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HomeContentsThemes > Abstract

Contents

Introduction
1.01   Introduction to abstraction
1.02   Defining the abstract
Abstraction before abstraction and unintentional abstracts
1.03   Abstraction before abstraction
1.04   Photographic test strips
Abstraction in art
1.05   Abstract paintings
Abstraction in photography
1.06   Early examples of photographic abstraction
1.07   Photograms and abstraction
1.08   Experimental photography
Abstract realism
1.09   Abstract realism
Contemporary abstraction
1.10   Contemporary examples of photographic abstraction
Photographers
1.11   Alfred Stieglitz: Equivalents
1.12   Denis Brihat: Abstractions of form
1.13   Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics
1.14   Minor White: Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors
1.15   Carl Chiarenza: The nature of Abstraction
1.16   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography
1.17   Herbert Strässer: Abstracts - Foto-Grafik
1.18   Henry Holmes Smith: Colour abstractions
1.19   Barbara Kasten: Polaroid polacolor prints
1.20   Don Jim: Urban Artifax
1.21   Ellen Carey: Pulls
Concluding thoughts
1.22   Conclusions
This theme includes example sections and will be revised and added to as we proceed. Suggestions for additions, improvements and the correction of factual errors are always appreciated. 
  
Status: Collect > Document > Analyse > Improve
 
  
Introduction 
  
1.01   Abstract >  Introduction to abstraction 
  
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Photographers have continually sought to push the boundaries to create images that provoke the viewer and stimulate an emotional response. This is done in multiple ways and can involve subject selection, scale, viewpoints, camera techniques and chemical or digital image processing. These deal with the technical and decision choices of the photographer in selecting and creating an image - the more important issue is how to create photographs with multiple meanings and depths of emotion beyond the obvious. This theme explores the nature of abstraction and the reasoning, where possible, behind experimental photography
  
1.02   Abstract >  Defining the abstract 
  
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Although the use of symbols has been a constant theme in painting the use of abstract forms is surprisingly recent. Painters such as Paul Gauguin appreciated that art is an abstraction and wrote as much in a letter to Emile Schuffenecker in 1888 giving a religious underpinning for his thoughts:
Some Advice: do not paint too much after Nature. Art is an abstraction; derive this abstraction from nature while dreaming before it, and think more of the creation which will result than of nature. Creating like our Divine Master is the only way of rising towards God.[1]
Later artists such as Henri Matisse appreciated that it is the inner nature that is important rather than the outward appearance:
... there is an inherent truth which must be disengaged from the outward appearance of the object to be represented. This is the only truth that matters.[2]
A truly abstract work neither contains nor symbolizes an object in the visible realm. In the decorative arts this was used for ornamental reasons but in painting it was not until the beginning of the twentieth century that the possibility of creating paintings that were expressions of something not shown became fully appreciated. When the Italian Futurist painter Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)[3] wrote in 1910 that his ideal was to be able to create a visual equivalent of sleep without showing any sleeping thing this was a challenge to everything in traditional painting. Music uses acoustic metaphors constantly through necessity but for visual art to deny itself the use of direct parallels was revolutionary.[4]  
  
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Arthur Dove: Sails (1911-1912) 
  
 
  
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Wassily Kandinsky: Composition VII (1913) 
  
Painters like Arthur Dove (1880-1946)[5] and Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) experimented with, and in the case of the latter wrote about in his work On the Spiritual in Art (1912)[6], what later came to be called 'Abstract Art'. In The Effect of Color (1911) Kandinsky wrote:
... to a more sensitive soul the effect of colors is deeper and intensely moving. And so we come to the second result of looking at colors: their psychological effect. They produce a correspondent spiritual vibration, and it is only as a step to this spiritual vibration that the physical impression is of importance.[7]
Colours have cultural associations that effect us all on conscious or unconscious levels in the same way that shapes, icons, symbols and other visual constructs have been used within art for millennia to affect the viewer. Kandinsky did his first non-figurative abstract gouache in 1910 and Dove in his Abstract Number 2 at about the same time.
 
The importance of this step in painting was the way it had such a profound effect upon photography which is more closely assumed to be associated with capturing the real world with the click of a shutter. This jump in artistic thinking was contemporaneous with the great photographer, critic and motivating force for artistic photography Alfred Stieglitz[8] (1864-1946) who was promoting modern art at his '291' gallery on New York's Fifth Avenue and through his writings. It was in the 291 gallery that the work of Arthur Dove was shown in 1910 - as were many other developing artists including Matisse, Brancusi, Picabia and the Cubism of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.[9] In 1935 when Pablo Picasso was interviewed by Christian Zervos he said:
There is no abstract art. You must always start with something. Afterward you can remove all traces of reality. There's no danger then, anyway, because the idea of the object will have left an indelible mark. It is what started the artist off, excited his ideas, and stirred up his emotions. Ideas and emotions will in the end be prisoners in his work. Whatever they do, they can't escape from the picture. They form an integral part of it, even when their presence is no longer discernable.[10]
The first two or three sentences of this are often quoted but it is the larger piece, and preferably the entire interview, that give the meaning. Within art there are levels that may not be visible in the final artwork but are still an essential part of its creation.
 
During the rise of abstraction through Camera Work until 1917 and his gallery exhibitions Alfred Stieglitz formed a bridge in America between the traditional arts of sculpture and painting and the newer 'craft' of photography that was seeking artistic recognition. Stieglitz was a master of photography but he sought to extend the boundaries beyond the simply representational into seeking more spiritual depths. 
  
Abstraction before abstraction and unintentional abstracts 
  
1.03   Abstract >  Abstraction before abstraction 
  
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The artistic motivation to take non-representational photographs emerged during the early twentieth century but unintentionally photographs were taken prior to that where the subject matter and its capture within the limits of photographic framing provokes questioning. 
  
1.04   Abstract >  Photographic test strips 
  
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One of the risks of genre-based classifications of photography is that the intersections between the themes become fixed and enshrined. This is the risk of the printed page where information needs to be divided into chunks that form coherent chapters - with the Internet the need for chunking is reduced.
 
If we look at this group of test strips from a darkroom by an unknown, possibly Belgian, photographer they represent the work practice of how to make a print. They don't fit into a canon of notable photographers and so they fall into vernacular photography - they make up temporal sequences and series like frames from a celluloid movie - but although we can examine the content of each frame overall they tend towards unintentional abstraction. The natural and industrial world include shapes that because of the loss of scale or the difficulty of isolating meaning in the real have this "unintentional" aspect. 
  
Abstraction in art 
  
1.05   Abstract >  Abstract paintings 
  
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From around 1910 artists in Europe and America including Wassily [Vasily] Kandinsky (1866-1944), Max Weber (1881-1961), Arthur Dove[11], František Kupka, Francis Picabia, Robert Delaunay, Piet Mondrian, Marcel Duchamp and Henri Matisse started to display abstract paintings to the public for the first time. As the exhibition Inventing Abstraction[12] at MoMA (New York, 2013) demonstrated there was a complex network of interpersonal relationships between artists and photographers that encouraged creative thinking. Kandinsky, who later worked at the Bauhaus, concluded his book Concerning The Spiritual in Art (ca. 1912) with:
Finally, I would remark that, in my opinion, we are fast approaching the time of reasoned and conscious composition, when the painter will be proud to declare his work constructive. This will be in contrast to the claim of the Impressionists that they could explain nothing, that their art came upon them by inspiration. We have before us the age of conscious creation, and this new spirit in painting is going hand in hand with the spirit of thought towards an epoch of great spiritual leaders.[13]
Abstraction in America was encouraged in the New York well connected art world of Alfred Stieglitz through the pages of Camera Notes (1897-1903)[14] and Camera Work (1903-1917)[15]. Abstraction was an attempt to move beyond the obvious world of representational art. Art now included for the first time works where the the subject was not immediately obvious.  
  
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Max Weber: Chinese Restaurant (1915) 
  
The 1915 painting Chinese Restaurant by Max Weber may have been inspired by a visit to a restaurant but the jagged lines, strong colors and juxtapositions have created forms that bare little relationship to a physical restaurant.  
  
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Kandinsky: Composition VII (1913) 
  
The title Composition VII selected by Kandinsky for his 1913 painting is significant because it doesn't even hint at a connection with a physical object or place - it is no more nor less than a "composition". Abstraction was one of a number of styles such as Modernism[16], Fauvism with Henri Matisse and Cubism[17] with Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque that were being experimented with at this time.[18]
 
At the time these works came out the predominant trend in salon photography was Pictorialism which was about as far removed from abstraction as an image could be. As photographers with imagination, for example Paul Strand, saw these paintings they appreciated that change was on the way. At the same time snapshot photography was becoming increasingly significant and it captured the "real world" encouraging art and fine art photography to examine deeper levels of emotion and meaning.
 
This connection between spiritual thinking and art influenced a vast number of later photographers including Alfred Stieglitz with his photographs of clouds which he termed "Equivalents"[19], Minor White,[20] founder of Aperture, and Edmund Teske.[21] 
  
Abstraction in photography 
  
1.06   Abstract >  Early examples of photographic abstraction 
  
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When Paul Strand (1890-1976)[22] first took to abstraction in around 1915 he did not create the complicated fabrications that are increasingly common in contemporary fine art photography. He saw that abstract designs could be created by a different way of seeing the everyday. The ways that bowls could be piled up in Still Life with Pear and Bowls, Twin Lakes, Connecticut (1916) or the way that shadows formed with an upturned table Abstraction, Twin Lakes, Connecticut when the print was rotated clockwise 90 degrees were manifest opportunities. 
  
1.07   Abstract >  Photograms and abstraction 
  
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Photograms are cameraless photographs made by placing objects on a sensitized surface and as such they area representation of real world objects. Nineteenth century Photograms were used to record botanical specimens as was the case with Henry Fox Talbot[23]  
  
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or Anna Atkins[24] for her Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) and her Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854).  
  
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The purpose of these Photograms was clearly as an aid to the understanding of botany and they were sent to botanists[25] or bound into books presented to botanists and interested parties.[26] The layout of the scientific specimens on the sensitized sheet was done with care to highlight the significant features of the specimens and to assist their utility as "types" to assist in identification or classification.
 
Anna K. Weaver used the layout to write mottoes on the surface through the use of intricate designs of leaves and ferns. Expressions such as "God bless our Home", "Home, Sweet Home", "I know that my Redeemer liveth", "The Lord is my Shepherd", and "The Lord will provide" and she used these in fundraising to support her missionary work in Bogota.[27] The point was that the leaves were used as the servant of the message.  
  
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As abstraction increased in painting from around 1910 onwards so experimentation in photography became increasingly important. In the 1920s and 30s Christian Schad (1894-1982), Man Ray[28] and László Moholy-Nagy[29] all made photograms that experimented with light, shade and at times abstraction to stretch the boundaries of photography. Although the objects used are from the real world the intention of the artists was totally different from those in the nineteenth century - these photographs are not about scientific objectivity or the clear messages of religious mottoes - here the intention was related to graphic design,[30] equivalents[31] and elements of mystery.  
  
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Many photographers have experimented with Photograms, such as Lotte Jacobi, Herbert Bayer, György Kepes, and others continue to do so. 
  
1.08   Abstract >  Experimental photography 
  
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In 1925 the Hungarian artist, photographer and theoretician László Moholy-Nagy published the book Malerei, Fotografie, Film[32]. This book came at a critical time as there was an ongoing struggle between those who saw traditional art as the basis for photography and the New Objectivity movement in Germany that argued that the world should be shown unembellished and as it actually was - a view exemplified in the 1920's by photographers like Albert Renger-Patzsch (1897-1966)[33], Albert Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952)[34], and August Sander (1876-1964)[35]. In the introduction to his 1925 book László Moholy-Nagy enumerated the many ways in which a camera could be used creatively to generate images: here motion shots, varying angles, grey scales and lens distortion were all seen as new possibilities for visual experimentation that neither traditional photography nor New Objectivity represented. 
  
Abstract realism 
  
1.09   Abstract >  Abstract realism 
  
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Abstract realists look for the deeper layers and emotions created by unrecognizable shapes that might bring out diverse reactions from the viewer. 'Abstract realism' defines the use of images that can be taken in the real world but the selection of the viewing angle, scale and other characteristics convert the seemingly mundane into an abstraction of reality.
 
Examples include:
  • Minor White[36] who edited Aperture from 1952-1976 sought for the aesthetic in the everyday - a spiritual quest for beauty.  
      
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  • The crushed cans, peeling paint, eroded and weathered stone, worn signs that Aaron Siskind[37] started to photograph from the 1950's onwards.  
      
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  • Harry Callahan saw the same possibilities in his work from the 1940s as he wrote in a 1964 statement:
    On a good cold winter day I was photographing in the snow in extremely soft and shadowless light and on the ground glass I suddenly saw just lines of weeds in the snow. Making photos this way seemed a sort of sin in relation to tone and texture because the only image I printed was line - no snow texture. Semi-consciously this opened a whole new way of seeing for me.[38]
     
      
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  • The photographs of Ernst Haas[39] create bizarre juxtapositions of colors and textures that initally confuse the viewer and lead on to reflection on the beauty of the subject portrayed. 
      
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Contemporary abstraction 
  
1.10   Abstract >  Contemporary examples of photographic abstraction 
  
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We are now surrounded by so many images that we rarely pause to examine them closely and try to understand what we are actually seeing.
 
Frequently captions give the game away but with these images just marvel at what they are visually rather than how they were created or what they actually represent. Each of them comes from a different tradition and they are exquisitely abstract. 
  
Photographers 
  
1.11   Abstract >  Alfred Stieglitz: Equivalents 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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From 1922 to around 1935 Alfred Stieglitz took a series of photographs of clouds that he named Equivalents. The photographs were not intended as literal series of meteorological studies but as an examination of states of mind - a study in abstraction. Stieglitz published his thoughts in How I came to Photograph Clouds in Amateur Photographer and Photography in 1923:
Last summer when manuscripts were sent in by the various contributors for the issue of the publication, "M.S.S." devoted to photography, and its aesthetic significance, Waldo Frank—one of America's young literary lights, author of Our America, etc.—wrote that he believed the secret power in my photography was due to the power of hypnotism I had over my sitters, etc.
 
I was amazed when I read the statement. I wondered what he had to say about the street scenes—the trees, interiors—and other subjects, the photographs of which he had admired so much: or whether he felt they too were due to my powers of hypnotism. Certainly a lax statement coming from one professing himself profound and fair thinking, and interested in enlightening.
 
It happened that the same morning in which I read this contribution my brother-in-law (lawyer and musician) out of the clear sky announced to me that he couldn't understand how one as supposedly musical as I could have entirely given up playing the piano. I looked at him and smiled—and I thought: even he does not seem to understand. He plays the violin. The violin takes up no space: the piano does. The piano needs looking after by a professional, etc. I simply couldn't afford a piano, even when I was supposedly rich. It was not merely a question of money.
 
Thirty-five or more years ago I spent a few days in Murren (Switzerland), and I was experimenting with ortho plates. Clouds and their relationship to the rest of the world, and clouds for themselves, interested me, and clouds which were difficult to photograph— nearly impossible. Ever since then clouds have been in my mind, most powerfully at times, and I always knew I'd follow up the experiment made over 35 years ago. I always watched clouds. Studied them. Had unusual opportunities up here on this hillside. What Frank had said annoyed me: what my brother-in-law said also annoyed me. I was in the midst of my summer's photographing, trying to add to my knowledge, to the work I had done. Always evolving—always going more and more deeply into life—into photography.
 
My mother was dying. Our estate was going to pieces. The old horse of 37 was being kept alive by the 70-year-old coachman. I, full of the feeling of today: all about me disintegration—slow but sure: dying chestnut trees—all the chestnuts in this country have been dying for years: the pines doomed too—diseased: I, poor, but at work: the world in a great mess: the human being a queer animal—not as dignified as our giant chestnut tree on the hill.
 
So I made up my mind I'd answer Mr. Frank and my brother-in-law. I'd finally do something I had in mind for years. I'd make a series of cloud pictures. I told Miss O'Keeffe of my ideas. I wanted to photograph clouds to find out what I had learned in 40 years about photography. Through clouds to put down my philosophy of life— to show that my photographs were not due to subject matter—not to special trees, or faces, or interiors, to special privileges—clouds were there for everyone—no tax as yet on them—free.
 
So I began to work with the clouds—and it was great excitement— daily for weeks. Every time I developed I was so wrought up, always believing I had nearly gotten what I was after—but had failed. A most tantalizing sequence of days and weeks. I knew exactly what I was after. I had told Miss O'Keeffe I wanted a series of photographs which when seen by Ernest Bloch (the great composer) he would exclaim: Music! Music! Man, why that is music! How did you ever do that? And he would point to violins, and flutes, and oboes, and brass, full of enthusiasm, and would say he'd have to write a symphony called "Clouds." Not like Debussy's but much, much more.
 
And when finally I had my series of ten photographs printed, and Bloch saw them—what I said I wanted to happen happened verbatim.
 
Straight photographs, all gaslight paper, except one palladiotype. All in the power of every photographer of all time, and I satisfied I had learnt something during the 40 years. It's 40 years this year that I began in Berlin with Vogel.
 
Now if the cloud series are due to my powers of hypnotism I plead "Guilty." Only some "Pictorial photographers" when they came to the exhibition seemed totally blind to the cloud pictures. My photographs look like photographs—and in their eyes they therefore can't be art. As if they had the slightest idea of art or photography— or any idea of life. My aim is increasingly to make my photographs look as much like photographs that unless one has eyes and sees, they won't be seen—and still everyone will never forget them having once looked at them. I wonder if that is clear.[40]
 
  
1.12   Abstract >  Denis Brihat: Abstractions of form 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Denis Brihat is a French photographer who created experimental work in the late 1960s who used metal toning and grignotage.[41] He has been influential through his teaching and workshops. 
  
1.13   Abstract >  Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Within the photographic works of Lotte Jacobi[42] from 1946 there are a number of abstract black and white cameraless images that she termed "photogenics"[43]. The images were created in the darkroom with the aid of a defused flashlight painting with light directly on the photographic paper. 
  
1.14   Abstract >  Minor White: Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Minor White[44] was an American photographer who developed a philosophical typology of photographs. He was interested in how the photographic image could be seen as a metaphor for the spiritual aspects of existence. He founded and edited Aperture[45] from 1952-1976 sought for the aesthetic in the everyday - a spiritual quest for beauty.
 
Minor White built on the abstract concept of visual equivalents that Alfred Stieglitz had proposed when he wrote:
At one level, the graphic level, the word "Equivalence" pertains to the photograph itself, the visible foundations of any potential visual experience with the photograph itself.

At the next level the word "Equivalence" relates to what goes on in the viewer's mind as he looks at a photograph that arouses in him a special sense of correspondence to something that he knows about himself. At a third level the word "Equivalence" refers to the inner experience a person has while he is remembering his mental image after the photograph in question is not in sight.[46]
The key is about the distinction between what is actually photographed and the responses of the photographer and the viewer which may, or may not, coincide. Indeed it is not important that the metaphors are in agreement between different people as this is a part of the exploration:
When any photograph functions for a given person as an Equivalent we can say that at that moment and for that person the photograph acts as a symbol or plays the role of a metaphor for something that is beyond the subject photographed.[47]
The power of the equivalent, so far as the expressive-creative photographer is concerned, lies in the fact that he can convey and evoke feelings about things and situations and events which for some reason or other are not or can not be photographed. The secret, the catch and the power lies in being able to use the forms and shapes of objects in front of the camera for their expressive-evocative qualities. Or to say this in another way, in practice Equivalency is the ability to use the visual world as the plastic material for the photographer's expressive purposes. .[48]
Sequencing images was a key part of the work of Minor White and he saw it as a means of emphasing connections and bringing out deeper meanings:
While rocks were photographed, the subject of the sequence is not rocks; while symbols seem to appear, they are pointers to the significance. The meaning appears in the space between the images, in the mood they raise in the beholder. The flow of the sequence eddies in the river of his associations as he passes from picture to picture. The rocks and the photographs are only objects upon which significance is spread like sheets on the ground to dry.[49]
 
  
1.15   Abstract >  Carl Chiarenza: The nature of Abstraction 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Carl Chiarenza has been exploring the nature of abstraction for over 50 years. In his early work the shades of light are explored along with edges and boundaries. The way that one region of the frame is separated from another - in a stain, a ray of light, a crack or a metallic edge - causes a junction of exploration. Differing textures around these fractures respond to light in diverse ways and the patterns, shapes and forms pull one into a world of shadows.
 
As you go through his work chronologically you can see trends from objects in the physical world - for example hands and an industrial gauge - through the selected areas of the natural forms such as rocks or flora where his selection forces the perception of scale to be ambiguous and meaningless - the patterns are the important element. When Carl Chiarenza moved to photo collage, objects were selected and photographed so that the very essence of the objects‘ reflectivity would summon us into a world that is a meditation on the abstract. Some series have names such as Peace Warriors[50] or Solitudes[51], and the collages have the shapes, and possibly the features, of a character such as Don Quixote or a Samurai but that is only at the surface. They are not the character but an evolved abstraction of one.[52] 
  
1.16   Abstract >  Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Berlin-born Heinz Hajek-Halke (1898-1983) was a German press photographer, photo-editor, teacher and master of abstract techniques and montage. In the late 1940's he was a member of the Fotoform group, and later taught photography and graphic design at the Berliner Hochschule für Bildende Künste (Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin). His book Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (1955)[53] showed his pioneering experimental work and is receiving renewed attention.[54] 
  
1.17   Abstract >  Herbert Strässer: Abstracts - Foto-Grafik 
  
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1.18   Abstract >  Henry Holmes Smith: Colour abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Henry Holmes Smith (1909-1986)[55][56] was influenced by the Bauhaus tradition of László Moholy-Nagy that continued with the "New Bauhaus" in Chicago from 1937.[57] Smith served in the US Army 1942-1945 and on his return to civilian life started to experiment with light studies and colour abstracts
  
1.19   Abstract >  Barbara Kasten: Polaroid polacolor prints 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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In the 1980s Barbara Kasten created her Polaroid polacor prints in her Constructs[58] series. 
  
1.20   Abstract >  Don Jim: Urban Artifax 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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Don Jim (1922-2006) was much influenced by Minor White in his approach to the spiritual side of photography.
The Urban Artifax series of photographs by Don Jim glorifies common metal objects imbedded in the streets of Los Angeles.
 
Bullets, can openers, nails, screws and bits of miscellaneous metal take on human and symbolic form in the photographs by Don Jim. The compositions and subtle but masterful lighting effects take these images to an almost iconic status. Much like an archeologist, Don prowled the streets of Los Angeles during the 1970s, head down, eyes focused on the asphalt, looking for uncommon beauty in everyday, flattened pieces of metal.
 
Don‘s Asian heritage shines through in these photographs. Much like a Zen artist, he tried to suggest, by the simplest possible means, that there was an inherent aesthetic nature even in the most over-looked and battered of objects.[59]
 
  
1.21   Abstract >  Ellen Carey: Pulls 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
  
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A 2007 press release from the JHB Gallery provides a context for the worl of Ellen Carey:
Carey creates images that are one-of-a-kind using the Polaroid one-step, peel away process that develops in a mere 60 seconds. It produces a positive along with its negative, Carey shows both, making pictures that are simultaneously photographic and abstract. These artworks she calls "Pulls", her term since 1996 upon its discovery, echoes the physical activity of making these pictures,
 
The "Pulls" are boldly displayed as color positive prints. Carey’s signature conical looping shapes, reminiscent of moiré patterns, wood grain or photographic Newton rings are seen with their opposites, the negatives or "shadows". Both prints contain rich surfaces. The negatives dry and their patina results from this change. As photographic objects they serve as symbols of their former selves, a "memento mori". Carey signals Talbot’s paper negative (1834) at the dawn of photography and the negative/positive axis that is photography’s foundation. Equal status is given to both prints (the Polaroid negative is usually discarded) and the artist acknowledges this history, underscoring its importance by tacking the "Pulls" to the wall with pushpins. Her installations are visually rich, a visceral experience of synoptic clarity and "in situ" presentation direct from the artist’s hand and the Polaroid studio.[60]
 
  
Concluding thoughts 
  
1.22   Abstract >  Conclusions 
  
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Abstraction was from its inception seen as means of extending the rich possibilities of visual understanding and perception. As Herbert Matter wrote in Arts & Architecture magazine in 1944:
In exploring the various photographic processes themselves, and here lies infinite possibility to control, to liberate, to create visual sensation. Drawing with light, solarization, photograms or other direct impressions on positive or negative material, etc. Indeed with the exploring of these means, photography achieves an independent existence with no need of material from without, providing in itself an endless source of inspiration.[61]
From the earliest days of photography when practitioners of the daguerreotypes and calotypes were using their upper rooms to take photographs from we can find unintentional abstracts taken of rooftops.  
  
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Unintentional abstracts of rooftops 
  
We can also find nineteenth century compositions within the real world that, through a lack of contextual information or loss of scale, are imbued with a mystery. Once again these have abstract elements but they were not intentionally abstract. The albumen print of The Queen's Target (1860) by Roger Fenton was to demonstrate her marksmanship rather than be an exploration of visual form.[62] The same is true of the box of Late George Cling Peaches (1889) photographed by Carleton E. Watkins.[63]  
  
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Unintentional abstracts 
  
The fundamental change, and it is difficult to overstress its' importance as it has affected most subsequent experimental art and photography, was the acceptance of non-representational forms, i.e. abstraction, as an accepted mode of artistic expression. As soon as form and colour could be harnessed as the means of expressing spiritual and emotional equivalents experimentation could proceed. This acceptance started in art in around 1910[64] and was experimented with in photography by Paul Strand in America and the multi-talented practitioners at the Bauhaus[65] in Germany including László Moholy-Nagy,[66] Herbert Bayer[67] and György Kepes.[68] The addition of mirrors, different lenses, prisms, distortions,[69] solarizations, multiple exposures[70] and photograms, some of them new but most used for different purposes in the nineteenth century,[71] allowed photographers to experiment with abstraction in bewildering ways from the 1920s.  
  
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Paul Strand: Abstract forms 
  
 
  
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László Moholy-Nagy 
  
 
  
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György Kepes 
  
 
  
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Man Ray: Rayograms 
  
Abstraction is only a single facet of graphic art and the rich possibilities afforded by digital processing have blurred the distinctions between photography and graphic art. We must appreciate that this is not a new process and since the incorporation of the earliest photographs into print media there has been the ability to mix line art, photographs and text in novel ways. Some European photographers such as Alexander Rodchenko[72] and John Heartfield[73] pushed this to extraordinary levels and showed the richness that photomontage could bring.  
  
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Photomontage 
  
 
  
 
  

Footnotes 
  
  1. Λ Paul Gauguin letter to Emile Schuffenecker, Pont Aven, 14 August 1888. Maurice Malingue (ed.), 1949, Lettres de Gauguin ŕ sa femme et ŕ ses amis, (Paris: Grasset), #67, p. 134. Cited in: Herschel B. Chipp, 1968, Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, (University of California Press), p. 60 
      
  2. Λ Henri Matisse, 1947, "Exactitude is Not Truth", Henri Matisse, Retrospective of Paintings, Drawings ans Sculpture Organized in Collaboration with the Artist (Philadephia Museum of Art), exhibition catalogue 3 April - 9 May 1948, pp. 33-34. Cited in: Herschel B. Chipp, 1968, Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, (University of California Press), p. 60 
      
  3. Λ Biography of Umberto Boccioni - Rai Internazionale
    (Accessed: 7 August 2013)
    www.italica.rai.it/eng/principal/topics/bio/boccioni.htm 
      
  4. Λ Arthur Dove, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dove/hd_dove.htm 
      
  5. Λ When Alfred Stieglitz was photographing clouds for his "Equivalents" he saw them in musical terms:
    I wanted a series of photographs which when seen by Ernest Bloch (the great composer) he would exclaim: Music! Music! Man, why that is music! How did you ever do that? And he would point to violins, and flutes, and oboes, and brass, full of enthusiasm, and would say he'd have to write a symphony called "Clouds." Not like Debussy's but much, much more.
     
    And when finally I had my series of ten photographs printed, and Bloch saw them—what I said I wanted to happen happened verbatim.
    Alfred Stieglitz, 1923, "How I came to Photograph Clouds", Amateur Photographer and Photography, vol. 56, no. 1819, p. 255 
      
  6. Λ Wassily Kandinsky, 1911, "The Effect of Color" - Chapter 5, Uber das Geistige in der Kunst, (Munich: R. Piper). Actually published in 1912. 
      
  7. Λ Wassily Kandinsky, 1911, "The Effect of Color" - Chapter 5, Uber das Geistige in der Kunst, (Munich: R. Piper). Actually published in 1912. English translation by Francis Golffling, Michael Harrison and Ferdinand Ostertag from 1947, Concerning the Spiritual in Art (New York: Wittenborn Schultz), pp. 43-45. Cited in: Herschel B. Chipp, 1968, Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, (University of California Press), p. 153 
      
  8. Λ The literature on Alfred Stieglitz is vast.
     
    For biographical - S,D. Lowe, 1983, Stieglitz: A Memoir/Biography, (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux); R. Whelan, 1995, Alfred Stieglitz: A Biography, (Boston: Little, Brown)
     
    For general context - Robert Doty, 1978, Photo-Secession: Stieglitz and the Fine-Art Movement in Photography, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc.) [Foreword by Beaumont Newhall]; William Innes Homer, 1983, Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession, (New York: Little, Brown); Sarah Greenough, 2000, Modern Art and America: Alfred Stieglitz and his New York Galleries, (Washington: National Gallery of Art); Lisa Mintz Messinger, 2011, Stieglitz and His Artists: Matisse to O'Keefe, (Metropolitan Museum of Fine Art).
     
    For Camera Notes - Christian A. Peterson, 1993, Alfred Stieglitz’s “Camera Notes”, (New York: W. W. Norton)
     
    For Camera Work - Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) 
      
  9. Λ To understand the connections between the painters, sculptors, musicians, composers and dancers of Paris between 1905 and 1930 there is a PBS documentary: "Paris: The Luminous Years" (Premiered December 2010)
    (Accessed: 7 August 2013)
    www.pbs.org/programs/paris/ 
      
  10. Λ Pablo Picasso interviewed by Christian Zervos, 1935, "Conversation avec Picasso", Cahiers d'Art, (Paris), vol. X, no. 7-10, pp. 173-178. Cited in: Herschel B. Chipp, 1968, Theories of Modern Art: A Source Book by Artists and Critics, (University of California Press), p. 270 
      
  11. Λ Inventing Abstraction - MOMA, New York
    (Accessed: 5 November 2014)
    www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2012/inventingabstraction/ 
      
  12. Λ Arthur Dove, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    (Accessed: 1 August 2013)
    www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/dove/hd_dove.htm 
      
  13. Λ Wassily [Vasily] Kandinsky, 1912, Über das Geistige in der Kunst. Insbesondere in der Malerei [On the Spiritual in Art: And Painting in Particular]. It was dated 1911 and published in 1912. English translation by Francis Golffling, Michael Harrison and Ferdinand Ostertag from 1947, Concerning the Spiritual in Art (New York: Wittenborn Schultz) 
      
  14. Λ Christian A. Peterson, 1993, Alfred Stieglitz’s “Camera Notes”, (New York: W. W. Norton) 
      
  15. Λ Pam Roberts, 1997, Camera Work: The Complete Illustrations 1903–1917. Alfred Stieglitz, 291 Gallery and Camera Work, (Köln and New York: Taschen) 
      
  16. Λ Marianne Fulton et al., 1996, Pictorialism into Modernism: The Clarence H. White School of Photography, (New York: Rizzoli, in association with George Eastman House and the Detroit Institute of Arts); Van Deren Coke with Diana C. Du Pont, 1986, Photography: A Facet of Modernism, (New York: Hudson Hills Press); Rolf E. Krauss, 1985, The Originality of the Avant-Garde and other Modernist Myths, (Cambridge, Mass. & London: MIT Press) 
      
  17. Λ John Pultz & Catherine B. Scallen, 1981, Cubism and American Photography, 1910–1930, (Williamstown, MA: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute) 
      
  18. Λ For the complex connections within this artist community - Leah Dickerman (ed.) et al., 2013, Inventing Abstraction, 1910-1925, (New York: The Museum of Modern Art). The exhibition was accompanied by an online network diagram that provided insights into who provably knew who during this period. This highlights the gatekeepers who were pivotal in spreading the idea of "abstraction" as a valid art form. 
      
  19. Λ Alfred Steiglitz, 1923, ‘How I Came to Photograph Clouds‘, The Amateur Photographer & Photography, vol. 56, no. 1819, pp. 25 
      
  20. Λ To understand the thinking of Minor White - Peter Bunnell (ed.), 2012, Aperture Magazine Anthology - The Minor White Years 1952-1976, (Aperture)
     
    For Minor White - Peter Bunnell, 1989, Minor White: The Eye That Shapes, (Princeton: Princeton University Art Museum); Minor White, 1982, Mirrors, Messages, Manifestations: Minor White, (Millerton, NY: Aperture; distributed in the U.S. by Viking Penguin) ; Minor White, 1992, Minor White: Rites & Passages, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Reissue edition] 
      
  21. Λ Julian Cox, 2004, Spirit into Matter: The Photographs of Edmund Teske, (J. Paul Getty Museum) 
      
  22. Λ Sarah Greenough, 1990, Paul Strand, An American Vision, (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art in association with Aperture Foundation); Maria Morris Hambourg, 1998, Paul Strand, Circa 1916, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art); Paul Strand, 1971, Paul Strand: A Retrospective Monograph, the Years 1915–1968, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [2 vols]; Maren Stange, (ed.), 1990, Paul Strand: Essays on His Life and Work, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  23. Λ Henry Fox Talbot, 1839, Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing or the Process by Which Natural Objects May be Made to Delineate Themselves Without the Aid of the Artist’s Pencil, (London: London: R. and J. E. Taylor); Henry Fox Talbot, 1839, 9 February, ‘Photogenic Drawing. Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing, or the Process by which Natural Objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the Artist's Pencil‘, The Athenaeum, no. 589, pp. 114-117 
      
  24. Λ For Anna Atkins her books of cyanotypes include - Anna Atkins, 1843-1854, Photographs of British algae: cyanotype impressions, (Sevenoaks) [Private publication]; Anna Atkins, 1854, Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns, (Private publication). For a scholarly analysis - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  25. Λ Henry Fox Talbot sent example to the Italian botanist Bertolani an an album containing these is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 
      
  26. Λ For a scholarly analysis of the work of Anna Atkins - Larry J. Schaaf (ed.), 1985, Sun Gardens: Victorian Photograms by Anna Atkins, (New York: Aperture) 
      
  27. Λ A contemporary account of the photogenic drawings of Anna K. Weaver is included in "Fern Leaf Mottoes", October 1875, Woman's Work for Woman, vol. V, no. 8, pp. 270-271. 
      
  28. Λ Man Ray, 1963, Exhibition Rayographs 1921-1928, (Stuttgart: L.G.A.) ; Man Ray, 1934, Man Ray: Photographs 1920-1934, Paris, (Hartford: James Thall Soby) 
      
  29. Λ László Moholy-Nagy, 1925, Malerei, Photographie, Film, Bauhausbook 8, (Munich: Albert Langen Verlag), [Painting, Photography, Film]; Renate & Floris M. Neusüss (eds.), 2009, Moholy-Nagy: The Photograms: Catalogue Raisonné, (Hatje Cantz) 
      
  30. Λ Understanding the motivations and intentions of an artist is difficult but the elements of contemporary graphic design come through most strongly in the works of László Moholy-Nagy. 
      
  31. Λ Alfred Steiglitz, 1923, ‘How I Came to Photograph Clouds‘, The Amateur Photographer & Photography, vol. 56, no. 1819, pp. 25 
      
  32. Λ László Moholy-Nagy, 1925, Malerei, Photographie, Film, Bauhausbook 8, (Munich: Albert Langen Verlag), [Painting, Photography, Film] 
      
  33. Λ Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1928, Die Welt ist schön: Ein Hundert photographische Aufnahmen, (Munich: Kurt Wolff Verlag); Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1957, Bilder aus der Landschaft zwischen Ruhr und Möhne, (Belecke (Möhne): Privatdruck der Siepmann-Werke, AG); Albert Renger-Patzsch, 1979, Albert Renger-Patzsch: 100 Photographs, (Köln: Schürmann and Kicken; Paris: Créatis); A. Wilde, J. Wilde & T. Weske, 1997, Albert Renger-Patzsch: Photographer of Objectivity, (London: Thames & Hudson) 
      
  34. Λ Karl Blossfeldt, 1929, Urformen der Kunst, (Berlin: Verlag Ernst Wasmuth A.G.) [Second German edition]; Karl Blossfeldt, 1998, Natural Art Forms: 120 Classic Photographs, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications). The photographs of Karl Blossfeldt have continued popularity and nemerous editions of his books and selections from his work have been published. 
      
  35. Λ August Sander, 1929, Antlitz der Zeit, (Munich: Transmare and Kurt Wolff); August Sander, 1986, August Sander: Citizens of the Twentieth Century: Portrait Photographs 1892–1952, (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) [Edited by Gunther Sander]; August Sander, 1980, August Sander: Photographs of an Epoch. 1904–1959, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Preface by Beaumont Newhall; historical commentary by Robert Kramer]; Manfred Heiting (ed.), 1999, August Sander 1876–1964, (New York: Taschen) 
      
  36. Λ To understand the thinking of Minor White - Peter Bunnell (ed.), 2012, Aperture Magazine Anthology - The Minor White Years 1952-1976, (Aperture)
     
    For Minor White - Peter Bunnell, 1989, Minor White: The Eye That Shapes, (Princeton: Princeton University Art Museum); Minor White, 1982, Mirrors, Messages, Manifestations: Minor White, (Millerton, NY: Aperture; distributed in the U.S. by Viking Penguin) ; Minor White, 1992, Minor White: Rites & Passages, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Reissue edition] 
      
  37. Λ For Aaron Siskind - Carl Chiarenza, 1982, Aaron Siskind: Pleasures and Terrors, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company); D. Featherstone (ed.), 1990, Road Trip, (San Francisco: The Friends of Photography); Aaron Siskind, 1959, Photographs, (New York: Horizon Press); Aaron Siskind, 1976, Places. Aaron Siskind Photographs, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux); Aaron Siskind, 1981, Harlem Document, Photographs 1932-1940, (Providence, Rhode Island: A Matrix Publication) ; Aaron Siskind, 1989, Road Trip: Photographs 1980–1988, (San Francisco: Friends of Photography); Aaron Siskind, 2003, Aaron Siskind 100, (New York: powerHouse Books) 
      
  38. Λ Harry Callahan, 1964, "Statement" - reprinted in Vikki Goldberg (ed.), 1981, Photography in Print: Writings from 1816 to the Present, (Simon & Schuster / Touchstone), p. 420-421 
      
  39. Λ Ernst Haas, Ruth A. Peltason & Inge Bondi, 1989, Ernst Haas: Color Photography, (New York: Harry N. Abrams) 
      
  40. Λ Alfred Stieglitz, 1923, "How I came to Photograph Clouds", Amateur Photographer and Photography, vol. 56, no. 1819, pp. 255.
    I wanted to photograph clouds to find out what I had learned in 40 years about photography. Through clouds to put down my philosophy of life— to show that my photographs were not due to subject matter—not to special trees, or faces, or interiors, to special privileges—clouds were there for everyone—no tax as yet on them—free.
     
      
  41. Λ Definition requested – alan@luminous-lint.com 
      
  42. Λ Kelly Wise, 1978, Lotte Jacobi, (Danbury: Addison House); James A. Fasanelli, 1979, Lotte Jacobi: Photographs by Lotte Jacobi, (Matrix Pubns); Peter A. Moriarty, 2002, Lotte Jacobi: Photographs, (David R Godine / Pocket Paragon) 
      
  43. Λ Lotte Jacobi, 1978, Portraits & Photogenics, (University of Maryland, Baltimore County Library) 
      
  44. Λ To understand the thinking of Minor White - Peter Bunnell (ed.), 2012, Aperture Magazine Anthology - The Minor White Years 1952-1976, (Aperture)
     
    For Minor White - Peter Bunnell, 1989, Minor White: The Eye That Shapes, (Princeton: Princeton University Art Museum); Minor White, 1982, Mirrors, Messages, Manifestations: Minor White, (Millerton, NY: Aperture; distributed in the U.S. by Viking Penguin) ; Minor White, 1992, Minor White: Rites & Passages, (Millerton, NY: Aperture) [Reissue edition]; Paul Martineau, 2014, Minor White: Manifestations of the Spirit, (J. Paul Getty Museum) 
      
  45. Λ Aperture (www.aperture.org - accessed: 12 July 2013), a New York based foundation, describes itself as:
    ...a not-for-profit foundation, connects the photo community and its audiences with the most inspiring work, the sharpest ideas, and with each other—in print, in person, and online.
     
    Created in 1952 by photographers and writers as “common ground for the advancement of photography,” Aperture today is a multiplatform publisher and center for the photo community. From our base in New York, we produce, publish, and present a program of photography projects, locally and internationally.
    In addition to the longstanding journal the Aperture Foundation publishes books, mounts exhibitions, holds workshops and is involved in a vast range of photographic activities. 
      
  46. Λ Minor White, 1963, “Equivalence: The Perennial Trend”, PSA Journal, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 17-21 
      
  47. Λ Minor White, 1963, “Equivalence: The Perennial Trend”, PSA Journal, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 17-21 
      
  48. Λ Minor White, 1963, “Equivalence: The Perennial Trend”, PSA Journal, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 17-21 
      
  49. Λ Minor White (locate source) 
      
  50. Λ This text is an edited version for the one prepared for the online exhibition "Carl Chiarenza: The Nature of Abstraction" that was put up on Luminous-Lint (28 August 2007) 
      
  51. Λ Carl Chiarenza, 2005, Peace Warriors of 2003, (Tucson: Nazraeli Press) 
      
  52. Λ Carl Chiarenza, 2005, Solitudes, (Ottsville, PA: Lodima Press) 
      
  53. Λ Heinz Hajek-Halke, 1955, Experimentelle Fotografie: Lichtgrafik (Bonn: Athenäum Verlag) 
      
  54. Λ Books on the experimental photographs of Heinz Hajek-Halke - Heinz Hajek-Halke, 2005, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Form aus Licht und Schatten, Vol. I, (Göttingen); Michael Ruetz; Isabel Siben & Astrid Köppe (eds.), 2008, Phantasie und Traum. Das lichtgraphische Spätwerk von Heinz Hajek-Halke, (Munich) 
      
  55. Λ Website on Henry Holmes Smith managed by his family.
    henryholmessmith.com 
      
  56. Λ James L. Enyeart, 1984, Henry Holmes Smith: Collected Writings, 1935-1979, (Center for Creative Photography); Howard Bossen, 1983, Henry Holmes Smith: Man of Light, (UMI Research Press) 
      
  57. Λ László Moholy-Nagy, 1928, The New Vision, from Material to Architecture [Bauhausbuch 14]. Reissued: László Moholy-Nagy, 1938, The New Vision: Fundamentals of Design, Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, (NYC: W. W. Norton & Company) [The New Bauhaus Books Series 1: Gropius and Moholy-Nagy, series editors] 
      
  58. Λ Barbara Kasten, 1985, Constructs, (New York Graphic Society) 
      
  59. Λ Pers. email Margo Jim (former wife of photographer Don Jim) to Alan Griffiths, 2 July 2008 
      
  60. Λ Press release, 2007, "Ellen Carey: Polaroid Pulls & Shadows", JHB Gallery, New York. 
      
  61. Λ Herbert Matter, 1944, i>Arts & Architecture. Cited in a press release of the Gitterman Gallery for the exhibition "Herbert Matter", (January 23 – March 22, 2014) 
      
  62. Λ Roger Fenton, "The Queen's target", 1860, Albumen print, 28.1 x 24.5 cm, Royal Photograph Collection, The Royal Collection ® 2010, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, RCIN 2941855 
      
  63. Λ Carleton E. Watkins, "Late George Cling Peaches", 1889, Albumen print, 12 15/16 x 19 13/16 ins (32.8 x 50.3 cm), MoMA - Museum of Modern Art, New York, Acquired through the generosity of Jon L. Stryker, 896.2010 
      
  64. Λ A useful overview of vthe early years of Abstraction was given in the exhibition "Inventing Abstraction, 1910-1925" and the exhibition catalogue is essential reading - Leah Dickerman (ed.) et al., 2013, Inventing Abstraction, 1910-1925, (New York: he Museum of Modern Art) 
      
  65. Λ Magdalena Droste, 2006, Bauhaus 1919-1933, (Taschen); Magdalena Droste, 2006, The Bauhaus: 1919-1933: Reform and Avant-Garde, (Taschen); Jeannine Fiedler (ed.), 1990, Photography at the Bauhaus, (Cambridge: The MIT Press);Gillian Naylor,1985, The Bauhaus Reassessed, (New York: Dutton); Christopher Wilk, (ed.), 2006, Modernism: Designing a New World, 1914–1939, Exhibition catalogue. (London: V&A Publications) 
      
  66. Λ László Moholy-Nagy, 1925, Malerei, Photographie, Film, Bauhausbook 8, (Munich: Albert Langen Verlag), [Painting, Photography, Film]; Renate & Floris M. Neusüss (eds.), 2009, Moholy-Nagy: The Photograms: Catalogue Raisonné, (Hatje Cantz) 
      
  67. Λ Herbert Bayer, 1977, Herbert Bayer: Photographic Works, (Los Angeles: Arco Center for Visual Art) [Essay by Beaumont Newhall] ; Gwen F. Chanzit, 1988, Herbert Bayer: Collection and Archive of the Denver Art Museum, (University of Washington Press); Arthur A. Cohen, 1984, Herbert Bayer: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press) 
      
  68. Λ G. Kepes, et al., 1995, Language of Vision: Fundamentals of Bauhaus Design, (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications) [Reprint]; Gyorgy Kepes, 1984, Light Graphics, (New York: International Center of Photography) isbn-10: 0933642059 isbn-13: 978-0933642058 [Exhibition catalogue]; Gyorgy Kepes, & Marjorie Supovitz (ed.), 1978, Gyorgy Kepes: The MIT Years 1945-1977, (The MIT Press) 
      
  69. Λ Distortions would be used by numerous photographers including: Berenice Abbott (1898-1991), Bill Brandt (1904-1983), Robert Doisneau (1912-1994), Louis Ducos du Hauron (1837-1920), André Kertész (1894-1985), Man Ray (1890-1976), Weegee (1899-1968) and Edward Weston (1886-1958) 
      
  70. Λ It would be a mistake to assume that there are not multiple exposures from the earliest days of photography - they are rare but they do exist.
     
    For a daguerreotype - Southworth & Hawes, "[Seated Man with Brattle Street Church Seen Through Window]", 1850s, Daguerreotype, whole plate, double exposure 21.6 x 16.5 cm (8 1/2 x 6 1/2 ins, image) / 35.6 x 27.9 cm (14 x 11 ins, frame); The Isenburg Collection @ AMC Toronto
     
    For a calotype photomontage - Unidentified photographer, "Captain [David] Campbell (Schiehallion) [and Tiger]", 1845 (ca), Calotype, photomontage, St. Andrews University Library, Special Collections / The Photographic Collection, Record: ALB6-100-1 
      
  71. Λ For a useful overview of different effects in common practise at the end of the nineteenth century - Walter E. Woodbury, 1905, Photographic Amusements including a Description of a Number of Novel Effects Obtainable with the Camera, (New York: The Photographic Times Publishing Association) 
      
  72. Λ David Elliott (ed.), 1979, Alexander Rodchenko, 1891–1956, (Oxford, England: Museum of Modern Art); S.O. Khan-Magomedov, 1986, Rodchenko: The Complete Work, (Cambridge: The MIT Press); Alexander Lavrentiev, 1995, Alexander Rodchenko: Photography 1924–1954, (Edison, NJ: Knickerbocker Press); Peter MacGill & Gerhard Steidl (eds.), 2012, Rodchenko, (Steidl Pace/MacGill); P. Noever (ed.), 1991, Aleksandr M. Rodchenko and Varvara F. Stepanova, (Munich: Prestel); Margarita Tupitsyn (ed.) & Christina Kiaer, 2009, Rodchenko and Popova: Defining Constructivism, (Tate) 
      
  73. Λ John Heartfield, 1977, Photomontages of the Nazi Period, (New York: Universe Books); Peter Pachnicke & Klaus Honnef (eds.), 1992, John Heartfield, (New York: Harry N. Abrams); Andres Mario Zervigon, 2012, John Heartfield and the Agitated Image: Photography, Persuasion, and the Rise of Avant-Garde Photomontage, (University of Chicago Press) 
      

alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  

HomeContents > Further research

 
  
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General reading 
  
Cotton, Charlotte, 2004, The Photograph as Contemporary Art, (Thames & Hudson) isbn-10: 0500203806 isbn-13: 978-0500203804 [Δ
  
Dickerman, Leah (ed.) et al., 2013, Inventing Abstraction, 1910-1925, (New York: he Museum of Modern Art) isbn-10: 0870708287 isbn-13: 978-0870708282 [Δ
  
Fraenkel, Jeffrey (ed.), 2013, The Unphotographable, (Fraenkel Gallery) isbn-10: 1881337332 isbn-13: 978-1881337331 [Δ
  
Kandinsky, Wassily [Vasily], 1911 (dated 1912), Über das Geistige in der Kunst. Insbesondere in der Malerei [On the Spiritual in Art: And Painting in Particular], (R. Piper & Co.) [Δ
  
Rexer, Lyle, 2009, The Edge of Vision: The Rise of Abstraction in Photography, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597111007 isbn-13: 978-1597111003 [Δ
  
 
  
Readings on, or by, individual photographers 
  
Carl Chiarenza 
  
Chiarenza, Carl, 1988, Chiarenza: Landscapes Of The Mind, (Boston: David R. Godine) [Δ
  
Chiarenza, Carl, 2002, Chiarenza: Evocations, (Tucson: Nazraeli Press) [Chiarenza, C. (2002). Chiarenza: With poetry by Robert Koch] [Δ
  
Chiarenza, Carl, 2005, Peace Warriors of 2003, (Tucson: Nazraeli Press) [With original print on the cover. Signed Edition of 500] [Δ
  
Chiarenza, Carl, 2005, Solitudes, (Ottsville, PA: Lodima Press) [Δ
  
Carlotta M. Corpron 
  
Sandweiss, Martha A., 1980, Carlotta Corpron: Designer with Light, (Austin) [Δ
  
David Douglas Duncan 
  
Duncan, David Douglas, 1972, Prismatics: Exploring a New World, (New York, and Evanston, Ill.: Harper & Row) [Δ
  
Heinz Hajek-Halke 
  
Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 1978, Heinz Hajek-Halke Fotografie Foto-Grafik Licht-Grafik, (Galerie Werner Kunze) [Δ
  
Pasquer, Priska & Hajek-Halke, Heinz, 2008, Heinz Hajek-Halke: Artist, Anarchist, (Steidl) isbn-10: 3865211348 isbn-13: 978-3865211347 [Δ
  
Florence Henri 
  
du Pont, Diana C., 1990, Florence Henri: Artist-Photographer of the Avant-Garde, (San Francisco: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art) [Δ
  
Marta Hoepffner 
  
Scheid, Eva (ed.), 1997, Lichtbilder - Bilder des Lichts. Marta Hoepffner. Fotokünstlerin und Pädagogin, (Hofheim am Taunus) [German] [Δ
  
Barbara Kasten 
  
Kasten, Barbara, 1985, Constructs, (New York Graphic Society) [Δ
  
Kasten, Barbara, 1991, Barbara Kasten, (Ram Publications & Distribution) isbn-10: 096307850X isbn-13: 978-0963078506 [Δ
  
György Kepes 
  
Kepes, Gyorgy, 1984, Light Graphics, (New York: International Center of Photography) isbn-10: 0933642059 isbn-13: 978-0933642058 [Exhibition catalogue] [Δ
  
Kepes, Gyorgy & Supovitz,Marjorie (ed.), 1978, Gyorgy Kepes: The MIT Years 1945-1977, (The MIT Press) isbn-10: 0262610272 isbn-13: 978-0262610278 [Δ
  
Aaron Siskind 
  
Chiarenza, Carl, 1982, Aaron Siskind: Pleasures and Terrors, (Boston: Little, Brown and Company) [Δ
  
Siskind, Aaron, 1989, Road Trip: Photographs 1980–1988, (San Francisco: Friends of Photography) [Δ
  
Siskind, Aaron, 2003, Aaron Siskind 100, (New York: powerHouse Books) [Δ
  
Traub, Charles, 2014, Aaron Siskind: Another Photographic Reality, (University of Texas Press) isbn-10: 0292762917 isbn-13: 978-0292762916 [Δ
  
Henry Holmes Smith 
  
Bossen, Howard, 1983, Henry Holmes Smith: Man of Light, (UMI Research Press) isbn-10: 0835714594 isbn-13: 978-0835714594 [Δ
  
Enyeart, James L., 1984, Henry Holmes Smith: Collected Writings, 1935-1979, (Center for Creative Photography) isbn-10: 0938262106 isbn-13: 978-0938262107 [Δ
  
Edmund Teske 
  
Cox, Julian, 2004, Spirit into Matter: The Photographs of Edmund Teske, (J. Paul Getty Museum) isbn-10: 0892367601 isbn-13: 978-0892367603 [Δ
  
James Welling 
  
Crump, James, 2013, James Welling: Monograph, (Aperture) isbn-10: 1597112097 isbn-13: 978-1597112093 [Δ
  
Welling, James, 2000, James Welling: Photographs 1974-1999, (Wexner Center for the Arts) isbn-10: 188139025X isbn-13: 978-1881390251 [Δ
  
Welling, James, 2007, James Welling: Flowers, (New York: David Zwirner) isbn-10: 0976913682 isbn-13: 978-0976913689 [Δ
  
Welling, James, 2010, Light Sources, (SteidlMACK) isbn-10: 3865218598 isbn-13: 978-3865218599 [Δ
  
Welling, James, 2011, James Welling: Glass House, (Damiani) isbn-10: 8862081618 isbn-13: 978-8862081610 [Δ
  
Welling, James, 2014, Diary / Landscape, (University Of Chicago Press) isbn-10: 022620412X isbn-13: 978-0226204123 [Δ
  
Welling, James, 2014, James Welling: Man of Fire, (Prestel) isbn-10: 3791353667 isbn-13: 978-3791353661 [Δ
  
Minor White 
  
Bunnell, Peter, 1989, Minor White: The Eye That Shapes, (Princeton: Princeton University Art Museum) [Δ
  
 
  
If you feel this list is missing a significant book or article please let me know - Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com 
  
 
  
Resources 
  
Pete Turner 
http://www.peteturner.com 
  
Fictional Photography 
http://www.geh.org ... 
  
Flexible Images: Handmade American Photography, 1969 – 2002 
http://www.lightresearch.net ... 
An article by Robert Hirsch. 
  
 
  

HomeContentsPhotographers > Photographers worth investigating

 
Hans Bellmer  (1902-1975) • Bill Brandt  (1904-1983) • Vladimir Brylyakov  (1958-) • Ellen Carey  (1952-) • Roger Catherineau  (1925-1962) • Carl Chiarenza  (1935-) • Carlotta M. Corpron  (1901-1988) • Xavier Damon  (1969-) • Thomas Demand  (1964-) • Llyn Foulkes  (1934-) • Jaromír Funke  (1896-1945) • Adam Fuss  (1961-) • Ernst Haas  (1921-1986) • Heinz Hajek-Halke  (1898-1983) • John Heartfield  (1891-1968) • Florence Henri  (check) • Dennis Hopper  (1936-2010) • Lotte Jacobi  (1896-1990) • Barbara Kasten  (1936-) • André Kertész  (1894-1985) • Man Ray  (1890-1976) • László Moholy-Nagy  (check) • Jean Moral  (1906-1999) • Pavel Odvody  (1953-) • Roger M. Parry  (1905-1977) • Alexander Rodchenko  (1891-1956) • Franz Roh  (1890-1965) • Jaroslav Rössler  (1902-1990) • Werner Schnelle  (1942-) • Victor Schrager  (1950-) • Aaron Siskind  (1903-1991) • Frederick Sommer  (1905-1999) • Paul Strand  (1890-1976) • Maurice Tabard  (1897-1984) • Arthur Tress  (1940-) • Pete Turner  (1934-) • Raoul Ubac  (1910-1985) • James Welling  (1951-) • James Welling  (1951-) • Brett Weston  (1911-1993) • Minor White  (1908-1976) • Huntington Witherill  (1949-) • Willy Zielke  (1902-1989)
HomeThemes > Abstract 
A wider gazeA closer lookRelated topics 
  
Art 
Chemigrams 
Distortions 
Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors 
Experimental and manipulated photography 
Futurism 
Multiple exposures 
Photograms 
Shadows 
Solarization 
Using different viewpoints 
Using intermediates 
 
  

HomeContentsOnline exhibitions > Abstract

Please submit suggestions for Online Exhibitions that will enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
ThumbnailAaron Siskind: The Egan Gallery Years 1947-1954 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 22, 2008)
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstraction of the Real 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Improved (October 22, 2010)
ThumbnailAbstract: Distortions 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 14, 2008)
ThumbnailAbstract: Lines - Curves 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 9, 2009)
ThumbnailAbstract: Lines - Diagonals from the lower left to the upper right 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 23, 2009)
ThumbnailAbstract: Lines - Diagonals from the upper left to the lower right 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 23, 2009)
ThumbnailAbstract: Lines - Grids 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 9, 2009)
ThumbnailAbstract: Viewpoint: Above 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 27, 2008)
ThumbnailAbstract: Viewpoint: Below 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (June 28, 2008)
ThumbnailCarl Chiarenza: The Nature of Abstraction 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 29, 2007)
ThumbnailDon Jim: Urban Artifax 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (July 2, 2008)
ThumbnailEllen Carey: Polaroid Pulls & Shadows 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (December 19, 2007)
ThumbnailHuntington Witherill: Photographic abstractions 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (May 24, 2006)
ThumbnailPhotograms 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (August 22, 2010)
ThumbnailRoger Camp: Water Music 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (November 24, 2007)
ThumbnailShadows 
Title | Lightbox | Checklist
Released (October 18, 2011)
 
  

HomeVisual indexes > Abstract

Please submit suggestions for Visual Indexes to enhance this theme.
Alan - alan@luminous-lint.com

 
  
   Photographer 
  
ThumbnailAlfred Stieglitz: Equivalents 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Light abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Lucidagrams 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailArthur Siegel: Photograms 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBill Brandt: Distortions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailBrett Weston: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailCarl Chiarenza: The nature of Abstraction 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDavid Douglas Duncan: Prismatics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDenis Brihat: Abstractions of form 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailDon Jim: Urban Artifax 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
Thumbnail Ellen Carey: Pulls 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFlorence Henri: Compositions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailFrederick Sommer: Cut paper 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGyörgy Kepes: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailGyörgy Kepes: Wheel Spokes and Flame Form 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHarry Callahan: Abstracts 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHeinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHenry Holmes Smith: Colour abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailHerbert Strässer: Abstracts 
ThumbnailJaromir Funke: Abstract compositions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailJaroslav Rössler: Abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailLotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWeegee: Distortions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWerner Schnelle: Light Works 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
ThumbnailWilly Zielke: Glass abstractions 
About this photographer | Photographs by this photographer 
 
 
  
   Connections 
  
ThumbnailCarleton E. Watkins - Unidentifier photographer 
ThumbnailHarry Callahan - Lisa M. Robinson 
ThumbnailUnidentified photographer - György Kepes 
ThumbnailWynn Richards - Ruth Bernard - Edward Steichen - Vilma Slomp 
 
  
   Thematic Connections 
  
ThumbnailLight abstractions 
ThumbnailLooking up and down 
 
  
   Themes 
  
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstraction in painting 
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstraction of the real 
ThumbnailAbstract: Abstractions of scale 
ThumbnailAbstract: Light 
ThumbnailExperimental: Distortions 
ThumbnailExperimental: Double or multiple exposures 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Curves 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Diagonals from the lower left to the upper right 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Diagonals from the upper left to the lower right 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Grids 
ThumbnailExperimental: Lines and shapes: Spirals 
ThumbnailExperimental: Solarizations 
ThumbnailExperimental: Viewpoint: Above 
ThumbnailExperimental: Viewpoint: Below 
 
  
   Still thinking about these... 
  
ThumbnailPhotographic test strips 
ThumbnailWorking with paper and card 
 
  
Refreshed: 20 November 2014, 13:06
 
  
 
  
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