proofs that it will revolutionize methods in many departments of [the] metallurgical industry.
Experiments were carried out around the world as the news of the discovery spread and accounts appeared in contemporary newspapers. New York Times reported on Mr. Bumstead's experiments at Yale University:
Probably the most interesting of Mr. Brunstead's experiments were those with animals. For this purpose he used a fish, a mouse and a frog. After the usual exposure the backbone of the fish was easily distinguishable and another particularly opaque substance, evidently the swimming bladder. The frog displayed a portion of its sketeton with more or less vividness, the most apparent part being the leg bones, which were clearly visible. Perhaps the mouse was the most entertaining of all. The most evident part of its skeleton was the skull, which could be traced with little difficulty. 
Their power to reveal the hidden was exposed in a 1896 ditty:
I’m full of daze,
The discovery had such significant applications in the furtherance of science that Röntgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 - "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays)."
Shock and amaze;
I hear they’ll gaze
Thro’ cloak and gown — and even stays,
These naughty, naughty Roentgen Rays.
Worlds fairs and international exhibitions
10.06 Scientific > The relationships between science and the World Fairs and International Exhibitions
In an age of innovation, civil engineering and science International exhibitions and World Fairs flourished. They were symbols of Imperial power and influence, they showcased the resources and peoples of distant colonies along with the inventions of the age. Photography was announced in 1839 and the "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations", better known as the "Crystal Palace Exhibition", took place in London in 1851 only twelve years later. The history of photography and the International exhibitions and World Fairs is interwined just as technological developments with photography and film would be combined with the Olympics from 1896 onwards.
At International exhibitions and World Fairs there were displays of photographs, camera equipment along with scientific expeditions and their findings. Special volumes were prepared such as Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 which was an ethnographic study of the clothing of the Ottoman Empire with photographs taken by Pascal Sebah for the 1873 "Exposition Universelle de Vienne". At the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition an entire " Zoopraxographical Hall" was dedicated to thephotographic motion studies of Eadweard Muybridge.
10.07 Scientific > Smithsonian Field Book Project
The Smithsonian Field Book Project (FBP) commenced in 2010 to put online the thousands of field books and research notes created by scientists. Although this registary has commenced with the material held within the numerous Smithsonian collections the intention is to extend it to include field books from around the USA. The photographic richness within these collections has yet to be explored.
10.08 Scientific > Berenice Abbott: Science
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
Berenice Abbott is well know in photography for her advocacy of the documentation of Paris by Eugène Atget and for her project Changing New York. What is not so well known is her innovative body of work on the depiction of science. In the late 1950s following the impetus of Sputnik she worked for two years at MIT documenting mechanics, electromagnetism, and waves. As Berenice said:
"The scientific photographs had to be carefully composed, but they couldn't look that way. I didn't want the composition to be so obvious as to take over . . . when you look at a photograph and all you can see is the composition then you know it is a big flop." 
The aim was to create photographs that clearly showed in a comprehensible way the scientific concepts to be illustrated. This was a challenge and Bereince Abbott developed cameras, lighting systems and techniques to achieve visual clarity to aid understanding.
For her photograph Beams of Light Through Glass she described the process:
"Multiple beams of light from a source change direction when they go into a glass plate and when they emerge. Some waves are reflected inside the glass and then escape. The prism photograph was done very carefully. The prism was filled with water and not one drop of air was inside. The box that held the light source was specially designed and purposely looks as it does to make for a better composition."
10.09 Scientific > Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
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The loss of scale through high levels of magnification takes us into undreamt of world of visual forms. In the series Bee by Los Angeles photographer Rose-Lynn Fisher an exploration of the honeybee takes us from the commonplace into a world of spikes, hooks, scales and complex shapes:
Photographs of a honeybee through a scanning electron microscope reveal a realm of design and function that stretches our sense of scale and wonder to another order of magnitude and brings science to the threshold of art. With highly magnified views of the bee’s eyes, antennae, wings, legs, hair, and abdomen through the perspective of microscopy, these images present a new frontier right here in our everyday world. In the process of exploring a bee under a microscope, we enter a realm of design, structure and pattern at an astonishing level of detail; and as the magnifications increase, the integrity of form is continuously revealed. When our sense of scale has no frame of reference, the micro and macro worlds seem interchangeable. Our familiar context confounded, the interplay of observation and imagination can inspire new ideas, connections, and applications. Seeing what exists at the micro level naturally extends to a more sensitized awareness of what is all around us in the visible and invisible worlds. Considering the endless structures and forms that comprise a little bee at higher and higher magnifications, we get a hint of the amazing, unending complexity of nature all around us. This can be startling and inspiring, and my hope is to foster deeper curiosity, greater appreciation, awe and marvel for the honeybee. After looking up close at the honeybee, one can never think of this tiny amazing creature in the same way again.
Science and religion
10.10 Scientific > Evolution and the Biblical flood
The nineteenth century was an age of technological progress and intellectual rigour that used scientific evidence to confront religious doctrine. This was the age of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913). Their expeditions and analysis of evidence from the natural world provided the foundation for evolutionary biology. When On the Origin of Species was published in 1859 it questioned beliefs in the stability of a God-given natural order. Investigations of fossil beds were uncovered bones of life forms that no longer existed on Earth and although the Biblical Flood could be used the reason it was becoming increasingly difficult to support. By 1855 at the Crystal Palace Exhibition large models of extinct animals were placed in the grounds and these were photographed by Philip Henry Delamotte. At this point it had only been about 16 years since the announcement of photography by Daguerre and photography was being used to provide scientific evidence to support hypotheses that would fundamentally alter how humans understood time and biology. A photograph by an unidentified photographer Two workmen in the gravel pit near the Seminary of St Acheul, 27 April 1859. The standing workman is pointing to the in situ flint taken on 27 April 1859 is critical in our understanding of human evolution. Within the section of a gravel pit there and human-made lithic tools beneath layers of bones for extinct animals. The new science of photography was being harnessed to reassess everything that had previously been thought about the development of humans.
10.11 Scientific > Joan Fontcuberta: Fabricated sciences and alternative histories
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer
Spanish photographer Joan Fontcuberta plays with the illusory nature of history and science. Each series is a mixture of what-could-be but isn't and the viewer is taken into a world where the personalities, texts and images appear as if from archives and lost documents where there is an internal consistency but all is not as it appears.
Joan Fontcuberta & Pere Formiguera: Fauna (1989)
His 1989 collaboration with the fictional Pere Formiguera involved an analysis of the Dr Peter Ameisenhaufen a zoologist who had disappeared in mysterious circumstances in 1955. The zoologist had documented curious animals not known to science including a winged monkey with a horn like a unicorn (Ceropithecus icarocornu) and a twelve-footed snake-like creature (Solenoglypha polipodida). The book and exhibition are structured like displays that would be shown in a natural history museum but without the veracity.
I present the whole story in a detailed museological display, which means I have vitrines, stuffed animals, bird-song recordings, x-rays, photographs, field sketches – everything you expect from a natural-history display.
Joan Fontcuberta: Sputnick (1997)
in Sputnik: The Odyssey of the Soyuz II (1997) Joan Fontcuberta created a lost part of the Soviet space programme involving the fictional astronaut "Ivan Istochnikov". With a fabricated tail of space exploration involving a meteorite hitting the capsule each element is explained into a plausible history.
The books and exhibitions of Joan Fontcuberta are surreal and playful hoaxes that are close enough to reality to raise questions about the nature of truth and how we fail to question the evidence placed before us. If we are provided with sufficient believable evidence jackalopes roam the earth and mermaids haunt the seas.
- Λ There are numerous studies of scientific photography and some useful overviews - Jon Darius, 1984, Beyond Vision: One Hundred Historic Scientific Photographs, (Oxford University Press); Kelley Wilder, 2009, Photography and Science, (Reaktion Books); Corey Keller (ed.), 2008, Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible, 1840-1900, (Yale University Press), Exhibition catalogue; Jennifer Tucker, 2006, Nature Exposed: Photography as Eyewitness in Victorian Science, (Johns Hopkins University Press)
- Λ For high speed and scroboscopic camera photography - Harold Edgerton; Estelle Jussim & Gus Kayafas (ed.) , 1987, Stopping Time, The Photographs of Harold Edgerton, (New York: Abrams); Harold E. Edgerton & James, R. Killian, 1954, Flash!: Seeing the Unseen By Ultra High-speed Photography, (Boston: Charles T. Branford); Harold E. Edgerton & James, R. Killian, 1984, Moments of Vision: The Stroboscopic Revolution in Photography, (The MIT Press)
- Λ For animals in movement the works by Muybridge are the classics - J.D.B. Stillman , 1882, The Horse in Motion, As Shown by Instantaneous Photography, With a Study on Animal Mechanics, (Boston: James R. Osgood and Company). For this book Eadweard Muybridge had taken the photographs but was not credited ad this led to a law suit that he lost.
- Λ Henry Fox Talbot appreciated the utility of the microscope for photography and took early examples. During the nbineteenth century books were published on it including - René Patrice Proudhon Dagron , 1864, Traité de Photographie Microscopique, (Paris)
- Λ Lennart Nilsson, 1966, A Child is Born: The Drama of Life Before Birth, (New York: Delacorte Press); Lennart Nilsson, 1987, The Body Victorious: The Illustrated Story of our Immune System, (New York: Delacorte Press)
- Λ Alexander Tsiaras, 1997, Body Voyage: A Three-Dimensional Tour of a Real Human Body, (Warner Books); Alexander Tsiaras, 2002, From Conception to Birth : A Life Unfolds, (Doubleday)
- Λ For examples of astrophotography - David Malin, 1993, A View of the Universe, ( Cambridge University Press); David Malin, 2009, Ancient Light: A Portrait of the Universe, (Phaidon); Stefan Hughes, 2013, Catchers of the Light: A History of Astrophotography, (Stefan Hughes self-published)
- Λ Carl Linnaeus, 1753, Species Plantarum, (Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius)
- Λ Charles Darwin, 1859, On the Origin of Species, (London: John Murray)
- Λ Frank Spencer, "Anthropometry", IN Frank Spencer (ed.), 1997, History of Physical Anthropology: An Ancycloped, (Taylor & Francis), vol. 1, pp.80-90
- Λ Handbook of Instructions for the Guidance of the Officers of the Elder Scientific Exploring Expedition, 1891, (Adelaide: W.K. Thomas & Co.), p. 12 (South Australian Museum Archives)
- Λ For anthropology in general examine - John Collier, 1967, Visual Anthropology: Photography As a Research Method, (Holt, Rinehart and Winston); Elizabeth Edwards (ed.), 1992, Anthropology and Photography: 1860-1920, (New Haven: Yale University Press)
- Λ James Cowles Prichard, 1851, Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind, (Sherwood, Gilbert & Piper), vol. 1, pp. 280-281
- Λ I'm indebted to Giles Massot for bringing the photographs of E. Thiésson held in the collections of George Eastman House (Rochester, NY, USA) and the Musée du quai Branly (Paris, France) to my attention (pers. email, 12 December 2014)
- Λ 22 October 1869,"Photographic Notes", The Illustrated Photographer: Scientific and Art Journal, vol. 2, p. 483
- Λ Thomas Henry Huxley, 1871, Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals, (London: Churchill), pp. 414-420
- Λ For an Australian context - Marguerita Stephens, 2010, White Without Soap: Philanthropy, Caste and Exclusion in Colonial Victoria 1835-1888 : a Political Economy of Race, (UoM Custom Book Centre) Reprint, pp. 167-168
- Λ The photograph of "Major General Horatio Gordon Robley with his collection of tattooed Maori heads" (1895) in the Wellcome Images (L0032965) collection is disturbing. In E. G. Allingham, 1924, A romance of the rostrum, being the business life of Henry Stevens together with some account of famous sales, pp. 204-205 an account is provided:
The most gruesome offerings [auctoned by Henry Stevens] were shrunken human heads, sold by Stevens on several occasions, the most remarkable being, in 1902, the collection of thirty-three tattooed Maori heads, the property of General Robley, who, it is said, decorated his bedroom wall with these relics and 'when unable to sleep at night would rise and comb his Maoris' hair, and felt himself soothed'
The Wellcome Library says - "The accuracy of Allingham's account is questionable" but does not provide the reason for doubt.
- Λ William Johnson, 1863-1866, The Oriental Races and Tribes, Residents and Visitors of Bombay: a series of photographs with letter-press descriptions, (London: W.J. Johnson) [2 volumes, with 51 mounted photographic prints, Vol. 1. Gujarât, Kutch, and Kâthiawâr, Vol. 2. Mahârâshtra, or Maráthá Country
- Λ Meadows Taylor, 1868-1872, The People of India. A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, (by Meadows Taylor,) originally prepared under the authority of the Government of India, and reproduced by order of the Secretary of State for India, (London: W. H. Allen and Co.) [Edited by J.F. Watson and J.W. Kaye. A fascimile reprint of the original 1867 eight volume edition was published in 1987 by B.R. Publishing, Delhi. Includes photographs by Hurrichund Chintamon]
- Λ Edward S. Curtis, 1907-1926, The North American Indian, Being a Series of Volumes Picturing and Describing the Indians of the United States and Alaska, (MA: The University Press, 1907-09 & The Plimpton Press, 1911-26)
- Λ Carl Linnaeus, 1753, Species Plantarum, (Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius)
- Λ Also known as Carl von Linné.
- Λ For Georg Dionysius Ehret [1708-1770] - E.S. Barton, 1896, "A Memoir of Georg Dionysius Ehret [1708-1770]", Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. 1894-95, pp. 41-58; C. Murdoch, 1970, G.D. Ehret: Botanical artist: A tribute to his genius, (Inverness), 28pp.
Georg Dionys Ehret Collection - Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Melloon University
(Accessed: 9 March 2014)
- Λ Commonly known as "Twinflower" or "Twin flower".
- Λ Curatorial notes for - Emma Schenson (1827-1913), "The Bedroom of Linnaeus" [Memorials of Linnaeus], 1864, Albumen print, from glass negative, 16.3 x 13.8 cm, Victoria and Albert Museum, Museum number: 72:382
- Λ The life dates are: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1833); Louis Daguerre (1787-1851); John Herschel (1792-1871); Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877)
- Λ Examples of some of the key books on nineteenth century botany include - Matthias Schleiden, 1842, Grundzüge der Wissenschaftlichen Botanik (Leipzig: Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann) published in English in 1849 as Principles of Scientific Botany, (Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans); George Bentham, 1858, Handbook of the British flora, (London: Lovell Reeve); G. Bentham and J.D. Hooker, 1862-1883, Genera plantarum :ad exemplaria imprimis in Herberiis Kewensibus servata definite, (London), 3 volumes.
This is a small selection of a highly intensive period of botanical research around the world.
- Λ William J, Croft, 2006, Under the Microscope: A Brief History of Microscopy, (World Scientific), Volume 5 of Series in popular science
- Λ There are many examples of books on collecting specimens that went through multiple editions - Thomas Brown, 1881, The Taxidermist's Manual: Or, the Art of Collecting, Preparing, and Preserving Objects of Natural History, Designed for the Use of Travelers, Conservators of Museums and Private Collectors, (G.P. Putnam) ; John Ellor Taylor (ed.), 1883, Notes on Collecting and Preserving Natural-history Objects, (London: W.H. Allen), New edition
- Λ For Henry Fox Talbot and the Bertoloni Album - Malcolm Daniel, 1992, 'L’Album Bertoloni', in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48
- Λ Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture)
- Λ Malcolm Daniel, 1992, ‘L’Album Bertoloni‘, in 1992, Fotografia & Fotografi a Bologna, 1839-1900, (Bologna: Grafis); Graham Smith, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48
- Λ Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication]
- Λ Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication)
- Λ Examples of botanical gardens with their foundation dates:
Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden (1714)
Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid (1755)
Kew Gardens (1759)
Botanic Gardens St. Vincent, West Indies (1764)
Jardim Botânico, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1808)
Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, (1816)
Singapore Botanical Gardens (1822)
Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis (1859)
Hong Kong Botanic Gardens, (1871)
Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University (1872)
Orman Garden, Cairo, Egypt (1875)
New York Botanical Garden (1891)
Huntington Botanical Gardens (1906)
Along with botanical gardens specialist libraries were founded:
Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh (1961) now the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation
- Λ Vasculum - a usually metal and commonly cylindrical or flattened covered box used in collecting plants. (Merriam-Webster)
- Λ Veitch Nurseries - Wikipedia
(Acquired: 1 April 2014)
William Lobb, a notable early plant collector, left Falmouth in England in November 1840 for Brazil, the Andes and Chile on an expedition for James Veitch (1792-1863) the son of John Veitch (1752-1839) who founded the nursery.
- Λ Thanks to Dan Weinstock for his thoughts on early botanical photography. (pers. emails, Dan Weinstock to Alan Griffiths, 31 March 2014)
- Λ Ernest Henry Wilson (1876-1930) - The Arnold Arboteum of Harvard University
(Accessed: 31 March 2014)
- Λ George F. Barker, 1899, Röntgen Rays: Memoirs by Röntgen, Stokes and J.J. Thomson, (Harper & Brothers)
- Λ September, 1896, "X Rays in Surgery", Appletons' Popular Science Monthly, pp. 711-712; William James Morton & Edwin W. Hammer, 1896, The X-ray; or, Photography of the invisible and its value in surgery, (American Technical Book Co.); Carl Beck, 1904, Röntgen ray diagnosis and therapy, (New York: D. Appleton)
- Λ January 26, 1896, The New York Times
- Λ February 5, 1896, "Some Startling Results at Yale - Prof. Bumstead Secures Some Very Interesting Pictures", The New York Times
- Λ The 1896 Olympics in Athens was the first Olympics of the modern era.
- Λ 1873, Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873: Ouvrage publie´ sous le patronage de la Commission impe´riale ottomane pour l'Exposition universelle de Vienne. Texte par Son Excellence Hamdy bey ... et Marie de Launay ... Phototypie de Se´bah., (Constantinople: Impr. du "Levant times & shipping gazette")
The Library of Congress has a copy of this volume (GT1267 .H2).
Online version - Open Library
(Accessed: 21 December 2013)
With thanks to Theodoros Natsinas for bringing this volume to my attention.
- Λ Eadweard Muybridge, 1893, Descriptive Zoopraxography or the Science of Animal Locomotion made popular, (University of Pennsylvania: Bureau of Education at the World's Columbian Exposition, in Zoopraxographical Hall)
- Λ The Smithsonian Field Book Project (FBP)
(Accessed: 30 October 2013)
The Field Book Project
- Λ Elizabeth McCausland & Berenice Abbott, 1939, Changing New York, (New York: E. P. Dutton); Berenice Abbott, 1973, New York in the Thirties, (Dover Publications); Bonnie Yochelson, 1997, Berenice Abbott: Changing New York, (New York: The New Press; New York: Museum of the City of New York)
- Λ Hank O'Neal & Berenice Abbott, 1982, Berenice Abbott: American Photographer, (Steidl)
- Λ Hank O'Neal & Berenice Abbott, 1982, Berenice Abbott: American Photographer, (Steidl)
- Λ Rose-Lynn Fisher, 2010, Bee, (Princeton Architectural Press)
- Λ For the Philip Henry Delamotte photographs of the models of extinct animals - British Library, Shelfmark: Tab.442.a.5
For a contemporary description of the extinct animals - Samuel Phillips, 1857, Guide to the Crystal Palace and Park, p. 189-197
- Λ Unidentified photographer/creator, "Two workmen in the gravel pit near the Seminary of St Acheul, 27 April 1859. The standing workman is pointing to the in situ flint", 1859, 27 April, Albumen print, Bibliothèques d'Amiens Métropole
- Λ Joan Fontcuberta & Pere Formiguera, 1989, Fauna, (PhotoVision)
- Λ Joan Fontcuberta: false negatives - Interviewed by Stuart Jeffries
The Guardian, Tuesday 8 July 2014
(Accessed: 9 July 2014)
- Λ Joan Fontcuberta et al., 1997, Sputnik, (Madrid, Spain: Fundacion Arte y Tecnologia)
- Λ Ivan Istochnikov is Russian for Joan Fontcuberta.
- Λ Jackalopes - Wikipedia
(Accessed: 9 July 2014)
Bendavid-Val, Leah, 1994, National Geographic: The Photographs, (Washington, National Geographic) [Δ]
Bracegirdle, Brian, 1998, Microscopical Mounts and Mounters, (London: Quekett Microscopical Club) isbn-10: 0951444131 isbn-13: 978-0951444139 [Δ]
Darius, Jon, 1984, Beyond Vision: One Hundred Historic Scientific Photographs, (Oxford University Press) isbn-10: 0198532458 isbn-13: 978-0198532453 [Δ]
Edwards, Elizabeth, 2001, Raw Histories: Photographs, Anthropology and Museums, (Berg Publishers) isbn-10: 1859734979 isbn-13: 978-1859734971 [Δ]
Ellenbogen, Josh, 2012, Reasoned and Unreasoned Images: The Photography of Bertillon, Galton, and Marey, (Penn State University Press) isbn-10: 0271052597 isbn-13: 978-0271052595 [Δ]
Escard, F., 1886, Le Prince Roland Bonaparte in Laponie: Episodes et Tableaux, (Paris: G. Chamerot) [Δ]
Figuier, Louis, 1869, Merveilles de la Science, (Paris) [Δ]
Girard, Jules, 1869, La Chambre Noire et le Microscope, (Paris: F. Savy) [Δ]
Heiferman, Marvin (ed.) & Foresta, Merry, 2012, Photography Changes Everything, (Aperture / Smithsonian) isbn-10: 1597111996 isbn-13: 978-1597111997 [Δ]
Hughes, Stefan, 2013, Catchers of the Light: A History of Astrophotography, (Stefan Hughes self-published) [Over 1550 pages, more than 1800 photographs/illustrations, in excess of 2000 references/notes, containing also 46 in-depth pioneer biographies in 9 Parts with 8 Appendices] [Δ]
Keller, Corey, 2008, Brought to Light: Photography and the Invisible, 1840-1900, (Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300142102 isbn-13: 978-0300142105 [Δ]
Kerr, Richard & Smith, Arthur E., 1905, Nature Through Microscope and Camera, (London: Religious Tract Society) [Δ]
Krauss, Rolf E., 1978, ‘Photographs as Early Science Book Illustrations‘, History of Photography, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 291-314 [Δ]
Libbrecht, Kenneth, 2007, The Art of the Snowflake: A Photographic Album, (Voyageur Press) isbn-10: 0760329974 isbn-13: 978-0760329979 [Δ]
Malm, A.W., 1867, Monographie illustrée du baleinoptère trouvé le 29 Octobre 1865 sur la côte occidentale de Suède, (tockholm: P. A. Norstedt et fils) [Δ]
Mouchez, Ernest, 1887, La Photographie astronomique a l'observatoire de Paris et la Carte du Ciel, (Paris: Gauthier-Villars, Imprimeur-Libraire) [Δ]
Ostroff, Eugene (ed.), 1987, Pioneers of Photography: Their Achievements in Science and Technology, (Springfield, VA: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology) [Δ]
Pinney, Christopher, 2011, Photography and Anthropology, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 1861898045 isbn-13: 978-1861898043 [Δ]
Ryan, James R., 2013, Photography and Exploration, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 1780231008 isbn-13: 978-1780231006 [Δ]
Scott, Jean, 2002, Stanhopes: A Closer View - A History and Handbook for Collectors of Microphotographic Novelties, (Greenlight Publishing) isbn-10: 1897738099 isbn-13: 978-1897738092 [Δ]
Thomas, Ann (ed.), 1997, Beauty of Another Order: Photography in Science, (New Haven: Yale University Press) isbn-10: 0300073402 isbn-13: 978-0300073409 [Δ]
Tucker, Jennifer, 2006, Nature Exposed: Photography as Eyewitness in Victorian Science, (Johns Hopkins University Press) isbn-10: 0801879914 isbn-13: 978-0801879913 [Δ]
Valens, Evans G., 1969, The Attractive Universe: Gravity and the Shape of Space, (Cleveland: World Publishing Co.) [Illustrations by Berenice Abbott] [Δ]
Wilder, Kelly, 2009, Photography and Science, (Reaktion Books) isbn-10: 186189399X isbn-13: 978-1861893994 [Δ]
Readings on, or by, individual photographers
Abbott, Berenice, 2012, Documenting Science, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3869304316 isbn-13: 978-3869304311 [Reprint edition] [Δ]
Atkins, Anna, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication] [Δ]
Atkins, Anna, 1853, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Ferns, (Private publication) [Copy at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, USA] [Δ]
Atkins, Anna, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication) [Δ]
Schaaf, Larry J. (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) [Δ]
Byer, D., 1999, Der Fall H. A. Bernatzik. Ein Leben zwischen Ethnologie und Öffentlichkeit 1897-1953, (Cologne: Böhlau) isbn-10: 3412083992 [German] [Δ]
Bertsch, Auguste-Adolphe, 1857-1858 (ca), Etudes d'histoire naturelle au microscope, (Paris: no publisher) [Δ]
Bird, Golding, 1844, Elements of Natural Philosophy: Being an Experimental Introduction to the Study of the Physical Sciences, (London: John Churchill) [2nd edition, and later editions] [Δ]
Bird, Golding, 1939, 20 April, ‘Fac-Simile of a Photogenic Drawing‘, Mirror, vol. XXXIII, no. 945 [With reprint of Bird’s article in Magazine of Natural History] [Δ]
Bird, Golding, 1939, April, ‘Observations on the Application of Heliographic or Photogenic Drawing to Botanical Purposes‘, Magazine of Natural History, vol. n.s. 3, pp. 188-92 [Δ]
Brooke, Charles, 1847, ‘On the Automatic Registration of Magnetometers, and other Meteorological Instruments, by Photography‘, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Part I, vol. 137, pp. 69-77 [Δ]
Brooke, Charles, 1850, ‘On the Automatic Registration of Magnetometers, and Meteorological Instruments, by Photography. No. III‘, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 140, pp. 83-97 [Δ]
Brooke, Charles, 1852, ‘On the Automatic Registration of Magnetometers, and Meteorological Instruments, by Photography. No. IV‘, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 142, pp. 19-24 [Δ]
René Patrice Proudhon Dagron
Dagron, R.P.P., 1864, ‘Microscopic photography‘, British Journal of Photography, p. 402 [Δ]
Dagron, R.P.P., 1864, Traité de Photographie Microscopique, (Paris) [Δ]
John Benjamin Dancer
Arden, L.L., 1960, John Benjamin Dancer: The Originator of Microphotography, (London: The Library Association) [Δ]
Bracegirdle, Brian & McCormick, James B., 1993, The Microscopic Photographs of J.B. Dancer, (Chicago: Science Heritage Ltd) isbn-10: 0940095106 isbn-13: 978-0940095106 [Δ]
Délié & Béchard
Mariette, Auguste, 1872, Album du Musée de Boulaq: Comprenant quarante planches photographiées par MM. Délié et Béchard avec un texte explicatif, (Le Caire: Mourths & Cie, Imprimeurs-Editeurs) [Δ]
Harold E. Edgerton
Bruce, Roger (ed.), 1994, Seeing the Unseen: Dr. Harold Edgerton and the Wonders of Strobe Alley, (Rochester, NY: George Eastman House) [Δ]
Edgerton, Harold E., 2000, Exploring the Art and Science of Stopping Time: A CD-ROM Based on the Life and Work of Harold E. Edgerton, (The MIT Press) [Δ]
Edgerton, Harold E. & Killian, James R., 1954, Flash!: Seeing the Unseen By Ultra High-speed Photography, (Boston: Charles T. Branford) [Second edition] [Δ]
Edgerton, Harold E. & Killian, James R., 1984, Moments of Vision: The Stroboscopic Revolution in Photography, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262550105 isbn-13: 978-0262550109 [Δ]
Edgerton, Harold; Jussim, Estelle & Kayafas, Gus (ed.), 1987, Stopping Time, The Photographs of Harold Edgerton, (New York: Abrams) [Δ]
Elkins, James & Edgereton, Harold, 2003, After & Before: Documenting the A-bomb, (Roth Horowitz, LLC/PPP Editions) isbn-10: 0971548005 isbn-13: 978-0971548008 [Δ]
Ettingshausen & Pokorny
Ettingshausen, Constantin v. & Pokorny, A., 1855-1856, Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum. Der Naturselbstdruck in seiner Anwendung auf die Gefässpflanzen des österreichischen Kaiserstaates, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nervation in den Flächenorganen der Pflanzen, (), (Vienna: K.K. Hof und Staatsdruckerei) [Δ]
Londe, Albert, 1888, La Photographie dans les arts, les sciences et l'industrie, (Paris: Gauthier -Villars et fils) [Δ]
Londe, Albert, 1893, La photographie dans les voyages d'exploration et les missions scientifique, ([Paris?: Association Pour L'Avancement des Sciences?]) [Δ]
Étienne Jules Marey
1977, E. J. Marey, 1830–1904: La Photographie du Mouvement, (Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou) [Δ]
Braun, Marta, 1994, Picturing Time: The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey (1830–1904), (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press) [Δ]
Adam, Hans-Christian, 2010, Eadweard Muybridge: The Human and Animal Locomotion Photographs, (Taschen) isbn-10: 3836509415 isbn-13: 978-3836509411 [Δ]
Haas, Robert Bartlett, 1976, Muybridge: Man in Motion, (Berkeley: University of California Press) [Δ]
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1893, Descriptive Zoopraxography or the Science of Animal Locomotion made popular, (University of Pennsylvania: Bureau of Education at the World's Columbian Exposition, in Zoopraxographical Hall) [Δ]
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1972, Eadweard Muybridge: The Stanford Years, 1872–1882, (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Museum of Art) [Introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley] [Δ]
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1979, Muybridge's Complete Human and Animal Locomotion, (New York: Dover) [Introduction by Anita Ventura Mosley] [Δ]
Muybridge, Eadweard, 1979, Muybridge’s Complete Human and Animal Locomotion, (New York: Dover Publications) [3 volumes, Introduction by Anita Ventura Mozley] [Δ]
Stillman, J.D.B., 1882, The Horse in Motion, As Shown by Instantaneous Photography, With a Study on Animal Mechanics, (Boston: James R. Osgood and Company) [Δ]
Forsell, Jacob (ed.), 2002, Lennart Nilsson: Images of His Life, (Stockholm: Bokförlaget Max Ström) [Δ]
Nilsson, Lennart, 1966, A Child is Born: The Drama of Life Before Birth, (New York: Delacorte Press) [Reprinted 1971] [Δ]
Nilsson, Lennart, 1987, The Body Victorious: The Illustrated Story of our Immune System, (New York: Delacorte Press) [Δ]
Charles Piazzi Smyth
Smyth, C. Piazzi, 1858, Teneriffe - An Astronomer's Experiment, (Lowell Reeve) [Δ]
Physick, John, 1975, Photography and the South Kensington Museum, (London: Victoria & Albert Museum) [Benjamin L. Spackman, pp. 3-4] [Δ]
Henry Fox Talbot
Brusius, Mirjam; Dean, Katrina & Ramalingam, Chitra (eds.), 2013, William Henry Fox Talbot: Beyond Photography, (Yale University Press / Yale Center for British Art and the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art) isbn-13: 978-0300179347 [With essays by Katrina Dean, Eleanor Robson, Mirjam Brusius, Graham Smith, Larry J. Schaaf, Simon Schaffer, Herta Wolf, Vered Maimon, Anne Secord, Chitra Ramalingam, and June Barrow-Green] [Δ]
Smith, Graham, 1993, ‘Talbot and Botany: The Bertoloni Album‘, History of Photography, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 33-48 [Δ]
Tsiaras, Alexander, 1997, Body Voyage: A Three-Dimensional Tour of a Real Human Body, (Little, Brown & Company) isbn-10: 0446520098 isbn-13: 978-0446520096 [Δ]
Tsiaras, Alexander, 2002, From Conception to Birth : A Life Unfolds, (Doubleday) isbn-10: 0385503180 isbn-13: 978-0385503181 [Δ]
Tsiaras, Alexander, 2005, The InVision Guide to a Healthy Heart, (Harper Paperbacks) isbn-10: 0060855932 isbn-13: 978-0060855932 [Δ]
Tsiaras, Alexander, 2008, The InVision Guide to Lifeblood, (Collins Living) isbn-10: 0060879106 isbn-13: 978-0060879105 [Δ]
Tsiaras, Alexander & Boskey, Elizabeth, 2006, The InVision Guide to Sexual Health, (Harper Collins) isbn-10: 0060879092 isbn-13: 978-0060879099 [Δ]
Joseph Janvier Woodward
Woodward, J.J., 1873, November, U.S. Army Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 262, The Toner Lectures, Washington, U.S.A., Lecture I: "On the Structure of Cancerous Tumours, and the Mode in which Adjacent Parts are Invaded." [Δ]
Woodward, Joseph Janvier, 1871, Report to the Surgeon General of the United States Army on an Improved Method of Photographing Histological Preparations by Sunlight, (Washington D.C.) [Δ]
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - firstname.lastname@example.org
|Nineteenth Century Balloons |
|Images from Science |
Images from Science: An Exhibition of Scientific Photography. Was on view at Rochester Institute of Photography from Oct 12 - Nov 8, 2002
|Andrew Davidhazy - Professor - Imaging and Photographic Technology, Rochester Institute of Technology |
Has an amazing range of different studies in high speed and scientific photography. If you like the work of Harold Edgerton you will certainly like these.
|Lennart Nilsson |
A pioneer in scientific and medical photography.
|German physicist Ernst Mach (1838-1916) |
Ernst Mach worked in the fields of optics, acoustics, ballistics, and gas dynamics. He and his colleagues took nearly 950 original photographs between 1885 and 1895 and this site includes examples.
|Medical and scientific photography |
|Eadweard Muybridge |
Go to the "Collections - Permanent" page.
|The Moon |
Laure Albin-Guillot (1879-1962) • Ottomar Anschütz (1846-1907) • François Arago (1786-1853) • Anna Atkins (1799-1871) • George F. Atkinson (check) • Arthur Clive Banfield (1875-1965) • Wilson A. Bentley (1865-1931) • Adolphe Bertsch (1813-1871) • Golding Bird (1814-1854) • Antonio Giulio Bragaglia (check) • Charles Brooke (1804-1879) • Cora Huidekoper Clarke (1851-1916) • Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (1787-1851) • Andrew Davidhazy (1941-) • John Edward Davis (1815-1877) • John William Draper (1811-1882) • Harold E. Edgerton (1903-1990) • Ettingshausen & Pokorny • Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896) • Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) • Frank B. Gilbreth (1868-1924) • Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972) • Gilbreth & Gilbreth • Ernst Mach (1838-1916) • Étienne Jules Marey (1830-1904) • Gjon Mili (1904-1984) • Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904) • Richard Neuhauss • Lennart Nilsson (1922-) • Gary Schneider (1954-) • Thomas Smillie (1843-1917) • Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877) • A.M. Worthington
|Home > Themes > Scientific |