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This index shows some of the Themes on Luminous-Lint and is to assist in locating gaps. If you have suggestions for additional topics or examples to improve them please send them through. 
  
*** = Text requires preparation. 
  

 
This index is a trial and it does NOT show all Themes on Luminous-Lint. 
  
Themes 
Styles and movements 
Techniques 
The business of photography 
Geographical regions 
 
  

Themes

 
  
Abstract
Introduction 
   Introduction to abstraction 
   Defining the abstract 
Abstraction before abstraction and unintentional abstracts 
   Abstraction before abstraction 
   Photographic test strips 
Abstraction in art 
   Abstract paintings 
Abstraction in photography 
   Early examples of photographic abstraction 
   Photograms and abstraction 
   Experimental photography 
Abstract realism 
   Abstract realism 
Contemporary abstraction 
   Contemporary examples of photographic abstraction 
Photographers 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: Vorticism 
   Alfred Stieglitz: Equivalents 
   Denis Brihat: Abstractions of form 
   Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
   Harry Callahan: Abstracts 
   Minor White: Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors 
   Carl Chiarenza: The nature of Abstraction 
   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography 
   Milos Korecek: Abstractions (Fokalke) 
   Ladislav Postupa: Experimental vision *** 
   Herbert Strässer: Abstracts - Foto-Grafik 
   Henry Holmes Smith: Colour abstractions 
   Barbara Kasten: Polaroid polacolor prints 
   Don Jim: Urban Artifax 
   Ellen Carey: Pulls 
   Thomas Ruff: Substrat 
Concluding thoughts 
   Conclusions 
Abstraction of scale
Introduction 
   Abstractions of scale 
   Abstraction of the small 
   Abstraction of the large 
   Abstraction and the loss of scale 
   Abstractions of scale with landscapes 
Photographers 
   Minor White: Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors 
   Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee 
Abstraction of the real
Examples 
   Abstraction of the real 
Patterns 
   Abstraction of the real: Repetition 
   Abstraction of the real: Irregularity 
   Abstraction of the real: Round 
Colour 
   Abstraction of the real: Colour 
Photographers 
   Wilson A. Bentley: Photomicrographs of snowflakes 
   Wilson A. Bentley: Frost *** 
   Berenice Abbott: Science 
   Aaron Siskind: Chicago 
   Aaron Siskind: Gloucester 
   Toni Schneiders: Form *** 
   Josef Sudek: Glass Labyrinths 
   Peter Keetman: Abstraction of the real *** 
   Ludwig Windstosser: Abstraction of the real 
   Mario Giacomelli: On Being Aware of Nature (Presa di coscienza sulla natura) 
   Brett Weston: Abstraction of the real 
   Lucien Clergue: Language of the sands (Langage des sables) 
   Michael Jackson: Poppit Sands (2007-) 
Abstraction of light
Introduction 
   Light is the shape and play of my thought 
   Abstractions with light 
   Tamers of light 
Vorticism 
   Vorticism 
Photographers 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: Vorticism 
   Jaromir Funke: Abstract compositions 
   Arthur Siegel: Lucidagrams 
   Arthur Siegel: Light abstractions *** 
   Peter Keetman: Abstractions of light 
   David Douglas Duncan: Prismatics 
   Abelardo Morell: Light abstractions 
   Werner Schnelle: Light Works 
   Michael Jackson: Luminograms (2015) 
Advertising
Advertising and commercial photography 
   The distinction between commercial photography and advertising 
   Advertising photography 
   Advertising that includes photographs 
   Photography as an Advertising Medium (1859) 
Examples of advertising 
   Carte de visites: Advertising for photographers 
   Carte de visites: Advertising 
   Ranger & Austen: Clairvoyant Medical Examinations - Buffum & Cleveland 
   Contemporary uses of carte de visites for employment 
   Cabinet cards: Advertising 
   Robinson & Roi: The Famous Glass Dress - Royal Robe of Princess Eulalia 
   Sutherland sisters 
   I.W. Taber: The Taber photographic album of principal business houses, residences and persons (1880) 
   Banner ladies 
   Seeking a wife (1881) 
   New York facades shown in cabinet cards 
   Sports cards and cigarette cards 
   Gelatin silver prints: Advertising 
Products 
   Advertising for cigarettes *** 
Documentation of advertising and marketing initiatives 
   Documenting window and shop displays 
Photographers 
   Margaret Watkins: Advertising 
   Edward Steichen: Advertising 
   J. Pécsi: Photo und Publizität - Photo and Advertising (1930) 
   Ringl & Pit: Advertising 
   Herbert Matter: Advertising 
   Adolf Lazi: Advertising 
   A. Hameryckx: Advertising and commercial photography *** 
   Victor Keppler: Advertising 
   Lejaren à Hiller: Surgery through the Ages 
   Nickolas Muray: Advertising 
Advertising albums
Photographers 
   I.W. Taber: The Taber photographic album of principal business houses, residences and persons (1880) 
Aerial
Introduction 
   Aerial photography 
   James Wallace Black: Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It 
   Manfred Curry: A travers les nuages (ca. 1932) *** 
   Satellite imaging 
Aerial images and fine art 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
   David Maisel: Oblivion 
   Emmet Gowin: Aerial photographs *** 
   Gábor Kerekes: Over Rosswell (2002-2005) 
Aerial photography
Examples 
   Aerial photography 
Balloon flights 
   Balloon flights 
   Nadar: Balloon flights 
   Cecil Victor Shadbolt: Ballooning and aerial photography in Great Britain and France 
   Nils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897) 
   Eduard Spelterini: Aerial views 
Airplane flights 
   Alfred G. Buckham: Aerial photography 
   Rudolf Koppitz: Aerial photography *** 
   Bradford Washburn: Aerial photography 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of California *** 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
   David Maisel: Oblivion 
Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   First World War (1914-1918): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   Second World War (1939-1945): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
Satellite 
   Satellite Sentinel and the Enough Project 
Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography
Wars 
   First World War (1914-1918): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   Edward Steichen (compiler): Album of photographs by the Photographic Section, U.S. Air Service, American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) (1918-1919) 
   Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   Second World War (1939-1945): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   Justification for the Iraq War (2003-2011) 
Balloons, airships and dirigibles
Examples 
   Balloon flights 
   Airships *** 
Photographers 
   Nadar: Balloon flights 
   S.A. King: Balloon flights 
   James Wallace Black: Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It 
   Cecil Victor Shadbolt: Ballooning and aerial photography in Great Britain and France 
   The wedding of Margaret Buckley and Edward T. Davis (27 September 1888) 
   Nils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897) 
   Eduard Spelterini: Aerial views 
   Umberto Nobile expedition to the North Pole with the airship Italia (1928) 
Events 
   The wedding of Margaret Buckley and Edward T. Davis (27 September 1888) 
Disasters 
   Hindenburg disaster (6 May 1937) 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Balloons 
Kite photography
Introduction 
   Kite photography 
Satellite imaging
Introduction 
   Satellite imaging 
   Satellite imagery with data layers 
Satellite imagery and humanitarian survelliance 
   Satellite Sentinel and the Enough Project 
Satellite imagery and fine art 
   Gábor Kerekes: Over Rosswell (2002-2005) 
Architecture
Introduction 
   Introduction to architecture 
Early examples 
   A world of roofs 
   Calvert Richard Jones: Daguerreotype: Margam Castle, Wales 
   Mission Héliographique 
   Achille Quinet: Restoration of the Royal Chaalis Abbey 
   William and Mary Howitt: Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain (1862) 
   William Howitt: Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain and Ireland, Second Series (1864) 
Scotland 
   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
England 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
   Robert Henry Cheney: The country houses and architecture of England (1850s) 
   The Society for Photographing Relics of Old London 
   Frederick Henry Evans: England, Kelmscott Manor 
   Roger Mayne: Wapping 
France 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame, Facade 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame, La Porte Rouge 
   Charles Marville: Paris 
   Édouard Baldus: Paris 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875) 
   Pierre-Ambroise Richebourg (attributed): Élysée Palace, Paris (ca. 1867) 
   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
Germany 
   Leopold Ahrendts: Berlin 
   Albrecht Meydenbauer: Photogrammetry 
   August Sander: Cologne 
   Bauhaus 
Italy 
   Carlo Naya: Venice: Palaces 
   Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal 
Spain 
   Joan Martí Centellas: Barcelona 
Russia 
   Albert Felish: Russia, St. Petersburg 
India 
   Thomas Biggs: Architecture at Ahmedabad, the Capital of Goozerat (1866) 
   John Henry Ravenshaw: Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions (1878) 
Australia 
   Album of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1870) 
   Unidentified photographer: The buildings of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1873) *** 
USA 
   George Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857) 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Edward Steichen: The Flatiron 
   Lewis W. Hine: Empire State Building (1929-1931) 
   Berenice Abbott: Changing New York 
   Andreas Feininger: The architecture of New York 
   Julius Shulman: Architecture 
   Frank Gohlke: Grain elevators 
Brazil 
   Marcel Gautherot: The architecture of Oscar Niemeyer in Brasilia 
Building types 
   Skyscrapers 
Survey projects 
   Historic American Buildings Survey - HABS 
USA, California 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
   Robert Adams: The construction of suburbia 
Styles and movements 
   Pictorialism and architecture 
Architectural details and modifications 
   Egypt: Wall art, bas-relief, hieroglyphics and graffiti 
   Brassai: Graffiti 
   Aaron Siskind: Chicago 
   Aaron Siskind: Gloucester 
Structures 
   Doorways 
   Windows 
   Bridges, viaducts and trestles 
Cities in decay 
   Roger Mayne: Leeds, slum clearance 
Photographers 
   Bernd & Hilla Becher: Framework Houses (1959-1971) 
   Candida Höfer: Architectural space 
   Thomas Ruff: Architecture 
   Thomas Kellner: Architecture 
   Hiroshi Sugimoto: Theatres 
   John Divola: Isolated Houses 
Techniques and processes 
   Gelatin silver prints: Architecture 
Conclusions 
   Conclusions on architecture 
Religious architecture
Introduction 
   Introduction to religious architecture 
Jewish architecture 
   Jewish architecture *** 
   Neil Folberg: Synagogues *** 
Christian architecture 
   Christian architecture 
   Frederick H. Evans: Cathedrals 
Islamic architecture 
   Islamic architecture 
   Juan Laurent: The Islamic architecture of Spain 
   Mohammad Sadiq: Mecca (1880-1881) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Pilgrimage to Mecca (1884-1885) 
Christian architecture
Examples 
   Christian architecture 
Specific religious buildings 
   Italy: Rome: St. Peter's 
   Italy: Rome: San Giovanni in Laterano (Archbasilica of St. John Lateran) *** 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame, Facade 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame, La Porte Rouge 
   Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo 
   Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
Photographers 
   Hill & Adamson: Scotland: Roslin: Roslin Chapel - Rosslyn Chapel *** 
   Henri Le Secq: Premier Cahier de lithophotographie (1853) *** 
   Roger Fenton: Christian architure in Great Britain 
   Southworth and Hawes: Mount Auburn Cemetery 
   Frederick H. Evans: Cathedrals 
   Francis Bruguière: Cathedral montages *** 
   Walker Evans: Churches *** 
Islamic architecture
Examples 
   Islamic architecture 
Specific religious buildings 
   Constantinople - Istanbul: Santa Sophia Mosque 
   Egypt: Cairo: Cemeteries and tombs of the Mamalukes 
Photographers 
   Juan Laurent: The Islamic architecture of Spain 
   Abdullah frères: Islamic architecture *** 
   Mohammad Sadiq: Mecca (1880-1881) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Pilgrimage to Mecca (1884-1885) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Bilder aus Mekka (1889) 
   H.A. Mirza & Sons: Views of Mecca and Medina (1907) *** 
Rooms and their contents
Introduction 
   Introduction to rooms 
Windows 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Oriel Window, South Gallery, Lacock Abbey *** 
Staircases 
   Staircases 
Rooms 
   Sitting, living and dining rooms *** 
   Kitchens *** 
   Bedrooms 
   Bathrooms 
   Toilets 
   Studios 
Eugène Atget 
   Eugène Atget: Doorways 
   Eugène Atget: Staircases *** 
Art
Introduction 
   Introduction to art and photography 
Artists and photographers 
   Artists at work 
   The encounters between the London Daguerreotypist John Jabez Mayall and the artist John Turner (1847-1849) 
   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
   Edward Linley Sambourne: Photographs as a source for cartoons and illustrations 
   How artists have portrayed lanternists, photographers and photography 
Drawing and optical devices 
   Drawing and optical devices 
   Camera lucida: Design and use 
   The camera lucida 
   Camera obscura: Design and use 
   Portable camera obscura 
Cliché-verre 
   Cliché verre 
Associating photography with the arts 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
Publications that did, or said they did, use daguerreotypes as the basis for their illustrations 
   The influence of the daguerreotype upon art 
   Paris et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840) 
   Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes : vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (1842) 
   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
   Bruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855) 
Using photography to copy two dimensional artworks 
   Joseph Nicéphore Niépce: Cardinal d'Amboise 
   Photographing art: Works on paper and canvas 
   William Sterling: Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Notice of an Illuminated Vellum Manuscript 
Printing works for photographic reproductions 
   Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard: reproductions of works of art 
   Adolphe Braun - A Continental Printing Establishment (1874) 
Microphotographs of art 
   Art and microphotographs 
Copyright of photographs of artworks 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (17 August 1888) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (24 August 1888) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Judgement - Messrs. Braun and Co. (21 September 1888) 
Photographing sculpture 
   Photographing art: Sculpture 
Use of photography as an aid to art 
   Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
   Oil paintings by Gustave Courbet based upon photographs 
   Julien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses 
   Alphonse Marie Mucha: Artist studies - Académies 
   Académies and the use of artist studies of models to assist artists 
   Artistic studies of nude women 
   Eugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies 
   Vincenzo Galdi: Artist studies - Académies 
   Artistic studies of nude men 
   Combining a daguerreotype with a miniature to create a painting (1848) 
Painting on photographs 
   Introduction to painting on photographs 
Visual connections between art and photography 
   Paintings and prints based on photographs or vice versa 
   Photographs based on known paintings 
   Painted photographs by known artists 
   Thomas Eakins: The Swimming Hole 
   Edgar Degas: After the Bath 
   Georg Hendrik Breitner: Using photography as an aid to painting 
   Photographs that are stylistically similar to paintings 
   Dora Maar: Photo Report of the Evolution of “Guernica” (May - June 1937) 
   Saul Leiter: Painted nudes 
   Neil Folberg: The French Impressionists 
Portraiture and art 
   The "artistic" portrait 
   Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits 
   Oscar Gustave Rejlander: Two Ways of Life 
   Mimicing art within Pictorialism 
Paints in tubes 
   Preserving paint in collapsible tubes 
The connections between photography and landscape art 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The road to Chailly (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The Bodmer Oak (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
Using Autochromes for early colour art photography 
   Autochromes: Art 
Artists of the twentieth century and photography 
   Salvador Dali 
   Photographers who have taken portrait series on artists 
Photography as a means of documenting art 
   Land art 
   Conceptual photography 
   Performance art 
Looking at art 
   Looking at art 
Exhibitions 
   Exhibitions on the relationships between art and photography 
Appropriation
Introduction 
   Introduction to appropriation 
Examples 
   Appropriation *** 
Photographers 
   Andy Warhol: Appropriation 
   Richard Prince: Appropriation 
   Robert Heinecken: Appropriation 
   Sherrie Levine: Appropriation 
   Robert Silvers: Photomosaics *** 
   Daniele Buetti: Appropriations and manipulations *** 
   Hank Willis Thomas: Unbranded, Reflections in Black by Corporate America 1968–2008 
   Thomas Allen: Uncovered 
Artist studies - Académies
Introduction 
   Studie - Etude and the avoidance of obscenity charges 
   Académies and the use of artist studies of models to assist artists 
   Artistic studies of nude women 
   Artistic studies of nude men 
Photographers 
   Louis Igout: Artist studies - Académies 
   A. Calavas (editor): Artist studies - Académies 
   Eugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies 
   Vincenzo Galdi: Artist studies - Académies 
   Julien Vallou de Villeneuve: Étude d'après nature, modèle pour Les Baigneuses 
   Alphonse Marie Mucha: Artist studies - Académies 
   Gaudenzio Marconi: Artist studies - Académies *** 
   Thomas Eakins: The Swimming Hole 
   Thomas Eakins: Using motion studies for artistic accuracy 
   Eadweard Muybridge: The Human Figure in Motion 
   Edgar Degas: After the Bath 
   Georg Hendrik Breitner: Using photography as an aid to painting 
Artists' books
Photographers 
   Ed Ruscha: Self-published books *** 
   Ed Ruscha: Royal Road Test *** 
   Ed Ruscha: Every Building on Sunset Strip *** 
   Ed Ruscha: Thirtyfour Parking Lots in Los Angeles *** 
Conceptual
Introduction 
   Conceptual photography 
Questions of identity 
   Helmar Lerski: Portraits 
   Claude Cahun: Self portraits 
   Cindy Sherman: Untitled Film Stills 
   Samuel Fosso: Self portraits 
   Lucas Samaras: Unpentant Ego / Photo-transformations 
   Gillian Wearing: Album (2003) 
   Nikki S. Lee: Projects 
   Annu Palakunnathu Matthew: An Indian from India 
   Sophie Calle: The intimacy of human behaviour 
Politcs and the message 
   The relationships between photographs and text 
Appropriation and originality 
   Introduction to appropriation 
   Andy Warhol: Appropriation 
   Sherrie Levine: Appropriation 
   Richard Prince: Appropriation 
   Robert Heinecken: Appropriation 
   Questioning truth through appropriation 
Juxtaposing realities 
   Martha Rosler: Bringing the War Home 
   William Laven: War Models 
   John Divola: Evidence of Aggression - From Continuity 
Spatial forms 
   Serge Tousignant: Spatial geometries *** 
Examinations of photohistory 
   James Welling: Conceptual photography 
Narratives 
   Duane Michels: The Spirit Leaves the Body (1968) 
Fabricated realities
Introduction 
   Introduction to fabricated realities 
   Mimicing art within Pictorialism 
   Dioramas in Natural History Museums 
   Landscapes: Fantasy 
Photographers 
   Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre: Dioramas 
   Joan Fontcuberta: Fabricated sciences and alternative histories 
   John Divola: Zuma *** 
   Sandy Skoglund: Installations and visions 
   Roger Ballen: Shadow Chamber 
   Julie Blackmon: Domestic Vacations and other series 
   Thomas Demand: Three dimensional sculptural forms 
   David Levinthal: Series 
   Oliver Boberg: Distilled realities 
   Carl Zimmerman: Cold City 
   Lori Nix: Accidentally Kansas 
   Paolo Ventura: Italian fabricated realities 
   Thomas Allen: Uncovered 
   Sarah Hobbs: Small Problems in Living 
   Cortis & Sonderegger: Fabricated realities 
An early case of fraud using models 
   Mrs. Gladys Maud Cockburn-Lange and her faked First World War dogfight photographs 
Land art
Introduction 
   Land art 
Photographers 
   Andy Goldsworthy: Books 
   Christo and Jean-Claude 
   Richard Long: On-site sculptures 
   Hamish Fulton: Long Walks 
   Robert Smithson: On-site sculptures 
Maps
Introduction 
   Introduction to maps and photography 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Copying maps 
   Carte de visites: Maps 
Photographers 
   John Henry Parker: Recent Excavations in Rome: Made in 1868 
   Henry W. Taunt: The River Thames (1872) 
   Jules Lejeune: Belgian amateur photographic diary (1920-1922) *** 
Performance art
Introduction 
   Performance art 
Photographers 
   Zhang Huan: Performance art *** 
   Hamish Fulton: Long Walks 
Photographing art - paintings and drawings
Reproductions of works on canvas and paper 
   Joseph Nicéphore Niépce: Cardinal d'Amboise 
   Photographing art: Works on paper and canvas 
   William Sterling: Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Notice of an Illuminated Vellum Manuscript 
Companies selling reproductions of works of art in the nineteenth century 
   Companies providing photographic reproductions of art in the nineteenth century 
   Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard: reproductions of works of art 
   Adolphe Braun - A Continental Printing Establishment (1874) 
Microphotographs of art 
   Art and microphotographs 
Commercial copying 
   U.S. Treasury Note and National Bank Note Detector (1866) *** 
Copyright law in Great Britain - 1888 (Messrs. Braun and Co. vs. A.E. Whitehouse) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (17 August 1888) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (24 August 1888) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Judgement - Messrs. Braun and Co. (21 September 1888) 
Photographing art - sculpture
Examples 
   Photographing art: Sculpture 
Photographers 
   Adolph Schaefer: The Buddhist monument at Borobudur in Central Java, Indonesia (1844-1845) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Bust of Patroclus 
   Roger Fenton: The British Museum 
   Stephen Thompson: British Museum 
   Charles Nègre: Statues *** 
   HMS Topaze and Easter Island, Chile (1868) 
   Alinari: The statues of Florence 
   Alois Löcherer: The statue of Bavaria, Munich (1844-1850) 
   Édouard Baldus: The Louvre, Paris (1856-1857) 
   Robert Macpherson: The statues of Rome 
   Délié & Béchard: Album du Musée Boulaq 
   Edward Steichen: Rodin's statue of Balzac (1908) 
   Constantin Brancusi: Documentation of sculpture 
Using photography as an aid to sculpture 
   François Willème: Photosculpture 
   Henry Rox: Photosculptures *** 
Bust portraits 
   Bust or statuette portraits 
World's Fairs and International Exhibitions 
   Vienna, Weltausstellung, 1873 Wien: Statuary *** 
Tableaux vivant 
   Josef Jindrich Šechtl and Ignác Šechtl: Living statues *** 
Natural sculptures / Environment art 
   Andy Goldsworthy: Books 
   Richard Long: On-site sculptures 
   Robert Smithson: On-site sculptures 
Photorealism
Introduction 
   Introduction to photorealism 
Tableau vivant
Introduction 
   Introduction to tableaux vivants 
   Mimicing art within Pictorialism 
   Mrs Severn: Tableaux vivants (1854) 
   Charles Dickens and tableau vivant 
Narratives 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Arthurian 
Photographers 
   Henry Peach Robinson: Little Red Riding Hood 
   Victor Albert Prout (attributed): Tableau vivant at the Braemare Gathering (August 1863) *** 
   Lejaren à Hiller: Surgery through the Ages 
   Josef Jindrich Šechtl and Ignác Šechtl: Living statues *** 
   Carlos Ducoin: Tableau vivant (ca. 1900-1914) 
Commercial
Introduction 
   The distinction between commercial photography and advertising 
   Commercial photography 
   U.S. Treasury Note and National Bank Note Detector (1866) *** 
   Richard Daintree: Images of Queensland (ca. 1870) 
Margaret Bourke-White 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Commercial advertising photography *** 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Otis Steel Co. (1928-1929) 
Albert Renger-Patzsch 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Machine parts *** 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Ruhrchemie factory, Oberhausen-Holten, Germany 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Schubert & Salzer - Textile machinery - Ingolstadt 
German commercial photography 
   Mannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (ca. 1929) 
   Peter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953) 
Robert Yarnell Ritchie 
   Robert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial Modernist 
Documentary
Introduction 
   Documentary photography 
   Documentary photography and the nature of time 
   Documentary photography and advocacy 
   Documentary photography and ethics 
Reportage 
   Early examples of photo reportage 
   City of Hamburg fire (1842) 
   George N. Barnard: Oswego Mills (1853) 
Social commentary 
   Early examples of using photography to provide a social commentary 
Great Britain 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   Joseph Cundall: Construction of the Great Eastern at John Scott Russell's Yard, Milwall (1855-1856) *** 
   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
   John Thomson: Street Life in London 
   The Society for Photographing Relics of Old London 
   Mass Observation (Great Britain) 
   Nick Hedges: Make Life Worth Living: Photographs for Shelter, 1969-72 
   John Bulmer: The North of England 
   Paul Graham: A1: The Great North Road 
   Chris Killip: Seacoal 
Canada 
   William Notman: The construction of Victoria Bridge, Montreal, Canada (1854-1859) 
France 
   Charles Nègre: Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859) 
   Adolphe Terris: Rénovation de la Vieille Ville de Marseille (1862) 
   Charles Marville: Paris 
   Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875) 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: Eiffel Tower (1887-1889) 
   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
   Jean-Philippe Charbonnier: Psychiatric hospitals (1954) 
Spain 
   Martínez Sánchez: Public works in Spain (1860s) 
   Juan Laurent: Public works in Spain (1860s) 
Portugal 
   Emilio Biel: Construction of the Ponte Maria Pia in Porto (1876-1877) 
   Emilio Biel: Caminho de Ferro do Douro (ca. 1890) 
USA 
   Thomas Easterly: The Destruction of Big Mound (1853-1854) 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Francis Benjamin Johnston: Hampton Album (1899-1900) 
   Lewis W. Hine: The reform of child labour in America 
   Lewis W. Hine: Empire State Building (1929-1931) 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Otis Steel Co. (1928-1929) 
   Doris Ulmann: Roll, Jordan, Roll (1933) 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Photographers 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Examples 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration - OWI: Early colour 
   Berenice Abbott: Changing New York 
   Introduction to New York City Photo League 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project 
   Danny Lyon: The Bikeriders (1968) 
   Danny Lyon: Conversations with the Dead (1971) 
   Larry Clark: Tulsa 
   Larry Clark: Teenage Lust 
   Documerica Project (1971-1977) 
   Allan Sekula: Fish Story *** 
Integrity 
   Image integrity in documentary photography and photojournalism 
Conclusions 
   Tracking down the photographed 
   Photosensitive 
   Understanding the creation and dissemination of documentary photography 
   Some thoughts on documentary photography and legacy 
Catastrophes
Introduction 
   Natural catastrophes 
Drought 
   The Dust Bowl 
   Black Blizzards 
Earthquakes 
   Earthquakes 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 - The photographers 
Famines 
   Willoughby Wallace Hooper: Indian famine (1876-1878) 
Fires 
   Fires 
Floods 
   Floods in Nantes, France (1843) 
   Édouard Baldus: Inondations du Rhône à Lyon et Avignon (1856) 
Hurricanes and typhoons 
   Hurricanes 
   USA, Hurricane Katrina 
   China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
Volcanic eruptions 
   Giorgio Sommer: Eruption of Vesuvius (1872) 
   Giorgio Sommer: The ash-covered remains from Pompeii 
   USA, Washington, Mount St. Helens eruption (1980) 
Provoked by human activity 
   Natural catastrophes provoked by human activity 
Concluding thoughts 
   Thoughts on natural catastrophes 
Droughts
The Dust Bowl in the USA (1930s) 
   The Dust Bowl 
   Black Blizzards 
   Arthur Rothstein: Cow skull in the Badlands 
   Arthur Rothstein: Fleeing a dust storm 
Earthquakes
Earthquakes 
   Earthquakes 
   Alphonse Bernoud & Claude Grillet: Italy: Earthquake damage (1857-1858) 
   Earthquake: San Francisco (1868) *** 
   Earthquakes 
   Ogawa Kazumasa: The Great Earthquake of Japan (1891) 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 - The photographers 
   Frederic Eugene Ives: San Francisco Earthquake (1906) *** 
Famines
Photographers 
   Willoughby Wallace Hooper: Indian famine (1876-1878) 
Fires
Fires 
   Fires *** 
   City of Hamburg fire (1842) 
   George N. Barnard: Oswego Mills (1853) 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 - The photographers 
   Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (25 March 1911) 
Floods
Introduction 
   Floods *** 
   Floods and the photographic evidence of survival amidst tragedy 
   Floods in Nantes, France (1843) 
   The Great Sheffield Flood (11 March 1864) *** 
   Johnstown Flood (1889) *** 
Photographers 
   Édouard Baldus: Inondations du Rhône à Lyon et Avignon (1856) 
   J.N. Walton: View of Main St, Aurora, Ind. During the Flood. Feb 15th. 1883 *** 
   J. Landy: The Flood of 1884 - Cincinnati, Ohio *** 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Ohio River Flood (1937) 
Tsunamis
Photographers 
   David Dare Parker: Tsunami, Banda Aceh, Indonesia *** 
Events 
   Tsunamis: Japan *** 
Volcanic eruptions
Italy 
   Giorgio Sommer: Eruption of Vesuvius (1872) 
   Giorgio Sommer: Pompeii 
   Giorgio Sommer: The ash-covered remains from Pompeii 
USA 
   USA, Washington, Mount St. Helens eruption (1980) 
Civil engineering
Introduction 
   Introduction to civil engineering 
Germany 
   Alois Löcherer: The statue of Bavaria, Munich (1844-1850) 
Great Britain 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
   B.L. Spackman: Construction at the 1862 International Exhibition at South Kensington, England (1859-1862) 
France 
   Édouard Baldus: Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1860s) 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875) 
   Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: Eiffel Tower (1887-1889) 
   Albert Fernique: Construction of the Eiffel Tower, Paris (1888) 
   Construction du Chemin de Fer Metropolitan Municipal de Paris (1905-1910) 
Spain 
   Martínez Sánchez: Public works in Spain (1860s) 
   Juan Laurent: Public works in Spain (1860s) 
Portugal 
   Emilio Biel: Construction of the Ponte Maria Pia in Porto (1876-1877) 
USA 
   Daguerreotypes of canal construction (ca. 1850) *** 
   Alexander Gardner and others: Across the continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad 
   Andrew J. Russell: The Great West Illustrated in a Series of Photographic Views Across the Continent, Taken Along the Line of the Union Pacific Railroad, West from Omaha, Nebraska 
   Wyoming: Dale Creek Crossing (1868-1901) 
   Joseph P. Babbitt: Engineers and Surveyors on the Kansas City Bridge (1869) *** 
   Lewis W. Hine: Empire State Building (1929-1931) 
   New York City: The Manhattan Bridge 
   New York City: The Brooklyn Bridge 
Canada 
   William Notman: The construction of Victoria Bridge, Montreal, Canada (1854-1859) 
Argentina 
   Georges Poulet: Aurora Argentina (1890s) 
The Suez and Panama Canals 
   Suez Canal (1859-1869) 
   Panama Canal - First attempt (ca. 1885) *** 
   Panama Canal - Second attempt (1904-1914) 
Structural forms 
   Bridges, viaducts and trestles 
   Structural steel *** 
Crime and punishment
Introduction 
   Introduction to crime and punishment 
Crime 
   Alphonse Bertillon (attributed): Album of Paris Crime Scenes 
   Weegee: Books 
   Weegee: Crime 
Wanted criminals 
   Wanted criminals 
Courts 
   Dorothea Lange: The Defendant, Alameda County Court House in Calfornia (1955-1957) *** 
Documentation 
   Anthropometric records - Alphonse Bertillon system 
   Alphonse Bertillon: Criminal Jean Greniche Killer of La Fille Wilhem, said La Chinoise 
   American mugshots 
   Description of Prisoners Received at the California State Prison, May 1909-December 1914 *** 
Punishment 
   Portraits of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln 
   Execution of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln 
   Greece: The Dilessi Murders (1870) 
   Death Row Prisoners Hanged in Connecticut 1894-1912 
   The execution of Ruth Synder (1929) 
   Walker Evans: Prison work gang 
   Danny Lyon: Conversations with the Dead (1971) 
   Executions *** 
Fine art and crime - a blending of narratives 
   Clare Strand: Signs of a Struggle (2003) *** 
   Christian Patterson: Redheaded Peckerwood 
Crime scene photography
Examples 
   Crime scene photography 
Crime scenes 
   Alphonse Bertillon (attributed): Album of Paris Crime Scenes 
   Sumner & Son (Northfield): The Aftermath of the Northfield Raid (1876) 
   A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America 
Revisiting crime scenes 
   Eva Leitolf: German Images - Looking for Evidence 2006-2008 
Domestic violence
Photographers 
   Donna Ferrato: Living with the Enemy 
Lynch photography
Introduction 
   A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America 
Mugshots
Introduction 
   Introduction to mugshots and rogues' galleries 
The benefits of photographing criminals 
   Science a Preservative from Crime (1853) 
   The Weymouth Poisoning Case - Miss Mary Tirrell Disinterred (1860) 
   Bristol City and County Goal, Great Britain (1853) 
   Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Prison Discipline - J.A. Gardner, Bristol Goal (1863) 
   Thomas Byrnes: Professional Criminals of America (1886) 
Composite portraits 
   Making a composite portrait of a typical criminal (1879) 
Anthropometric studies 
   Alphonse Bertillon: Criminal Jean Greniche Killer of La Fille Wilhem, said La Chinoise 
Mugshots 
   Carte de visites: Spanish criminals (ca. 1870) 
   Death Row Prisoners Hanged in Connecticut 1894-1912 
   Prisoners brought before the North Shields Police Court between 1902 and 1916 *** 
   New South Wales. Police Dept. *** 
   Description of Prisoners Received at the California State Prison, May 1909-December 1914 *** 
   Warden's book detailing prisoners received at California prison San Quentin, March 1935-December 1935 *** 
   American mugshots 
   The Holocaust: Women concentration camp guards *** 
The mugshot as evidence 
   David Dare Parker: Security Prison 21 (S-21) 
Police and law enforcement photography
Photography as an aid to detection 
   The Weymouth Poisoning Case - Miss Mary Tirrell Disinterred (1860) 
   J.E. Mayall: Use of carte de visites to support police investigations 
   The Pinkerton Detective Agency and photography 
Crime scene photography 
   Alphonse Bertillon (attributed): Album of Paris Crime Scenes 
Wanted criminals 
   Wanted criminals 
Bertillon anthrometric records 
   Anthropometric records - Alphonse Bertillon system 
Crime prevention 
   U.S. Treasury Note and National Bank Note Detector (1866) *** 
Hans Gross on photography and criminal investigation 
   Hans Gross: Criminal Investigation (1906) - Importance of Photography from a judicial point of view. 
   Hans Gross: Criminal Investigation (1906) - Particular cases of the employment of Photography. 
   Hans Gross: Criminal Investigation (1906) - Recognition of Criminals from their Photographs. 
Prisons
Introduction 
   Introduction to prisons and incarceration *** 
Bristol City and County Goal, Great Britain 
   Bristol City and County Goal, Great Britain (1853) 
   Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Prison Discipline - J.A. Gardner, Bristol Goal (1863) 
   Prison records and ledgers *** 
Prison inmates 
   Death Row Prisoners Hanged in Connecticut 1894-1912 
   Walker Evans: Prison work gang 
   Danny Lyon: Conversations with the Dead (1971) 
   David Dare Parker: Security Prison 21 (S-21) 
Internment camps 
   Internment camps in the USA during the Second World War 
Conclusions 
   Conclusions on prisons 
Evidence
Introduction 
   Evidence 
Science 
   Charles Lyell on Niagara Falls (1845) 
   Berenice Abbott: Science 
Crime 
   Alphonse Bertillon (attributed): Album of Paris Crime Scenes 
   The Cawnpore (Kanpur) Massacres 
   The Congo Atrocities 
   Eva Leitolf: German Images - Looking for Evidence 2006-2008 
Religion 
   George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
   Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo 
Social conditions 
   The scourged back 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Mass Observation (Great Britain) 
   David Goldblatt: In Boksburg *** 
Chid labour 
   Lewis W. Hine: The reform of child labour in America 
Problems on interpretation 
   A question of emotional interpretation: People of Cheb salute the German troops entering the town in the Anschluss of the Sudetenland (October 1938) 
War 
   The Battle of Gettysburg and photographic evidence (July 1863) 
   Armenian massacres (1915-1923) 
   The Holocaust: Death camps 
   Issues of interpretation of building structures 
   Ronald Haeberle: The My Lai Massacre (16 March 1968) 
   Jack Burman: KZ 
   Justification for the Iraq War (2003-2011) 
   Satellite Sentinel and the Enough Project 
   Evidence of torture in Syria (2014) 
Fine art photography and evidence - questioning truth 
   Christian Patterson: Redheaded Peckerwood 
Health
Introduction 
   Introduction to health 
Hospitals and asylums 
   Charles Nègre: Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859) 
Health tratments 
   Dmitry Ermakov: Oriental massage 
Mental health and psychiatry 
   Hugh Welch Diamond: Patients at Surrey County Asylum (ca. 1855) 
   Insane asylum patients (1870s) 
   James Crichton-Browne: West Riding Lunatic Asylum, Wakefield, Yorkshire, Great Britain 
   Albert Londe: Female patients with mental illness 
   Joy Christiansen: Family Gathering 
Disability 
   Picturing disability 
Documentary studies 
   W. Eugene Smith: Minamata 
AIDS - HIV
Photographers 
   David Dare Parker: HIV, Thailand *** 
Eating disorders
Photographers 
   Joy Christiansen: Family Gathering 
Industrial
Introduction 
   Introduction to industrial photography 
   Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851 (1852) *** 
Industrial design 
   Introduction to Industrial Design 
Humanity and the machine 
   Lewis W. Hine: Power house mechanic working on steam pump 
   Lewis W. Hine: Coal mines 
   Lewis W. Hine: Cotton mills 
Albert Renger-Patzsch 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Machine parts *** 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Ruhrchemie factory, Oberhausen-Holten, Germany 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Schubert & Salzer - Textile machinery - Ingolstadt 
W. Eugene Smith 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project 
Robert Yarnell Ritchie 
   Robert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial Modernist 
Health and safety 
   Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (25 March 1911) 
   Health and safety *** 
Environmental issues 
   The landscapes of industry 
Globalization issues 
   Allan Sekula: Fish Story *** 
Industrial sites 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: The mines of Nevada (ca. 1868) *** 
   J.C. Burrow: Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light (1893) 
   Darius Kinsey: Forestry and logging in the American North-West (1906-1940) 
   Mannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (ca. 1929) 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Otis Steel Co. (1928-1929) 
   Alexander Rodchenko: AMO Plant - Automobile Moscow Society, now ZIL (1929) *** 
   Peter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953) 
   Roger Mayne: Wapping 
   Bernd & Hilla Becher: Typologies 
   Chen Jiagang: The Great Third Front 
   Edward Burtynsky: Quarries 
   Edward Burtynsky: China 
Mining and extraction
Introduction 
   Photography and mining 
   Mining towns, infrastructure and impact 
   Miners 
Gold Rush 
   Californian Gold Rush (1848-1855) 
   Alaskan Gold Rush (1896-1899) *** 
Mining in Bolivia 
   Mining in Bolivia (1870s-1930s) *** 
Photographers 
   Walter Woodbury: Australian goldfields (1850s) 
   Antoine Fauchery & Richard Daintree: Australia - Goldfields in Victoria *** 
   Henry Moulton: Rays of Sunlight from South America (1865) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: The mines of Nevada (ca. 1868) *** 
   Luis Boudat Ducollier: Album de las Salitreras de Tarapaca (1889) 
   Roberto M. Gerstmann: Mining in Bolivia *** 
   J.C. Burrow: Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light (1893) 
   Gustave Marissiaux: La Houillère (1904-1905) *** 
   Lewis W. Hine: Coal mines 
   Robert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial Modernist 
   Bill Brandt: North 
   Chris Killip: Seacoal 
   Carl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
   Edward Burtynsky: Quarries 
Life stages
Introduction 
   Introduction to life stages 
   Improving content on life stages 
Rights of passage 
   Rights of passage 
Adolescents
Information requests 
   Improving content on life stages 
Photographers 
   Larry Clark: Tulsa 
   Larry Clark: Teenage Lust 
   Roger Mayne: Youth 
   Nan Goldin: The Ballad of Sexual Dependency (1986) 
   Lauren Greenfield: Girl Culture 
   Michelle Sank: Teenagers 
Babies
Information requests 
   Improving content on life stages 
Introduction 
   Introduction to babies 
Taking photographs of babies 
   Illustrations of nineteenth century photographic sessions *** 
Photographers 
   Julia Margaret Cameron: Portraits of Archie and other young children *** 
Carte de visite 
   Carte de visites: Babies *** 
   Hill & Saunders (Harrow): Two babies in a pram - Proof 
Cabinet cards 
   Cabinet cards: Babies *** 
Death, post-mortem and memento mori 
   Post-mortem and memento mori photographs of babies and children 
   The Empty Crib. "We're nearer to the other shore Since the baby died." *** 
Themes 
   Photocollages of babies *** 
   Ethnographic portraits of babies *** 
   Babies in the bath *** 
   Babies on their potties *** 
   Breastfeeding *** 
   Adults as infants *** 
Children
Information requests 
   Improving content on life stages 
Dressing babies and young boys 
   Boys wearing dresses 
Examples 
   Children in nineteenth century photography 
   Children in twentieth century photography 
Involvement of children with photography 
   The involvement of children and photography 
   The "helping hand", "hidden mother" and "hidden father" portraits 
   Pictorialism and the innocence of children 
   Children in Humanistic Photography 
Protective influences 
   Madonnas 
   Sleeping children and protective angels 
   Charity during the American Civil War: The Children of the Battlefield 
   Emancipated slaves in the USA 
   Thomas Barnardo: Children Reclaimed for LIfe 
Post-mortem and memento mori 
   Post-mortem and memento mori photographs of babies and children 
Photographers 
   Lewis Carroll: Portraits of children 
   Julia Margaret Cameron: Portraits of Archie and other young children *** 
   Clarence H. White: Ring Toss (1899) 
   Lady Ottoline Morrell: Children cavorting at Garsington 
   Wilhelm von Gloeden: Young girl with flowers 
   Lewis W. Hine: The reform of child labour in America 
   W. Eugene Smith: Juanita 
   Helen Levitt: Children of New York 
   Roger Mayne: Youth 
   Lauren Greenfield: Girl Culture 
   Loretta Lux: Children 
   Hisaji Hara: A Photographic Portrayal of the Paintings of Balthus (2009) *** 
Photographing children 
   Photographing children *** 
   Watch-the-birdie 
Dead
Information requests 
   Improving content on life stages 
Introduction 
   Introduction to the photography of death 
Examples 
   Nineteenth century post-mortem and memento mori 
   Post-mortem and memento mori photographs of babies and children 
   Daguerreotypes: Post-mortem portraits 
   Carte de visites: Post-mortem portraits 
   Carte de visites: Memorial portraits *** 
   Cabinet cards: Post-mortem and memorial portraits 
Marketing death 
   Marketing: Root's Daguerrean Gallery (1853) 
Mourning clothing 
   Mourning clothing 
Photographers 
   Sumner & Son (Northfield): The Aftermath of the Northfield Raid (1876) 
   Giorgio Sommer: The ash-covered remains from Pompeii 
   François Aubert: The execution of Emperor Maximilian 
   Nadar: Catacombs and subterranean Paris (1860s) 
Reminiscences of photographing the dead 
   Ghastly Photographic Experiences (1882) 
Spirit photography 
   Abraham Lincoln as a returning spirit 
Death and remembrance 
   Death and remembrance during the First World War (1914-1918) 
The dead 
   Lieutenant Colonel Henry Clay, Jr. (1847) 
   John Reekie: Collecting Remains of the Dead 
   Victims of the Khodinsky Plain panic, Coronation Week Moscow, Russia (1896) 
   Nazi suicides in Leipzig, Germany (1945) 
   Ronald Haeberle: The My Lai Massacre (16 March 1968) 
   Walter Schels: Life before Death 
The dead as artistic explorations 
   Andreas Serrano: Morgue (1992) 
   Jack Burman: The Dead 
   Frank Rodick: Portraits (2012) 
Elderly
Information requests 
   Improving content on life stages 
Introduction 
   Introduction to the elderly *** 
Photographers 
   Paul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul (8 September 1886) 
   Larry Sultan: Pictures from Home 
   Walter Schels: Life before Death 
Middle age
Information requests 
   Improving content on life stages 
Motherhood 
   Madonnas 
Photographers 
   Dorothea Lange: The Migrant Mother 
   Walker Evans: The Burroughs family 
Occupational
Introduction 
   Introduction to occupationals 
Early photographs of occupations 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   Salt prints: Occupations and roles 
   Hill & Adamson: Newhaven 
   Ambrotypes: Occupationals *** 
   Albumen prints: Occupationals 
   Carte de visites: Occupations and roles 
   Cabinet cards: Occupations and roles *** 
   John Thomson: Street Life in London 
   John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist 
   Joseph P. Babbitt: Engineers and Surveyors on the Kansas City Bridge (1869) *** 
   Guillaume Berggren: Occupationals 
   Roberto M. Gerstmann: Mining in Bolivia *** 
   Turkestan Album: Occupational portraits (1871-1872) 
   Naya & Schoefft: Pictoresque Cairo / Le Caire pittoresque - Occupationals (ca. 1875) 
   Alice Austen: Street Types of New York (1896) 
   Waldemar Franz Herman Titzenthaler: Types of German Workers 
Occupationals of women 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles of women 
   Occupationals of women 
Lewis Hine and child labour in the USA 
   Lewis W. Hine: The reform of child labour in America 
   Lewis W. Hine: Agricultural labour *** 
   Lewis W. Hine: Coal mines 
   Lewis W. Hine: Cotton mills 
   Lewis W. Hine: News boys and girls 
Studies of occupational types and "tipos" 
   Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil) 
   François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
   Merille: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
   Cruces & Campa: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
Photographers 
   August Sander (1876-1964) 
   Irving Penn: Small Trades 
   Paul Strand: Italy: Luzzara: Occupationals *** 
Examples of occupations 
   Beggers 
   Porters *** 
   Street vendors *** 
   Barbers and hairdressers *** 
   Water carriers 
   Firemen *** 
   Policemen *** 
   Miners 
   Sailors *** 
Peoples of the world
Introduction 
   People of the world 
   Enhanced reality and peoples of the world 
   Introduction to human zoos 
Different formats 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   Acadians, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (1859) 
   Albumen prints: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
   Carte de visites: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
   Cabinet cards: Ethnic and traditional costumes *** 
   Japanese ambrotypes 
   Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
   John William Lindt: Aborigines 
   Carl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s) 
Studies of occupational types and "tipos" 
   Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil) 
   François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
   Merille: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
   Cruces & Campa: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
   William J. Johnson: Photographs of Western India. Volume I. Costumes and Characters (ca. 1855-1862) *** 
   J. Forbes Watson & John William Kaye (eds.): The People of India (1868-1872) 
   Pascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 
   Emilio Biel & Ca.: Album de Phototypico Vistas e Costumes do Norte de Portugal (ca. 1900) *** 
   Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian 
   Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin: The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954) 
Documenting the world in colour 
   Albert Kahn: Archives of the Planet (1909-1931) 
People of all Nations 
   Aborigines 
   King Billy - A scandal in Tasmania 
   Andamanese 
   Arabs *** 
   Argentinians *** 
   Brazilians *** 
   Cossacks *** 
   Dervishes *** 
   Ecuadorians *** 
   Inuit 
   Japanese 
   Jews *** 
   Mexicans 
   Peruvians 
   Samoans *** 
   Zulus *** 
Stereotypes 
   Stereotypical portraits in nineteenth century Italy 
The merging of races 
   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
Socio-cultural studies 
   Icons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910) 
Questioning identity 
   Annu Palakunnathu Matthew: An Indian from India 
African Americans
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography by and of African Americans 
Slavery 
   Slavery in America 
   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
   The scourged back 
   Southworth and Hawes: The Branded Hand of Captain Jonathan Walker 
   Abolitionists 
   Roles and representation of African Americans in nineteenth century photography 
   Emancipated slaves in the USA 
   The Unknown Sitter - African American Portraits of the 1860s-1880s 
Photo postcards 
   Real photo postcards: African Americans *** 
Photographers 
   Francis Benjamin Johnston: Hampton Album (1899-1900) 
   James Van der Zee: Harlem *** 
   Julian Dimock: African-Americans in South Carolina (1904-1905) *** 
   Doris Ulmann: Roll, Jordan, Roll (1933) 
   Aaron Siskind: Harlem Document (1932-1940) 
Race hatred and prejudice 
   The Klu Klux Klan and race hated in America *** 
   A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America 
Civil rights 
   Martin Luther King Jr. *** 
   Danny Lyon: Memories of the Southern Rights Movement (1962-1964) 
   Ernest Withers: The struggle for civil rights in the USA 
Robert Mapplethorpe and the black body 
   Robert Mapplethorpe: Black bodies 
Contemporary issues 
   Hank Willis Thomas: Unbranded, Reflections in Black by Corporate America 1968–2008 
Native Americans
Introduction 
   Native Americans 
Early studies 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans *** 
   Maungwudaus (George Henry) 
   Tintypes: Ethnic: Native Americans *** 
Vanishing world 
   Native American: The search for the Vanishing Race and a vanishing world 
Photographers of Native Americans 
   Photographers of Native Americans 
   Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
   William Henry Jackson: Portraits of American Indians (1876) 
   De Lancey W. Gill: Native Americans 
   Frederick Monsen: Native Americans 
   Camillus S. Fly: Native Americans *** 
   Eadweard Muybridge: The Indians of California *** 
   John K. Hillers: Native Americans 
   Elias A. Bonine: Native Americans 
   Charles F. Lummis: Native Americans 
   Frank Jay Haynes: Native Americans 
   Carl Moon: Native Americans 
   Adam Clark Vroman: Native Americans 
   William McFarlane Notman: Native Americans *** 
   Frank Rinehart and Adolph F. Muir: Native Americans 
   Frank Rinehart and Adolph F. Muhr: Attendees of the 1898 Indian Congress 
   Gertrude Käsebier: Native Americans 
   Laura Gilpin: New Mexico and Arizona 
   Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
   Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian 
   Edward S. Curtis and Pictorialism 
   Edward S. Curtis: Photograph frames *** 
   Walter McClintock: The Blackfoot of Montana and their environment 
Warriors and celebrity 
   North American Indian Wars: Portraits of Native American leaders 
Indian delegations 
   Indian delegations 
Settlements 
   John K. Hillers: Native American settlements *** 
Indian wars 
   North American Indian Wars: Introduction 
   North American Indian Wars: and the photography of aftermath 
   Modoc War (1872-1873) 
Contemporary photographers 
   Gary Auerbach: Native Americans 
Contemporary trends 
   The inappropriate usage of Native American imagery 
   First Nations and contemporary art and photography 
Photographic surveys movement
Examples 
   The Society for Photographing Relics of Old London 
Religions
Introduction 
   Introduction to religion and photography 
Christianity 
   Christianity 
Photomicrographs of Christian texts 
   Christianity and photomicrographs 
   W. & F. Langenheim: The Lord's Prayer *** 
Islam 
   Islam 
Mormonism 
   Mormon *** 
Christianity
Introduction 
   Introduction to Christianity 
Overview 
   Jesus Christ *** 
   F. Holland Day: The Seven Words 
   The Shroud of Turin *** 
   Christianity 
   The Last Supper *** 
   Christian architecture 
   Henri Le Secq: Premier Cahier de lithophotographie (1853) *** 
Locations 
   Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo 
   Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
   Jerusalem: Garden of Gethsemane 
Photographers 
   Francis Frith: The Holy Bible (1862-1863) 
   Walker Evans: Churches *** 
   Frederick H. Evans: Cathedrals 
   Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
Photomicrographs of Christian texts 
   Christianity and photomicrographs 
   W. & F. Langenheim: The Lord's Prayer *** 
Significant events 
   Menu de communion d'Adolphe Verspreeuwen 
   Baptism *** 
Passion plays 
   Erinnerung an Oberammergau 1890 (Souvenir of Oberammergau 1890) 
Photography as Biblical evidence 
   George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
   H.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875) 
   American Palestine Exploration Society 
   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
   Palestine Exploration Fund 
Evolution and the Bible 
   Evolution and the Biblical flood 
Islam
Overview 
   Islam 
   Islamic architecture 
Holy sites 
   Mohammad Sadiq: Mecca (1880-1881) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Pilgrimage to Mecca (1884-1885) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Bilder aus Mekka (1889) 
   H.A. Mirza & Sons: Views of Mecca and Medina (1907) *** 
   Saudi Arabia: The Haj - Abbas Hilmi album 
Locations 
   Jerusalem: Temple Mount 
Using calligraphy to reflect on the role of women 
   Shirin Neshat: Women of Allah 
   Lalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
Judaism
Jews 
   Jews *** 
Locations 
   Jerusalem: Western Wall 
The Holocaust 
   The Holocaust: The Pre-Second World War setting 
   The Holocaust: Photographing inside the ghettos 
   The Holocaust: Death camps 
   The Holocaust: Children 
   The Holocaust: Photographers who died 
   The legacy of the Holocaust in contemporary photography 
Photographers 
   Neil Folberg: Synagogues *** 
Reflections on Judaism and family life 
   Rafael Goldchain: Familial Ground 
Society
Introduction 
   Society 
American struggles for civil rights
Introduction 
   Introduction to American struggles for civil rights 
Abolitionists 
   Southworth and Hawes: The Branded Hand of Captain Jonathan Walker 
   The scourged back 
   Abolitionists 
Slavery 
   Emancipated slaves in the USA 
Prejudice 
   The Klu Klux Klan and race hated in America *** 
   A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America 
People 
   Martin Luther King Jr. *** 
Photographers 
   Danny Lyon: Memories of the Southern Rights Movement (1962-1964) 
   Ernest Withers: The struggle for civil rights in the USA 
   Flip Schulke: Civil rights in America *** 
Contemporary world
Trends 
   Ubiquitous Photography 
   Contemporary artists painting on photographs 
Death, post-mortem, memorial portraiture and memento mori
Examples 
   Nineteenth century post-mortem and memento mori 
   Post-mortem and memento mori photographs of babies and children 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Post-mortem portraits 
Carte de visites 
   Carte de visites: Post-mortem portraits 
Cabinet cards 
   Cabinet cards: Post-mortem and memorial portraits 
Postcards 
   Postcards: Death and memorials *** 
Spirit photography 
   Abraham Lincoln as a returning spirit 
Marketing death 
   Marketing: Chase's Daguerreotype Rooms, Boston (1846) 
   Marketing: John A. Whipple, 96 Washington St., Boston (1848) 
   Marketing: J.V.R. Schuyler, Ithaca, NY (1853) 
   Marketing: Root's Daguerrean Gallery (1853) 
   Combining a daguerreotype with a miniature to create a painting (1848) 
   Elliott and Fry during the First World War - portraits often gain a mournful interest (1917) 
Reminiscences of photographing the dead 
   Charlie E. Orr: Post-Mortem Photography (1873) 
   Ghastly Photographic Experiences (1882) 
Cemeteries 
   Southworth and Hawes: Mount Auburn Cemetery 
Photographs on graves 
   Photograph of the deceased on a grave at a cemetery in Yokohama, Japan (1881) 
Notable deaths 
   François Aubert: The execution of Emperor Maximilian 
Education
Group photographs 
   School groups *** 
Photographers 
   Joseph Saxton: Philadelphia Central High School for Boys and Pennsylvania State Arsenal 
   Francis Benjamin Johnston: Hampton Album (1899-1900) 
   Herb Snitzer: Summerfield School 
   Berenice Abbott: Science 
Photography as a subject of study 
   Photography as an academic discipline 
Events
Introduction 
   Introduction to events 
Events as portrayed by different processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Events 
   Albumen prints: Events 
Examples of events 
   City of Hamburg fire (1842) 
   George N. Barnard: Oswego Mills (1853) 
   Platt D. Babbitt: Joseph Avery at Niagara Falls (1853) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: A council of war at Massaponax Church, VA (21 May 1864) 
   China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
   Sumner & Son (Northfield): The Aftermath of the Northfield Raid (1876) 
   Greece: The Dilessi Murders (1870) 
   Ivan Boldyrev: Night illumination at Peterhof (1893) *** 
   Victims of the Khodinsky Plain panic, Coronation Week Moscow, Russia (1896) 
   Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (25 March 1911) 
   The execution of Ruth Synder (1929) 
   Hindenburg disaster (6 May 1937) 
   A question of emotional interpretation: People of Cheb salute the German troops entering the town in the Anschluss of the Sudetenland (October 1938) 
   Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945) 
   Yevgeny Khaldei: Soldiers raising the flag of Soviet Union on the roof of Reichstag building in Berlin (2 May 1945) 
   Mikhail Kudish: Nick Ut and Kim Phuc (2012) 
   World Trade Center (September 11, 2001) 
Family life
Introduction 
   Introduction to family life 
Maintaining the family household 
   Shops: Exteriors 
   Shops: Interiors 
   Markets 
   Washing, laundry and hanging clothes out to dry 
Motherhood 
   Motherhood 
Protective madonnas 
   Madonnas 
Photographers 
   Heinrich Kühn: Family portraits *** 
   Jacques-Henri Lartigue: Portraits of Renée Perle *** 
   Harry Callahan: Eleanor and Barbara 
   Sally Mann: Immediate Family 
   Nicholas Nixon: The Brown Sisters 
   Larry Sultan: Pictures from Home 
   Rafael Goldchain: Familial Ground 
   Richard Billingham: Ray and Liz 
   Donna Ferrato: Living with the Enemy 
FSA - Farm Security Administration
Context 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Context 
   The Dust Bowl 
Introduction to the FSA - Farm Security Administration 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Photographers 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Examples 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Models *** 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration - OWI: Early colour 
Arthur Rothstein 
   Arthur Rothstein: FSA - Farm Security Administration *** 
   Arthur Rothstein: Cow skull in the Badlands 
   Arthur Rothstein: Fleeing a dust storm 
Dorothea Lange 
   Dorothea Lange: The Migrant Mother 
   Dorothea Lange: White Angel Breadline, San Francisco 
Walker Evans 
   Walker Evans: FSA - Farm Security Administration *** 
   Walker Evans: The Burroughs family 
   Walker Evans: Alabama, Greensboro 
Ben Shahn 
   Ben Shahn: FSA - Fam Security Administration *** 
Carl Mydans 
   Carl Mydans: FSA - Farm Security Administration *** 
Gender
Introduction 
   Introduction to gender 
The roles of women 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles of women 
Roles and representation 
   Roles and representation of African Americans in nineteenth century photography 
Sufferage 
   Sufferage *** 
Photographers 
   Larry Clark: Teenage Lust 
   Garry Winogrand: Women Are Beautiful (1975) 
   Barbara Kruger: Your body is a battleground *** 
   Joy Christiansen: Family Gathering 
   Nan Goldin: The Ballad of Sexual Dependency (1986) 
   Shirin Neshat: Women of Allah 
   Lalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
   Shadi Ghadirian: Women 
Great Depression
Photographers 
   Dorothea Lange: White Angel Breadline, San Francisco 
   Dorothea Lange: The Migrant Mother 
   Arthur Rothstein: Cow skull in the Badlands 
   Arthur Rothstein: Fleeing a dust storm 
Historic American Buildings Survey - HABS 
   Historic American Buildings Survey - HABS 
Guns
Firearms 
   Children with guns *** 
Introduction 
   Adults with guns *** 
   The iconic nature of guns *** 
   Rifles and hunters *** 
   Firearms and the military *** 
Homelessness
Introduction 
   Homelessness *** 
Photographers 
   Thomas Barnardo: Children Reclaimed for LIfe 
Housing conditions
Introduction 
   Introduction to housing conditions 
Photographers 
   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Nick Hedges: Make Life Worth Living: Photographs for Shelter, 1969-72 
   Shelby Lee Adams: Appalachian Lives *** 
Immigrants and immigration
Photographers 
   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
   David Moore: Migrant Woman (1966) 
Leisure
Introduction 
   Leisure 
Activities 
   Messing about on boats *** 
   Leisure: Bell ringers *** 
   Leisure: Costume balls *** 
   Leisure: Cycling - Penny farthings, boneshakers and bicycles *** 
   Leisure: Fairgrounds, sideshows, carnivals and circuses 
   Leisure: Fairgrounds, sideshows, carnivals and circuses: Ferris wheels *** 
   Leisure: Fishing *** 
   Leisure: Needle crafts 
   Leisure: Reading 
   Swimming *** 
Games 
   Leisure: Playing games *** 
   Game boards incorporating photographs 
   Leisure: Playing cards 
   Leisure: Playing chess 
   Leisure: Ring toss *** 
Techniques and processes 
   Tintypes: Leisure *** 
Photographers 
   Thomas Eakins: The Swimming Hole 
   Weegee: Infrared photography 
   Helen Levitt: Children of New York 
Use of toys and childhood memories within contemporary photography 
   Floris M. Neusüss: Barbie and Ken *** 
Patriotism
Introduction 
   Introduction to patriotism *** 
   Your country needs you 
Flags 
   Flags 
Photographers 
   Mole & Thomas: Symbols of American pride 
   Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945) 
   Yevgeny Khaldei: Soldiers raising the flag of Soviet Union on the roof of Reichstag building in Berlin (2 May 1945) 
   Robert Frank: The Americans - The flag as a symbol *** 
Poverty
London 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   John Thomson: The Crawlers 
   Thomas Barnardo: Children Reclaimed for LIfe 
New York 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   T.H. McAllister (American): Street life of New York (1898) *** 
The Depression 
   Dorothea Lange: The Migrant Mother 
   Dorothea Lange: White Angel Breadline, San Francisco 
Industrial wastelands 
   Carl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
Racial issues
Introduction 
   Introduction to racial issues 
USA 
   The scourged back 
   Emancipated slaves in the USA 
   Real photo postcards: African Americans *** 
   The Klu Klux Klan and race hated in America *** 
   A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America 
   Martin Luther King Jr. *** 
Photographers 
   Ernest Withers: The struggle for civil rights in the USA 
   Robert Frank: The Americans - Racial issues *** 
   Hank Willis Thomas: Unbranded, Reflections in Black by Corporate America 1968–2008 
Refugees
Introduction 
   Refugees and migrants 
   Refugees during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   The Berlin Wall 
Photographers 
   Adrian J. Ebell: The Indian Massacres and the War of 1862 
   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
   Nelly's: Greek refugees from Asia Minor *** 
   Steve McCurry - The Power of a Single Image 
Rural communities
Photographers 
   Doris Ulmann: Roll, Jordan, Roll (1933) 
   Mike Disfarmer: Heber Springs portraits 
   Shelby Lee Adams: Appalachian Lives *** 
Sexuality
Photographers 
   Nadar: Hermaphrodite 
   Larry Clark: Teenage Lust 
   Nan Goldin: The Ballad of Sexual Dependency (1986) 
Slavery, abolition and civil rights
United States of America 
   Slavery in America 
   Southworth and Hawes: The Branded Hand of Captain Jonathan Walker 
   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
   The scourged back 
   Abolitionists 
   Emancipated slaves in the USA 
Brazil 
   Slavery in Brazil 
Social conflict
Race hatred in America 
   A symbol of race hatred - lynchings in America 
   The Klu Klux Klan and race hated in America *** 
The Year of Revolutions (1848) 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): France, Paris 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): Great Britain *** 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): Hungary *** 
Social life and meeting places
Markets 
   Markets 
Cafes and bars 
   Socializing in cafes *** 
   Socializing in bars and clubs *** 
Camera clubs 
   Camera clubs and get-togethers of photographers *** 
Paris 
   The social life of Paris *** 
Photographers 
   Anders Petersen: Café Lehmitz 
Suburbia
Photographers 
   Bill Owens: Suburbia 
   Robert Adams: The construction of suburbia 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
Urban life
Commerce 
   Shops: Exteriors 
   Shops: Interiors 
   Markets 
Socializing 
   Socializing in cafes *** 
   Socializing in bars and clubs *** 
Wartime 
   The civilian impact of War 
Photographers 
   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
   Arnold Genthe: Chinatown 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Anders Petersen: Café Lehmitz 
Working conditions
Photographers 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Lewis W. Hine: The reform of child labour in America 
   Milton Rogovin: Diptych portraits *** 
Disasters 
   Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (25 March 1911) 
Erotica and nudes
Introduction 
   Introduction to erotica and nudes 
   Sculpture and the nude 
Erotica and photographic innovation 
   Erotica and innovation 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Erotica and nudes 
The female nude 
   The female nude 
   Oil paintings by Gustave Courbet based upon photographs 
   Académies and the use of artist studies of models to assist artists 
   Studie - Etude and the avoidance of obscenity charges 
   Artistic studies of nude women 
   Early female nude studies 
   Erotica: Comment me preferez vous? [How would you like to see me?] 
   Pictorialism, the nude and erotica 
   Different approaches to the female nude 
   Shadow patterns on nudes *** 
   Body stockings 
Photographers of the female nude 
   Auguste Belloc: Nudes 
   Jacques Moulin: Nude studies *** 
   Louis-Camille d'Olivier: Nudes *** 
   Eugène Durieu: Artist studies - Académies 
   A. Calavas (editor): Artist studies - Académies 
   Wilhelm von Gloeden: The women and girls of Sicily *** 
   Wilhelm Plüschow: Nude portraits of women and girls *** 
   G.L. Arlaud: Vingt Études de Nu en Plein Air (1920) 
   Walery: Nus - Cent photographies originales de Laryew (ca. 1924) 
   Alexander Grinberg: Nudes 
   Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes 
   Frank Eugene: Nudes *** 
   Germaine Krull: Nudes *** 
   Alfred Cheney Johnston: Nudes 
   Rudolf Koppitz: Nude studies 
   Man Ray: 1929 
   Strand Studios: Glamour portraits 
   Frantisek Drtikol: Nudes 
   Frantisek Drtikol: Les Nus de Drtikol (1929) *** 
   Josef Vetrovsky: Nudes (1920s) 
   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Nudes *** 
   Laure Albin-Guillot: Nudes *** 
   Bill Brandt: Nudes 
   André Kertész: Distortions 
   Imogen Cunningham: Nudes *** 
   Ruth Bernhard: Nudes 
   Edward Weston: Nudes 
   Brett Weston: Underwater nudes 
   Lucien Clergue: Nudes *** 
   John Swannell: Nudes *** 
   Saul Leiter: Painted nudes 
   Thomas Ruff: Nudes *** 
The male nude 
   The male nude 
   Artistic studies of nude men 
   Strong men 
   Studies of naked men 
Photographers 
   Wilhelm von Gloeden: The men and boys of Sicily 
Erotica 
   Gelatin silver prints: Erotica and the nude 
Fetishism 
   Count Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet 
Ethnographic nudity 
   Ethnographic nudity 
Voyeurism 
   Voyeurism 
Obscenity and pornography 
   Pornography 
   Obscenity 
Conclusions 
   Conclusions on erotica and nudes *** 
Academic study of sexuality
Introduction 
   The academic study of sexuality 
Erotica and staged photography
Introduction 
   Erotica and staged photography 
Photographers 
   Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Good Reputation Sleeping (La Buena Fama Durmiendo) 
   Joel-Peter Witkin 
Homoeroticism
Artists studies of naked men 
   Artistic studies of nude men 
   Strong men 
   Studies of naked men 
Photographers 
   Wilhelm von Gloeden: The men and boys of Sicily 
   Wilhelm Plüschow: Young male nudes *** 
   Paul Cadmus *** 
   Herb Ritts: Fred with tires and chains *** 
   George Platt-Lynes: Celebration of the male form *** 
   Robert Mapplethorpe: Black bodies 
Sex Industry
Introduction 
   The sex industry 
   The sex industry - examples 
   Courtesans 
Photographers 
   Eugène Atget: Brothels, prostitutes and nudes 
   Studio Biederer 
   E.J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits 
   Mary Ellen Mark: Falkland Road 
   Frank Horvat: Le Sphynx, rue Pigalle, Paris *** 
Domination
Photographers 
   Studio Biederer 
Fetish
Photographers 
   Hans Bellmer: La Poupée 
   Count Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet 
Naturism
Introduction 
   Naturism and the sacred purity of the body *** 
   Nudism *** 
Photographers 
   Kurt Reichert: Naturism *** 
   Gerhard Riebicke: Nudes and sports *** 
Prostitution
Introduction 
   Introduction to prostitution *** 
Prostitutes and courtesans 
   Courtesans 
Photographers 
   Eugène Atget: Brothels, prostitutes and nudes 
   E.J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits 
   Brassaï: Prostitution and Rue Quincampoix, Paris 
   Georges Thiry: Prostitutes *** 
   Anders Petersen: Café Lehmitz 
   Larry Clark: Teenage Lust 
   Mary Ellen Mark: Falkland Road 
Experimental and manipulated photography
Introduction 
   Introduction to experimental and manipulated photography 
Removal of distracting elements 
   Manipulating negatives 
Trick photography 
   Bust or statuette portraits 
   Multiple portraits taken using mirrors (Multigraphs or mirror portraits) 
   Decapitated heads 
   Spirit photography 
   Reduction 
   People in bottles 
   Photo caricatures 
   Photograms of seaweed 
   Stamps 
   Electrical photographs 
   Crayon daguerreotypes and vignettes 
   The simulation of night 
Composite and combination prints 
   Composite and combination prints: Defined 
   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
Distortions 
   Louis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste (Distortions) 
   Introduction to distortions 
Reflections 
   Reflections in water 
Composite portraits 
   Composite and combination prints: Portraits 
Cliché verre 
   Cliché verre 
Painting on photographs 
   Introduction to painting on photographs 
   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
Photojournalism and painting on photographs 
   Press photographs with paint or instructions 
Photograms 
   Photograms 
Solarization 
   Introduction to solarization 
   Examples of solarization 
   Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations 
Mordançage 
   Mordançage examples 
Sculptural forms 
   Working with paper and card 
Exaggeration photo postcards 
   Exaggeration postcards 
   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
Polaroids 
   Ellen Carey: Pulls 
Photographers 
   Alexander Rodchenko: Using different viewpoints 
   Francis Bruguière: Cathedral montages *** 
   Francis Bruguière: Cut-paper abstractions *** 
   Roger Parry: Banalités (1930) *** 
   Man Ray: Solarized nudes 
   Man Ray: Les vois lactées (1974) 
   Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
   Carl-Heinz Chargesheimer: Experimental photography 
   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography 
   Milos Korecek: Abstractions (Fokalke) 
   Edmund Kesting: Ein Maler sieht durch's Objektiv (1958) 
   Weegee: Kaleidoscopic photographs 
   Frederick Sommer: Cut paper 
   Ladislav Postupa: Experimental vision *** 
Cinema and experimental photography 
   Dziga Vertov:The Man with a Movie Camera (1929) 
Integrity 
   Image integrity in documentary photography and photojournalism 
Body fluids and animal parts
Introduction 
   Body fluids and animal parts 
   Body fluids 
   Animal parts 
Cameraless photographs
Introduction 
   Introduction to cameraless photographs 
   Early examples of cameraless photography 
Early photographers recording nature 
   Anna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) 
   Anna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854) 
   Anna K. Weaver 
Photograms and their types 
   Terminology for cameraless photographs 
   Experimental photographers and cameraless photographs 
   Photograms 
Experimental photographers 
   Man Ray: Rayograms 
   Man Ray: Electricité (1931) *** 
   Arthur Siegel: Photograms *** 
   Claude Tolmer: Photograms *** 
   Elfriede Stegemeyer: Photograms *** 
   Hilde Horn: Photograms *** 
   László Moholy-Nagy: Photograms 
   Christian Schad: Schadographs 
   Werner Schnelle: Light Works 
Capturing the environment 
   Harry Nankin: Contact 2003-2004 
   Harry Nankin: Rain 
Capturing motion
Introduction 
   Introduction to capturing motion 
Ballet 
   Alexey Brodovitch: Ballet (1945) 
Motion 
   Motion in black and white *** 
   Motion in colour 
Chemigrams
Introduction 
   Chemigram 
Photographers 
   Werner Schnelle: Chemigrams *** 
Distortions
Introduction 
   Distortions: Defined 
   Introduction to distortions 
Photographers 
   Louis Ducos du Hauron: Transformiste (Distortions) 
   Herbert G. Ponting: Distortograph: William Hale "Big Bill" Thompson, Mayor of Chicago (1927) 
   André Kertész: Distortions 
   Weegee: Distortions 
   Bill Brandt: Distortions 
Graffiti
Introduction 
   Introduction to graffiti 
Historical 
   Egypt: Wall art, bas-relief, hieroglyphics and graffiti 
Photographers 
   Brassai: Graffiti 
Conceptual photography and graffiti 
   John Divola: Vandalism and Zuma 
   Alexandre Orion: Metabiotica 
Lines and shapes
Photographic forms 
   Grids 
   Landscape: Horizon *** 
   Diagonals from upper left to lower right *** 
   Diagonals from lower left to upper right *** 
   Curves 
   Spirals *** 
Mixed media
Introduction 
   Introduction to mixed media 
   Writing on photographs 
   Using the body as a canvas 
   Early examples of painting on photographs *** 
   Contemporary artists painting on photographs 
   Mixed media objects 
   Using human hair with photographs 
Photographers 
   Peter Beard: Mixed-media collages and collaborative works 
   Saul Leiter: Painted nudes 
   Huang Yan and body painting *** 
Mordançage
Introduction 
   Mordançage examples 
History 
   Working in the Mordançage process by Elizabeth Opalenik - A personal history 
Technique 
   The Mordançage process 
Photographers 
   Jean-Pierre Sudre: Soleil *** 
   Jean-Pierre Sudre: M+V *** 
   Jean-Pierre Sudre: Insectes *** 
   Jean-Pierre Sudre: Paysages matériographiques *** 
   Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage *** 
Multiple exposures
Introduct 
   Introduction to multiple exposures 
Different techniques and multiple exposures 
   Daguerreotypes: Multiple images 
   Albumen prints: Multiple exposures 
   Carte de visites: Multiple exposures 
   Cabinet cards: Multiple exposures 
   Tintypes: Multiple exposures 
   Gelatin silver prints: Multiple exposures 
   Real photo postcards: Multiple exposures *** 
Photographers using multiple exposures 
   Maurice Tabard: Multiple exposures and solarizations 
   Francis Bruguière: Cathedral montages *** 
   Duane Michels: The Spirit Leaves the Body (1968) 
Appropriation 
   Appropriation *** 
Photograms
Introduction 
   Terminology for cameraless photographs 
   Examples of photogenic drawings *** 
Examples 
   Photograms 
Photographers 
   Anna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) 
   Anna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854) 
   Anna K. Weaver 
   Man Ray: Rayograms 
   Man Ray: Electricité (1931) *** 
   Arthur Siegel: Photograms *** 
   Claude Tolmer: Photograms *** 
   Elfriede Stegemeyer: Photograms *** 
   Hilde Horn: Photograms *** 
   Oskar Nerlinger: Photograms *** 
   László Moholy-Nagy: Photograms 
   Christian Schad: Schadographs 
   Luigi Veronesi: Photograms *** 
   Werner Schnelle: Light Works 
   Floris Michael Neusüss: Full body photograms 
   Adam Fuss: Photograms 
   Susan Derges: The River Taw *** 
   Harry Nankin: Contact 2003-2004 
   Harry Nankin: Rain 
Conclusions 
   Some thoughts on photograms 
Shadows
Introduction 
   Introduction to shadows 
   Street shadows *** 
   Shadow patterns on nudes *** 
   The photographer as a shadow participant 
   Shadows: Examples 
Signage
Introduction 
   Introduction to signage 
   Examples of signage 
   Introduction to neon *** 
Photographers 
   Walker Evans: Signs 
   Harry Callahan: Signage *** 
   Todd Webb: Signage *** 
Solarization
Introduction 
   Introduction to solarization 
   Examples of solarization 
Photographers 
   Man Ray: Solarized nudes 
   Maurice Tabard: Multiple exposures and solarizations 
   Erwin Blumenfeld: Solarizations *** 
   Edmund Teske: Duotone solarizations 
Using different viewpoints
Introduction 
   Introduction to viewpoints 
Looking up 
   Looking up 
Looking up - Photographers 
   Carleton E. Watkins: Looking up in Calaveras Grove 
Looking down 
   Looking down 
   Street shadows *** 
Looking down - Photographers 
   Laszlo Moholy-Nagy: Viewpoints 
   André Kertész: Viewpoints *** 
   Alexander Rodchenko: Using different viewpoints 
   Aneta Grzeszykowska and Jan Smaga 
Using intermediates
Introduction 
   Using intermediates 
   Shooting through glass *** 
Fashion
Introduction 
   Introduction to fashion 
   Early fashion photography 
Custom 
   Boys wearing dresses 
Photo-jewelry 
   Photo-jewelry: Bracelets 
   Photo-jewelry: Brooches and pins 
   Photo-jewelry: Lockets 
   Photo-jewelry: Pendants *** 
   Photo-jewelry: Rings *** 
   Photo-jewelry: Stick pins *** 
   Photo-jewelry: Political 
Photography on fabric and clothing 
   Photographs and photo-related themes on fabric and clothing 
Items of clothing 
   Still life: Textiles and lace 
   Headwear 
   Footwear *** 
Key fashion photographers 
   Norman Parkinson (1913-1990) 
Magazines 
   Vanity Fair 
Fashion houses 
   Fashion houses and photography 
   Fashion houses: Gianni Versace 
   Parisian couture (ca. 1900-1920) *** 
Fashion photographers by decade 
   Fashion photographers by decade 
   Fashion 1920s 
   Fashion 1930s 
   Fashion 1940s 
   Fashion 1950s 
   Fashion 1960s 
   Fashion 1970s *** 
   Fashion 1980s *** 
   Fashion 1990s *** 
Fashion and the use of colour 
   The rise of colour in fashion photography *** 
Fashion and transportation 
   Transportation and fashion examples *** 
Fashion and the military 
   Fashion: Accessories: Gas masks 
Contemporary fashion 
   Contemporary fashion photography 
Case studies 
   Robinson & Roi: The Famous Glass Dress - Royal Robe of Princess Eulalia 
Fashion 1910-1920
Introduction 
   Parisian couture (ca. 1900-1920) *** 
Photographers 
   G. Agié: Parisian couture (1900-1920) 
   Henri Manuel: Couture hats (ca. 1910) *** 
Fashion 1920-1930
Introduction 
   Fashion 1920s 
Photographers 
   Alfred Cheney Johnston: Zeigfeld follies, movie stars and fashionable ladies 
Fashion 1930-1940
Introduction 
   Fashion 1930s 
   America in the 1930s 
   Surrealism and fashion 
Photographers 
   Martin Munkacsi 
   Ilse Bing: Fashion *** 
   Erwin Blumenfeld: Lisa Fonssagrives on the Eiffel Tower (1939) *** 
   Horst (1906-1999) 
   The Depression and the Dustbowl 
Fashion 1940-1950
Introduction 
   Fashion 1940s 
   Fashion during the Second World War 
   Fashion during the Post-war 1940s 
Models 
   Fashion model - Lisa Fonssagrives 
Photographers 
   Erwin Blumenfeld and the 1940s 
Fashion 1950-1960
Introduction 
   Fashion 1950s 
Fashion 1960-1970
Introduction 
   Fashion 1960s 
Photographers 
   Melvin Sokolsky: The bubble series (1963) 
Fashion 1970-1980
Introduction 
   Fashion 1970s *** 
Fashion 1980-1990
Introduction 
   Fashion 1980s *** 
Fashion 1990-2000
Introduction 
   Fashion 1990s *** 
Fashion magazines
Vogue 
   Vogue 
   Vogue photographers 
Harper's Bazaar 
   Harper's Bazaar *** 
Photographers 
   Fashion: Adolf de Meyer (1868-1946) 
Early fashion magazines
Introduction 
   Early fashion magazines 
   Nineteenth century color fashion plates *** 
   The spread of nineteen century fashion magazines 
   Fashion and halftone 
   Fashion and portrait photography 
   Photographs of costumes (1839-1860) 
Harper's Bazaar
Introduction 
   Harper's Bazaar *** 
Photographers 
   Melvin Sokolsky: The bubble series (1963) 
Vogue
Introduction 
   Vogue 
   Vogue photographers 
Photographers 
   Fashion: Adolf de Meyer (1868-1946) 
Landscape
Introduction 
   Landscape photography 
   Surveying 
   Daguerreotypes: Landscapes 
   Daguerreotypes: Panoramas 
Nineteenth century landscape photography 
   Nineteenth century landscape photographers 
   Peter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves (1895) 
   Pictorialism and the landscape 
   Pictorialism and trees 
   Pictorialism: Landscapes of ice and snow 
Themes 
   Trends and themes with landscape photography 
   Landscapes: Straight vs. Pictorialist 
   Landscapes: Pristine vs. Altered by man 
   Figures within the landscape 
   The landscapes of war 
   Introduction to early colour landscape photography 
   Autochromes: Landscape 
   Print size and perception within landscapes 
Amateur, snapshots and the popularisation of landscape 
   Snapshots: Landscapes 
   Cigarette cards of landscapes *** 
   Miniature views *** 
Photographers 
   Fred Judge: UK: Postcards 
   Ansel Adams: The New Ansel Adams Photography Series 
   Mario Giacomelli: On Being Aware of Nature (Presa di coscienza sulla natura) 
New Topographics 
   New Topographics (1975) 
Thoughts 
   Thoughts on trends in landscape photography 
Early color landscape photography
Introduction 
   Introduction to early colour landscape photography 
   Autochromes: Landscape 
Photographers 
   Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii: Colour landscapes 
Early pictorialist landscape photography
Introduction 
   Pictorialist landscape photography 
   Pictorialism and the landscape 
   Pictorialism and trees 
   Pictorialism: Landscapes of ice and snow 
Photographers 
   Leonard Misonne: Trees 
   William Dassonville: Trees 
Landscape photography and environmental issues
Introduction 
   Landscape photography and environmental issues 
   Railways and the landscape 
   The landscapes of industry 
   The landscapes of war 
   Documerica Project (1971-1977) 
   Landscape and the environment - examples 
Photographers 
   W. Eugene Smith: Minamata 
   Lewis Baltz: New Industrial parks near Irvine, California (1974) 
   Carl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
   Edward Burtynsky: What Hath Man Wrought? 
   John Darwell: Legacy - Inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone 
   Bruce Haley: Disfigured Landscapes 
   David Maisel: Oblivion 
Landscape photography and historical issues
Introduction 
   Landscape photography and historical issues 
Rephotographic projects 
   Rephotographic Survey Project 
   Mark Klett on The Rephotographic Survey Projects 
   Canada, Montreal 
   France: Paris 
   Italy: Florence 
   Poland 
   Egypt: Cairo 
Commemorations and anniversaries 
   Lewis and Clark commemorations 
The hidden histories of landscape 
   The hidden histories of place 
   The interplay between history and landscape 
   Eva Leitolf: German Images - Looking for Evidence 2006-2008 
   James Fee: The Peleliu Project 
   Jack Burman: KZ 
Landscape photography and natural catastrophes
Introduction 
   Natural catastrophes 
Earthquakes 
   Earthquakes 
   Earthquake: San Francisco (1868) *** 
   Ogawa Kazumasa: The Great Earthquake of Japan (1891) 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 - The photographers 
Volcanic eruptions 
   USA, Washington, Mount St. Helens eruption (1980) 
Fires 
   Fires 
Typhoons 
   China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
Hurricanes 
   Hurricanes 
   USA, Hurricane Katrina 
Human activity 
   Natural catastrophes provoked by human activity 
   John Darwell: Legacy - Inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone 
Conclusions 
   Thoughts on natural catastrophes 
Landscape photography and spatial relationships
Introduction 
   Spatial relationships within the landscape 
Photographers 
   Ed Ruscha: Every Building on Sunset Strip *** 
Landscape photography and the New Pictorialism
Introduction 
   Landscape photography and the New Pictorialism 
   Examples of the New Pictorialism 
Rephotographic projects
Rephotographic Survey Project 
   Rephotographic Survey Project 
   Mark Klett on The Rephotographic Survey Projects 
Examples 
   A Rephotographic Survey of the American West: Mountain of the Holy Cross 
   Canada, Montreal 
   Italy: Florence 
War and conflict 
   Rephotographic studies of conflicts and wars 
Landscape types
Introduction 
   Landscape types 
Agricultural and pastoral
Landscapes 
   Landscape: Agricultural 
   Landscape: Agricultural: Farmyards *** 
   Landscape: Agricultural: Ploughing *** 
Livestock 
   Early livestock photography 
   Cattle, bulls, cows and oxen 
   Sheep 
   Horses 
Photographers 
   Adolphe Braun: Cows and oxen 
   Constant Alexandre Famin: Livestock *** 
   Giraudon's artist: Rural studies *** 
   Marc Ferrez: Coffee production in Brazil *** 
   Richard Daintree: Images of Queensland (ca. 1870) 
   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
   Lewis W. Hine: Agricultural labour *** 
   Heinrich Riebesehl: Agrarlandschaften *** 
Beaches
Introduction 
   Landscape: Beaches *** 
   Landscape: Beach activitiy 
   Landscape: Beaches as land art *** 
Beach photographers 
   Beach photographers *** 
Photographers 
   Lucien Clergue: Language of the sands (Langage des sables) 
   Michael Jackson: Poppit Sands (2007-) 
Cityscapes - Urban
Introduction 
   Introduction to cityscapes and the urban context 
   Early examples of using photography to provide a social commentary 
   Early street photography 
Examples 
   Landscape: Cityscapes 
   Ports, harbours and docks 
Individual cities 
   Studies of individual cities 
Photographers 
   George Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857) 
   Silas A. Holmes (attributed): New York (ca. 1855) 
   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
   Charles Marville: Paris 
   Adolphe Terris: Rénovation de la Vieille Ville de Marseille (1862) 
   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
   Pieter Oosterhuis: Amsterdam Photographié (ca 1860) *** 
   James Robertson: Constantinople 
   Leopold Ahrendts: Berlin 
   Ludwig Angerer: Bucharest (1856) *** 
   Albert Felish: Russia, St. Petersburg 
   Joan Martí Centellas: Barcelona 
   Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal 
   H. Béchard: Cairo: Streets 
   Désiré Charnay: Views of Mexico City and environs (1858) *** 
   Marc Ferrez: Buildings of Brazil 
   Luis Pastorino: Fotografias de Montevideo (1880) 
   John Edward Saché: Views of Calcutta (ca 1865-1882) 
   Album of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later) 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: London (1909) 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: New York (1910) 
   Edward Steichen: The Flatiron 
   Berenice Abbott: Changing New York 
   Morrison & Burdekin: London Night (1934) 
   August Sander: Cologne 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project 
   Andreas Feininger: The architecture of New York 
   Robbert Flick: Trajectories *** 
   Michael Najjar: Netropolis *** 
   Michael Wolf: Architecture of Density *** 
Pictorialism 
   Landscape: Pictorialist Cityscapes *** 
Construction 
   Landscape: Construction within cityscapes 
Snow 
   Cityscapes with snow *** 
Signage 
   Examples of signage 
Wartime 
   Cityscapes in wartime 
People within the city 
   Strolling the city streets *** 
Energy of the city 
   William Klein: Books 
The contemporary street 
   The contemporary street and surveillance 
   The contemporary street and mapping *** 
Cliffs
Introduction 
   Landscape: Cliffs *** 
Deserts and dunes
Introduction 
   Landscape: Deserts and dunes 
Photographers 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: The sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev. 
   Edward Weston: Oceano Dunes 
   Brett Weston: Deserts 
Fantasy
Introduction 
   Landscapes: Fantasy 
Photographers 
   Jerry Uelsmann: Trees 
   Maggie Taylor: Landscape of dreams and other visions 
   Fran Forman: Photomontage *** 
   Paul Biddle: The Archipelago of Fantasy Islands 
Forests
Examples 
   Landscape: Forests 
   Landscape: Rainforests *** 
Yosemite Valley (USA) 
   Carleton E. Watkins and the Yosemite Valley (California, USA) 
The Forest of Fontainebleau (France) 
   Photographs of the Forests of Fontainebleau 
   Eugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   William Drooke Harrison: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Gustave Le Gray: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
Similarities between art and photography 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The road to Chailly (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The Bodmer Oak (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
Logging and forestry 
   Darius Kinsey: Forestry and logging in the American North-West (1906-1940) 
Photographers 
   L. Delaroche: Forest of Fontainebleau *** 
   G.O. Brown (active 1860-1889): Battlefield of the Wilderness *** 
   Leonard Misonne: Trees 
   Josef Sudek: Vanished Statues in Mionsi 
Gardens
Introduction 
   Introduction to gardens *** 
Gardens 
   France: Versailles *** 
   Paris: Saint-Cloud 
Photographers 
   Edouard Delessert: Paris - Park Delessert *** 
   Eugène Atget: Versailles *** 
Horizon
Introduction 
   Landscape: Horizon *** 
Photographers 
   Joel Meyerowitz: Bay / Sky *** 
Ice and snow
Introduction 
   Landscape: Ice and snow 
   Cityscapes with snow *** 
Styles and movements 
   Pictorialism: Landscapes of ice and snow 
Photographers 
   William Bradford, John Dunmore and George Critcherson: The Arctic Regions (1873) 
   Richard Basso: Graf Wilczek'sche Polar-Expedition (1882-1883) *** 
   Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s) 
   Alexander Henderson: Canadian landscapes 
   William B. Post: Snowscapes *** 
   George H. Seeley: Winter landscapes and snow *** 
   André Kertész: Washington Square 
   Roger Mayne: Richmond Park, Snow *** 
Simulation of snow and ice with portrait studios 
   The simulation of snow and ice in portrait studios 
Lakes, ponds, meres, reed beds and lagoons
Introduction 
   Landscape: Lakes, ponds, meres, reed beds and lagoons *** 
Photographers 
   Thomas Easterly: Chouteau's Pond 
   Jack Burman: KZ 
Mountains
Examples 
   Landscape: Mountains 
Photographers 
   John Stewart: Pyrenees (1850s) 
   Farnham Maxwell Lyte: The Pyrenees 
   Samuel Bourne: Northern India and the Himalayas (1863-1870) 
   Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s) 
   William Henry Jackson: Photographing in High Places 
   Mark Twain attempting to photograph the Matterhorn (1880) 
   Eduard Spelterini: Aerial views 
   Frank Sydney Smythe: Mountains 
   Vittorio Sella: Mountains 
   Antione Sevruguin: Mountain Landscapes of Iran 
   Bradford Washburn: Aerial photography 
Amateur photography and snapshots 
   Snapshots: Mountains *** 
Rivers and streams
Introduction 
   Landscape: Rivers and streams 
Photographers 
   Camille de Silvy - River Scene (1858) 
   Victor Albert Prout: The Thames from London to Oxford in Forty Photographs (1862) *** 
   Henry W. Taunt: The River Thames (1872) 
   Carleton E. Watkins: Columbia River *** 
   Henry P. Bosse: Views on the Mississippi River 
Rivers 
   Paris: The Seine 
   England: The Thames *** 
   Italy: Rome: The Tiber 
   Egypt: The Nile 
Contemporary 
   Contemporary perspectives on rivers and streams 
   Susan Derges: The River Taw *** 
Rural pathways, tracks, trails and lanes
Examples 
   Landscape: Rural pathways, tracks, trails and lanes 
Sea
Examples 
   Seascapes 
   Ports, harbours and docks 
Photographers 
   Gustave Le Gray: Combination prints 
   Gustave Le Gray: Seascapes 
   Gustave Le Gray: Cherbourg (4-6 August 1858) 
   Henry Stuart Wortley: Seascapes with clouds 
   Joel Meyerowitz: Bay / Sky *** 
   Hiroshi Sugimoto: Time Exposed 
Water and waterfalls
Introduction 
   Water in the landscape *** 
From the mountains to the sea 
   Landscape: Rivers and streams 
   Landscape: Lakes, ponds, meres, reed beds and lagoons *** 
   Waterfalls 
   Seascapes 
Niagara Falls 
   Hugh Lee Pattinson: Niagara Falls 
   Charles Lyell on Niagara Falls (1845) 
   Platt D. Babbitt: Joseph Avery at Niagara Falls (1853) 
   George Barker: Niagara Falls *** 
   Niagara Falls 
Case studies 
   Herrin Gallery: Columbia River Scenery, via The Dalles, Portland, and Astoria, Navigation Company Steamers *** 
   John Blakemore: All Flows *** 
Regional studies
Introduction 
   Nineteenth century landscape photographers 
Local photographers 
   Local photographers in Asia in the nineteenth century 
Landscapes of Asia
Introduction 
   The context for nineteenth century photography in Asia 
   Missionaries in Asia 
   Military background in Asia 
Photographers 
   Photographers in nineteenth century Asia 
    *** 
   Fred Bremner: Baluchistan 
   Local photographers in Asia in the nineteenth century 
Landscapes of Europe
Introduction 
   The context for nineteenth century photography in Europe 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Sun Pictures in Scotland (1845) 
   Types of early British landscape photographers 
   Early French landscape photographers 
   Reasons for French pre-eminence in nineteenth century landscape photography 
   Preserving paint in collapsible tubes 
   Eugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Camille de Silvy - River Scene (1858) 
   Landscape photography elsewhere in Europe 
Landscapes of North America
Introduction 
   Landscape photography in nineteenth century North America 
Surveys of the American West 
   Landscape surveys of the American West 
   Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Clarence King (1867-1869) 
   U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869) 
   Survey west of the 100th Parallel - George Montague Wheeler (1869-1879) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) 
   River explorations - John Wesley Powell (1869-1872) 
Significant locations 
   Colorado: Mountain of the Holy Cross 
   A Rephotographic Survey of the American West: Mountain of the Holy Cross 
   Utah: Devil's Slide 
   California: Yosemite Valley 
Photographers 
   Samuel A. Bemis: The White Mountains of New Hampshire 
   Thomas Easterly: Chouteau's Pond 
   Elias Olcott Beaman: The Grand Canyon (1871) *** 
   William Henry Jackson: Landscapes *** 
   John K. Hillers: Landscapes of the American West 
   Carleton E. Watkins and the Yosemite Valley (California, USA) 
   H.H. Bennett: Wisconsin Dells 
   George Fiske: Yosemite *** 
   L.A. Huffman: The Rage of Huffman and the Calmness of Nig (1883) 
   Ansel Adams: Illustrated Guide to Yosemite Valley (1946) 
   Edward Weston: Oceano Dunes 
   Brett Weston: Deserts 
   Mitch Dobrowner: Landscapes *** 
Railroads 
   The importance of railroads in the development of the American West 
   James Fitzallen Ryder: Photographic Views on the Atlantic & Great Western Railway (1862) *** 
   Andrew J. Russell: The Great West Illustrated in a Series of Photographic Views Across the Continent, Taken Along the Line of the Union Pacific Railroad, West from Omaha, Nebraska 
   A.J. Russell: Golden Spike Ceremony, Promontory Point, Utah (10 May 1869) 
    *** 
   Alexander Gardner and others: Across the continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad 
Rephotographic Surveys 
   Rephotographic Survey Project 
   Mark Klett on The Rephotographic Survey Projects 
New Topographics 
   New Topographics (1975) 
The acceptance of change 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
   Robert Adams: The construction of suburbia 
   Bill Owens: Suburbia 
Landscapes of the Middle East
Introduction 
   Landscape photography in the Middle East during the nineteenth century 
Early photographers 
   Early photographers in the Middle East 
   Maxime du Camp: Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie (1852) 
   Gustave Le Gray: Egypt 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Lantern slides and other photographs of Egypt 
   John Beasly Greene: Le Nil (1854) 
Surveys and exploration 
   Palestine Exploration Fund 
   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
   American Palestine Exploration Society 
Remnants of the Ancient and Classical world
Travelers to the Ancient and Classical World 
   Photographers on the Grand Tour 
   Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: The Ancient and Classical World 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
Italy: Rome 
   Italy: Rome: The Colosseum 
   Italy: Rome: Arch of Constantine 
   Italy: Rome: Forum Romanum 
   Italy: Rome: Forum Traiani 
   Robert Macpherson: The monuments of Rome 
   James Anderson: The Roman Forum *** 
   James Anderson: The Colosseum *** 
   John Henry Parker: Recent Excavations in Rome: Made in 1868 
   Carlo Baldassare Simelli: Rome 
   Robert Rive: Rome 
Italy: Pompeii 
   John Shaw Smith: Pompeii 
   Giorgio Sommer: Pompeii 
   Auguste Lesouëf - Pompeii (1880) 
Greece 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Parthenon 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Erechtheion 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Propylaia 
   Greece: Athens: Temple of Olympian Zeus (Olympieion) 
   William J. Stillman: Athens: Acropolis (1868-1870) 
   Walter Hege: Greece: Athens: The Acropolis (1928-1930) *** 
Egypt: Archaeological sites 
   Egypt: The Pyramids 
   Egypt: Climbing the Pyramids 
   Egypt: The Sphinx 
   Egypt: Pyramid of Djoser (Zoser), Sakkarah (Saqqara) 
   Egypt: Colossi of Memnon 
   Egypt: Dendara 
   Egypt: Edfou 
   Egypt: Karnak 
   Egypt: Kom Ombo 
   Egypt: Luxor 
   Egypt: Philae 
   Egypt: Thebes 
   Egypt: Thebes: Medinet Habu - Medinet Haboo (Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III) 
   Egypt: Valley of the Kings 
Egypt - Photographers 
   Jules Itier: Egypt 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia: Negatives 
   Louis de Clercq: Egypt 
   Maxime du Camp: Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie (1852) 
   John Beasly Greene: Le Nil (1854) 
   Francis Frith: Books on Egypt, Sinai and Palestine 
   Francis Frith: Egypt 
   Francis Frith: Stereoviews of Egypt and Nubia 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Egypt (1862) 
   Gustave Le Gray: Egypt 
   William de Wiveleslie Abney: Thebes and its Five Greater Temples (1876) 
   H. Béchard: The Pyramids 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Lantern slides and other photographs of Egypt 
The difficulties of photographing archaeological sites 
   The Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907) 
   Photographing in the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel (1906) 
   Photographing the Temple of Amun and Amunhotep III at Soleb (1907) 
Egypt: Archaeological finds 
   Egypt: Wall art, bas-relief, hieroglyphics and graffiti 
   Egypt: Cleopatra's Needle 
Straight landscape photography
Introduction 
   From Pictorialism to Straight landscape photography 
Photographers 
   Paul Strand 
   Ansel Adams and Straight landscape photography 
   Ansel Adams 
   Ansel Adams: The New Ansel Adams Photography Series 
   Edward Weston: Point Lobos 
   Edward Weston: Oceano Dunes 
Literature
Introduction 
   Illustrated fiction and poetry 
Authors, poets and playwrights 
   Authors 
   Poets *** 
   Alfred Tennyson 
Narratives 
   Introduction of photographically illustrated narratives 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Biblical *** 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Mythological 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Arthurian 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Historical *** 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Shakespearean 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Dickensian *** 
   Henry Peach Robinson: Little Red Riding Hood 
   Francis Frith: Illustrations for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hyperion (1865) 
Poetry 
   Adelaide Hanscom Leeson: Sonnets from the Portuguese (ca. 1916) 
   Man Ray: 1929 
   Martin Chambi: Peru - Macchu Picchu 
Poetry (of a sort...) 
   Introduction to poetry related to photography 
   Photographic Phenomena, or the new school of portrait painting (1842) 
   Marketing: Root's Daguerrean Gallery (1853) 
   Introduction to the Carte de Visite Album 
   Lillian E. Curtis: The Lost Photograph (1874) 
   C. G. Blatt's Photographic Emporium, Bernville, PA (1870s) 
   William D. Jackson, Sr.: Trade card from Waco, Texas (1880-1900) 
   To My Sweetheart's Kodak (1890) 
Books for children 
   Books for children 
Fiction and the reality of travel 
   Jules Verne: Around the World in Eighty Days - What would Phileas Fogg and Passepartout have seen in 1872? 
References to photography in popular literature 
   Photograph albums in popular literature 
Contemporary use of photography in literature 
   The contemporary photographically illustrated novel 
Narratives
Introduction 
   Introduction of photographically illustrated narratives 
Types of narratives 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Mythological 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Arthurian 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Historical *** 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Shakespearean 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Dickensian *** 
Photographers 
   Hill & Adamson: Narrative sequence - In pensive mood (1845) *** 
   Henry Peach Robinson: Little Red Riding Hood 
   Francis Frith: Illustrations for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hyperion (1865) 
   Duane Michels: The Spirit Leaves the Body (1968) 
    *** 
Fotonovelas 
   Peruvian Fotonovelas 
Poetry
Introduction 
   Introduction to poetry related to photography 
Poems related to photography 
   Photographic Phenomena, or the new school of portrait painting (1842) 
   Lillian E. Curtis: The Lost Photograph (1874) 
   To My Sweetheart's Kodak (1890) 
   Ernest Knoll: Homer with a Camera 
   Thomas Hardy: The Photograph 
   Shirley Toulson: A Photograph 
   Philip Larkin: Lines On A Young Lady's Photograph Album 
   George Oppen: From a Photograph (1962) 
   Margaret Atwood: This is a Photograph of Me 
   Wislawa Szymborska: Photograph from September 11 
Poems as a marketing tool 
   Marketing: Root's Daguerrean Gallery (1853) 
   Introduction to the Carte de Visite Album 
   C. G. Blatt's Photographic Emporium, Bernville, PA (1870s) 
   William D. Jackson, Sr.: Trade card from Waco, Texas (1880-1900) 
Photographers 
   Adelaide Hanscom Leeson: Sonnets from the Portuguese (ca. 1916) 
   Martin Chambi: Peru - Macchu Picchu 
Nature
Introduction 
   Introduction to nature photography 
   Themes within nature 
   Dioramas in Natural History Museums 
Processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Nature *** 
Photographers 
   John Edward Saché: Studies of Indian insects 
   Eliot Porter: Colour 
   Joseph Holmes: amnh (American Museum of Natural History) 
Contemporary 
   Contemporary examples of nature photography 
Collections
Introduction 
   Natural history museum collections *** 
Photographers 
   Joseph Holmes: amnh (American Museum of Natural History) 
Environment
The spread of suburbia 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
   David Maisel: Oblivion 
   Robert Adams: The construction of suburbia 
Environmental destruction 
   Edward Burtynsky: What Hath Man Wrought? 
   John Darwell: Legacy - Inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone 
   Bruce Haley: Disfigured Landscapes 
Land art 
   Andy Goldsworthy: Books 
   Richard Long: On-site sculptures 
   Robert Smithson: On-site sculptures 
Environmental photograms 
   Harry Nankin: Contact 2003-2004 
   Harry Nankin: Rain 
Fauna
Introduction 
   Introduction to fauna and the animal kingdom 
   Trophies and hung game 
   Different ways of seeing animals 
   Animals in the wild 
   The genius of animal photography 
   Smithsonian National Zoo - Contemporary photography 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Animal photographs 
   John Dillwyn LLewelyn and his stuffed animals 
   Adolphe Braun: Cows and oxen 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Animals in motion 
   Diverse perspectives on animals *** 
Animals as photographic props 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Horses *** 
Conclusions 
   Animals conclusions 
Animals
Introduction 
   Introduction to fauna and the animal kingdom 
   Trophies and hung game 
   Animals in the wild 
   Different ways of seeing animals 
   The genius of animal photography 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Animal photographs 
   John Dillwyn LLewelyn and his stuffed animals 
   Frank Haes: Stereocard details of London Zoo (ca. 1865) 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Animals in motion 
   Advert for J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
   Book review of J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
   Ottomar Anschütz: Animal studies *** 
Zoos 
   Smithsonian National Zoo - Contemporary photography 
Changing perspectives 
   Diverse perspectives on animals *** 
Conclusions 
   Animals conclusions 
Birds
Introduction 
   Relationships with birds 
   Hung game birds *** 
Carrier-pigeons 
   René Patrice Proudhon Dagron: Photomicrographs, carrier-pigeons and the beseiged city of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
Contemporary examples 
   Contemporary photographs of birds *** 
Photographers 
   William Notman: Birds *** 
   Burton Brothers: The Moa of New Zealand *** 
   Terry Evans: Birds in collections *** 
Domesticated animals
Livestock photography 
   Early livestock photography 
Cattle, bulls, cows and oxen 
   Cattle, bulls, cows and oxen 
   Adolphe Braun: Cows and oxen 
Sheep 
   Sheep 
Horses 
   Horses 
   Louis-Jean Delton: Horses *** 
   Advert for J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
   Book review of J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
Dogs 
   Dogs 
Photographers 
    *** 
   Meagan O'Donnell: Man's Best Friend (2009) *** 
   Leon Crémière: Dogs *** 
   Eli Lotar: Slaughterhouse (ca 1929) *** 
   D'Ora: Slaughterhouse series (1948-1958) 
Fish
Examples 
   Fish in the nineteenth century *** 
Fishing as a leisure activity 
   Fishing in the nineteenth century *** 
Scientific understanding 
   U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Woods Hole, Mass. - 1871 *** 
   Sandra J. Raredon (NMNH): X-Rays of fish *** 
Insects
Introduction 
   Introduction to insects *** 
   Photomicrographs of insects 
   John Edward Saché: Studies of Indian insects 
   Contemporary photographs of insects *** 
Photographers 
   Jean-Pierre Sudre: Insectes *** 
   Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee 
Mythical beasts
Introduction 
   Mythical beasts 
   Photomontage and mythical beasts 
   Mythical beasts 
   Mythical animals - The Centaur 
Photographers 
   Frederick Sommer (1905-1999) 
Pets
Introduction 
   Pets 
Dogs 
   Dogs 
   Contemporary photographs of dogs 
Dogs: Photographers 
   Dogs and Elliott Erwitt *** 
   William Wegman: Dogs *** 
   Tony Mendoza: Dogs *** 
   Malevolent dogs 
   John Divola: Dogs Chasing My Car in the Deserts 
Cats 
   Cats *** 
Zoos
Introduction 
   Zoos 
   Obaysch - The first hippopotamus at London Zoo (1850) 
   The dilemma of zoos 
   Frank Haes: Stereocard details of London Zoo (ca. 1865) 
   Volker Seding: Zoos *** 
Flora
Introduction 
   Still life: Understanding the term 
   Early floral arrangements 
Fruits 
   Apples 
   Pears 
Trees 
   Early photographs of trees 
Leaves 
   Introduction to Leaves *** 
Photographers 
   Eugène Atget: Trees 
   Edward Weston: Vegetables 
   Brigitte Carnochan: Fruit *** 
Flowers
Introduction 
   Flowers 
19th century 
   Flowers: A 19th Century perspective 
   Early floral arrangements 
   Eugène Atget: Flowers and nature studies *** 
   Charles Hippolyte Aubry: Botanical and flower studies 
   Adolphe Braun: Flower studies 
   Ogawa Kazuma: Flowers 
Pictorialism 
   Flowers: A Pictorialist perspective 
20th century 
   Flowers: Through the 20th Century 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
   Charles Jones: Flowers 
   Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) 
   Karl Blossfeldt: Books *** 
   Karl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Flowers and botanical studies *** 
   Max Baur: Flowers *** 
   Imogen Cunningham: Flowers *** 
   Cy Decosse: Gioco di Luce / Play of the Light *** 
   Ron van Dongen: Flora 
   Charles Grogg: Sent from the Garden *** 
Studies 
   Flower studies (Part I) 
   Flower studies (Part II) 
Flower genera and species 
   The study of specific genera or species 
Fruits
Introduction 
   Introduction to fruits 
Types of fruit 
   Apples 
   Pears 
   Grapes *** 
Photographers 
   Roger Fenton: Still lifes 
   Brigitte Carnochan: Fruit *** 
Trees
Photographing trees 
   Julius Friedrich Sachse: Botanical Photography (1890) 
Examples 
   Early photographs of trees 
   Pictorialism and trees 
   Snapshots: Trees 
   A 20th century perspective on trees 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Trees *** 
   Hill & Adamson: A tree at Colinston [Midlothian, Scotland] 
   Louis Crette: Trees *** 
   G.O. Brown (active 1860-1889): Battlefield of the Wilderness *** 
   Eugène Atget: Trees 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The Bodmer Oak (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
   Charles Leander Weed: The big trees of California (1860s) *** 
   Carleton E. Watkins: Trees 
   Thomas Houseworth & Co: Calaveras Big Trees 
   Andrew Young: Woodburytypes of trees 
   Alfred Stieglitz: Trees *** 
   Leonard Misonne: Trees 
   Frederick Henry Evans: Woodland photographs for Memorial Edition of the Works of George Meredith (1911) *** 
   Oskar & Theodor Hofmeister: Landscapes *** 
   William Dassonville: Trees 
   Rudolf Koppitz: Trees *** 
   Josef Sudek: Trees *** 
   Josef Sudek: Vanished Statues in Mionsi 
   Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii: Early colour photographs of trees and tracks 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Trees *** 
   Edward Weston: Trees *** 
   Brett Weston: Trees *** 
   Ansel Adams: Trees 
   Jerry Uelsmann: Trees 
Cedars of Lebanon 
   The Cedars of Lebanon 
Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Photographs of the Forests of Fontainebleau 
   Eugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   William Drooke Harrison: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Gustave Le Gray: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The road to Chailly (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
Logging and forestry 
   Darius Kinsey: Forestry and logging in the American North-West (1906-1940) 
Vegetables
Introduction 
   Introduction to vegetables *** 
Photographers 
   Edward Weston: Vegetables 
   Charles Jones: Vegetables 
   T. Enami: A Japanese Farmer and his Wife 
   Henry Rox: Photosculptures *** 
   Jerry Spagnoli: Heirloom Harvest (2015) *** 
Shells
Examples 
   Shells 
Photographers 
   Edward Weston: Shells 
   Ruth Bernhard: Shells *** 
Weather
Introduction 
   Introduction to weather 
Meterological conditions 
   Weather: Clouds *** 
   Weather: Fog and mist *** 
   Weather: Lightning 
   Weather: Rain 
   Weather: Rainbows *** 
   Weather: Snow *** 
Events 
   China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
Photographers 
   William B. Post: Snowscapes *** 
   André Kertész: Washington Square 
   Wilson A. Bentley: Photomicrographs of snowflakes 
   Richard Neuhauss: Photomicrographs of snowflakes *** 
   Mitch Dobrowner: Storms 
Clouds
Introduction 
   Weather: Clouds *** 
Photographers 
   Gustave Le Gray: Combination prints 
   George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
   Charles Marville: Vue du ciel de Paris, de la fenetre de l'artiste *** 
   Henry Stuart Wortley: Seascapes with clouds 
   Carlo Baldassare Simelli: Cloud studies *** 
   Alfred Stieglitz: Equivalents 
   Manfred Curry: A travers les nuages (ca. 1932) *** 
   Edward Weston: Clouds 
   Mitch Dobrowner: Storms 
Lightning
Introduction 
   Weather: Lightning 
Photographers 
   Grabriel Loppé: Paris: Eiffel Tower *** 
Tornados
Introduction 
   Introduction to tornados *** 
Photographers 
   Mitch Dobrowner: Storms 
Typhoons
Major typhoons 
   China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
Photojournalism
Introduction 
   Introduction to photojournalism 
   Journalists at war 
   The technologies that allowed photojournalism to flourish 
Colour magazines 
   John Bulmer: Sunday Times Magazine tear sheets 
Threats to photojournalism 
   The decline of the photo magazines 
Painted press photographs and those with instructions 
   Press photographs with paint or instructions 
Case studies 
   Paul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul (8 September 1886) 
   The execution of Ruth Synder (1929) 
   Erich Salomon on press photography 
   Teru Kuwayama: Photojournalism with a Holga 
   Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011) 
   iPhone news applications *** 
Codes of conduct and ethics 
   NPPA (National Press Photographers Association): Code of Ethics 
   Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief (1994) 
Challenges 
   Changes in contemporary photojournalism 
   Image integrity in documentary photography and photojournalism 
Early examples of photo reportage
Introduction 
   Early examples of photo reportage 
Photographers 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): France, Paris 
   George N. Barnard: Oswego Mills (1853) 
   Édouard Baldus: Inondations du Rhône à Lyon et Avignon (1856) 
   Platt D. Babbitt: Joseph Avery at Niagara Falls (1853) 
Early social commentary
Introduction 
   Early examples of using photography to provide a social commentary 
Photographers 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
   John Thomson: Street Life in London 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Lewis W. Hine: The reform of child labour in America 
   Doris Ulmann: Roll, Jordan, Roll (1933) 
Conclusions 
   Thoughts of early social commentary 
Weimar Germany (1919-1933)
Introduction 
   The aftermath of the First World War in Germany 
   Cultural innovation in Weimar Germany 
Cinema 
   German expressionism 
   Fritz Lang: M (1931) *** 
   German Expressionism: Vampyr (1932) 
   Fritz Lang: The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933) *** 
   Carl Mayer & Hans Janowitz : The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) *** 
Photojournalism 
   German illustrated magazines during the First World War 
   AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung 
   Photojournalists in Weimar Germany 
   Erich Salomon on press photography 
Bauhaus 
   Bauhaus 
   László Moholy-Nagy: Photograms 
   Laszlo Moholy-Nagy: Viewpoints 
New Objectivity 
   Introduction to New Objectivity 
   August Sander (1876-1964) 
Legacy 
   The legacy of Weimar as photojournalists left Germany 
Illustrated magazines and photojournalism
Interviews 
   Paul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul (8 September 1886) 
Illustrated magazines 
   German illustrated magazines during the First World War 
   AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung 
   USSR in Construction 
   Photo-essays in LIFE magazine 
AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung
Introduction 
   AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung 
Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung
Introduction 
   Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung *** 
LIFE magazine
Introduction 
   Photo-essays in LIFE magazine 
   LIFE magazine photographers 
Photographers 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Fort Peck Dam 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Spanish Village (1951) 
   W. Eugene Smith: Man of Mercy (1954) 
Picture Post
Introduction 
   Picture Post 
USSR in Construction
Introduction 
   Illustrated magazines in U.S.S.R. 
USSR in Construction 
   USSR in Construction 
   USSR in Construction: Issue listing 
Rise of the illustrated magazine
Introduction 
   The rise of the illustrated magazine 
Illustrated magazines in Germany 
   German illustrated magazines during the First World War 
   Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung *** 
   AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung 
Illustrated magazines in Czechoslovakia 
   Illustrated magazines in Czechoslovakia 
Illustrated magazines in the U.S.S.R. 
   Illustrated magazines in U.S.S.R. 
   USSR in Construction 
Illustrated magazines in France 
   Illustrated magazines in France 
   VU *** 
Illustrated magazines in The Nethelands 
   Illustrated magazines in Holland 
Illustrated magazines in Switzerland 
   Illustrated magazines in Switzerland 
Illustrated magazines in the USA 
   Illustrated magazines in the USA 
   Photo-essays in LIFE magazine 
   LIFE magazine photographers 
Illustrated magazines in the UK 
   Illustrated magazines in the UK 
Conclusions 
   Early examples of magazines using photojournalism 
Emergence of the photo-agency
Early photo-agencies 
   Chusseau-Flaviens: The first French press photography agency 
Magnum
Introduction 
   Magnum Founders, In Celebration of Sixty Years 
Photographers 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project 
   W. Eugene Smith: Minamata 
Magnum wet stamps 
   Robert Capa: Magnum wet stamps *** 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Magnum wet stamps *** 
Past and future 
   Magnum Irrelevant? 
   The complex legacy of Magnum 
Photo-essays
Introduction 
   Introduction to photo-essays 
   Photo-essays in LIFE magazine 
Examples of photo-essays 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Fort Peck Dam 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Spanish Village (1951) 
   W. Eugene Smith: Man of Mercy (1954) 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Notes de voyage en Chine (1954) 
   Herb Snitzer: Summerfield School 
LIFE 
   LIFE magazine photographers 
Photomontage
Introduction 
   Understanding the terms 
   Introduction to photomontage 
   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
Composite photographs 
   Composite and combination prints: Defined 
   George N. Barnard: Composite photographs during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
Photomontage 
   Photomontage - Defined 
   Henry Hering - Alfred Reeves: Photograph. The Kings and Queens of England 
   André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: Photomontages - Mosaïques 
   Eugène de Tarade: Photographic fantasies 
   William Notman: Photomontages 
   Eli Lotar: Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique (1930) 
   J. Pécsi: Photo und Publizität - Photo and Advertising (1930) 
   Portugal 1934: Photomontage as propaganda 
   Teresa Zarnower: Obrona Warszawy - The defense of Warsaw (1942-1945) 
   Herbert Matter: Advertising 
   Val Telberg: Photomontages 
   Harold Feinstein: Photomontage *** 
   Alan Lennon: Photomontages 
Collage 
   Collage - Defined 
   Decorated pages in nineteenth century photograph albums 
   Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer: Decorated album pages 
Techniques and processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Multiple images 
   Albumen prints: Photomontage *** 
   Carte de visites: Photomontage 
   Cabinet cards: Photomontage 
   Gelatin silver prints: Photomontage 
Spirit photography 
   William H. Mumler: Spirit photography 
   William Hope: Spirit photography and séances *** 
   Richard Boursnell & J. Evans Sterling (London Spiritualists): Spirit photographs *** 
   Cottingley Fairies 
Reusing card photographs 
   Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages 
   Contemporary artworks using card photographs 
   The Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates... 
Assemblage 
   Assemblage - Defined 
Collage
Introduction 
   Collage - Defined 
   Patent: Wm. A. Pratt, Improvement in Colouring Daguerreotype-Pictures (1846) 
Decorated album pages 
   Decorated pages in nineteenth century photograph albums 
   Frances Carlhian: Album page showing the Shah of Persia - Nasir al-Din Shah 
   Lady Mary Georgiana Filmer: Decorated album pages 
Spirit photography 
   Cottingley Fairies 
   William H. Mumler: Spirit photography 
   William Hope: Spirit photography and séances *** 
Modernism and collage 
   Paul Citroen: Metropolis 
   Erwin Blumenfeld: Collages *** 
Collage and play 
   Introduction to FotFun 
Appropriating card photographs 
   Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages 
   The Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates... 
   Contemporary artworks using card photographs 
Commercial uses of collage and photomontage
Introduction 
   Early examples of commercial collage *** 
   Examples of commercial collage *** 
Photographers 
   François Aubert: The execution of Emperor Maximilian 
Composite and combination prints
Introduction 
   Composite and combination prints: Defined 
   Combination Printing (1870) 
   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
   Making a composite portrait of a typical criminal (1879) 
   Composite and combination prints: Portraits 
Examples 
   Gustave Le Gray: Combination prints 
   George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
   George N. Barnard: Destruction of Hood’s Ordnance Train 
   Camille de Silvy - River Scene (1858) 
   Oscar Gustave Rejlander: Two Ways of Life 
Contemporary criticism 
   Contemporary criticism of Mr. Rejlander and Mr. Robinson (1859) 
Digital photomontage
Introduction 
   Digital photomontage 
Photomosaics 
   Robert Silvers: Photomosaics 
Photographers 
   Maggie Taylor: Landscape of dreams and other visions 
   Fran Forman: Photomontage *** 
   Paul Biddle: The Archipelago of Fantasy Islands 
   Erik Johansson: Digital photomontages *** 
   Julie Blackmon: Domestic Vacations and other series 
Early political photomontage
Examples 
   Photomontage during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Photomontage during the Paris Commune (1871) 
   Portugal 1934: Photomontage as propaganda 
Exaggeration photo postcards
Introduction 
   Exaggeration postcards 
Photographers 
   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
   Henry M. Beach: Exaggeration photo postcards 
Fine art photomontage
Introduction 
   Fine art photomontage 
Photographers 
   Jerry Uelsmann: Trees 
   Paul Biddle: The Archipelago of Fantasy Islands 
Political collage from 1970 onwards
Introduction 
   Political photomontage and collage from the 1970s onwards 
Photographers 
   Martha Rosler: Bringing the War Home 
Postcards 
   Postcards with a message *** 
   Unemployment in Thatcher's Britain 
Political collage in Weimar Germany
Introduction 
   Political collage in Weimar Germany 
Photographers 
   John Heartfield: Political photomontages 
   Paul Citroen: Metropolis 
Exhibitions 
   Film und Foto - FiFo (1929) 
Pictorialism
Introduction to Pictorialism 
   Introduction to Pictorialism 
   The roots of Pictorialism 
   Gum bichromate prints 
Naturalism and Pictorialism 
   Naturalism and Pictorialism 
   Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936) 
   Peter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves (1895) 
Photo-Club de Paris 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Première Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1894 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Deuxième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1895 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Troisième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1896 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Quatrième Année Salon de Photographie - 1897 
Key subjects for Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism and trees 
   Flowers: A Pictorialist perspective 
   Pictorialism and the landscape 
   Pictorialism: Landscapes of ice and snow 
   Pictorialism and the innocence of children 
   Pictorialism and the portrait 
   Pictorialism, the nude and erotica 
   Pictorialism and architecture 
   Pictorialism: Still lifes *** 
   Pictorialists and the Autochrome 
Case studies 
   Robert Demachy: Struggle 
   Robert Demachy: Landscapes *** 
   Edward Steichen: The Flatiron 
   Edward Steichen: Rodin's statue of Balzac (1908) 
   Edward Steichen: Pictorialist portraits 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: Portraits 
   Eva Watson-Schutze: Portraits *** 
   Mary Albert Wiggins: Pictorialist portraits *** 
   James Craig Annan: Venice and Lombardy: A Series of Original Photogravures (1896) *** 
   Clarence H. White: Portraits 
   Clarence H. White: Ring Toss (1899) 
   Edward S. Curtis and Pictorialism 
   William Dassonville: Trees 
   Adelaide Hanscom Leeson: Sonnets from the Portuguese (ca. 1916) 
   Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes 
   Edward Weston: Pictorialist portraits 
   Fred Judge: UK: Postcards 
   Japanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards *** 
   J. Craig Annan: Portraits *** 
Concluding remarks 
   Conclusions on Pictorialism 
American influences on Pictorialism
Introduction 
   American influences on Pictorialism 
Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession 
   Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession 
   The influence of Alfred Stieglitz on American pictorialism 
   Camera Notes *** 
   Camera Work 
   Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, 291 Fifth Avenue, New York City 
   The links between Camera Work and contemporary art 
Photographers 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: New York (1910) 
   Clarence H. White School of Photography 
   William Dassonville: Trees 
   Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes 
   Edward Steichen: Pictorialist portraits 
   Edward Weston: Pictorialist portraits 
Global trends in Pictorialism
Introduction 
   Introduction to global trends in Pictorialism 
   International connections between the Pictorialist photographic salons 
France 
   Pictorialism in France 
   The Photo Club of Paris (Le Photo Club de Paris) *** 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Première Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1894 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Deuxième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1895 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Troisième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1896 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Quatrième Année Salon de Photographie - 1897 
Belgium 
   Pictorialism in Belgium 
   Gustave Marissiaux: Visions d’Artistes (1908) *** 
Germany 
   Pictorialism in Germany 
Austria 
   Pictorialism in Austria 
Sweden 
   Pictorialism in Sweden 
Spain 
   Pictorialism in Spain 
   José Ortiz-Echagüe (1886-1982) 
Greece 
   Nelly's: Greek refugees from Asia Minor *** 
Russia 
   Pictorialism in Russia 
   Alexander Grinberg: Nudes 
China 
   Introduction to Fine Art Photography and Pictorialism in China 
   Donald M. Mennie: Pictorialist China 
Japan 
   Pictorialism in Japan 
   Japanese pictorialism - Bunka Shashin-shu (1922) 
Hawaii 
   Caroline Haskins Gurrey: Portraits from Hawaii 
Australia 
   Pictorialism in Australia 
Linked Ring Brotherhood
Linked Ring Brotherhood 
   Pictorialism in Great Britain - The Linked Ring Brotherhood 
   Members of the Linked Ring Brotherhood 
London Salon 1895 
   A Record of the Photographic Salon of 1895 (London) 
Photographers 
   Frederick H. Evans: Cathedrals 
Pictorialism Reborn
Introduction 
   Pictorial reborn or the "New Pictorialism" 
Examples 
   The "New Pictorialism" in Landscape Photography 
Pictorialist publications
Introduction 
   Pictorialist publications 
Camera Notes
Camera Notes 
   Camera Notes *** 
   Camera Notes: Issues and contents 
Camera Work
Camera Work 
   The influence of Alfred Stieglitz on American pictorialism 
   Camera Work 
   Camera Work - An Apology 
   Photo-Secession members 
   Camera Work: Issues and contents 
   The links between Camera Work and contemporary art 
Die Kunst in der Photographie
Die Kunst in der Photographie 
   Die Kunst in der Photographie (1897) 
   Die Kunst in der Photographie (1898) 
   Die Kunst in der Photographie (1899) 
   Die Kunst in der Photographie (1900) 
   Die Kunst in der Photographie (1901) 
Photo-Club de Paris
Introduction to the Photo-Club de Paris 
   Introduction to the Photo-Club de Paris *** 
Annual exhibitions 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Première Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1894 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Deuxième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1895 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Troisième Exposition d'Art Photographique - 1896 
   Photo-Club de Paris: Quatrième Année Salon de Photographie - 1897 
Wiener Photographische Blätter - Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien
Wiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien 
   Wiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1894) 
   Wiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1896) *** 
Post 1917 Pictorialism
Introduction 
   Post 1917 Pictorialism 
Photographers 
   Clarence H. White School of Photography 
   Clarence H. White *** 
   Canadian Pictorialism: Frederick George Ashton 
Portrait
Introduction 
   Introduction to the portrait 
   Early examples of portraiture 
   Early stylistic choices with portraiture 
Having a portrait taken 
   "Portrait factory" on Broadway, New York 
   Visit to Plumbe's Gallery, New York (1846) 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles of women 
   Interesting group posed for a Daguerreotype by a friend of the family / Interesting and valuable result (1855) 
   Letter from W.L. Marcy, Secretary of War, to Major General Z. Taylor, Commanding Army of Occupation, Monterey, Mexico (5 October 1846) 
Guidelines for sitters 
   Guidelines for sitters - Southworth & Hawes (1852) 
   Guidelines for sitters - Mons. Blume (Ireland) 
   Guidelines for sitters - Jesse Gostick (1860) 
   Guidelines for sitters on carte de visites 
   Hints to Sitters and Visitors - Ross' Photographic Gallery, Petaluma, California (1886) 
   Guidelines for sitters - American Journal of Photography (1890) 
   When being Photographed (1896) 
The risks of portraiture 
   The risks of portraiture to the sitter and the photographer 
Daguerreotype portraits 
   W. & F. Langenheim: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Robert Cornelius: Daguerreotype portraits 
   Jeremiah Gurney: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Samuel Broadbent: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Southworth and Hawes: Daguerreotype portraits 
   Rufus P. Anson: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   J.E. Mayall: Daguerreotype portraits 
   Antoine Claudet: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   William Edward Kilburn: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Richard Beard: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Louis-Adolphe Humbert de Molard: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
   Lorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies 
Salt print portraits 
   Salt prints: Portraits 
   Hill & Adamson: Portraits 
Ambrotype portraits 
   Ambrotypes: Portrait 
   Japanese ambrotypes 
Studio portraits 
   Nadar: Portraits 
   Studio portraits in North Africa and the Middle East 
The "Artistic" portrait 
   The "artistic" portrait 
   Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits 
   Lady Clementina Hawarden: Photographic studies 
So few smiles 
   Smiling in photography 
The "helping hand" and the "hidden mother" 
   The "helping hand", "hidden mother" and "hidden father" portraits 
Front and back views 
   Front and back view portraits 
Carte de visite portraits 
   André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: Uncut carte de visite sheets 
   Carte de visites: Celebrities 
   Giuseppe Garibaldi 
   Camille Silvy: Carte de visite portraits 
Cabinet card portraits 
   Cabinet cards: Celebrities 
   Thomas Houseworth: Houseworth's Celebrities 
Tintype portraits 
   Tintypes: Portraits 
   Tin Type Album: Little gem tintypes 
Galleries of the famous 
   Introduction to galleries of the famous 
   Thompson Cooper, Lock & Whitfield: Men of Mark (1876-1883) 
   Lock and Whitfield (attributed): The Theatre (1877-1897) *** 
   Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique 
   Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique 
   Paris - Artiste *** 
   Paris-Theatre / Paris-Portrait 
   Figaro-Album *** 
   Herbert Rose Barraud: Portraits 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism and the portrait 
   Pictorialism and the innocence of children 
   Clarence H. White: Portraits 
The start of the colour portrait 
   Autochromes: Portrait 
Modernism and the portrait 
   The move from Pictorialism to Modernism in portraiture 
   August Sander (1876-1964) 
   Helmar Lerski: Portraits 
   Erwin Blumenfeld: The concealed portrait 
The portraiture of celebrity 
   Yousuf Karsh: Portraits 
Vernacular portraits 
   Photobooth portraits 
   Mike Disfarmer: Heber Springs portraits 
   Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
Bust portraits 
   Bust portraits 
Humanistic portraiture 
   The Family of Man Exhibition (1955) 
   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974) 
   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers? 
Diversity in portraiture 
   Photographers who photograph representations of people 
Post-modernism 
   Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers 
   The contemporary portrait 
Defacing portraits 
   The defacing and destruction of portraits 
Conclusions 
   Keeping abreast of changes in portraiture 
Composite portraits
Introduction 
   Composite and combination prints: Portraits 
Emotions
Types of emotion 
   Emotions *** 
   Emotions: Alienation *** 
   Emotions: Fear and shock *** 
   Emotions: Frustration *** 
   Emotions: Fun and laughter *** 
   Emotions: Joy *** 
   Emotions: Loss *** 
   Emotions: Love and lust *** 
   Emotions: Maternal *** 
   Emotions: Shame and humiliation *** 
Case studies 
   Robert Demachy: Struggle 
   Dorothea Lange: The Migrant Mother 
   Robert Doisneau: Un regard oblique - variants 
   Heinrich Hoffmann: Portraits of Adolf Hitler 
   A question of emotional interpretation: People of Cheb salute the German troops entering the town in the Anschluss of the Sudetenland (October 1938) 
   The Holocaust in progress *** 
   Robert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944) 
   David Moore: Migrant Woman (1966) 
   Kevin Bubriski: Pilgrimage: Looking At Ground Zero (2001) *** 
Research on emotions 
   Dr Guillaume-Amant Duchenne de Boulogne and Adrien Tournachon: Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse électrophysiologique des passions (1876) 
   Oscar Gustave Rejlander: The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (London, 1872). 
Group portraits
Examples 
   Group portraits 
Military formations 
   Mole & Thomas: Symbols of American pride 
Case studies 
   Billy Bowlegs 
   William Notman: Photomontages 
Occupations and roles
Introduction 
   Introduction to occupationals 
Occupationals using different techiques 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles of women 
   Carte de visites: Occupations and roles 
   William Carrick: Russian occupationals 
   J. Monstein: Russian types 
   Tintypes: Occupationals 
   Cabinet cards: Occupations and roles *** 
Case studies of specific occupations 
   Turkey: Porters *** 
   Street vendors *** 
   Postmen and mail carriers *** 
   Bootblacks and shoeshines 
   Water carriers 
   Samurai 
   Geishas 
   Courtesans 
Actors
Introduction 
   Introduction to actors 
Techniques and processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Actors 
   Ambrotypes: Actors *** 
   Albumen prints: Actors 
   Carte de visites: Actors 
   Cabinet cards: Actors *** 
   Gelatin silver prints: Actors *** 
Photographers 
   Benjamin J. Falk: Actors *** 
   Sarony: Actors 
   Thomas Houseworth: Houseworth's Celebrities 
   Arsene Houssaye: La Comedie Francaise (1880) *** 
   Frank C. Bangs: Portraits of Elizabeth Brice *** 
   Benjamin Strauss and Homer Peyton: Celebrity portraits 
   Ross Verlag: Publisher of real photographic postcards 
   Eli Lotar: Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique (1930) 
   George Hurrell: Actors *** 
   Clarence Sinclair Bull: Actors *** 
Publications 
   The Saturday Programme and Sketch Book *** 
   Lock and Whitfield (attributed): The Theatre (1877-1897) *** 
   Vanity Fair 
Souvenirs 
   Erinnerung an Oberammergau 1890 (Souvenir of Oberammergau 1890) 
Studio portraits 
   Actors and film studio photographers 
   Actors *** 
Artists
Original sources 
   The encounters between the London Daguerreotypist John Jabez Mayall and the artist John Turner (1847-1849) 
Artists at work 
   Artists at work 
Victorian artists 
   David Wilkie Wynfield: Portraits of Victorian painters and illustrators 
Studies of individual artists 
   Salvador Dali 
   Nickolas Muray: Frida Kahlo 
   Alfred Stieglitz: Georgia O'Keefe 
Series on artists 
   Photographers who have taken portrait series on artists 
Techniques and processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Artists *** 
   Albumen prints: Artists *** 
   Carte de visites: Artists *** 
Athletes
Examples 
   Portraits of athletes *** 
The study of motion 
   Studying the motion of athletes *** 
Each sport is distinct 
   Photographers for different sports 
Photographers 
   Jacques-Henri Lartigue: Sports and pastimes 
   Leni Riefenstahl: Athletes *** 
Authors, playwrights and poets
Examples 
   Authors 
   Poets *** 
Celebrated writers 
   Alfred Tennyson 
   Julia Margaret Cameron: Alfred Lord Tennyson "The Dirty Monk" (1865) 
   Washington Irving *** 
   Charles Dickens 
   Victor Hugo *** 
Celebrities
Introduction 
   Celebrity portrait photographers 
Techniques and processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Celebrities 
   Carte de visites: Celebrities 
   Cabinet cards: Celebrities 
Celebrities of their age 
   Mathew Brady's Studio photographs of Jenny Lind 
   Robert Howelett: Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1857) 
   Charles Darwin 
   Samuel Morse *** 
   Giuseppe Garibaldi 
Galleries of celebrities 
   Franz Hanfstaengl: Portraits 
   Ernest Edwards: Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science and Art, with Biographical Memoirs (1863) 
   Thomas Houseworth: Houseworth's Celebrities 
   Thompson Cooper, Lock & Whitfield: Men of Mark (1876-1883) 
   Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique 
   Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique 
   Paris-Theatre / Paris-Portrait 
   Herbert Rose Barraud: Portraits 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: Men of Mark (1913) 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: More Men of Mark (1922) 
Photographers 
   Benjamin Strauss and Homer Peyton: Celebrity portraits 
Masters of the celebrity 
   Yousuf Karsh: Portraits 
   Andy Warhol: Portraits and appropriation 
   Annie Leibovitz: Portraits 
   Martin Schoeller: Portraits 
Photographers become celebrities 
   Celebrity photographers who became celebrities 
Circus performers and workers
Introduction 
   Clowns *** 
X-rays 
   X-rays of performers *** 
Photographers 
   Chas Eisenmann: Sideshow performers, living museums and circus acts *** 
   Frank Wendt: Sideshow performers, living museums and circus acts 
Dancers
Examples 
   Dancers 
Photographers 
   Kassian Cephas: In Den Kedaton te Jogjakarta 
   Robert Demachy: Behind the scenes - Dancers *** 
   Minya Diez-Duhrkoop: Dance masks by Lavinia Schulz (1924) *** 
   Alfred Eisenstaedt: Ballet *** 
   Alexey Brodovitch: Ballet (1945) 
Dancers 
   Martha Graham *** 
Military
Introduction 
   Introduction to military portraits 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Military *** 
   Illustrations based on Daguerreotypes: Military *** 
   Letter from W.L. Marcy, Secretary of War, to Major General Z. Taylor, Commanding Army of Occupation, Monterey, Mexico (5 October 1846) 
   Richard Beard: British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848) 
   Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
Ambrotypes 
   Ambrotypes: Military *** 
Carte de visites 
   Carte de visites: Military 
Cabinet cards 
   Cabinet cards: Military 
Crimean War (1854-1856) 
   An anonymous soldier during the Crimean War (1854-1856) 
   Roger Fenton: Crimean War (1854-1856) - Officers and men 
   Cundall & Howlett: Crimean Heroes 
   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Hodson's Horse 
Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871) 
   Giuseppe Garibaldi 
American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Reasons for the popularity of the tintype during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Portraits in brass bezels *** 
   Commanders and officers of the American Civil War (1861-1865) *** 
   Soldiers of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Photograph albums 
   Major General Henry Barnum 
   Private George Lemon 
The French Army 
   Louise Lafton (photographer) / Alexis Godillot (manufacturer): Album Photographique des Uniformes de L'Armées Françaises (1866) *** 
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
   Soldiers during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) *** 
Persia (Iran) 
   Persian soldiers *** 
Japan 
   Samurai 
Massed military units 
   Mole & Thomas: Symbols of American pride 
Documentation of the military 
   U.S. Navy Flight School: Pilots *** 
Contemporary military 
   Ellen Susan: Soldier Portraits 
Night vision 
   Night vision portraits *** 
Musicians
Introduction 
   Introduction to Musicians 
   Italian street musicians 
   Photographers specializing in musical genres 
   Portraits of musicians *** 
   Musical events 
Photographers 
   Art Kane: The Great Jazz Musicians 
Musicians with their instruments 
   Violinists and fiddlers *** 
   Stringed instruments *** 
   Wind instruments *** 
   Pianos *** 
   Accordions, harmoniums, melodeons and concertinas *** 
   Barrel organs *** 
   Guitars *** 
   Harps *** 
   Organs *** 
Opera singers
Opera singers 
   Adelina Patti (1843-1919) *** 
   Marie Roze (1846-1926) *** 
   Christine Nilsson (1843-1921) *** 
   Max Alvary (1856-1898) *** 
   Georg Anthes (1863-1922) *** 
   Heinrich Vogl (1845-1900) *** 
Photographers 
   Fritz Luckhardt: Opera singers 
Performances 
   Erinnerung an Oberammergau 1890 (Souvenir of Oberammergau 1890) 
Photographers
Self portraits 
   The first photographic self portrait? 
   Hippolyte Bayard: Self portrait as a drowned man (1840) 
   Self portraits of photographers 
Shadows of photographers 
   The photographer as a shadow participant 
Art that includes photographers 
   How artists have portrayed lanternists, photographers and photography 
People taking photographs 
   Illustrations of people taking photographs 
   Photographs of people taking photographs 
Socializing 
   Camera clubs and get-togethers of photographers *** 
Photographers photograph photographers 
   Bill Jay: Photographers 
   Yousuf Karsh: Portraits of photographers *** 
   Mike Mandel: World of American Photography Baseball Cards 
   Kurt Edward Fishback: Portraits of the American Photographic Community *** 
   René de Carufel: The Photographer’s Eye 
   Tim Mantoani: Polaroids of photographers *** 
Politicians
Introduction 
   Introduction to politicians 
Photography and politicians in the nineteenth century 
   Daguerreotypes: Politicians 
   The Henry Clay case 
   Carte de visites: Politicians 
   Cabinet cards: Politicians *** 
Abraham Lincoln 
   Abraham Lincoln: A photographic legacy 
Giuseppe Garibaldi 
   Giuseppe Garibaldi 
Adolf Hitler and the use of propaganda 
   The photographic portrayal of Adolf Hitler 
   Heinrich Hoffmann: Portraits of Adolf Hitler 
   Adolf Hitler - Nazi propaganda series 
   Heinrich Hoffmann (Editor) & Josef Bürckel (Foreword): Hitler holt die Saar heim (1938) 
Winston Churchill 
   Winston Churchill - Wanted for incitement to Murder 
More recent politicians 
   Portraits of politicians (1940-1970) *** 
   Donald Trump 
Political promotional items and memorabilia 
   Photo-jewelry: Political 
   Paperweights showing President McKinley *** 
Conclusions 
   Concluding thoughts on politicians 
Royalty
Introduction 
   Introduction to the portraiture of royalty 
   Royalty and Photography in Europe, An Introduction 
   Cabinet cards: Royalty *** 
British Royal Family 
   Carte de visites: British royalty 
   Queen Victoria 
   Henry Hering - Alfred Reeves: Photograph. The Kings and Queens of England 
   Portrait: Royalty: Suvenir of the Royal Visit to India (1876) 
   Royal support for industry, the arts and photography in Victorian Britain *** 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
   Dejatch Alamayou 
Royal dynasties 
   The French royal family 
   Carte de visites: French royalty *** 
   François Aubert: The execution of Emperor Maximilian 
   The German royal family 
   The Russian Royal Family *** 
   Robinson & Roi: The Famous Glass Dress - Royal Robe of Princess Eulalia 
   Carneiro & Gaspar - painted by J. Courtois: Empress Teresa Cristina and Pedro II of Brazil 
   Royal family of Persia 
   Portrait: Royalty: The ruling class of the Indian subcontinent 
   Lala Deen Dayal: Sorabji Jehangir - Princes and Chiefs of India (1903) *** 
   Royal family of Burma *** 
   The Royal Family of Siam 
   John Thomson: Royal family of Siam 
   Felice Beato: Prince Kung / Prince Gong Qinwang of China 
   Woodbury and Page: Ruling families of Southeast Asia *** 
   Royal family of Japan 
   Royal family of Hawaii *** 
   Royal family of Tahiti *** 
   Chief Cakobau of Bau, the self-proclaimed King of Fiji 
Perspectives on royalty 
   Different perspectives on royalty *** 
Royal patronage of photographic studios 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Royal patronage 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Royal patronage 
Scientists and innovators
Introduction 
   Introduction to scientists *** 
Scientists of the nineteenth century 
   Charles Darwin 
   Louis Agassiz *** 
   Samuel Morse *** 
   Martin Hans Boyè 
   Paul Nadar: Interview with Michel-Eugène Chevreul (8 September 1886) 
Parts of the body
Introduction 
   Portraiture of parts of the body 
   Portraits using just a part of the body *** 
   Bust portraits 
Photographers 
   John Coplans: Self portraits *** 
   David Goldblatt: Particulars *** 
   Mark Cohen: The partial human *** 
   Count Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet 
Arms
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Arms *** 
Back
Introduction 
   Portrait: Parts of the body: Back: Single person *** 
Case studies 
   The scourged back 
   Portrait: Parts of the body: Back: Groups *** 
Front and back views 
   Front and back view portraits 
Breasts
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Breasts *** 
Ears
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Ears *** 
Eyes
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Eyes 
Photographers 
   William H. Bell: Unidentified man with ptosis (drooping of an eyelid) *** 
   Karl Wessely: Eye conditions and injuries (1931) 
   György Kepes: Photomontages of eyes *** 
   Bill Brandt: Eyes *** 
Feet
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Feet 
Photographers 
   Count Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet 
Hair
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Hair *** 
Personalities 
   Sutherland sisters 
   Underwood & Underwood: Faith, Hope & Charity (1903) *** 
Photographers 
   Dora Maar: Mannequins *** 
   J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere: Nigerian hairstyles 
Hands
Helpings hands 
   The "helping hand", "hidden mother" and "hidden father" portraits 
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Hands 
X-rays 
   X-rays of the hand 
Photographers 
   Southworth and Hawes: The Branded Hand of Captain Jonathan Walker 
   Imogen Cunningham: Hands *** 
   Rena Small: Artist's Hands *** 
Legs
Introduction 
   Parts of the body: Legs *** 
Photographers 
   Count Theodore Zichy: The fetishism of legs and feet 
   Lisette Model: Running legs *** 
Skeletons
Examples 
   Parts of the body: Skeletons *** 
   Parts of the body: Skulls 
Skulls
Examples 
   Parts of the body: Skulls 
Torsos
Examples 
   Parts of the body: Torsos *** 
Alternate personalities and questioning identity
Introduction 
   Introduction to alternate personalities 
   Early examinations of the variety of self 
Photographers 
   Louis Pierson: Countess of Castiglione 
   Helmar Lerski: Portraits 
   Samuel Fosso: Self portraits 
   Lucas Samaras: Unpentant Ego / Photo-transformations 
   Cindy Sherman: Untitled Film Stills 
   Gillian Wearing: Album (2003) 
   Nikki S. Lee: Projects 
   Rafael Goldchain: Familial Ground 
Contemporary examinations 
   Contemporary examinations using alternate personalities 
Concealment with masks and veils
Masks 
   Fashion: Accessories: Masks 
   Fashion: Accessories: Gas masks 
Veils 
   Fashion: Accessories: Niqabs and veils *** 
Photographers 
   Minya Diez-Duhrkoop: Dance masks by Lavinia Schulz (1924) *** 
   Inge Morath: Saul Steinberg Masks *** 
   Ralph Eugene Meatyard: The Family Album of Lucybelle Crater 
Identity documents and badges
Passports 
   A daguerreotypist of Paris has proposed... (1852-1853) 
Passes 
   Photographic passes for international exhibitions 
Identity cards 
   Introduction to identity cards *** 
   Najaf Shokri: Iran Dokht 
Identity badges 
   Identity badges *** 
The need for mugshots 
   Science a Preservative from Crime (1853) 
   Bristol City and County Goal, Great Britain (1853) 
   Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee on Prison Discipline - J.A. Gardner, Bristol Goal (1863) 
Mugshots 
   Thomas Byrnes: Professional Criminals of America (1886) 
   Prison records and ledgers *** 
   Prisoners brought before the North Shields Police Court between 1902 and 1916 *** 
   New South Wales. Police Dept. *** 
Intimate relationships
Introduction 
   Introduction to intimate relationships 
Photographers 
   Nan Goldin: The Ballad of Sexual Dependency (1986) 
   Donna Ferrato: Living with the Enemy 
   Richard Billingham: Ray and Liz 
   Larry Sultan: Pictures from Home 
   Sally Mann: Immediate Family 
Representations of people
Introduction 
   Mannequins and dress forms 
Photographers 
   Hans Bellmer: La Poupée 
   Dora Maar: Mannequins *** 
   Louis Stettner: Human Mannequin Series *** 
Self-portraits
Early self-portraits 
   The first photographic self portrait? 
   Hippolyte Bayard: Self portrait as a drowned man (1840) 
Self-portraits of photographers 
   Self portraits of photographers 
   André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: Self portraits *** 
Photographers who concentrate on themselves 
   Cindy Sherman: Untitled Film Stills 
   Francesca Woodman: Self Portraits *** 
   Gillian Wearing: Album (2003) 
   Lucas Samaras: Unpentant Ego / Photo-transformations 
   Nikki S. Lee: Projects 
   Samuel Fosso: Self portraits 
   Rafael Goldchain: Familial Ground 
   Annu Palakunnathu Matthew: An Indian from India 
   John Coplans: Self portraits *** 
   Clarisse d'Arcimoles: Forget Nostalgia - A Little Theatre of Self (2012) *** 
Vernacular self-portraits 
   Photobooth portraits 
   Lee Godie: Photobooth self-portraits *** 
Contemporary self-portraits 
   Introduction to Selfies 
Social outsiders
Introduction 
   Introduction to the portraiture of social outsiders 
   Documentary studies on social outsiders 
Minorities 
   Introduction to the photography of ethnic groups and minorities 
   Native Americans 
   Gypsies 
Sideshow performers 
   Sideshow performers, living museums and circus acts 
   Thoughts of the portraiture of ethnic groups 
Illness 
   The private world of illness 
Mental health 
   Insane asylum patients (1870s) 
Economic status 
   Beggers 
Criminality 
   Wanted criminals 
Photographers 
   Hugh Welch Diamond: Patients at Surrey County Asylum (ca. 1855) 
   James Crichton-Browne: West Riding Lunatic Asylum, Wakefield, Yorkshire, Great Britain 
   Albert Londe: Female patients with mental illness 
   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
   Danny Lyon: The Bikeriders (1968) 
   Danny Lyon: Conversations with the Dead (1971) 
   Diane Arbus: Book covers 
   Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers 
Twins
Introduction 
   Twins and triplets *** 
   Conjoined twins *** 
Photographers 
   Albrecht Tübke: Twins *** 
Scientific
Introduction 
   Introduction to scientific photography 
   Introduction to scientific laboratories *** 
Science and photographic processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Scientific 
   Albumen prints: Scientific 
   Stereoviews: Scientific 
   Gelatin silver prints: Science 
   Autochromes: Scientific 
Contemporary examples 
   Contemporary scientific imagery 
Themes 
   Anthropology 
   Nineteenth century botany 
   Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays 
Worlds fairs and international exhibitions 
   The relationships between science and the World Fairs and International Exhibitions 
Field books 
   Smithsonian Field Book Project 
Photographs that include data 
   Photographs that include data *** 
Photographers 
   Berenice Abbott: Science 
   Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee 
Science and religion 
   Evolution and the Biblical flood 
Questioning science 
   Joan Fontcuberta: Fabricated sciences and alternative histories 
Anthropology and ethnology
Introduction 
   Anthropology 
   Introduction to human zoos 
   Alphonse Bertillon: Identification Anthropometrique, Instructions Signaletiques (1893) 
Daguerreotypes and the conception of race 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish 
Peoples of the world 
   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
   Lorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies 
   Charles Guillain: Voyage a la Côte Orientale d’Afrique (1856) 
   Lallemand and Hart: Galerie Universelle des Peuples - Alsace (1865) 
   Philippe Potteau: Ethnographic portraits 
   J. Monstein: Russian types 
   William Carrick: Russian occupationals 
   Paul-Émile Miot: Mik'maq (Micmac) 
   William Johnson & William Henderson: The Oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay (published 1863-1866) 
   J. Forbes Watson & John William Kaye (eds.): The People of India (1868-1872) 
   Albert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
   Lotten von Düben: Anthropological studies of Lapland (1868) 
   Prince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
   Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
   Gustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
   Daniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879) 
   C. Nieuwenhuis: Sumatra *** 
   William Henry Jackson: Portraits of American Indians (1876) 
   Elias A. Bonine: Native Americans 
   Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
   Edward S. Curtis: The North American Indian 
   Edward S. Curtis: Orotones 
   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
   Charles Kroehle: Campa-Indians, Rio Chuchuras, East Peru (1880s) 
   Charles-Albert Arnoux Bertall: Ethnological studies 
   Maurice Vidal Portman: Andamanese 
   Carl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s) 
   Tanner Brothers: Maori Studies 
   Edouard Foà: Africa 
   Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin: The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954) 
Studies of occupational types and "tipos" 
   Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil) 
   James Gall: Souvenir of Jamaica 
   Courret Hermanos: Tipos (Bolivia) *** 
   François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
Compilations of ethographic portraits 
   C. & F.W. Dammann: Ethnological Photographic Gallery of the Various Races of Men (1875) 
Scandal 
   King Billy - A scandal in Tasmania 
Ethnographic nudity 
   Ethnographic nudity 
   U.S. Navy Flight School: Pilots *** 
Merging of populations through immigration 
   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
The continuation of tipos? 
   August Sander (1876-1964) 
   Irving Penn: People of the world *** 
   William Coupon: People of the world *** 
   Phyllis Galembo: West African Masquerade 
Ethnic and traditional costumes
Photographic types 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic 
   Japanese ambrotypes 
   Albumen prints: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
   Carte de visites: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
   Cabinet cards: Ethnic and traditional costumes *** 
   Postcards: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
Groups 
   Icons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910) 
   Ethnic and traditional clothing from Astrakhan 
Photographers 
   Elias A. Bonine: Native Americans 
   Knud Knudsen: Norwegian folk costumes *** 
   Marcus Selmer: Norwegian costumes (ca. 1857-1870) 
   Solveig Lund: Norwegian folk costumes 
   William J. Johnson: Photographs of Western India. Volume I. Costumes and Characters (ca. 1855-1862) *** 
   Alexander Landau: Ethnic and traditional clothing from Bosnia Herzegovina 
   Stjepan Tomlinovic: Ethnic and traditional clothing from Bosnia Herzegovina and Croatia 
   Torvald Mitreiter: Eastern European clothing (ca. 1860s-1870s) *** 
   Pascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 
   Emilio Biel & Ca.: Album de Phototypico Vistas e Costumes do Norte de Portugal (ca. 1900) *** 
   Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
   Rudolf Koppitz: Peasants *** 
Ethnographic nudity
Introduction 
   Ethnographic nudity 
Tipos
Studies of occupational types and "tipos" 
   Christiano Júnior: Tipos (Brazil) 
   Courret Hermanos: Tipos (Bolivia) *** 
   François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
   Merille: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
   Cruces & Campa: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
Photographers 
   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
Archaeology
Introduction 
   Introduction to archaeological photography 
Traveling through the Ancient and Classical World 
   Photographers on the Grand Tour 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers 
   Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: The Ancient and Classical World 
   Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes : vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (1842) 
   Louis de Clercq: Voyage en Orient (1860) 
   Duc de Luynes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain (1868-74) 
Asia 
   Adolph Schaefer: The Buddhist monument at Borobudur in Central Java, Indonesia (1844-1845) 
   Luigi Pesce: Archaeological sites of Persia (1850s) 
   The excavations of Victor Place at Khorsabad, Iraq (1850s) 
   Richard Banner Oakeley: The Pagoda of Hallibeed (1859) 
   Pierre Tremaux: Exploration archéologique en Asie Mineure (1862-ca.1868) 
   Émile Gsell: Cambodia: Angkor 
   John Thomson: Cambodia: Angkor Thom / Angkor Wat (1866) 
   John Thomson: The Antiquites of Cambodia (1867) 
   Edmund David Lyon: Indian architecture (1860s-1860s) 
   John Henry Ravenshaw: Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions (1878) 
   Thomas Biggs: Architecture at Ahmedabad, the Capital of Goozerat (1866) 
   Lala Deen Dayal: Photographs for Sir Lepel Griffin "Famous Monuments of Central India" (1886) 
   Turkestan Album: Archaeology in Central Asia (1871-1872) 
Central America 
   John L. Stephens: Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (1843) 
   Désiré Charnay: Cités et Ruines Americaines. Atlas (1863) 
   Désiré Charnay: Mexico: Uxmal 
   Désiré Charnay: Mexico: Mitla 
   Désiré Charnay: Mexico: Chichen-Itza 
   Dr. Augustus and Alice Le Plongeon: Archaeological research in Mexico (1870s) 
   Alfred Percival Maudslay: Mexico: Chiapas: Palenque 
North America 
   Thomas Easterly: The Destruction of Big Mound (1853-1854) 
   Massachusetts: Dighton Rock 
Chile 
   HMS Topaze and Easter Island, Chile (1868) 
Peru 
   Martin Chambi: Peru - Macchu Picchu 
Italy - Rome 
   Italy: Rome: The Colosseum 
   Italy: Rome: Arch of Constantine 
   Italy: Rome: Forum Romanum 
   Italy: Rome: Forum Traiani 
   Robert Macpherson: The monuments of Rome 
   Robert Macpherson: The statues of Rome 
   John Henry Parker: Recent Excavations in Rome: Made in 1868 
Italy - Pompeii 
   Italy: Pompeii 
   John Shaw Smith: Pompeii 
   Thomas H. Dyer: The Ruins of Pompeii. A Series of Eighteen Photographic Views (1867) 
   Giorgio Sommer: Pompeii 
   Auguste Lesouëf - Pompeii (1880) 
Greece 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Parthenon 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Erechtheion 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Propylaia 
   Greece: Athens: Temple of Olympian Zeus (Olympieion) 
   Dmitri Constantine: Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens 
France 
   Mission Héliographique 
England 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: Illustrations of Roman mosaics assisted by Talbotype copying and reduction (1850) 
   England: Stonehenge 
   Henry James: Stonehenge 
Egypt - Archaeological sites 
   Egypt: The Pyramids 
   Egypt: Climbing the Pyramids 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Lantern slides and other photographs of Egypt 
   Egypt: The Sphinx 
   Egypt: Pyramid of Djoser (Zoser), Sakkarah (Saqqara) 
   Egypt: Colossi of Memnon 
   Egypt: Dendara 
   Egypt: Edfou 
   Egypt: Karnak 
   Egypt: Kom Ombo 
   Egypt: Luxor 
   Egypt: Philae 
   Egypt: Thebes 
   Egypt: Thebes: Medinet Habu - Medinet Haboo (Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III) 
   Egypt: Valley of the Kings 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia 
   William de Wiveleslie Abney: Thebes and its Five Greater Temples (1876) 
   H. Béchard: The Pyramids 
   The Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907) 
   Photographing in the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel (1906) 
   Photographing the Temple of Amun and Amunhotep III at Soleb (1907) 
   Charles Jacquin (French): Autochromes of Egyptian archaeological sites (ca 1912) *** 
Egypt - Archaeological finds 
   Egypt: Wall art, bas-relief, hieroglyphics and graffiti 
   Egypt: Cleopatra's Needle 
Egypt - Use of magnesium light 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Use of magnesium light at the Great Pyramid (1865) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Photography, Magnesium, and the Pyramid (1865) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: As soon as it was discovered that photography was possible by magnesium... (1865) 
Israel and Palestine / The Holy Land 
   George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
   Auguste Salzmann: Jerusalem 
   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
   American Palestine Exploration Society 
   Palestine Exploration Fund 
Archaeological excavations 
   Archaeological excavations in progress 
Archaeological finds and museum displays 
   Introduction to archaeological finds 
   Délié & Béchard: Album du Musée Boulaq 
   Emil Brugsch: La Trouvaille de Deir-El-Bahari 
   Roger Fenton: The British Museum 
   Stephen Thompson: British Museum 
   Giorgio Sommer: The ash-covered remains from Pompeii 
   John Edward Lee: Roman Imperial Photographs being a selection of forty enlarged Photographs of Roman Coins (1874) 
Conclusions 
   Conclusions on archaeology 
Astronomy
Introduction 
   Introduction to astronomy 
   Rapid progress during the nineteenth century in astronomical photography 
   Early examples of astronomical photography *** 
Telescopes and astronomical instruments 
   Mary Rosse: Lord Rosse's telescope at Birr Castle, Ireland (ca. 1857) 
   Thomas Child: China: Pekin: Observatory (ca. 1875-1880) *** 
Early astronomical photography 
   J.A. Whipple: Daguerreotypes of the Sun and Moon (1852) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857) 
   Warren De la Rue: The Moon 
   Ernest Mouchez: La Photographie astronomique a l'observatoire de Paris et la Carte du Ciel (1887) *** 
Tranisit of Venus 
   Transit of Venus 
   William de Wiveleslie Abney: Transit of Venus (1874) *** 
Celestial bodies 
   The Moon 
   The Sun *** 
   Solar eclipses 
   Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen: Studies of the Solar Surface *** 
   Appearances of the Total Eclipse of the Sun (1842) 
   J.B. Silvis provides the services of his photographic car to assist the photographing of a solar eclipse (1878) 
   Home planet *** 
   The earth from afar *** 
Photographers 
   David Malin: Anglo-Australian Observatory 
Contemporary 
   Contemporary astronomy 
   iBook application: Atlas photographique de la Lune (2013) 
Transit of Venus
Introduction 
   Transit of Venus 
Expeditions 
   German Transit of Venus Expedition, Terror Cove, Auckland Islands (1874-1875) *** 
   William de Wiveleslie Abney: Transit of Venus (1874) *** 
   Brazilian Astronomical Commission: Transit of Venus album (6 December 1882) *** 
Botany
19th century botany 
   Nineteenth century botany 
   Photomicrographs of botany 
Flowers 
   Flowers 
Ferns 
   Ferns *** 
Photographers 
   Anna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) 
   Anna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Botany 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Bertoloni Album 
   Constantin v. Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny: Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum (1855-1856) 
   Cecilia Louisa Glaisher: Ferns (ca. 1850-1858) 
   Louis Godefroy Lucy-Fossarieu: Jardin Zoologique & Botanique D'Acclimtatation du Bois de Boulogne (ca. 1860) 
   Eugène Charles de Gayffier: Herbier Forestier de la France (1867) 
   Charles Hippolyte Aubry: Botanical and flower studies 
   Adolphe Braun: Flower studies 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
   Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) 
   Karl Blossfeldt: Books *** 
   Karl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
X-rays 
   Professor Albert Richards: X-rays of Flowers 
Expeditions and exploration
Introduction 
   Introduction to nineteenth century scientific expeditions 
   Expeditionary Art: An Appraisal 
   Surveying 
Canada 
   Humphrey Lloyd Hime: Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition (1857-1858) 
   Charles Horetzky: Surveyor and photographer of British Columbia *** 
   Joseph Burr Tyrrell: Expedition to the barren lands (1893) 
Canada / USA 
   Northwest Boundary Survey (1857-1862) / British North American Boundary Commission 
USA 
   Landscape surveys of the American West 
   William Henry Jackson: Equipment required for wet-plate photography (1869) 
   Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Clarence King (1867-1869) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: The sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev. 
   U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869) 
   Survey west of the 100th Parallel - George Montague Wheeler (1869-1879) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) 
   River explorations - John Wesley Powell (1869-1872) 
   Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
Mexico 
   John L. Stephens: Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (1843) 
   Désiré Charnay: Cités et Ruines Americaines. Atlas (1863) 
   Dr. Augustus and Alice Le Plongeon: Archaeological research in Mexico (1870s) 
   Alfred Percival Maudslay: Mexico: Chiapas: Palenque 
Panama 
   John Moran: Darien Expedition (1871) 
South America 
   HMS Topaze and Easter Island, Chile (1868) 
   Albert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
   Jean Chaffanjon: The Venezuelan Amazon 
   George Miller Dyott: Expeditions in Amazonia 
Asia 
   Eliphant Brown: Daguerreotypist on Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s) 
   Luigi Montabone: Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana (1862) 
   Adolf-Nikolay Erazmovich Boiarski: Russian Scientific-Commercial Expedition to China (1874-1875) 
   Émile Gsell: Cambodia: Angkor 
   Captain Edward Francis Chapman: Photographs of Yarkand and Kashgar (1873-1874) 
   Daniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879) 
   Yvette Borup Andrews: Across Mongolian plains (1921) *** 
   Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews: A Narrative of Exploration, Adventure, and Sport in Little Known China (1918) 
Oceania 
   Bruno L. Hamel: An Album of Photographic Views (1859) 
   German Transit of Venus Expedition, Terror Cove, Auckland Islands (1874-1875) *** 
   John William Lindt: Picturesque New Guinea (1887) 
   Elder Scientific Exploring Expedition (1891-1892) 
Middle East 
   Palestine Exploration Fund 
   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
   American Palestine Exploration Society 
   Louis de Clercq: Voyage en Orient (1860) 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
   Duc de Luynes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain (1868-74) 
Nubia (South Egypt / Northern Sudan) 
   The Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907) 
   Photographing in the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel (1906) 
   Photographing the Temple of Amun and Amunhotep III at Soleb (1907) 
Africa 
   Expeditions within Africa 
   Charles Guillain: Voyage a la Côte Orientale d’Afrique (1856) 
   James Chapman: Chapman Expedition in South Africa (1862-1864) 
   Royal Geographical Society Expedition: Nyassa 
   Edouard Foà: Africa 
Europe 
   Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s) 
   Josef Székely: Austro-Hungarian expedition to northern Albania, Kosova and Macedonia (1863) 
   Sten Bergman Expedition to Iceland (1909) *** 
Arctic 
   Richard Beard: British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848) 
   Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
   Captain Edward Augustus Inglefield: Inglefield Expedition (1850s) 
   William Bradford, John Dunmore and George Critcherson: The Arctic Regions (1873) 
   Thomas Mitchell: The British Arctic Expedition (1875-1876) 
   Richard Basso: Graf Wilczek'sche Polar-Expedition (1882-1883) *** 
   The Greely Arctic Exploring Expedition (1881-1884) 
   Prince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
   Fridtjof Nansen: First crossing of Greenland (1888) 
   Nils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897) 
   Umberto Nobile expedition to the North Pole with the airship Italia (1928) 
Antarctica 
   Letter from John Herschel to Daguerre (1 August 1939) 
   Roald Amundsen: Amundsen's South Pole expedition (1910-1912) 
   Herbert Ponting: British Antarctic Expedition - Scott - Terra Nova (1910-1913) 
   Frank Hurley: Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1913) 
   Frank Hurley: Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917) 
Pack animals 
   Pack animals - mules, donkeys, burros and horses 
   L.A. Huffman: The Rage of Huffman and the Calmness of Nig (1883) 
Dark tents and dark boxes 
   Contemporary accounts of nineteenth century dark tents 
   Dark tents and dark boxes *** 
   Carleton E. Watkins (uncertain): #925 Spring Valley Water Works 
   William Henry Jackson: Photographing in High Places 
   John Burke: Fixing the Negative 
National Geographic 
   National Geographic photographers on assignment 
Field note books 
   Smithsonian Field Book Project 
Around the world 
   The travels of Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia (1871-1872) 
Fiction and the reality of travel 
   Jules Verne: Around the World in Eighty Days - What would Phileas Fogg and Passepartout have seen in 1872? 
Expeditions and exploration in the twentieth century 
   Introduction to twentieth century scientific expeditions 
Space exploration 
   Space exploration 
Geology
Introduction 
   Introduction to geology and mineralogy 
Photography and geological change 
   Charles Lyell on Niagara Falls (1845) 
Volcanic eruptions 
   Volcanoes and volcanic eruptions *** 
   Alphonse Bernoud & Claude Grillet: Italy: Earthquake damage (1857-1858) 
   Giorgio Sommer: Eruption of Vesuvius (1872) 
   Giorgio Sommer: Pompeii 
   Giorgio Sommer: The ash-covered remains from Pompeii 
Geological features 
   Geysers *** 
   Glaciers 
   Fjords *** 
   Rock formations *** 
Locations 
   Utah: Devil's Slide 
   California: Yosemite Valley 
Photographers 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: Models of Extinct Animals (1855) 
   Richebourg: Carte geologique detaillee de la France, Feuille 48.- Paris (1879) 
   Charles Waldack: Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (1866) 
   Mandeville Thum: Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (1877) *** 
   Ben Hains: Views of Mammoth Cave and vicinity (1889) 
   Martin Kriz: Moravian Karst region - subterranean photography 
   Joseph Burr Tyrrell: Expedition to the barren lands (1893) 
Palaeontology and evolution 
   Evolution and the Biblical flood 
Medical
Introduction 
   Introduction to medical photography 
Photographers 
   Charles Nègre: Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859) 
   Nadar: Hermaphrodite 
   Dr Guillaume-Amant Duchenne de Boulogne and Adrien Tournachon: Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse électrophysiologique des passions (1876) 
   Dr. A. de Montmeja: Revue Photographique des Hopitaux de Paris (1869-?) 
   A. Hardy and A. de Montméja: Clinique Photographique de l'hopital Saint-Louis *** 
   A. Hardy and A. de Montméja: Clinique Photographique des Maladies de la Peau (1882) 
   Balmanno Squire: A Manual of the Diseases of the Skin (1862) *** 
   Edward Bierstadt: Photographic Illustrations Of Skin Diseases (1864) 
   George A. Otis: Photographs of Surgical Cases and Specimens (1867 or later) 
   R.B. Bontecou: Surgical injuries and their treatment during the American Civil War 
   William H. Bell: Medical injuries during the American Civil War 
   Photographic Review of Medicine and Surgery (1870-?) 
   Oscar Gustave Rejlander: The Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals (London, 1872). 
   Jules Bernard Luys: Les Emotions chez les sujets en état d'hypnotisme (1887) 
   George Henry Fox: Photographic Atlas of the Diseases of the Skin in Four Volumes (1905) 
   Lejaren à Hiller: Surgery through the Ages 
   Jean-Philippe Charbonnier: Psychiatric hospitals (1954) 
   W. Eugene Smith: Minamata 
   Pino Musi: _ 08 : 08 Operating Theatre *** 
Surgery 
   Early medical operations and surgery *** 
Medical conditions 
   Sideshow performers, living museums and circus acts 
   Conjoined twins *** 
   Ranger & Austen: Clairvoyant Medical Examinations - Buffum & Cleveland 
   Karl Wessely: Eye conditions and injuries (1931) 
Nurses 
   Florence Nightingale *** 
   Mary Seacole *** 
Patients 
   Major General Henry Barnum 
   Private George Lemon 
   Picturing disability 
X-rays 
   Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays 
   X-rays of the hand 
Medical imaging 
   Contemporary medical imaging 
   National Library of Medicine: Visible human project 
   Alexander Tsiaras: Books 
Hypnotism
Photographers 
   Jules Bernard Luys: Les Emotions chez les sujets en état d'hypnotisme (1887) 
   J. Luys: Leçons Cliniques sur les Principaux Phenomènes de l'Hypnotisme (1890) 
Mental health and psychiatry
Introduction 
   Introduction to mental health and psychiatry 
Photographers 
   Hugh Welch Diamond: Patients at Surrey County Asylum (ca. 1855) 
   The Physiognomy of Insanity, by Dr. Conolly. Photographs taken from Life. By Dr. Diamond (1858) 
   James Crichton-Browne: West Riding Lunatic Asylum, Wakefield, Yorkshire, Great Britain 
   Insane asylum patients (1870s) 
   Albert Londe: Female patients with mental illness 
   Désiré-Magloire Bourneville & Paul Régnard: Iconographie photographique de la Salpêtrière (1876-1880) *** 
   W. Eugene Smith: Man of Mercy (1954) 
   Jean-Philippe Charbonnier: Psychiatric hospitals (1954) 
   Diane Arbus: Book covers 
   Joy Christiansen: Family Gathering 
Movement and motion
Introduction to the study of movement and motion 
   Introduction to the study of movement and motion 
Introduction 
   Introduction to instantaneous photography 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Rendering moving objects motionless with an electrical spark (14 June 1851) 
   Metamorphic stereoviews - Épreuve a Mouvement *** 
Etienne Jules Marey 
   Etienne Jules Marey: Capturing static shots of movement 
   Etienne Jules Marey: Physiological Station at Paris 
Eadweard Muybridge 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Capturing static shots of movement 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Experimental establishments 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Animals in motion 
   Advert for J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
   Book review of J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
   Eadweard Muybridge: The Human Figure in Motion 
Significant people in the study of movement and motion 
   Thomas Eakins: Using motion studies for artistic accuracy 
   Ottomar Anschütz: The study of animal motion 
   Arthur Clive Banfield: Animal motion and the study of drops 
   A.M. Worthington: The study of drops 
   Anton Giulio Bragaglia (1890-1960) and Arturo Bragaglia (1893-1962) 
   Frank B. Gilbreth (1868-1924) and Lillian Gilbreth (1878-1972): Work study 
   Gjon Mili: Descending a staircase 
   Harold E. Edgerton: The use of microsecond flash and strobes 
Photo finish 
   Photo finish 
Movement, motion and fine art 
   Introduction to movement, motion and fine art 
   Clare Strand: Betterment Room - Devices For measuring Achievement (2005) *** 
Nuclear
Introduction 
   The Nuclear Age: Introduction 
Nuclear weapons 
   War: Atomic explosions: New Mexico, at the Alamogordo Test Range, first ever nuclear explosion *** 
   War: Atomic explosions: Destruction of test house *** 
   War: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima 
   War: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki 
   War: Atomic explosions: Examples *** 
Nuclear power 
   John Darwell: Legacy - Inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone 
Oceanography and underwater photography
Introduction 
   Introduction to underwater photography 
Oceanography 
   Introduction to oceanography 
   U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Woods Hole, Mass. - 1871 *** 
Divers 
   Divers *** 
Photographers 
   Louis Boutan: Underwater photography 
   Bruce Mozert (Mozert Studio): Underwater scenes at Silver Springs, Florida (1940s) *** 
   Donald Lawrence: Underwater pinhole cameras 
   James Fee: The Peleliu Project 
Palaeontology
Introduction 
   Palaeontology 
Expeditions 
   Bone Field on Talbot Hill, 10 miles from Canon City, Colo. 
Photographers 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: Models of Extinct Animals (1855) 
Photogrammetry
Introduction 
   Description of the Bridges-Lee New Patent Photo-Theodolite (1897 ca.) 
   Camera transit made by Fairchild (ca. 1946) *** 
Photographers 
   Albrecht Meydenbauer: Photogrammetry 
Photomicroscopy
Introduction to photomicroscopy 
   Introduction to photomicroscopy 
Photomicroscopists 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Photomicrographs *** 
   John William Draper: Photomicrographs *** 
   Adolphe Bertsch: Photomicrographs 
   Arthur E. Durham: Photomicrographs *** 
   Adolphe Neyt: Photomicrographs *** 
   Joseph Janvier Woodward: Photomicrographs 
   Otto Müller: Photomicrographs of plants *** 
   Arthur Wells Bawtree: Stereo photomicrographs (ca. 1870s-1880s) 
   René Patrice Proudhon Dagron: Photomicrographs, carrier-pigeons and the beseiged city of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
   Dr. Charles Forbes (1844-1917): Photomicrographs (ca. 1879) *** 
   Frederick H. Evans: Photomicrographs 
   Arthur E. Smith: Photomicrographs for Richard Kerr, "Nature Through Microscope and Camera" (1909) *** 
   Wilson A. Bentley: Photomicrographs of snowflakes 
   Richard Neuhauss: Photomicrographs of snowflakes *** 
   Laure Albin-Guillot (1879-1962): Micrographie Décorative 
   Alfred Ehrhardt: Photomicroscopy 
   Carl Strüwe: Photomicrographs 
Subjects for photomicroscopy 
   Photomicrographs of insects 
   Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee 
   Photomicrographs of botany 
Copying paintings and documents 
   Henry Hering - Alfred Reeves: Photograph. The Kings and Queens of England 
   W. & F. Langenheim: The Lord's Prayer *** 
Conclusions 
   Photomicroscopy and the quest for the ever smaller image 
Scientific experiments
Introduction 
   Introduction to scientific experiments 
   Automatic registration of instruments 
   Photographs that capture data *** 
Photographers 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857) 
   Dr Guillaume-Amant Duchenne de Boulogne and Adrien Tournachon: Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse électrophysiologique des passions (1876) 
   Jules Bernard Luys: Les Emotions chez les sujets en état d'hypnotisme (1887) 
   Etienne Jules Marey: Physiological Station at Paris 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Experimental establishments 
   Berenice Abbott: Science 
   Harold E. Edgerton: Night experiments at Stonehenge 
Experiments 
   Instantaneous photography - The exploding mule (6 June 1881) 
   War: Atomic explosions: Destruction of test house *** 
Test strips 
   Photographic test strips 
Stroboscopes and stroboscopy
Introduction 
   Stroboscopes and stroboscopy 
Henry Fox Talbot 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Rendering moving objects motionless with an electrical spark (14 June 1851) 
Harold E. Edgerton 
   Harold E. Edgerton: The use of microsecond flash and strobes 
   Harold E. Edgerton: Baton *** 
   Harold E. Edgerton: Bullets *** 
   Harold E. Edgerton: Milk drop *** 
   Harold E. Edgerton: Night experiments at Stonehenge 
X-rays
Early users of x-rays 
   Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen: X-rays 
   Eder & Valenta: Versuche über Photographie mittelst der Röntgen'schen Strahlen (1896) *** 
   Sir Arthur Schuster: X-rays *** 
Examples 
   X-rays of the hand 
   X-rays examples *** 
X-rays and art photography 
   Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Lucrecia - Classic Theme 
   Dain L. Tasker: X-rays of flowers *** 
   Professor Albert Richards: X-rays of Flowers 
   Sandra J. Raredon (NMNH): X-Rays of fish *** 
Spirit photography and paranormal manifestations
Introduction 
   Spirit photography 
   Sensitivity to photographs 
   Dreams and visions 
Notorious examples 
   William H. Mumler: Spirit photography 
   P.T. Barnum: Spiritual Photography (1866) 
   Abraham Lincoln as a returning spirit 
   William Hope: Spirit photography and séances *** 
   Richard Boursnell & J. Evans Sterling (London Spiritualists): Spirit photographs *** 
   Miss Houghton: Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye (1882) *** 
   Cottingley Fairies 
   Dr. Enrico Imoda: Fotografie di Fantasmi (1912) *** 
   Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Spiritualism 
   Thomas Glendenning Hamilton's Psychic Room in Winnipeg, Canada (1920-1922) 
Scientific experiments 
   Ranger & Austen: Clairvoyant Medical Examinations - Buffum & Cleveland 
Sports and pastimes
Examples 
   Fishing in the nineteenth century *** 
   Naturism and the sacred purity of the body *** 
   Coventry-rotary, Photo-tricycle, M.D. Rudge and Co. (Great Britain) *** 
Sports cards 
   Sports cards and cigarette cards 
Leisure and pastimes 
   Introduction to pastimes *** 
   Leisure 
   Leisure: Costume balls *** 
   Leisure: Cycling - Penny farthings, boneshakers and bicycles *** 
   Leisure: Fishing *** 
   Leisure: Needle crafts 
   Leisure: Playing cards 
   Leisure: Playing chess 
   Leisure: Playing games *** 
   Leisure: Reading 
Photographers 
   William James Topley: Hunting and fishing in Canada 
   Kurt Reichert: Naturism *** 
   Leni Riefenstahl: Athletes *** 
Sports
Introduction 
   Introduction to sports photography 
Examples 
   Sports and pastimes: Boxing 
   Sports and pastimes: Cricket *** 
   Diving *** 
   Sports and pastimes: Fencing *** 
   Sports and pastimes: Soccer *** 
   Harold E. Edgerton: Sports 
Photographers 
   Leni Riefenstahl: Athletes *** 
Still life
Introduction 
   Still life: Introduction 
   Still life: Understanding the term 
   Early still life photographs 
Techniques and processes 
   Daguerreotypes: Still life *** 
   Salt prints: Still life 
   Albumen prints: Still life 
   Carte de visites: Objects 
   Cabinet cards: Objects 
   Gelatin silver prints: Still life *** 
Pictorialism and the still life 
   Pictorialism: Still lifes *** 
Fruit and vegetables 
   Apples 
   Pears 
Objects 
   Still life: Chairs *** 
   Still life: Kitchen *** 
   Still life: Eggs 
   Still life: Glassware and cut crystal 
   Still life: Hung game *** 
   Still life: Textiles and lace 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Bust of Patroclus 
   Ludwig Belitski: Collection Minutoli (ca. 1854) 
   Juan Laurent: Arms and armour *** 
   Charles and Jane Clifford: Armour *** 
   Adolphe Braun: Flower studies 
   Roger Fenton: Still lifes 
   Emmanuel Sougez: Still lifes 
   Edward Weston: Shells 
   Edward Weston: Vegetables 
   Josef Sudek: Glasses and bread *** 
   Jan Groover: Still lifes *** 
   Olivia Parker: Still lifes 
   Marian Drew: Still Life - Australiana 
Bizarre still lifes
Introduction 
   Bizarre still lifes: Introduction 
   Bizarre still lifes 
Photographers 
   Giorgio Sommer: The ash-covered remains from Pompeii 
   Hans Bellmer: La Poupée 
Commercial still lifes
Introduction 
   Early product photography *** 
   Commercial still life 
Fine art still lifes
Introduction 
   Fine art still lifes 
   Fine art still life examples *** 
Photographers 
   Abelardo Morell: Books *** 
   Arthur Tress: The Teapot Opera *** 
Subject selection for still lifes
Introduction 
   Subject selection for still lifes 
Street
Introduction 
   Street photography 
   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
   Early street photography 
   Strolling the city streets *** 
   Different perspectives on nineteenth century street photography 
Changes in cameras 
   Camera developments and street photography 
   European Street photography of the 1920‘s and 1930‘s 
Photographers 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   Silas A. Holmes (attributed): New York (ca. 1855) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Early street photography in Russia (1859) 
   John Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China 
   John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist 
   John Thomson: Street Life in London 
   John Thomson: The Crawlers 
   Eugène Atget: Street photography 
   T.H. McAllister (American): Street life of New York (1898) *** 
   Paul Martin: Street photography 
   Victor Angerer: Instantaneous photography on the street (1888) 
   J.J. Clarke: The streets of Dublin 
   Edward Linley Sambourne: London streets (1900-1910) 
   Emil Mayer: Street photography 
   Roman Vishniac: Street photography 
   Arnold Genthe: Chinatown 
   Walker Evans: Street photography 
   Walker Evans: The subway portraits 
   Helen Levitt: Children of New York 
   Weegee: Street photography 
   Vivian Maier: Street photography 
   Saul Leiter: New York in colour 
   Robert Frank: The Americans 
   Robert Frank, 1958, "A Statement", U. S. Camera Annual, p. 115 
   Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places 
   Garry Winogrand: Women Are Beautiful (1975) 
   Joel Meyerowitz: Street photography 
   Ed Van der Elsken: Sweet Life (1966) 
   Frederick Wilfred: London (ca. 1960s) *** 
   William Klein: Books 
   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974) 
   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers? 
   Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers 
Voyeurism 
   Voyeurism 
Working on the street 
   Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
   Backgrounds: Street photographers *** 
   Afghan Box Camera Project *** 
   Everybody Street (director: Cheryl Dunn, 2013) 
Characters and occupational types
Occupations 
   Street characters and occupational types *** 
   Porters *** 
   Street vendors *** 
   Bootblacks and shoeshines 
   Water carriers 
Photographers 
   William Carrick: Russian occupationals 
   J. Monstein: Russian types 
   John Thomson: Street Life in London 
   Irving Penn: Small Trades 
Hidden cameras
Introduction 
   Voyeurism 
Photographers 
   Paul Martin: Street photography 
   Walker Evans: The subway portraits 
Events 
   The execution of Ruth Synder (1929) 
Street photographers
Introduction 
   Street photographers 
   Backgrounds: Street photographers *** 
Photographers 
   Jean-Philippe Charbonnier: The Biter Bit 
   Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
Afghan box cameras 
   Afghan Box Camera Project *** 
Street: Classic French examples
Introduction 
   The humanism of street photography in France 
   Classic French street photography 
Photographers 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Decisive Moment 
   André Kertész: Street photography in Paris 
   Robert Doisneau: Humanistic photography 
Street: Current trends
Introduction 
   Introduction to contemporary street photography 
Contemporary street photography 
   Travels and contemporary street photography 
   Contemporary street photography and the art of separation 
   Questioning the genre of contemporary street photography 
Street: Garry Winogrand
Garry Winogrand 
   Garry Winogrand 
   Gary Winogrand: Street photography 
   Garry Winogrand: Women Are Beautiful (1975) 
The snapshot aesthetic 
   Snapshot aesthetic 
Transportation
Introduction 
   Introduction to transportation 
Transportation infrastructure 
   Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
   Ports, harbours and docks 
Transportation and photograph types 
   Albumen prints: Transportation 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Transportation *** 
   Stereoviews: Transportation *** 
   Vernacular: Transportation *** 
Transportation backgrounds 
   Backgrounds: Transportation *** 
Transportation and fashion 
   Transportation and fashion examples *** 
Air transportation
Balloon flights 
   Balloon flights 
   Nadar: Balloon flights 
   Nils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897) 
   Umberto Nobile expedition to the North Pole with the airship Italia (1928) 
Airships 
   Airships *** 
Airplanes 
   Airplanes 
   Russian airplace *** 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Balloons 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Aircraft *** 
Airplanes
Examples 
   Airplanes 
   Russian airplace *** 
Photographers 
   Manfred Curry: A travers les nuages (ca. 1932) *** 
Aircraft recognition 
   Aircraft recognition training - U.S. Navy (ca. 1947-1951) 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Aircraft *** 
Land transportation
Horse and ox-drawn 
   Chariots *** 
   Wagons, carts, carriages and buggies 
   Wagon trains *** 
   Sleighs and sleds *** 
Powered 
   Cars 
   Peter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953) 
   Buses 
   Motorcycles and scooters *** 
Trains and railroads 
   Trains, railroads and railways 
   Trains: Central Pacific Railroad *** 
   Alexander Gardner and others: Across the continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad 
   A.J. Russell: Golden Spike Ceremony, Promontory Point, Utah (10 May 1869) 
Documenting road quality 
   Documenting the quality of roads in the USA (1891) *** 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Carts *** 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Cars 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Railways *** 
Buses
Examples 
   Buses 
Photographers 
   Alfons Himmelreich: School bus Tu've beShvat *** 
Cars
Examples 
   Cars 
Photographers 
   Peter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953) 
   Robert Frank: The Americans - Car culture *** 
   Arnold Odermatt: Road accidents 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Cars 
Cycling - Penny farthings, high wheelers, boneshakers and bicycles
Cycling 
   Cycling - Penny farthings, bone shakers and bicycles *** 
   Documenting the quality of roads in the USA (1891) *** 
   Coventry-rotary, Photo-tricycle, M.D. Rudge and Co. (Great Britain) *** 
Motorcycles and scooters
Examples 
   Motorcycles and scooters *** 
Photographers 
   Danny Lyon: The Bikeriders (1968) 
Pack animals - mules, donkeys, burros and horses
Photographers using pack animals 
   Pack animals - mules, donkeys, burros and horses 
The difficulties of pack animals 
   Mark Twain attempting to photograph the Matterhorn (1880) 
   L.A. Huffman: The Rage of Huffman and the Calmness of Nig (1883) 
Railways
Introduction 
   The expansion and significance of railways in the nineteenth century 
   Railways and urban expansion *** 
France 
   Édouard Baldus: Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1860s) 
   Édouard Baldus: Les chemins de fer du Nord. Ligne de Paris à Boulogne. Vues photographiques 
   Édouard Baldus: Chemin de fer du Nord. Ligne de Paris à Compiègne par Chantilly. Petites vues (1866) *** 
   Hippolyte-Auguste Collard: Chemin de fer du Bourbonnais *** 
   Construction du Chemin de Fer Metropolitan Municipal de Paris (1905-1910) 
Portugal 
   Emilio Biel: Caminho de Ferro do Douro (ca. 1890) 
USA 
   The importance of railroads in the development of the American West 
   James Fitzallen Ryder: Photographic Views on the Atlantic & Great Western Railway (1862) *** 
   Railways and the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
    *** 
   Alexander Gardner and others: Across the continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad 
   Trains: Central Pacific Railroad *** 
   William Henry Jackson: Railways 
   Andrew J. Russell: The Great West Illustrated in a Series of Photographic Views Across the Continent, Taken Along the Line of the Union Pacific Railroad, West from Omaha, Nebraska 
   A.J. Russell: Golden Spike Ceremony, Promontory Point, Utah (10 May 1869) 
   Wyoming: Dale Creek Crossing (1868-1901) 
   Alfred Hart: First Construction Train passing the Palisades, Ten Mile Cañon *** 
   Purviance: Purviance's Views, Penn'a Central Rail Road *** 
   O. Winston Link: Trains 
Canada 
   The Canadian Pacific Railway 
South America 
   Georges Poulet: Aurora Argentina (1890s) 
Trains 
   Trains, railroads and railways 
Photochroms 
   Photochroms: Railways *** 
Railroad studios 
   Railroad photograph cars and studios on trains 
   J.B. Silvis: Photograph car 
   Backmarks for railroad photograph cars *** 
Backmarks 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Transportation *** 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Railways *** 
Sedan chairs - Kago
Examples 
   Sedan chairs (kago) in Japan 
Wagon trains
Introduction 
   Wagons, carts, carriages and buggies 
   Wagon trains *** 
Wagons, carts, carriages and buggies
Examples 
   Wagons, carts, carriages and buggies 
Photographers 
   John Thomson: Carts and wagons included in Street Life in London (1877) *** 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Carts *** 
Water transportation
Watercraft types 
   Boats, canoes and kayaks 
   Sailing ships 
   Steamboats and paddle steamers *** 
   Shipping *** 
   Submarines *** 
Ports, harbours and docks 
   Ports, harbours and docks 
Canals 
   Daguerreotypes of canal construction (ca. 1850) *** 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Boats *** 
Boats, canoes and kayaks
Examples 
   Boats, canoes and kayaks 
   Messing about on boats *** 
Photographers 
   Eugène Atget: Boats *** 
Studio foregrounds and backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Boats *** 
Sailing ships
Examples 
   Ports, harbours and docks 
   Sailing ships 
Photographers 
   Gustave Le Gray: Seascapes 
   Paul-Émile Miot: Shipping *** 
   Calvert Richard Jones: Ships and harbours *** 
Shipping
Examples 
   Ports, harbours and docks 
Photographers 
   Robert Howlett: The Great Eastern *** 
   Joseph Cundall: Construction of the Great Eastern at John Scott Russell's Yard, Milwall (1855-1856) *** 
   Gustave Le Gray: Cherbourg (4-6 August 1858) 
Steamboats and paddle steamers
Introduction 
   Steamboats and paddle steamers *** 
Travel
Introduction 
   Introduction to travel photography 
The growing popularity of travel 
   Photographers on the Grand Tour 
   Thomas Cook 
   Travel in popular culture 
   Travellers 
   The travels of Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich of Russia (1871-1872) 
   Charles Jacquin (French): Autochromes of Egyptian archaeological sites (ca 1912) *** 
Photographers as a distraction 
   A photographer disturbs the tranquility of Mount Vernon (March 1859) 
Hotels 
   Egypt: Shepheard's Hotel / Hotel Shepherd 
Travel photographers at work 
   Carleton E. Watkins (uncertain): #925 Spring Valley Water Works 
Documenting the world 
   Albert Kahn: Archives of the Planet (1909-1931) 
Photographic souvenirs 
   Photographs for the growing number of travelers 
   Auguste Lesouëf - Pompeii (1880) 
   Marketing: Commercial catalogues 
   Nineteenth century book and print sellers 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers 
   Souvenir photograph albums 
   Souvenir sets of travel photographs 
   Paperweight travel souvenirs *** 
Reminiscences and the armchair traveler 
   Théophile Gautier: Wanderings in Spain (1853) 
   Mr. E. K. Tenison, of Kilbonan Castle, exhibited a number of photographs of very large size, representing views in Spain (1853) 
Books and portfolios of prints based on, or purportedly based on, photographs 
   Paris et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840) 
   Jean Baptiste Marie Chamouin: Vues de Paris (1845) *** 
   Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes : vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (1842) 
   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
   Bruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855) 
Travel books 
   Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860) 
   William Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860) 
   Louis de Clercq: Voyage en Orient (1860) 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Covers (1863) 
   Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Bilder aus Mekka (1889) 
   Victor Bizot, Six months around the world, 1886-1887 (1891) *** 
   J. Payne Jennings: Book covers 
   Photographically illustrated books for the armchair traveler 
Stereo sets 
   Stereoview libraries for the armchair traveler 
Travel clichés of the nineteenth century 
   Egypt: Climbing the Pyramids 
Travel literature 
   Jules Verne: Around the World in Eighty Days - What would Phileas Fogg and Passepartout have seen in 1872? 
   Francis Frith: Illustrations for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hyperion (1865) 
   Mark Twain attempting to photograph the Matterhorn (1880) 
Albums and diaries 
   Albums and travel diaries created by travelers 
   Luis Pastorino: Fotografias de Montevideo (1880) 
   Enrico Van Lint: Ricordo di Pisa (ca 1875-1880) 
   Frank Jay Haynes: Alaska Views (ca. 1891) 
   Album of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later) 
   Clara Whitcomb`s diary: Egypt and the Levant (1898-1899) 
   Photograph album - An Unknown Street Photographer in Paris (1896) 
   G.K. Ballance: Travel in Switzerland and Italy (1900-1910) 
   Charles Breed: The Wellcome Photographic Exposure Record and Diary - 1910 - French trip 
Autochromes and early colour travel photography 
   Autochromes: From around the world 
   Fernand Cuville: Greece: Mount Athos 
The continuing drama of travel 
   Road trips 
   Robert Frank: The Americans 
   Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places 
   The rise of air travel 
Typologies
Introduction 
   Typology 
   Examples of typologies 
Photographers 
   Juan Laurent: Arms and armour *** 
   Charles and Jane Clifford: Armour *** 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
   Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) 
   Karl Blossfeldt: Books *** 
   August Sander (1876-1964) 
   Bernd & Hilla Becher: Typologies 
   William Laven: War Models 
Vernacular examples of typologies 
   Aircraft recognition training - U.S. Navy (ca. 1947-1951) 
Vernacular
Vernacular photography 
   Introduction to vernacular photography 
Themes 
   Vernacular: Transportation *** 
Kodak 
   Early Kodak camera formats 
Real photo postcards 
   Real photo postcards: Animals *** 
   Real photo postcards: African Americans *** 
Photobooths 
   Photobooth designs *** 
   Photobooth plates *** 
   Photobooth strips *** 
   Photobooth portraits 
Snapshots 
   The Roz Leibowitz Collection: Snapshot Disasters 
Mugshots 
   American mugshots 
   Description of Prisoners Received at the California State Prison, May 1909-December 1914 *** 
   The Holocaust: Women concentration camp guards *** 
Amateurs 
   Lady Ottoline Morrell: Children cavorting at Garsington 
Preserving discarded memories 
   Najaf Shokri: Iran Dokht 
   Thomas Sauvin and photographic waste in China 
Instantaneous photography
Daguerreotype exposure times 
   Daguerreotype exposure times 
Dry plates 
   Packaging for dry plates 
Medals 
   Medals for instantaneous photography *** 
Examples 
   Instantaneous photography: Examples 
Photographers 
   Paul Martin: Street photography 
   Victor Angerer: Instantaneous photography on the street (1888) 
   Emil Mayer: Street photography 
The Horse on Motion - Eadweard Muybridge 
   Advert for J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
   Book review of J.D.B. Stillman "The Horse In Motion, As Shown By Instantaneous Photography," (London: Trubner and Co., 1882) 
Case studies 
   Instantaneous photography - The exploding mule (6 June 1881) 
Photobooths
Background to photobooths 
   Photobooth designs *** 
   Photobooth plates *** 
   Photobooth strips *** 
   Photobooth portraits 
Photographers 
   Lee Godie: Photobooth self-portraits *** 
Real photo postcards
Introduction 
   Introduction to real photo postcards *** 
   Introduction to real photo postcards *** 
Themes 
   Real photo postcards: African Americans *** 
   Real photo postcards: Animals *** 
   Real photo postcards: Landscapes *** 
Exaggeration postcards 
   Exaggeration postcards 
   Henry M. Beach: Exaggeration photo postcards 
Snapshots
Understanding the snapshot 
   Introduction to snapshots 
   Photograph album - An Unknown Street Photographer in Paris (1896) 
Snapshot disasters 
   The Roz Leibowitz Collection: Snapshot Disasters 
Kodak 
   Early Kodak camera formats 
   Snapshot cameras 
   Photographic Simplicity - Bulls-Eye Kodak *** 
   The Kodak Camera *** 
   Kodak advertising 
   New Kodak Cameras. You press the button, we do the rest. (1890) 
   The Kodak 
Themes 
   Snapshots: Landscapes 
   Snapshots: Mountains *** 
   Snapshots: Trees 
Photographers 
   Kenneth Forbes: Snapshots taken in Mexico (1936) *** 
Desire to be paid 
   Edward P. Tobie: Photographing Indians 
   Septima M. Collis: Kodak'd by Miss M.D. Beach 
Poetry 
   To My Sweetheart's Kodak (1890) 
Songs 
   My Little Snapshot Album (ca 1938) 
Humour 
   The Young Kodak Fiend 
The snapshot aesthetic 
   Snapshot aesthetic 
   Diaristic photography 
War
Introduction 
   Introduction to war photography 
Military acceptance of photography 
   Ordnance Survey Building, Southampton 
   Photography and the British Army 
Journalists at war 
   Journalists at war 
Problematic issues 
   Photographs of war dead 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead 
   John Reekie: Collecting Remains of the Dead 
   Willoughby Wallace Hooper: The scandal of delaying a firing squad 
   Censorship of war photography 
   Faking war photographs 
   Humanity in terrible times 
   The landscapes of war 
   The civilian impact of War 
   Issues of interpretation of building structures 
   Wars and the lack of photographic evidence 
   Amateur photography and war 
   Boer War (1899-1902): Fabrications 
   National and ethnic perspectives of war 
   Veterans 
   Fractured history 
   War and the destruction of photohistory 
Rephotographic studies 
   Rephotographic studies of conflicts and wars 
The impact of changing technologies 
   The changing technologies of war photography 
   Fashion: Accessories: Gas masks 
   Night vision imagery 
   Iraq War (2003-2011): Abu Ghraib 
   William Laven: War Models 
   Satellite Sentinel and the Enough Project 
   Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011) 
Thoughts 
   The aesthetics of conflict 
   War conclusions 
Postscript 
   A postscript to war - Don McCullin 
Afghanistan Wars (1979-?)
Introduction 
   Afghanistan Wars (1979-?) 
Photographers 
   Steve McCurry - The Power of a Single Image 
   Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011) 
Algerian Civil War (1991-2002)
Introduction 
   Algerian Civil War (1991-2002) 
Algerian War of Independence (1950s)
Introduction 
   Algerian War of Independence (1950s) 
American Civil War (1861-1865)
Introduction 
   The Photographic History of the Civil War 
Photographic techniques and processes 
   Reasons for the popularity of the tintype during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Carte de visites during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Stereocard series on the American Civil War 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Photograph albums 
   Advertisements for photograph albums during the American Civil War 
Cameras 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Cameras 
   Mathew Brady: Camera 
Photographic teams and photographic vans 
   Photographer teams and photographic vans during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
Contemporary photographic books 
   Alexander Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War (1866) 
Composite photographs and photomontage 
   George N. Barnard: Composite photographs during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
   George N. Barnard: Destruction of Hood’s Ordnance Train 
   Photomontage during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Photographic fabrications of the American Civil War 
Tax revenue stamps 
   Revenue stamps during the American Civil War 
Themes 
   Breastworks and fortifications during the American Civil War (1861-1865) *** 
   Weapons of the American Civil War (1861-1865) *** 
   Railways and the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Balloons 
   Prisons and prisoners during the American Civil War (1861-1865) *** 
   Animals of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Copying maps 
   George N. Barnard: Panoramas *** 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Censorship 
   Propaganda during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   A.C. Kline: Jeff Davis "taking" Washington 
   Commanders and officers of the American Civil War (1861-1865) *** 
   Soldiers of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Portraits in brass bezels *** 
   Camp life during American Civil War (1861-1865) *** 
   Spies of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Families of the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): The dead 
   John Reekie: Collecting Remains of the Dead 
   Death and dying during the American Civil War 
   Placing photographs on the dead during the American Civil War 
   Ghastly Photographic Experiences (1882) 
   William H. Mumler: Spirit photography 
   The United States Sanitary Commission 
   Charity during the American Civil War: The Children of the Battlefield 
   Patriotic and military backgrounds for portraits during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
Events 
   The Battle of Gettysburg and photographic evidence (July 1863) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: A council of war at Massaponax Church, VA (21 May 1864) 
   G.O. Brown (active 1860-1889): Battlefield of the Wilderness *** 
War injuries and medical claims 
   Major General Henry Barnum 
   Private George Lemon 
   R.B. Bontecou: Surgical injuries and their treatment during the American Civil War 
   William H. Bell: Medical injuries during the American Civil War 
   George A. Otis: Photographs of Surgical Cases and Specimens (1867 or later) 
People 
   Abraham Lincoln: A photographic legacy 
Aftermath 
   Portraits of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln 
   Execution of the conspirators who assassinated Abraham Lincoln 
Popular culture 
   Use of a cased photograph in the film "The Birth of a Nation" (1915) 
Colourising the past 
   Colourising the past 
Photographic analysis 
   1st Lieutenant Henry. B. Loomis, adjutant of the 56th New York Infantry Regiment (Evolving case study) 
Anglo-Egyptian War (1882)
Events 
   Anglo-Egyptian War (1882): Bombardment of Alexandria (1882) 
   Anglo-Egyptian War (1882): Battle of Tel el-Kebir (1882) 
Photographers 
   L. Fiorillo: Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) *** 
Armenian massacres (1915-1923)
Introduction 
   Armenian massacres (1915-1923) 
Boer War (1899-1902)
Introduction 
   Boer War (1899-1902) 
Themes 
   Boer War (1899-1902): Fabrications 
Cambodian Civil War (1967-1975)
   David Dare Parker: Security Prison 21 (S-21) 
Chechen War (1995-?)
Introduction 
   Chechen War (1995-) 
   Chechen War: The Disappeared 
Photographers 
   Photographers of the Chechen War 
Cold War (1945-1991)
Introduction 
   The Cold War (ca. 1945-1991) 
Events 
   The Berlin Wall 
   Prague Spring (1968) *** 
   Cuban Missile Crisis *** 
Personalities 
   Fidel Castro *** 
   Ernesto Che Guevara *** 
Photographers 
   Susan Meiselas: Nicaragua *** 
Crimean War (1854-1856)
Introduction 
   Introduction to Crimean War (1854-1856) 
   Photographers of the Crimean War (1854-1856) 
   Journalism during the Crimean War (1854-1856) 
   An anonymous soldier during the Crimean War (1854-1856) 
   US Military Mission to the Crimea during the Crimean War (1854-1856) 
Photographers 
   Roger Fenton: Crimean War (1854-1856) 
   Roger Fenton: The artist's van 
   Roger Fenton: Balaclava - Balaklava 
   Roger Fenton: Crimean War (1854-1856) - Valley of the Shadow of Death 
   James Robertson: Views of Sebastopol (ca. 1855) 
   Léon Eugène Méhédin: Crimean War *** 
   Jean-Charles Langlois: The Crimean War *** 
Nursing 
   Florence Nightingale *** 
   Mary Seacole *** 
Heroes of the Crimea 
   Cundall & Howlett: Crimean Heroes 
Earliest war photographs (1840-1870)
Introduction 
   The earliest photographs of war and civil conflict 
Early examples 
   Mexican-American War (1846-1848) 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): France, Paris 
   John McCosh: Burma 
   Jean-Charles Langlois: The Crimean War *** 
   Gustave Le Gray: Camp de Châlons (1857) 
Falklands - Malvinas War (1982)
Introduction 
   Falklands War / Malvinas War (1982): Introduction 
Events 
   Falklands War / Malvinas War (1982): The Sinking of the ARA General Belgrano 
First Sino-Japanese (1894-1895)
Introduction 
   Introduction to the First Sino-Japanese (1894-1895) *** 
First World War (1914-1918)
Introduction 
   Introduction to the First World War (1914-1918) 
Patriotism and enlisting 
   Your country needs you 
   Patriotism and enlisting *** 
The Front 
   Photographs of the front during the First World War (1914-1918) 
Themes 
   Propaganda during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   Prisoners of war during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   Refugees during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   French photographic competitions during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   Death and remembrance during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   Elliott and Fry during the First World War - portraits often gain a mournful interest (1917) 
   Olive Edis: British women's services at the battlefields of France and Flanders (1918-1919) 
   Veterans of the First World War (1914-1918) *** 
Censorship 
   U.S. Army: Analysis of why photographs were censored during the First World War (1926) 
Aerial warfare, reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   Aircraft during the First World War 
   Mrs. Gladys Maud Cockburn-Lange and her faked First World War dogfight photographs 
   First World War (1914-1918): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   Edward Steichen (compiler): Album of photographs by the Photographic Section, U.S. Air Service, American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) (1918-1919) 
Colour photography 
   Colour photography during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   French color photographs of the First World War (Autochromes) 
   French color photographs of the First World War (Autochromes) 
   Fernand Cuville: Autochromes of the First World War 
   Color postcards of the battles at Verdun 
   Frank Hurley: Paget plates of the First World War 
Photographic fabrications 
   Photographic fabrications of the First World War 
Records of the War 
   Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud: 1914-1919 La Guerre 
Conclusions 
   Thoughts on photography during the First World War (1914-1918) 
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
Introduction 
   Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): Introduction 
   Soldiers during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) *** 
Photographers 
   Adolphe Braun: Théâtre de la Guerre, 1870-1871 *** 
   Baudelaire, Saglio & Peter: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
   Charles-David Winter: Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
   René Patrice Proudhon Dagron: Photomicrographs, carrier-pigeons and the beseiged city of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
Greek Civil War (1946-1949)
Introduction 
   Greek Civil War (1946-1949): Introduction 
Photographers 
   Greek Civil War (1946-1949): Photographers 
Gulf War (1990-1991)
Introduction 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): Introduction 
Events 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): The Ameriyah [Amiriyah] shelter (13 February 1991) 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): The Highway of Death (26-27 February 1991) 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): Sabotaging the oil wells of Kuwait (1991) 
Concluding thoughts 
   Thoughts on the Gulf War (1990-1991) 
Indian Mutiny (1857-1858)
Introduction 
   Indian Mutiny (1858): Introduction 
Events 
   The Cawnpore (Kanpur) Massacres 
Photographers 
   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Lucknow 
   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Mutineers hanged 
   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Hodson's Horse 
   Robert & Harriet Tytler: India at the time of the Mutiny 
   Darogha Ubbas Alli: Sekunder Bagh, Lucknow 
Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
Introduction 
   Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988): Introduction 
Iraq War (2003-2011)
Introduction 
   Justification for the Iraq War (2003-2011) 
Abu Ghraib 
   Iraq War (2003-2011): Abu Ghraib 
Photographers 
   William Laven: War Models 
   Ellen Susan: Soldier Portraits 
Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871)
Introduction 
   Introduction to the Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871) *** 
Personalities 
   Giuseppe Garibaldi 
Photographers 
   Eugène Sevaistre: Italian Risorgimento - Gaeta *** 
   Eugène Sevaistre: Italian Risorgimento - Palermo *** 
Charity 
   Charity play to benefit widows and orphans victims of the Battle of Novara 
Korean Punitive Expedition (1871)
Introduction 
   Felice Beato: Korean Punitive Expedition (1871) 
People 
   Koreans *** 
Korean War (1950-1953)
Introduction 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Introduction 
Photographers 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Photographers 
Mexican Revolution (1910-early 1920s)
Introduction 
   Mexican Revolution (1910-early 1920s): Introduction 
Photographers 
   Manuel Ramos: Mexican Revolution *** 
Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
Introduction 
   Mexican-American War (1846-1848) 
Events 
   Lieutenant Colonel Henry Clay, Jr. (1847) 
Commemorative medals 
   Letter from W.L. Marcy, Secretary of War, to Major General Z. Taylor, Commanding Army of Occupation, Monterey, Mexico (5 October 1846) 
Middle East (1948-?)
Introduction 
   Middle East - a cycle of wars and uprisings (1948-): Introduction 
   Lebanon 1982-2000 
   The Intifadas 
   Photographic studies on Israel, Palestine and the Intifadas 
Photographers 
   George Azar: War photography in Lebanon (1982-200) 
Conclusions 
   Thoughts on the cycle of wars and uprisings in the Middle East 
Modoc War (1872-1873)
Introduction 
   Modoc War (1872-1873) 
North American Indian Wars (1860-1900)
Introduction 
   North American Indian Wars: Introduction 
   North American Indian Wars: Portraits of Native American leaders 
   North American Indian Wars: and the photography of aftermath 
   Native American: The search for the Vanishing Race and a vanishing world 
   Photographers of Native Americans 
Modoc War (1872-1873) 
   Modoc War (1872-1873) 
Northern Ireland - The Troubles (1960s-1998)
Introduction 
   Introduction to The Troubles (1960s-1998) 
Paris Commune (1871)
Introduction 
   Paris Commune (1871): Introduction 
   Photomontage during the Paris Commune (1871) 
Themes 
   Paris Commune (1871): Photographs of wanted and dead communards 
   Paris Commune (1871): Destruction of the Vendome Column 
   Paris Commune Album (1871) 
   Jules Andrieu: Disasters of the War (1870-1871) *** 
Photographers 
   Alphonse J. Liébert: Paris Commune (1871) 
Russian Revolution (1917)
Introduction 
   Russian Revolution and the aftermath (1917): Introduction 
Photographers 
   Photographers of the Russian Revolution (1917) 
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Introduction 
   Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): Introduction 
Photographers 
   Photographers of the Russo-Japanese War 
Second Afghan War (1878-1880)
Introduction 
   Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880): Introduction *** 
Photographers 
   John Burke: Fixing the Negative 
   John Burke: Portraits from the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880) *** 
Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860)
Introduction 
   Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860): Introduction 
   Opium *** 
Photographers 
   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the Pehtang fort 
   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the taking of the Taku Fort 
   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the march to Bejing 
   Felice Beato: Prince Kung / Prince Gong Qinwang of China 
Regimental groups 
   Regimental groups in Tientsin, China (1861) 
Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935-1936)
Introduction 
   Second Italo-Abyssinian War (1935-1936) 
Second Schleswig War / Prussian-Danish War (1864)
Introduction 
   C.F. Brandt: Second Schleswig War / Prussian-Danish War (1864) *** 
Second World War (1939-1945)
Introduction 
   Second World War (1939-1945): Introduction 
Propaganda and public information 
   Heinrich Hoffmann: Portraits of Adolf Hitler 
   Adolf Hitler - Nazi propaganda series 
   Heinrich Hoffmann (Editor) & Josef Bürckel (Foreword): Hitler holt die Saar heim (1938) 
   A question of emotional interpretation: People of Cheb salute the German troops entering the town in the Anschluss of the Sudetenland (October 1938) 
   Winston Churchill - Wanted for incitement to Murder 
   Teresa Zarnower: Obrona Warszawy - The defense of Warsaw (1942-1945) 
   American posters from the Second World War (1939-1945): 
The home front 
   Second World War (1939-1945): The home front 
The war in Europe 
   Second World War (1939-1945): Soviet photographers 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Purple Heart Valley 
   Robert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944) 
   Robert Capa: Second World War Wire Photos *** 
   Nazi suicides in Leipzig, Germany (1945) 
   Second World War (1939-1945): Resistance in lands under Nazi occupation 
   Yevgeny Khaldei: Soldiers raising the flag of Soviet Union on the roof of Reichstag building in Berlin (2 May 1945) 
The Holocaust 
   The Holocaust: The Pre-Second World War setting 
   The Holocaust: Photographing inside the ghettos 
   The Holocaust: Death camps 
   The Holocaust: Children 
   The Holocaust: Photographers who died 
Internment camps 
   Internment camps in the USA during the Second World War 
The war in the Pacific 
   Second World War (1939-1945): The War in the Pacific 
   Naval Aviation Photographic Unit 
   W. Eugene Smith: War in the Pacific 
   Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945) 
Hiroshima (6 August 1945) 
   War: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima 
Nagasaki (9 August 1945) 
   War: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki 
Aerial photography 
   Second World War (1939-1945): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
   Harold E. Edgerton: Night experiments at Stonehenge 
Memory 
   D'Ora: Slaughterhouse series (1948-1958) 
   James Fee: The Peleliu Project 
   The legacy of the Holocaust in contemporary photography 
Spanish American War (1898)
Introduction 
   Spanish American War (1898): Introduction 
Photographers in Cuba 
   Photographers of the Spanish American War (1898) 
Aftermath in Cuba 
   Lamarque (Santiago): Photograph album - Maj. General Leonard Wood in Cuba (ca. 1899) 
The Philippines 
   The Spanish American War in the Philippines *** 
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
Introduction 
   Introduction to the Spanish Civil War 
Photographers 
   Photographers of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) 
   Robert Capa: Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano 
   Gerda Taro: Woman Photographer Crushed by Loyalist Tank 
   Dora Maar: Photo Report of the Evolution of “Guernica” (May - June 1937) 
   The Mexican Suitcase 
Posters 
   Posters from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) *** 
Aerial photography 
   Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
Terrorism
Events 
   World Trade Center (September 11, 2001) 
Photographers 
   Kevin Bubriski: Pilgrimage: Looking At Ground Zero (2001) *** 
The Holocaust (1933-1945)
The Holocaust 
   The Holocaust: The Pre-Second World War setting 
   The Holocaust: Photographing inside the ghettos 
   The Holocaust in progress *** 
   The Holocaust: Death camps 
   The Holocaust: Children 
   The Holocaust: Photographers who died 
   Aftermath *** 
   The Holocaust: Women concentration camp guards *** 
The Holocaust in contemporary photography 
   The legacy of the Holocaust in contemporary photography 
   Jack Burman: KZ 
Vietnam War (1961-1975)
Introduction 
   The French Indochina War and the origins of the Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
   Increasing American involvement in Vietnam 
Photographers 
   Photographers of the Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
   Ronald Haeberle: The My Lai Massacre (16 March 1968) 
   Kyoichi Sawada: The Vietnam War 
Legacy 
   The photographic legacy of the Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
   Martha Rosler: Bringing the War Home 
   Mikhail Kudish: Nick Ut and Kim Phuc (2012) 
   David Dare Parker: Agent Orange, Vietnam *** 
War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870)
Introduction 
   War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
Photographers 
   Esteban Garcia: War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
Year of Revolutions (1848)
Europe 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): France, Paris 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): Great Britain *** 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): Hungary *** 
Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999)
Introduction 
   Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Examples of photography from the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Thoughts on the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
Photographers 
   Photographers of the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
 
  

Styles and movements

 
  
Styles and movements
Introduction 
   Styles and movements 
Avant-garde
Introduction 
   Introduction to Avant-Garde photography 
Techniques 
   Introduction to solarization 
   Examples of solarization 
Movements 
   Constructivism 
Photographers 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: Vorticism 
   Alfred Stieglitz: Equivalents 
   Man Ray: Solarized nudes 
   Maurice Tabard: Multiple exposures and solarizations 
   Laszlo Moholy-Nagy: Viewpoints 
   Lotte Jacobi: Photogenics 
   Minor White: Equivalents, similes and visual metaphors 
   Heinz Hajek-Halke: Experimental photography 
   André Kertész: Distortions 
   Weegee: Distortions 
   Bill Brandt: Distortions 
   László Moholy-Nagy: Photograms 
   Christian Schad: Schadographs 
   Frantisek Drtikol: Nudes 
   Frantisek Drtikol: Les Nus de Drtikol (1929) *** 
   Hans Bellmer: La Poupée 
   Eli Lotar: Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique (1930) 
   Brassai: Graffiti 
Events 
   Film und Foto - FiFo (1929) 
Bauhaus
Introduction 
   Bauhaus 
Photographers 
   László Moholy-Nagy: Photograms 
   Laszlo Moholy-Nagy: Viewpoints 
   Herbert Bayer: Photomontages 
   Josef Albers: Photocollages (1929-1932) *** 
Film und Foto (1929) 
   Film und Foto - FiFo (1929) 
Dusseldorf School
Examples 
   Dusseldorf School 
Photographers 
   Bernd & Hilla Becher: Typologies 
   Candida Höfer: Architectural space 
f/64
Introduction to f/64 
   f/64 exhibitions 
   Group f/64 Manifesto 
   Ansel Adams on f/64 
Legacy 
   Ansel Adams: The New Ansel Adams Photography Series 
Futurism
Introduction 
   F.T. Martinetti: The Foundations and Manifesto of Futurism (1908) 
   Futurism *** 
Photographers 
   Anton Giulio Bragaglia (1890-1960) and Arturo Bragaglia (1893-1962) 
Modernism
Introduction 
   Modernism 
   Modernism: Portraits 
Photographers 
   Laszlo Moholy-Nagy: Viewpoints 
Germaine Krull 
   Germaine Krull: Métal 
   Florence Henri: Compositions 
   Edward Weston: Shells 
   Edward Weston: Vegetables 
   Charles Sheeler: Criss-Crossed Conveyors, River Rouge Plant, Ford Motor Company 
   E.O. Hoppé: Amerika 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Die Welt ist schön 
   John Vanderpant: Canadian Modernism 
Cinema and experimental photography 
   Sergei Eisenstein: Strike (1925) 
   Dziga Vertov:The Man with a Movie Camera (1929) 
Case studies 
   USA: New Mexico: Taos 
   France: Marseille: The Transporter Bridge (Pont Transbordeur) 
Naturalism
Introduction 
   Naturalism and Pictorialism 
Photographers 
   Peter Henry Emerson (1856-1936) 
   Peter Henry Emerson: Idylls of the Norfolk Broads (1897) *** 
   Peter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves (1895) 
New Bauhaus / Art Institute of Chicago
Introduction 
   The New Bauhaus 
Harry Callahan 
   Harry Callahan: Eleanor and Barbara 
   Harry Callahan: Colour work 
Aaron Siskind 
   Aaron Siskind: Chicago 
   Aaron Siskind: Gloucester 
Arthur Siegel 
   Arthur Siegel: Light abstractions *** 
   Arthur Siegel: Lucidagrams 
   Arthur Siegel: Photograms *** 
New Objectivity - Neue Sachlichkeit
Introduction 
   Introduction to New Objectivity 
Karl Blossfeldt 
   Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) 
   Karl Blossfeldt: Books *** 
   Karl Blossfeldt‘s Original "Urformen der Kunst" / "Art Forms in Nature" 
August Sander 
   August Sander (1876-1964) 
Albert Renger-Patzsch 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Books 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Die Welt ist schön 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Blüte der Hainbuche *** 
New Topographics
Introduction 
   New Topographics (1975) 
Photographic legacy 
   Robert Adams: The construction of suburbia 
   Lewis Baltz: New Industrial parks near Irvine, California (1974) 
   Bernd & Hilla Becher: Typologies 
   Nicholas Nixon: The Brown Sisters 
   Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places 
Orientalism
Introduction 
   Orientalism 
   Odalisques 
   Egypt: Climbing the Pyramids 
   Daguerreotypes: Egypt 
Travellers 
   Clara Whitcomb`s diary: Egypt and the Levant (1898-1899) 
Photographers of monuments 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia 
   John Beasly Greene: Le Nil (1854) 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Egypt (1862) 
   William de Wiveleslie Abney: Thebes and its Five Greater Temples (1876) 
Photographers of people 
   Roger Fenton: Oriental series 
   W. Hammerschmidt: Portraits 
   Lehnert & Landrock: Portraits 
Cultural diversity 
   Icons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910) 
Photo-Secession
Camera Notes 
   Camera Notes *** 
The Photo-Secession 
   Photo-Secession members 
   Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, 291 Fifth Avenue, New York City 
Camera Work 
   Camera Work - An Apology 
   Camera Work 
Photographers 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: London (1909) 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: New York (1910) 
Post-modernism
Photographers 
   Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers 
   Cindy Sherman: Untitled Film Stills 
   Gillian Wearing: Album (2003) 
   Nikki S. Lee: Projects 
   Sandy Skoglund: Installations and visions 
   Julie Blackmon: Domestic Vacations and other series 
   Thomas Demand: Three dimensional sculptural forms 
   Oliver Boberg: Distilled realities 
   Carl Zimmerman: Cold City 
   Lori Nix: Accidentally Kansas 
   Sarah Hobbs: Small Problems in Living 
Pre-Raphaelite
Photographers 
   Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits 
   David Wilkie Wynfield: Portraits of Victorian painters and illustrators 
   John Robert Parsons: Jane Morris *** 
   Frederick Henry Evans: England, Kelmscott Manor 
Narratives 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Mythological 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Arthurian 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Historical *** 
   Using photographs to illustrate narratives: Shakespearean 
Subjective photography - Subjektive fotografie
Introduction 
   Introduction to subjective photography 
Surrealism
Introduction 
   Introduction to Surrealism 
   Surrealism: Ancestral images of the bizarre 
   Dada 
   Surrealism: Photographers and artists 
Publications 
   Surrealism: Publications 
   Minotaure 
Exhibitions 
   Surrealist exhibitions 
Photographers and artists 
   Salvador Dali 
   Eli Lotar: Le Theatre Alfred Jarry et l’Hostilite Publique (1930) 
   Hans Bellmer: La Poupée 
   Brassai: Graffiti 
   Man Ray: 1929 
   Man Ray: Facile (1935) 
   Man Ray: Rayograms 
   Man Ray: Electricité (1931) *** 
   Man Ray: Solarized nudes 
   Roger Parry: Banalités (1930) *** 
   Georges Hugnet: Surrealism 
   Raoul Ubac: Surrealism 
   Milos Korecek: Abstractions (Fokalke) 
   Bill Brandt: Distortions 
   André Kertész: Distortions 
   Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Lucrecia - Classic Theme 
   Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Good Reputation Sleeping (La Buena Fama Durmiendo) 
   Maurice Tabard: Multiple exposures and solarizations 
   Roland Penrose: The Road is Wider Than Long - An Image Diary from the Balkans July - August 1938 (1939) 
   Angus McBean: Christmas cards 
   Val Telberg: Photomontages 
Film 
   Surrealism and filmmaking 
   Jean Cocteau: Le Sang d'un Poète 
Continuation 
   Surrealism: The continuation 
   Melvin Sokolsky: The bubble series (1963) 
   Jerry Uelsmann: Trees 
   Maggie Taylor: Landscape of Dreams 
   Joan Fontcuberta: Fabricated sciences and alternative histories 
   Paul Biddle: The Archipelago of Fantasy Islands 
Vorticism
Introduction 
   Vorticism 
   Vorticists *** 
   Blast - Review Of The Great English Vortex *** 
Photographers 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: Vorticism 
 
  

Techniques

 
  
Techniques
Introduction 
   Process and product 
   Terry King: Sixteen Different Alternative Processes from One Negative 
Card photographs 
   Card photograph types 
Oddities 
   Bass-relief postcards (1900-1910) *** 
Alternative process movement
Introduction 
   Introduction to the alternative process movement 
Reference sets 
   Terry King: Sixteen Different Alternative Processes from One Negative 
Contemporary daguerreotypes 
   Contemporary daguerreotypes *** 
   Irving Pobboravsky: Contemporary Daguerreotypes *** 
   Gregory Popovitch: Contemporary Daguerreotypes *** 
   Mike Robinson: Contemporary Daguerreotypes *** 
   Jerry Spagnoli: Contemporary Daguerreotypes *** 
Contemporary tintypes and wet collodion 
   Contemporary tintypes 
   Ellen Susan: Soldier Portraits 
   Contemporary dark tents and dark boxes 
Contemporary bromoil prints 
   Contemporary bromoil prints 
   The Bromoil Circle of Great Britain - Centenary 2007 
Contemporary mordancage 
   Elizabeth Opalenik: Mordançage *** 
Fabricated cameras and pinhole 
   Fabricated Cameras and Contemporary Pinhole Photography *** 
Fast vanishing remnants of the past 
   Afghan Box Camera Project *** 
Card photographs
Introduction 
   Card photograph types 
   Introduction to card stock 
   Pasting photographs to card stock 
Dating 
   Dating cabinet cards 
NPA - National Photographic Association 
   NPA - National Photographic Association: Backmarks 
Themes 
   Card photographs of actors, performers and entertainers *** 
   Carte de visites: Objects 
   Cabinet cards: Objects 
Repurposing card photographs 
   Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages 
   The Whimsical Carte de Visite World of the Carte Horse Conspiracy and Archived Associates... 
   Contemporary artworks using card photographs 
Cabinet cards
Introduction 
   Cabinet card: Introduction 
Dating cabinet card 
   Dating cabinet cards 
Painted cabinet cards 
   Cabinet cards: Painted 
Themes 
   Cabinet cards: Portraits 
   Cabinet cards: Celebrities 
   Cabinet cards: Politicians *** 
   Cabinet cards: Royalty *** 
   Cabinet cards: Occupations and roles *** 
   Cabinet cards: Military 
   Cabinet cards: Ethnic and traditional costumes *** 
   Cabinet cards: Post-mortem and memorial portraits 
   Cabinet cards: Advertising 
   Cabinet cards: Charity *** 
   Banner ladies 
   Cabinet cards: Animals *** 
   Cabinet cards: Places and landscapes 
   New York facades shown in cabinet cards 
   Cabinet cards: Multiple exposures 
   Cabinet cards: Photomontage 
   Cabinet cards: Objects 
   Cabinet cards: Scientific *** 
   Cabinet cards: Photographica 
Stories 
   Robinson & Roi: The Famous Glass Dress - Royal Robe of Princess Eulalia 
   McDonald: Advertising cabinet cards for the Storm Sign Co., South Bend, Ind. *** 
Backs 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Electric light *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Awards 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Matching graphical elements 
    *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Missing studio details *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Photographic studios *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Changes in studio ownership 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Women photographers 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Royal patronage 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Landscapes, cityscapes and buildings *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Whimsy *** 
Tissue covers 
   Tissue covers 
Cabinet card mailers 
   Cabinet card mailers *** 
Albums 
   Carte de visite and cabinet card photograph albums 
Carte de visite
Introduction 
   Introduction to carte de visites 
   Carte de visites: Women photographers 
   Introduction to the Carte de Visite Album 
André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri 
   André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: The innovation of the carte de visite 
   André Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri: Uncut carte de visite sheets 
Photographers 
   Camille Silvy: Carte de visite portraits 
   Archibald Burns: Carte de visites of Scotland 
Card stock 
   The card stock used for carte de visites, cabinet cards and mounted photographs 
Proofs 
   Carte de visites: Proof stamps and proof copies 
Fronts - Portraits 
   Introduction to carte de visite portraits 
   Carte de visites: Celebrities 
   Carte de visites: Politicians 
   Carte de visites: French royalty *** 
   Carte de visites: British royalty 
   Carte de visites: Occupations and roles 
   Carte de visites: Military 
   Carte de visites: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
   Carte de visites: Spanish criminals (ca. 1870) 
   Carte de visites: Post-mortem portraits 
Fronts - Objects 
   Carte de visites: Objects 
Fronts - Maps 
   Carte de visites: Maps 
Fronts - Advertising 
   Carte de visites: Advertising 
   Carte de visites: Advertising for photographers 
   Ranger & Austen: Clairvoyant Medical Examinations - Buffum & Cleveland 
Photographica 
   Carte de visites: Photographica 
Fronts - Places 
   Carte de visites: Places and landscapes 
Fronts - Science 
   Carte de visites: Science *** 
Uses of carte de visites 
   J.E. Mayall: Use of carte de visites to support police investigations 
   Contemporary uses of carte de visites for employment 
   Uses of carte de visites to find a partner 
Fronts - Memorials 
   Carte de visites: Memorial portraits *** 
Fronts - Manipulated 
   Painted carte de visites 
   Carte de visites: Multiple exposures 
   Carte de visites: Photomontage 
   C.W. Applegreen creates a composite photograph 
Etiquette 
   Carte de visites: Etiquette 
Cameras 
   Carte de visite cameras *** 
   A contemporary thought on the properties, accessories and novelties used in 19th studios 
Backs 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Additional products 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Change of business ownership 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Diverse occupations 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Product promotion *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Whimsy *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Women photographers *** 
Backs - Studios 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Photographic studios 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Photograph cars *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Photographic supplies *** 
Backs - Patronage and awards 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Royal patronage 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Awards 
Backs - Services 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Negatives preserved, copies made and enlargements 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Teaching available *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Elevator available 
Backs - Motifs 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Catalogue pages 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Shared graphic motif *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Landscapes *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Belt buckle *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Transportation *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Egyptian motifs 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
Tissue covers 
   Tissue covers 
Frames 
   Photograph frames for carte de visites 
Albums 
   Carte de visite and cabinet card photograph albums 
   Directions for inserting cards into carte de visite albums 
   Examples of filler cards in carte de visite albums 
   Carte de visite mailers *** 
   Carte de visite boxes and wallets *** 
Storage 
   Carte de visites: Storage and viewers *** 
Drawing and optical devices
Introduction 
   Drawing and optical devices 
Albrecht Dürer: Drawing and drafting aids 
   Albrecht Dürer: Drawing and drafting aids *** 
   Henry Fox Talbot on drawing aids 
Pantograph 
   Invention of the pantograph 
Zograscope 
   Zograscope 
Camera obscura 
   Camera obscura: Design and use 
   Portable camera obscura 
   Historic and contemporary camera obscuras *** 
   Abelardo Morell: Camera obscura 
   Camera lucida: Design and use 
Camera lucida 
   The camera lucida 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Camera lucida drawings (1833) 
   John Herschel: Camera lucida drawings 
Silhouette 
   Silhouettes 
Physionotrace 
   Physionotrace 
Perspective 
   Perspective 
Dioramas 
   Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre: Dioramas 
Camera lucida
Introduction 
   Camera lucida: Design and use 
Examples 
   The camera lucida 
Practitioners 
   Captain Basil Hall: Forty Etchings From Sketches Made With The Camera Lucida, in North America, in 1827 and 1828 (1829) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Camera lucida drawings (1833) 
   Henry Fox Talbot on using the Camera Lucida at Lake Como (1833) 
   John Herschel: Camera lucida drawings 
Camera obscura
Introduction 
   A history of the camera obscura 
Early descriptions 
   John Barrow: The camera obscura (1735) 
   George Adams: The camera obscura (1794) 
Examples 
   Camera obscura: Design and use 
   Historic and contemporary camera obscuras *** 
Portable camera obscura 
   Portable camera obscura 
   Tent-type camera obscura 
People using camera obscura 
   People using camera obsuras *** 
   Military uses of camera obscura *** 
Ephemera 
   Camera obscura ephemera *** 
Mementos 
   Mementos showing camera obscura *** 
Photographers 
   Abelardo Morell: Camera obscura 
   Denis Farley: Camera obscuras *** 
Dioramas
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and Charles Marie Bouton 
   Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre: Dioramas 
Contemporary accounts - Regent's Park Diorama 
   The Diorama, Regent's Park. London (1826) 
   The Diorama, Regent's Park. London (1829) 
   Contemporary accounts of the Diorama - Regent's Park. London (1830) 
Patents 
   John Arrowsmith's Diorama, or Method of Exhibiting Pictures - British Patent No. 4899, 10 February 1824 
Dioramas in museums 
   Dioramas in Natural History Museums 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Animals in motion 
Photographers 
   Joseph Holmes: amnh (American Museum of Natural History) 
Pantograph
Introduction 
   Invention of the pantograph 
Photographers 
   François Willème: Photosculpture 
Perspective
Introuction 
   Perspective 
Physionotrace
Examples 
   Physionotrace 
   Physionotrace machines *** 
Contemporary descriptions 
   Thomas Jefferson and Charles Willson Peale on Hawkins's physiognotrace (1803) 
Silhouette
Examples 
   Silhouettes 
   Drawing silhouettes *** 
   Phrenology proved, illustrated, and applied (1838) 
The silhouette as a graphical element 
   The silhouette as a graphic element within photography *** 
Photo-mechanical processes
Early processes 
   Printing from daguerreotype plates 
   Armand Hippolyte Fizeau: Photoengraving *** 
    *** 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Photogenic engravings *** 
   Collotypes *** 
   Halftones 
   Heliogravures *** 
   Photochroms 
   Rotogravures *** 
   Woodburytypes 
Chromolithographs
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
   Chromolithographs *** 
Collotypes
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
   Collotypes *** 
Photographers 
   Ogawa Kazuma: Flowers 
Halftones
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
Introduction 
   Halftones 
Heliogravures
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
   Heliogravures *** 
Photochromes - Photochroms
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
Examples 
   Photochroms 
Themes 
   Photochroms: Night *** 
   Photochroms: Railways *** 
Photographers 
   William Henry Jackson: Photochroms *** 
   Adia: Photochroms *** 
   Detroit Photographic Co: Photochromes *** 
   P.Z.: Photochromes *** 
Photogravures
Examples of photogravure 
   Examples of photogravures *** 
   Peter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves (1895) 
Publications with photogravures 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: New York (1910) 
   Adelaide Hanscom Leeson: Sonnets from the Portuguese (ca. 1916) 
   Camera Work 
Contemporary photogravures 
   Contemporary photogravures *** 
Photolithographs
Photographers 
   Adolphe Bilordeaux: Photolithographs from the Histoire Générale de Paris (1883) *** 
   Isaac A. Rehn: Photolithographs *** 
   Cutting & Turner: Photolithographs *** 
Rotogravures
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
Types of photo-mechanical prints 
   Rotogravures *** 
Woodburytypes
The process 
   The Woodburytype 
   Woodburytypes 
Publications including woodburytypes 
   Walter B. Woodbury (ed.): Treasure spots of the world (1875) *** 
   Thompson Cooper, Lock & Whitfield: Men of Mark (1876-1883) 
   Lock and Whitfield (attributed): The Theatre (1877-1897) *** 
   Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique 
   Paris - Artiste *** 
   John Thomson: Street Life in London 
   Jules Bernard Luys: Les Emotions chez les sujets en état d'hypnotisme (1887) 
   J.C. Burrow: Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light (1893) 
   The Saturday Programme and Sketch Book *** 
   Wm. Field Putney: Woodburytypes 
Photographers 
   Andrew Young: Woodburytypes of trees 
Popular formats
Postcards 
   Painted postcards *** 
   Bass-relief postcards (1900-1910) *** 
Cigarette cards 
   Cigarette cards of landscapes *** 
   Sports cards and cigarette cards 
Wallets of miniature views 
    *** 
Miniature photographs 
   Souvenir sets of travel photographs 
Photo postcards
Introduction 
   Introduction to photo postcards 
Photographers 
   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
   Henry M. Beach: Exaggeration photo postcards 
Publishers 
   Ross Verlag: Publisher of real photographic postcards 
Types 
   Real photo postcards: Multiple exposures *** 
Postcards
Introduction 
   Introduction to postcards 
Themes 
   Real photo postcards: Animals *** 
   Real photo postcards: African Americans *** 
Exaggeration postcards 
   Exaggeration postcards 
   William H. Martin: Exaggeration photo postcards 
   Henry M. Beach: Exaggeration photo postcards 
Painted postcards 
   Painted postcards *** 
Art postcards 
   Japanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards *** 
Bass-relief postcards 
   Bass-relief postcards (1900-1910) *** 
Colour postcards 
   Color postcards of the battles at Verdun 
Political postcards 
   Unemployment in Thatcher's Britain 
Process and product
Introduction 
   Process and product 
   Daguerreotype plate sizes 
   Silver hallmarks on daguerreotype plates 
   Card photograph types 
More unusual types 
   Ivorytypes and American Ivorytypes *** 
   Opalotypes 
   Panotypes / Pannotypes 
Albumen prints
Introduction 
   Albumen prints 
   Painted albumen prints 
History and development 
   The Albumen Print 
   Blanquart Evard: Photographic Investigations (1849) 
   The wet plate collodion process *** 
   The manufacture of albumen paper *** 
Themes 
   Albumen prints: Portraits 
   Albumen prints: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
   Albumen prints: Occupationals 
   Albumen prints: Multiple exposures 
   Albumen prints: Architecture 
   Albumen prints: Advertising 
   Albumen prints: Events 
   Albumen prints: Still life 
   Albumen prints: Objects 
   Albumen prints: Transportation 
   Albumen prints: Places 
   Albumen prints: Panoramas 
   Albumen prints: Scientific 
   Albumen prints: Experimental and manipulated photography 
   Albumen prints: Photomontage *** 
Photographers 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
   George N. Barnard: Panoramas *** 
Mammoth plate photography
Introduction 
   Introduction to mammoth plate 
Ambrotypes
Examples 
   Examples of ambrotypes 
   Painted ambrotypes 
   Ambrotypes: Half the back removed to show positive and negative areas *** 
   Ambrotypes: Used as the basis for illustrations *** 
Themes 
   Ambrotypes: Animals *** 
   Ambrotypes: Backgrounds *** 
   Ambrotypes: Military *** 
   Ambrotypes: Occupationals *** 
   Ambrotypes: Photographic studios *** 
   Ambrotypes: Photographica *** 
   Ambrotypes: Portrait 
Advertisements 
   Ambrotypes: Advertisements *** 
Cased photographs 
   Marketing: Cased photographs 
   Cased ambrotypes *** 
   Japanese ambrotypes 
Stereo ambrotypes 
   Stereo ambrotypes 
Contemporary 
   Ellen Susan: Soldier Portraits 
Aristotypes
Examples 
   American Aristotype Co. (Jamestown, New York) 
Autochromes
Examples of Autochromes 
   Examples of Autochromes 
Introduction 
   Autochromes: Introduction 
Invention and the process 
   Autochromes: Invention 
   Autochromes: Technique 
Themes 
   Autochromes: Portrait 
   Autochromes: Landscape 
   Autochromes: Still life 
   Autochromes: Scientific 
   Autochromes: Erotica and nudes *** 
   Autochromes: Art 
   Autochromes: From around the world 
   Autochromes: Stereo *** 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialists and the Autochrome 
Autochromes of the First World War (1914-1918) 
   French color photographs of the First World War (Autochromes) 
   Autochromes and Autochromists of WWI 
Albert Kahn: Archives of the Planet 
   Albert Kahn: Archives of the Planet (1909-1931) 
Photographers 
   The Lumière Brothers and the family: Autochromes 
   Fernand Cuville: Autochromes of the First World War 
   Fernand Cuville: Greece: Mount Athos 
Women photographers using Autochromes 
   Autochromes: Women photographers 
Publications using Autochromes 
   Autochromes: L'Illustration 
   Autochromes: National Geographic 
   Autochromes: Farbenphotographie 
Amateur photographers using Autochromes 
   Autochromes: Amateurs 
Packaging 
   Packaging for autochromes *** 
Bon Tons
Bon Ton advertising and tents 
   Bon Tons: Advertising *** 
   W.H. Pearce: The Algonquin Bon Ton Tent *** 
Bromoil prints
Photographers 
   Rudolf Koppitz: Bromoil prints *** 
Contemporary bromoil prints 
   Contemporary bromoil prints 
   The Bromoil Circle of Great Britain - Centenary 2007 
Calotypes
Introduction 
   Introduction to the calotype *** 
   Early paper prints and their confusing terminology 
Themes 
   Calotypes: Still life *** 
   Calotypes: Portraits *** 
   Calotypes: Exteriors 
   Calotypes: Art *** 
Painted calotypes 
   Painted calotypes 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Oriel Window, South Gallery, Lacock Abbey *** 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Pencil of Nature (1844-1846) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Sun Pictures in Scotland (1845) 
   Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
   Hill & Adamson: A Series of Calotype Views - St. Andrews (1846) 
   Hill & Adamson: Newhaven 
   William Sterling: Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848) 
   Comte Frederic Flacheron: Rome 
   Giacomo Caneva: Rome 
   Victor Prevost: Paper negatives (ca 1853) *** 
   W. & F. Langenheim: Calotypes and salt prints 
   John Shaw Smith: Calotypes *** 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia: Negatives 
   François Joseph Edouard de Campigneules: Calotypes (ca 1858) *** 
   Édouard Delessert: Ile de Sardaigne: Cagliari et Sassari, 40 Vues Photographiques (1854) 
   Richard Banner Oakeley: The Pagoda of Hallibeed (1859) 
   Louis-Pierre-Théophile Dubois de Nehaut: Belgian cityscapes *** 
   Louis-Pierre-Théophile Dubois de Nehaut: Portraits *** 
Studios and printing works 
   Nicolaas Henneman: The Reading Establishment - Talbot House *** 
Blanquart-Evrard process 
   Blanquart-Evrard process prints *** 
Fading 
   Punch (1847) on fading photographs and fading love 
   Photographic Society of London: Fading Committee (1855) 
Carbon prints
Photographers 
   Adolphe Braun - A Continental Printing Establishment (1874) 
Cliché-verre
Examples 
   Cliché verre 
Photographers 
   Man Ray: Les vois lactées (1974) 
Colour
Introduction 
   Introduction to colour 
Hand-painted photographs 
   Introduction to hand-painted photographs 
Packaging 
   Packaging for colour plates and film *** 
Photo-mechanical color 
   Photochroms 
Hillotypes 
   Hillotypes 
Early colour processes 
   James Clerk Maxwell: Experiments with colour 
   Louis Ducos du Hauron: Early experiments with colour 
   Gabriel Lippmann: Lippmann colour glass plate process 
   Frederic Eugene Ives: San Francisco Earthquake (1906) *** 
   Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii: Early colour photographs of trees and tracks 
   Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
Paget plates 
   Paget plates: Packaging *** 
   Frank Hurley: Paget plates of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917) 
Autochromes 
   The Lumière Brothers and the family: Autochromes 
   Examples of Autochromes 
   Pictorialists and the Autochrome 
   Fernand Cuville: Greece: Mount Athos 
Colour photography and the First World War (1914-1918) 
   Colour photography during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   French color photographs of the First World War (Autochromes) 
   Fernand Cuville: Autochromes of the First World War 
   Color postcards of the battles at Verdun 
   Frank Hurley: Paget plates of the First World War 
Artistic colour photography in Europe 
   Keld Helmer-Petersen: Colour 
   Luigi Ghirri: Kodachrome 
   Franco Fontana: Colour *** 
Nature photography and colour 
   Eliot Porter: Colour 
   Ernst Haas: Colour 
Documentary photography and colour 
   Albert Kahn: Archives of the Planet (1909-1931) 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration - OWI: Early colour 
   John Bulmer: Colour 
   Documerica Project (1971-1977) 
Street photography and colour 
   The acceptance of colour in American street photography 
   Harry Callahan: Colour work 
   William Eggleston: Colour 
   Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places 
   Helen Levitt: Colour 
   Saul Leiter: New York in colour 
   Joel Meyerowitz: Street photography 
Fashion and the use of colour 
   The rise of colour in fashion photography *** 
Advertising and commercial colour 
   Nickolas Muray: Advertising 
Colour abstracts 
   Henry Holmes Smith: Colour abstractions 
Colourising the past 
   Colourising the past 
Contemporary daguerreotypes
Introduction 
   Contemporary daguerreotypes *** 
Cyanotypes
Introduction 
   Cyanotypes 
Examples 
   Cyanotypes: Examples 
   Stereo cyanotypes *** 
   Cyanotypes and Pictorialism *** 
   Contemporary cyanotypes 
Permanence 
   Permanence of cyanotypes 
Photographers 
   Anna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) 
   Anna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854) 
   Charles-Albert Arnoux Bertall: Ethnological studies 
   Arthur Wesler Dow: Landscapes 
   Henry P. Bosse: Views on the Mississippi River 
   Georges Poulet: Aurora Argentina (1890s) 
   Charles F. Lummis: Native Americans 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Cyanotypes *** 
Albums 
   Album of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later) 
Daguerreotypes
Announcement 
   The announcement of photography OR Arago annonce la découverte de Daguerre 
   Introduction to the Daguerreotype 
The process 
   The Daguerreotype 
Early accounts 
   The Daguerrotipe - Private letter from Professor S.F.B. Morse to the editor of the Observer, dated, Paris, March 9th (1839) 
   The 'Daguerreotype.' - We have seen the views taken in Paris (1839) 
   Antoine Claudet: Advert for "the DAGUERREOTYPE; or, Nature delineated by Herself" 
   Visit to Plumbe's Gallery, New York (1846) 
Manuals and instructions 
   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions 
Daguerreotypomania 
   Daguerreotypomania 
   Interesting group posed for a Daguerreotype by a friend of the family / Interesting and valuable result (1855) 
Publications that did, or said they did, use daguerreotypes as the basis for their illustrations 
   The influence of the daguerreotype upon art 
   Paris et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840) 
   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
   Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes : vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (1842) 
   T. Bettinger: Vues d'Algérie prises au dauguerréotype (1847) *** 
   Bruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855) 
   Jean Baptiste Marie Chamouin: Vues de Paris (1845) *** 
   Charles Guillain: Voyage a la Côte Orientale d’Afrique (1856) 
Cameras, equipment and plates 
   Daguerreotype cameras *** 
   Daguerreotype equipment 
   Daguerreotype apparatus (1843) 
   Daguerreotype apparatus (1853) 
Plates 
   Daguerreotype plates *** 
   Daguerreotype plate sizes 
   Silver hallmarks on daguerreotype plates 
Packaging and labels 
   Packaging for daguerreotypes 
   Labels for Daguerreotypists 
Exposure times 
   Daguerreotype exposure times 
Costs 
   Costs charged for Daguerreotypes 
Painted backgrounds and daguerreotypists 
   Studio painted backgrounds for daguerreotypes 
   Antoine Claudet: Backgrounds for daguerreotypes 
Themes 
   Daguerreotypes: Portraits 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Native Americans *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Norwegian *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles 
   Daguerreotypes: Occupations and roles of women 
   Daguerreotypes: Celebrities 
   Mathew Brady's Studio photographs of Jenny Lind 
   Daguerreotypes: Politicians 
   Daguerreotypes: Military *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Post-mortem portraits 
   Daguerreotypes: Charitable causes 
   Daguerreotypes: Events 
   Daguerreotypes: Art 
   Daguerreotypes: Exteriors 
   Daguerreotypes: Landscapes 
   Daguerreotypes: Panoramas 
   Daguerreotypes: Nature *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Scientific 
   Daguerreotypes: Still life *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Multiple images 
   Daguerreotypes: Erotica and nudes 
Stereo daguerreotypes 
   Stereo daguerreotypes 
Coloring daguerreotypes 
   Painted daguerreotypes 
   Patent: To Richard Beard. of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses 
   Frederick Langenheim: Patents for Coloring Daguerreotype Plates 
   Patent: Wm. A. Pratt, Improvement in Colouring Daguerreotype-Pictures (1846) 
Framing 
   Daguerreotype frames 
   Daguerreotypes with painted glass passé partouts 
Photo-jewelry 
   Daguerreotype photo-jewelry 
Printing 
   Printing from daguerreotype plates 
Encounters with artists 
   The encounters between the London Daguerreotypist John Jabez Mayall and the artist John Turner (1847-1849) 
Photographers 
   Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre: Daguerreotype plates 
   Joseph Saxton: Philadelphia Central High School for Boys and Pennsylvania State Arsenal 
   Bertha Wehnert-Beckmann: Portraits 
   Louis-Adolphe Humbert de Molard: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Hermann Carl Eduard Biewend: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Lorenzo G. Chase: Anthropological studies 
   Robert Cornelius: Daguerreotype portraits 
   Marcus Aurelius Root: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   W. & F. Langenheim: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Jeremiah Gurney: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Samuel Broadbent: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Southworth and Hawes: Daguerreotype portraits 
   Rufus P. Anson: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Thomas Easterly: Daguerreotypes 
   Jules Itier: China 
   Samuel A. Bemis: The White Mountains of New Hampshire 
   Fontayne & Porter: The Cincinnati Panorama *** 
   George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
Poetry 
   Photographic Phenomena, or the new school of portrait painting (1842) 
Marketing 
   Marketing: Business cards of Daguerreotypists 
   Advertising for Daguerreotypists *** 
   Meade daguerreotype case a portrait of Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre *** 
   Marketing: Cased photographs 
Copying daguerreotypes 
   Copying photographs and copyists: Queen Victoria Presiding at the Reopening of the Reconstructed Crystal Palace at Sydenham (Daguerreotype - Albumen print) 
   Copying photographs and copyists: Portraits of Anne L. Gilles (Daguerreotype - Cabinet card) *** 
   Copying photographs and copyists: Portraits of an old woman (Daguerreotype - Tintype) *** 
Dry-plate photography
Packaging and marketing 
   Packaging for dry plates 
   Dry plates *** 
Proof of quality 
   Instantaneous photography - The exploding mule (6 June 1881) 
Photographers 
   Victor Angerer: Instantaneous photography on the street (1888) 
Fresson prints
Introduction 
   Fresson prints *** 
Gelatin silver prints
The process 
   The Gelatin Silver Print 
Themes 
   Gelatin silver prints: Abstract 
   Gelatin silver prints: Advertising 
   Gelatin silver prints: Architecture 
   Gelatin silver prints: Documentary 
   Gelatin silver prints: Erotica and the nude 
   Gelatin silver prints: Experimental and manipulated photography 
   Gelatin silver prints: Fashion *** 
   Gelatin silver prints: Landscape 
   Gelatin silver prints: Photojournalism 
   Gelatin silver prints: Photomontage 
   Gelatin silver prints: Portrait 
   Gelatin silver prints: Actors *** 
   Gelatin silver prints: Science 
   Gelatin silver prints: Objects 
   Gelatin silver prints: Still life *** 
   Gelatin silver prints: War 
   Gelatin silver prints: Strange *** 
   Gelatin silver prints: Photographica 
Techniques and manipulations 
   Gelatin silver prints: Multiple exposures 
   Photographic test strips 
   Painted gelatin silver prints *** 
   Gelatin silver prints: Sepia-toned 
   Press photographs with paint or instructions 
Hand-painted photographs
Introduction 
   Introduction to hand-painted photographs 
Examples of painted photographs 
   Painted daguerreotypes 
   Painted salt prints 
   Painted ambrotypes 
   Painted albumen prints 
   Louise Lafton (photographer) / Alexis Godillot (manufacturer): Album Photographique des Uniformes de L'Armées Françaises (1866) *** 
   Painted carte de visites 
   Cabinet cards: Painted 
   Painted stereoviews 
   Painted tintypes 
   Painted gelatin silver prints *** 
   Painted postcards *** 
Painting daguerreotypes 
   Patent: To Richard Beard. of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses 
   Frederick Langenheim: Patents for Coloring Daguerreotype Plates 
   Patent: Wm. A. Pratt, Improvement in Colouring Daguerreotype-Pictures (1846) 
Colouring kits 
   Nineteenth century photograph colouring kits 
   Retouching and painting desks 
Artists and colorists at work 
   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
Regional styles 
   Hand-coloured photographs from the Indian sub-continent 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
Contemporary photographers 
   Saul Leiter: Painted nudes 
   Lalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
Colourising the past 
   Colourising the past 
Imprimerie photographique Blanquart-Evrard
Examples 
   Blanquart-Evrard process prints *** 
   Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard: reproductions of works of art 
Photographers 
   Maxime du Camp: Egypt 
   John Beasly Greene: Le Nil (1854) 
   Auguste Salzmann: Jerusalem 
Infrared photography
Introduction 
   Black and white infrared photography *** 
   Colour infrared photography *** 
Photographers 
   Weegee: Infrared photography 
Iphone applications
Photography galleries 
   iPhone application: Fraenkel Gallery (2010) *** 
   iPhone application: Verve Gallery (2010) *** 
Photojournalism 
   iPhone news applications *** 
Ivorytypes and American Ivorytypes
Examples 
   Ivorytypes and American Ivorytypes *** 
The American Ivorytype / Toovytype 
   The American Ivorytype (1864) 
   The Toovytype: or: Ivorytype 
Kirlian photography
Introduction 
   Kirlian photography *** 
Lantern slides
Introduction 
   Magic lantern slides 
Types of lantern slides 
   Mechanical magic lantern slides 
   Phantasmagoria 
Examples 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Lantern slides and other photographs of Egypt 
   Magic lantern slides from Japan *** 
   Lantern slides of Ellis Island (New York) 
   Walter McClintock: The Blackfoot of Montana and their environment 
Magic lanterns
Introduction 
   History of the magic lantern 
   Magic lanterns 
Shows 
   Magic lantern shows and showmen 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
Magic lantern slides 
   Magic lantern slides 
   Mechanical magic lantern slides 
   Phantasmagoria 
Negatives
Introduction 
   Introduction to negatives 
   Manipulating negatives 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Paper negatives, waxed paper negatives, calotypes 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia: Negatives 
   Hill & Adamson: A tree at Colinston [Midlothian, Scotland] 
   Benjamin Brecknell Turner: Crystal Palace, Hyde Park *** 
   George N. Barnard: Rebel Works in front of Atlanta 
   Alphonse De Launay: Negative and positive glass plates *** 
   Gustave Le Gray: Combination prints 
Celluloid roll film 
   Introduction to roll film 
Orotones
Introduction 
   Introduction to the orotone 
Photographers 
   Edward S. Curtis: Orotones 
Variants 
   A variant form - Orotypes 
Paget plates
Packaging 
   Paget plates: Packaging *** 
Photographers 
   Frank Hurley: Paget plates of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917) 
   Frank Hurley: Paget plates of the First World War 
Painting on photographs
Introduction 
   Introduction to painting on photographs 
   The Remuneration of Art in America. Crayon Photographs (1882) 
Colouring kits and patents 
   Nineteenth century photograph colouring kits 
Patents for colouring photographs 
   Frederick Langenheim: Patents for Coloring Daguerreotype Plates 
   Patent: To Richard Beard. of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses 
Examples of painted photographs 
   Painted daguerreotypes 
   Painted salt prints 
   Painted ambrotypes 
   Painted albumen prints 
   Painted carte de visites 
   Cabinet cards: Painted 
   Painted stereoviews 
   Painted tintypes 
   Painted gelatin silver prints *** 
Examples of toned photographs 
   Gelatin silver prints: Sepia-toned 
Regional styles 
   Hand-coloured photographs from the Indian sub-continent 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
Colourists, retouchers and artists 
   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
Painted photographs by known artists 
   Painted photographs by known artists 
   Louis Pierson: Painted portraits of the Countess of Castiglione 
Photojournalism and painting on photographs 
   Press photographs with paint or instructions 
Contemporary photographer / artists 
   Peter Beard: Mixed-media collages and collaborative works 
Panoramas
Introduction 
   Introduction to panoramas 
Different photographic formats 
   Daguerreotypes: Panoramas 
   Salt prints: Panoramas 
   Albumen prints: Panoramas 
Photographers 
   Fontayne & Porter: The Cincinnati Panorama *** 
   George N. Barnard: Panoramas *** 
Cities 
   Panorama of Moscow (before 1868) 
Paper and waxed paper negatives
Introduction 
   Early paper prints and their confusing terminology 
Examples 
   Paper and waxed paper negatives 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Paper negatives, waxed paper negatives, calotypes 
   Henri Le Secq: Paper and waxed paper negatives 
   Fortune-Joseph Petiot-Groffier: Waxed paper negatives *** 
   François Joseph Edouard de Campigneules: Egypt (1858) 
   John Murray: Paper negatives and waxed paper negatives 
Photogenic drawings
Introduction 
   Early paper prints and their confusing terminology 
Examples 
   Examples of photogenic drawings *** 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Photogenic drawings *** 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Photogenic engravings *** 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Bertoloni Album 
   Johann Carl Enslen: Photogenic drawings *** 
Platinum prints
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
The process 
   The Platinum Print 
   Platinum prints: Examples *** 
Photographers 
   Frederick H. Evans: Platinum prints *** 
   William B. Post: Platinum prints *** 
   William B. Dyer: Platinum prints *** 
   Thomas Eakins: Platinum prints *** 
   Peter Henry Emerson: Platinum prints *** 
   Gertrude Käsebier: Platinum prints *** 
   Frank Rinehart: Platinum prints *** 
   Oscar Gustave Rejlander: Platinum prints *** 
   F. Holland Day: Platinum prints *** 
   Paul Martin: Platinum prints *** 
   Frederick Hollyer: Platinum prints *** 
   Paul Outerbridge: Platinum prints *** 
   George Henry Seeley: Platinum prints *** 
   Paul Strand: Platinum prints *** 
   Paul Burty Haviland: Platinum prints *** 
   Guido Rey: Platinum prints *** 
   Gustave Marissiaux: Platinum prints *** 
   Imogen Cunningham: Platinum prints *** 
   Karl F. Struss: Platinum prints *** 
   Herb Ritts: Platinum prints *** 
Polaroids
Information requests 
   Improving content on photographic techniques 
Examples 
   Polaroids 
Photographers 
   William Wegman: Polaroids *** 
   Laurie Minor: Altered Polaroid SX-70 prints *** 
   Lucas Samaras: Unpentant Ego / Photo-transformations 
   Cassio Vasconcellos: Inkjet prints based on scanned Polaroid SX-70 prints *** 
   Xavier Damon: Polaroids *** 
   Tim Mantoani: Polaroids of photographers *** 
   David Levinthal: Polaroid polacolor ER land film prints *** 
   Barbara Kasten: Polaroid polacolor prints 
   Fred Beckman: Polaroid prints *** 
   Jack Welpott: Polaroid prints *** 
   Olivia Parker: Polaroid prints *** 
   Carlo Mollino: Polaroid prints *** 
   Robert Gardner: Borroro male beauty - SX-70 prints *** 
   Bruce Charlesworth: Polaroid SX-70 prints with acrylic and collage *** 
   Ken Elliott: Polaroid Transfer prints with manipulations *** 
   Julie Moos: Polaroid portraits *** 
   Ellen Carey: Pulls 
Salt prints
Introduction 
   Early paper prints and their confusing terminology 
Examples 
   Painted salt prints 
   Blanquart-Evrard process prints *** 
   Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard: reproductions of works of art 
   Salt prints: Stereo *** 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Pencil of Nature (1844-1846) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Sun Pictures in Scotland (1845) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Bertoloni Album 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Paper negatives, waxed paper negatives, calotypes 
   Hill & Adamson: Portraits 
   Hill & Adamson: Scottish presbyterians *** 
   Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
   Hill & Adamson: Newhaven 
   Hill & Adamson: A Series of Calotype Views - St. Andrews (1846) 
   Auguste Salzmann: Jerusalem 
   John Beasly Greene: Le Nil (1854) 
   John Stewart: Pyrenees (1850s) 
   Pompeo Bondini: Italy *** 
   Roger Fenton: Russia (1852) 
   George Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857) 
   Louis-Camille d'Olivier: Nudes *** 
   Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851 (1852) *** 
Themes 
   Salt prints: Backgrounds *** 
   Salt prints: Exteriors 
   Salt prints: Portraits 
   Salt prints: Occupations and roles 
   Salt prints: Military *** 
   Salt prints: Panoramas 
   Salt prints: Still life 
   Salt prints: Objects *** 
The fading of salt prints 
   Photographic Society of London: Fading Committee (1855) 
Scanning electron microscope
Introduction 
   Scanning electron microscope *** 
Photographers 
   Rose-Lynn Fisher: Bee 
Stereoviews, stereographs and stereocards
Introduction 
   Introduction to stereoviews 
   Different types of stereo images 
   Understanding stereovision 
   The process of making card-based stereoviews 
   Stereo daguerreotypes 
   Stereo ambrotypes 
   Stereo tintypes 
   Stereo cyanotypes *** 
   Introduction to French tissues / tissue views 
Colour 
   Stereoviews: Colour 
Themes 
   Painted stereoviews 
   Stereoviews: Events *** 
Themes - Diablerie 
   Stereoviews: Diableries 
Themes - Erotica 
   Stereoviews: Erotica *** 
Themes - Nature 
   Stereoviews: Nature *** 
Themes - Places 
   Stereoviews: Places and locations 
Themes - Photography-related 
   Stereoviews: Photographic studios *** 
   Stereoviews: Photographic vans, wagons and cars *** 
   Stereoviews: Photographica *** 
Themes - Portrait 
   Stereoviews: Portraits: Celebrities *** 
   Stereoviews: Military *** 
Themes - Scientific 
   Stereoviews: Scientific 
   Metamorphic stereoviews - Épreuve a Mouvement *** 
Themes - Still life 
   Stereoviews: Still life *** 
Themes - Transportation 
   Stereoviews: Transportation *** 
Themes - War 
   Stereocard series on the American Civil War 
Books illustrated with stereoviews 
   Introduction to books illustrated with stereoviews 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857) 
   Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860) 
   William Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860) 
   Francis Frith: Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia, Illustrated with One Hundred Stereoscopic Photographs (1862) 
   Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878) 
Manufacture and packaging of stereoviews 
   Interior of an Stereographic Manufactory *** 
   H.C. White Manfacturing Plant for Stereoscopes and StereoViews - North Bennington, Vermont, USA *** 
   H.C. White: The manufacture of stereoscopes and views *** 
   Packaging for stereoviews *** 
Stereocards marketing and salesrooms 
   Marketing stereocards *** 
   Stereoviews: Lists of views 
   Salesrooms for stereoviews *** 
Stereocard storage for home and education 
   Stereoview libraries for the armchair traveler 
Photographers 
   Elias A. Bonine: Stereocards: Florida Series *** 
   James Chapman: Chapman Expedition in South Africa (1862-1864) 
   Karl Wessely: Eye conditions and injuries (1931) 
Cameras 
   Stereoview cameras *** 
Tintypes
History 
   E.P. Griswold: The History of the Ferrotype (1889) 
Examples 
   Tintypes: Examples 
   Painted tintypes 
Tintypes in non-paper based objects 
   Tintypes in non-paper objects 
Instructions 
   A.K.P. Trask: Trask's Practical Ferrotyper (1872) 
Plates 
   Tintypes: Plates *** 
   Neff plates 
Packaging 
   Packaging for tintypes *** 
Stereo tintypes 
   Stereo tintypes 
Cameras 
   Tintype cameras *** 
Preservers 
   Ferotype preservers *** 
   Tintype preservers 
Sleeves and mounts 
   Paper sleeves and card mounts for tintypes 
Albums 
   Tin Type Album: Little gem tintypes 
Themes 
   Tintypes: Multiple exposures 
   Tintypes: Leisure *** 
   Tintypes: Portraits 
   Tintypes: Ethnic: Native Americans *** 
   Tintypes: Occupationals 
   Tintypes: Exteriors 
   Tintypes: Photographers *** 
   Tintypes: Photographic studios *** 
   Tintypes: Photographica *** 
American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Reasons for the popularity of the tintype during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
Bon Tons 
   Bon Tons: Advertising *** 
   W.H. Pearce: The Algonquin Bon Ton Tent *** 
Contemporary tintypes 
   Contemporary tintypes 
Wet-plate photography
Video resources 
   The Collodion Process 
Introduction 
   The wet plate collodion process *** 
   Wet-plate photography 
   Panotypes / Pannotypes 
Original publication 
   Frederick Scott Archer: On The Use of Collodion in Photography (March 1851) 
Supplies 
   Collodion *** 
   William Henry Jackson: Equipment required for wet-plate photography (1869) 
Photographers at work 
   Carleton E. Watkins (uncertain): #925 Spring Valley Water Works 
   William Henry Jackson: Photographing in High Places 
   Wet-plate photographers at work *** 
   Mr James Mudd encounters a photographic van in Wales (1860) 
Dark tents and dark boxes 
   Dark tents and dark boxes *** 
   Photographs of dark tents, dark boxes and photographers in the field *** 
   Contemporary accounts of nineteenth century dark tents 
 
  

The business of photography

 
  
The business of photography
Introduction 
   The business of photography 
Equipment
Introduction 
   Introduction to equipment 
Daguerreotype equipment 
   Daguerreotype cameras *** 
   Daguerreotype equipment 
   Daguerreotype apparatus (1843) 
   Daguerreotype apparatus (1853) 
Printing frames 
   Printing and enlarging frames 
Retouching and painting desks 
   Retouching and painting desks 
Dark tents and dark boxes 
   Dark tents and dark boxes *** 
Watch the Birdie 
   Watch-the-birdie 
Camera stands and tripods
Introduction 
   Camera stands and tripods 
Cameras
Introduction 
   Historical changes in the size of cameras 
   Camera: A History of Photography from Daguerreotype to Digital 
Types of cameras 
   Daguerreotype cameras *** 
   Stereoscopic cameras *** 
   Tintype cameras *** 
   Carte de visite cameras *** 
   American Civil War (1861-1865): Cameras 
   Mathew Brady: Camera 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Cameras *** 
   Snapshot cameras 
   The Kodak Camera *** 
   Early Kodak camera formats 
   Camera developments and street photography 
   Camera transit made by Fairchild (ca. 1946) *** 
   Camera phones *** 
   iPhone applications *** 
Pinhole cameras
Introduction 
   Introduction to pinhole photography 
Photographers 
   George Davison: Pinhole photographs 
   Ansel Adams: Hills Brothers Coffee Can 
   Fabricated Cameras and Contemporary Pinhole Photography *** 
Projects 
   The Trashcam Project - Hamburg, Germany (2012) 
Pinhole Journal 
   PInhole Journal 
Plastic cameras
Photographers 
   Teru Kuwayama: Photojournalism with a Holga 
Dark tents and dark boxes
Introduction 
   Introduction to dark tents and dark boxes 
Examples 
   Dark tents and dark boxes *** 
   Photographs of dark tents, dark boxes and photographers in the field *** 
   A surviving example of a dark tent 
Contemporary accounts 
   Contemporary accounts of nineteenth century dark tents 
   Sources on nineteenth century dark tents and dark boxes 
Photographers using dark tents and dark boxes 
   Carleton E. Watkins (uncertain): #925 Spring Valley Water Works 
   William Henry Jackson: Photographing in High Places 
   Francis Frith at the Temple of Dendara, Egypt 
   Jackson Brothers (Omaha, Nebraska): Scenery of the Union Pacific Railroad - #192 Dale Creek Bridge 
   John Burke: Fixing the Negative 
   Contemporary dark tents and dark boxes 
Magnesium light
Introduction 
   Equipment for magnesium light 
   Magnesium light in use *** 
Early accounts 
   Using magnesium light for photographic purposes (1864) 
   Magnesium and the Magnesium Light (1868) 
   Photographs taken with magnesium light *** 
Photographers 
   Charles Waldack: Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (1866) 
   Mandeville Thum: Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (1877) *** 
   Ben Hains: Views of Mammoth Cave and vicinity (1889) 
   J.C. Burrow: Mongst Mines and Miners; or Underground scenes by flash-light (1893) 
Charles Piazzi Smyth: The Great Pyramid and the use of magnesium light (1865) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Use of magnesium light at the Great Pyramid (1865) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Photography, Magnesium, and the Pyramid (1865) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: As soon as it was discovered that photography was possible by magnesium... (1865) 
Retouching, colouring and painting kits
Painting 
   Introduction to painting on photographs 
   Nineteenth century photograph colouring kits 
Retouching 
   Introduction to retouching 
   Retouching and painting desks 
Photographers 
   Frederick Langenheim: Patents for Coloring Daguerreotype Plates 
   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
Solar enlargers
Introduction 
   Solar Enlargers 
Examples 
   Prints created using solar enlargers 
Guidelines, manuals and instructions
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions 
Tintypes 
   A.K.P. Trask: Trask's Practical Ferrotyper (1872) 
Legal
Obscenity 
   Obscenity 
Copyright
Copyright law in Great Britain - 1888 (Messrs. Braun and Co. vs. A.E. Whitehouse) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (17 August 1888) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Messrs. Braun and Co. (24 August 1888) 
   International Copyright of Photographs - Judgement - Messrs. Braun and Co. (21 September 1888) 
Patents
Introduction 
   Patents *** 
Examples of photography-related patents 
   John Arrowsmith's Diorama, or Method of Exhibiting Pictures - British Patent No. 4899, 10 February 1824 
   Patenting of M. Daguerre's Process in England (2 November 1839) 
   Patent: To Richard Beard. of Earl-street, Blackfriars, Gent., for improvements in the means of obtaining likenesses 
   Frederick Langenheim: Patents for Coloring Daguerreotype Plates 
   Harding's Patent Photograph Album *** 
   Patent illustrations *** 
   François Willème: Photosculpture 
   Patents for photographic backgrounds and foregrounds 
   Photobooth designs *** 
Manufacture of photography-related items
Introduction 
   Introduction to the manufacture of photography-related items *** 
   Scovill Mfg. Co. *** 
Albumen paper 
   The manufacture of albumen paper *** 
Card stock 
   Introduction to card stock 
Manufacture of stereoscopes and stereocards 
   Interior of an Stereographic Manufactory *** 
   H.C. White Manfacturing Plant for Stereoscopes and StereoViews - North Bennington, Vermont, USA *** 
   H.C. White: The manufacture of stereoscopes and views *** 
Marketing
Introduction to marketing 
   Introduction to marketing 
Marketing techniques 
   Photographs of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Illustrations of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Marketing: Signage and banners 
   Richard Beard: Trade card 
   Marketing: Cased photographs 
   Marketing: Banknotes and premiums *** 
   Handbills, broadsides and paper-based promotional material 
   Marketing: Business cards of Daguerreotypists 
   Marketing: Business cards 
   Marketing: Business stationery 
   Carte de visites: Advertising for photographers 
   Marketing: Studio daybooks, sitters' books, sample books and sample boards 
   Marketing: Commercial catalogues 
   Marketing: Advertisements in newspapers *** 
   Marketing: Advertisements in publications *** 
   Marketing: In the popular press *** 
   Marketing: Trade directories *** 
   Marketing: Photographic publications *** 
   Marketing: Photographer and studio labels 
   Marketing: Puzzles *** 
   Marketing: Stamps 
   Marketing: Studio marks in negative *** 
   Marketing: Touting for business 
   I.W. Taber: Contemporary account of meeting the photographer in San Francisco 
   Marketing: En plein air *** 
   Marketing: Photographing celebrities *** 
   Marketing: Posters *** 
   Marketing: Showcasing photographs 
   Carte de visites: Proof stamps and proof copies 
Marketing for photographic studios 
   Mathew B. Brady: Brady's Daguerrean Gallery *** 
   Jeremiah Gurney: J. Gurney's Premium Daguerreotype Gallery *** 
   Mr. Pratt's Gallery at Richmond, VA - Coloring Daguerreotypes (1851) 
   Jeremiah Gurney: Premiums *** 
Companies selling reproductions of works of art in the nineteenth century 
   Companies providing photographic reproductions of art in the nineteenth century 
Socializing 
   Camera clubs and get-togethers of photographers *** 
Contemporary marketing 
   Evites 
   iPhone applications *** 
   iPad applications *** 
Advertising in newspapers
Examples 
   Advertising for Daguerreotypists *** 
   Marketing: Advertisements in newspapers *** 
Photographers 
   George S. Cook: Advertisements *** 
Advertising in publications
Advertising in publications 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers 
   Marketing: Advertisements in publications *** 
Awards and medals
Introduction 
   Awards at photographic exhibitions and competitions 
Backmarks showing medals and awards 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Awards 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Awards 
Backmarks
Introduction 
   Introduction to backmarks 
Awards 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Awards 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Awards 
Miscellaneous 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Additional products 
    *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Catalogue pages 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Diverse occupations 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Landscapes *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Product promotion *** 
Women photographers 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Women photographers *** 
Photography and the arts 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Graphics that place photography with the arts 
Motifs 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Belt buckle *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Egyptian motifs 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Shared graphic motif *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Matching graphical elements 
Photographic studios 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Photographic studios 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Photographic studios *** 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Photograph cars *** 
Missing studio details 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Missing studio details *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Missing studio details *** 
Royal patronage 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Royal patronage 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Royal patronage 
Services 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Elevator available 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Negatives preserved, copies made and enlargements 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Teaching available *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Electric light *** 
Whimsy 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Whimsy *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Whimsy *** 
Banknotes and premiums
Premiums 
   Marketing: Banknotes and premiums *** 
Business and trade cards
Business cards 
   Marketing: Business cards of Daguerreotypists 
   Marketing: Business cards 
Business stationery
Introduction 
   Marketing: Business stationery 
Examples 
   A.C. Kline: Jeff Davis "taking" Washington 
   Cabinet card mailers *** 
Cases
Cases 
   Marketing: Cased photographs 
Commercial catalogues
Catalogues 
   Marketing: Commercial catalogues 
Photographic studios 
   Thomas Houseworth: Houseworth's Celebrities 
En plein air
Introduction 
   Marketing: En plein air *** 
Exhibitions and competitions
Introduction 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
   Posters for photographic exhibitions and competitions *** 
   French photographic competitions during the First World War (1914-1918) 
   Labels on photographs at photographic exhibitions and competitions *** 
   Photographic passes for international exhibitions 
   Room and wall hangings for photographic exhibitions 
   Thomas Smillie: Installation views of an exhibition of photography *** 
   National Museum of History and Technology: Hall of Photography (1973) *** 
Awards 
   Awards at photographic exhibitions and competitions 
   Carte de visites: Backs: Awards 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Awards 
Exhibitions 
   Seminal exhibitions 
   reGeneration 
Connections between art and photography 
   Exhibitions on the relationships between art and photography 
Handbills and broadsides
Introduction 
   Handbills, broadsides and paper-based promotional material 
Photographer and studio labels
Labels 
   Labels for Daguerreotypists 
   Marketing: Photographer and studio labels 
   Labels of distributors 
Photographic publications
Introduction 
   Marketing: Photographic publications *** 
Photographers 
   David Dare Parker: Agent Orange, Vietnam *** 
Photographing celebrities
Introduction 
   Daguerreotypes: Celebrities 
   Mathew Brady's Studio photographs of Jenny Lind 
   Thomas Houseworth: Houseworth's Celebrities 
   Carte de visites: Celebrities 
   Giuseppe Garibaldi 
   Cabinet cards: Celebrities 
   Marketing: Photographing celebrities *** 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Royal patronage 
Popular press
Introduction 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers 
   Marketing: In the popular press *** 
   Marketing: Chase's Daguerreotype Rooms, Boston (1846) 
   Marketing: John A. Whipple, 96 Washington St., Boston (1848) 
   Marketing: J.V.R. Schuyler, Ithaca, NY (1853) 
   Marketing: Root's Daguerrean Gallery (1853) 
Posters
Introduction 
   Marketing: Posters *** 
Sample books and sample boards
Introduction 
   Marketing: Studio daybooks, sitters' books, sample books and sample boards 
Photographers 
   Elliot & Fry: Sample book *** 
   Malick Sidibe: Catalogues *** 
Showcasing photographs
Showcasing photographs 
   Marketing: Showcasing photographs 
Signage and banners
Introduction 
   Marketing: Signage and banners 
Stamps
Examples 
   Marketing: Stamps 
Types 
   Wet stamps 
   Blind and embossed stamps 
Purpose 
   Stamps: Studio 
   Stamps: Distribution *** 
   Stamps: Estate 
Photographers and their stamps 
   Brassaï: Wet stamps *** 
   Elliott Erwitt: Wet stamps *** 
   Martin Munkácsi: Wet stamps *** 
Magnum wet stamps 
   Robert Capa: Magnum wet stamps *** 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Magnum wet stamps *** 
Case studies 
   Views of Rome taken by Adriano de Bonis signed by Achille Quinet 
Studio marks in negative
Examples 
   Marketing: Studio marks in negative *** 
Touting for business
Introduction 
   Marketing: Touting for business 
Examples 
   I.W. Taber: Contemporary account of meeting the photographer in San Francisco 
   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
Trade directories
Introduction 
   Marketing: Trade directories *** 
Examples 
   Daguerreotpes and hats 
   I.W. Taber: The Taber photographic album of principal business houses, residences and persons (1880) 
Mobile studios
Introduction 
   Introduction to mobile studios 
Contemporary accounts 
   Avery's Portable Daguerreotype Saloon (1847) 
   Contemporary account of itinerant photographers in America (1856) 
Photographic vans 
   Photographs of photographic vans 
   Contemporary sources on photographic vans *** 
   Roger Fenton: The artist's van 
Railroad photographic cars 
   Railroad photograph cars and studios on trains 
   Backmarks for railroad photograph cars *** 
   J.B. Silvis: Photograph car 
Studios on barges and boats 
   Studios on boats and barges 
Tent studios 
   Studios in tents 
   Carleton E. Watkins (uncertain): #925 Spring Valley Water Works 
Beach photographers 
   Beach photographers *** 
Photographic vans, wagons and cars
Examples of Photographic vans, wagons and cars 
   Photographs of photographic vans 
War 
   Roger Fenton: The artist's van 
   Photographer teams and photographic vans during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
Expeditions and surveys 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: The sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev. 
Contemporary accounts 
   Avery's Portable Daguerreotype Saloon (1847) 
   Contemporary account of itinerant photographers in America (1856) 
   Contemporary sources on photographic vans *** 
   Mr James Mudd encounters a photographic van in Wales (1860) 
   A photographic van or a house on wheels (1875) 
Railroad photograph cars and studios on trains
Introduction 
   Railroad photograph cars and studios on trains 
Backmarks 
   Backmarks for railroad photograph cars *** 
Photographers 
   J.B. Silvis: Photograph car 
Contemporary accounts 
   Swain & Mote and their photograph car (1871) 
   J.B. Silvis provides the services of his photographic car to assist the photographing of a solar eclipse (1878) 
Studios on boats and barges
Studios on boats and barges 
   Studios on boats and barges 
Tents
Examples 
   Studios in tents 
Photographers 
   Carleton E. Watkins (uncertain): #925 Spring Valley Water Works 
Packaging
Introduction 
   Introduction to packaging *** 
Packaging for different kinds of photographs 
   Packaging for daguerreotypes 
   Packaging for stereoviews *** 
   Packaging for tintypes *** 
   Carte de visite mailers *** 
   Carte de visite boxes and wallets *** 
   Cabinet card mailers *** 
   Packaging for dry plates 
   Kodak Film *** 
   Packaging for autochromes *** 
   Packaging for colour plates and film *** 
Photographic studios
Achitectural designs 
   Architectural designs for studios 
Exteriors 
   Photographs of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Illustrations of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Photographs of exteriors of twentieth century photographic shops and studios 
   Ordnance Survey Building, Southampton 
   Printing and enlarging frames 
Interiors 
   Photographs of the interiors of photographic shops and studios 
   Illustrations of the interiors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Photographic studios *** 
Features 
   Features of photographic studios: Signage *** 
   Features of photographic studios: Skylights 
   Features of photographic studios: Windows *** 
   Features of photographic studios: Showrooms *** 
   Features of photographic studios: Darkrooms *** 
Studio stamps 
   Stamps: Studio 
   Blind and embossed stamps 
Visiting photographic studies 
   "Portrait factory" on Broadway, New York 
   Visit to Plumbe's Gallery, New York (1846) 
Accidents in photographic studios 
   Fires in photographic studios 
   Poisonings due to availability of photographic chemicals 
Twentieth century studios and shops 
   Photographic studios and shops *** 
Exteriors of photographic studios
Examples 
   Photographs of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Illustrations of the exteriors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Photographs of exteriors of twentieth century photographic shops and studios 
Studios using different processes 
   Ambrotypes: Photographic studios *** 
Printing and enlarging frames 
   Printing and enlarging frames 
Case studies 
   The Daguerreotype studios of Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 
   Nicolaas Henneman: The Reading Establishment - Talbot House *** 
   William Notman: Use of the painted exterior wall of his Montreal Studio as a background 
   Ordnance Survey Building, Southampton 
Interiors of photographic studios
The appearance of photographic studios 
   Photographs of the interiors of photographic shops and studios 
   Illustrations of the interiors of nineteenth century photographic shops and studios 
   Richard Beard: Jabez Hogg and Mr. Johnson (1843) *** 
Darkrooms 
   Surviving examples of early darkrooms 
Backgrounds and foregrounds 
   Backgrounds used in nineteenth century photographic studios 
   C.M. Coolidge: US patent No. 149,724, Processes of Taking Photographic Pictures (1874) *** 
Electric light 
   Use of electric lighting in studios 
Posing 
   The "helping hand", "hidden mother" and "hidden father" portraits 
   The simulation of snow and ice in portrait studios 
   Arthur Scheiner: At the Photographer (1890) 
Significant photographic studios - Examples
Studios 
   Mathew B. Brady: Brady's Daguerrean Gallery *** 
   Jeremiah Gurney: J. Gurney's Premium Daguerreotype Gallery *** 
   Mr. Pratt's Gallery at Richmond, VA - Coloring Daguerreotypes (1851) 
   Nicolaas Henneman: The Reading Establishment - Talbot House *** 
   Adolphe Braun - A Continental Printing Establishment (1874) 
Darkrooms 
   Surviving examples of early darkrooms 
Printing works
Printing works 
   Adolphe Braun - A Continental Printing Establishment (1874) 
Publications, books, manuals, journals and magazines
Introduction 
   Publications using photographs as the basis for portraits 
   Publications using photographs as the basis for engineering and science 
   Introduction to tipped-in photographs in books 
Publications that did, or said they did, use daguerreotypes as the basis for their illustrations 
   The influence of the daguerreotype upon art 
   Paris et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840) 
   Noël Marie Paymal Lerebours: Excursions daguerriennes : vues et monuments les plus remarquables du globe (1842) 
   Jean Baptiste Marie Chamouin: Vues de Paris (1845) *** 
   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
   T. Bettinger: Vues d'Algérie prises au dauguerréotype (1847) *** 
   Bruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855) 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
   Joseph Pedra: Photographs and illustrations of Algeria *** 
Early works using photolithography 
   Henri Le Secq: Premier Cahier de lithophotographie (1853) *** 
Later books 
   John Thomson: Cambodia: Angkor Thom / Angkor Wat (1866) 
   John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist 
Examples 
   Illustrations based on Daguerreotypes: Military *** 
   Early livestock photography 
   Early fashion photography 
Advertising albums 
   I.W. Taber: The Taber photographic album of principal business houses, residences and persons (1880) 
Magazines 
   A.C. Pardal & Filho: Publicação Photographica (1870-1871) 
Publishing companies 
   Early publishing companies specializing in photography 
Illustrated magazines
Examples 
   Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
   Photographic Review of Medicine and Surgery (1870-?) 
   Dr. A. de Montmeja: Revue Photographique des Hopitaux de Paris (1869-?) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: A council of war at Massaponax Church, VA (21 May 1864) 
   The Far East (1870-1878) 
   Surrealism: Publications 
   German illustrated magazines during the First World War 
   Photojournalists in Weimar Germany 
   AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung 
   Vanity Fair 
Trends 
   The technologies that allowed photojournalism to flourish 
   The decline of the photo magazines 
Publications using Autochromes 
   Autochromes: L'Illustration 
   Autochromes: National Geographic 
   Autochromes: Farbenphotographie 
Photobooks
Introduction 
   Books about photobooks 
Regional selections 
   British photobooks *** 
   French photobooks *** 
   German photobooks *** 
   Dutch photobooks *** 
   Czech photobooks *** 
   American photobooks *** 
   Japanese photobooks 
Directories of digital photobooks 
   EphotobookList (March 2013) 
Photography related magazines and journals
Introduction 
   Introduction to photographic magazines *** 
Photographic magazines 
   France: Photography magazines and journals 
   Germany: Photography magazines and journals 
   Britain: Photography magazines and journals 
   USA: Photography magazines and journals 
Tipped-in photographs in books
Introduction 
   Introduction to tipped-in photographs in books 
1840s 
   Anna Atkins: Photographs of British Algae: Cyanotype impressions (1843-1854) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Pencil of Nature (1844-1846) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Sun Pictures in Scotland (1845) 
   Hill & Adamson: A Series of Calotype Views - St. Andrews (1846) 
   William Sterling: Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848) 
1850s 
   Anna Atkins: Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (ca. 1854) 
   Constantin v. Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny: Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum (1855-1856) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857) 
   Richard Banner Oakeley: The Pagoda of Hallibeed (1859) 
   Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, 1851 (1852) *** 
1860s 
   Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860) 
   William Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860) 
   Balmanno Squire: A Manual of the Diseases of the Skin (1862) *** 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East (1862) 
   William and Mary Howitt: Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain (1862) 
   Francis Frith: The Holy Bible (1862-1863) 
   William Howitt: Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain and Ireland, Second Series (1864) 
   Edward Bierstadt: Photographic Illustrations Of Skin Diseases (1864) 
   Henry Moulton: Rays of Sunlight from South America (1865) 
   Francis Frith: Illustrations for Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Hyperion (1865) 
   Alexander Gardner's Photographic Sketchbook of the War (1866) 
   Eugène Charles de Gayffier: Herbier Forestier de la France (1867) 
   Thomas H. Dyer: The Ruins of Pompeii. A Series of Eighteen Photographic Views (1867) 
   William Johnson & William Henderson: The Oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay (published 1863-1866) 
   J. Forbes Watson & John William Kaye (eds.): The People of India (1868-1872) 
1870s 
   Paris Commune Album (1871) 
   Henry W. Taunt: The River Thames (1872) 
   Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
   William Bradford, John Dunmore and George Critcherson: The Arctic Regions (1873) 
   Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878) 
   Dr Guillaume-Amant Duchenne de Boulogne and Adrien Tournachon: Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse électrophysiologique des passions (1876) 
   William de Wiveleslie Abney: Thebes and its Five Greater Temples (1876) 
1880s 
   I.W. Taber: The Taber photographic album of principal business houses, residences and persons (1880) 
1900s 
   Lala Deen Dayal: Sorabji Jehangir - Princes and Chiefs of India (1903) *** 
Armchair travelers 
   Photographically illustrated books for the armchair traveler 
Tipped-in photographs in magazines and journals
Examples of magazines with tipped-in illustrations 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Photographs tipped-in to The Art Journal (1 June 1846) *** 
   Dr. A. de Montmeja: Revue Photographique des Hopitaux de Paris (1869-?) 
   Photographic Review of Medicine and Surgery (1870-?) 
   The Far East (1870-1878) 
   A.C. Pardal & Filho: Publicação Photographica (1870-1871) 
Studio necessities
Backgrounds 
   Backgrounds used in nineteenth century photographic studios 
Foregrounds 
   C.M. Coolidge: US patent No. 149,724, Processes of Taking Photographic Pictures (1874) *** 
   The simulation of snow and ice in portrait studios 
Backgrounds and foregrounds
Introduction 
   Introduction to backgrounds and foregrounds 
   Painters of backgrounds 
Daguerreotypists and painted studio backgrounds 
   Studio painted backgrounds for daguerreotypes 
   Antoine Claudet: Backgrounds for daguerreotypes 
   Salt prints: Backgrounds *** 
   Ambrotypes: Backgrounds *** 
Contemporary accounts 
   Backgrounds 
   Studio backgrounds 
   How Nineteenth Century Studios used backgrounds 
Examples of studio backgrounds 
   Backgrounds used in nineteenth century photographic studios 
Use of painted external walls as backgrounds 
   William Notman: Use of the painted exterior wall of his Montreal Studio as a background 
Designs for backgrounds 
   Backgrounds - how to paint and arrange them (1859) *** 
   David Knights-Whittome: Photographic backgrounds 
   Surviving photographic backgrounds 
Background holders and supports 
   Background holders and supports 
Revolving backgrounds 
   Revolving backgrounds 
Suppliers of backgrounds 
   Advertising for manufacturers and suppliers of backgrounds *** 
Paintings showing backgrounds in photographic studios 
   Paintings showing backgrounds in use *** 
Foreground and background themes 
   Backgrounds: Transportation *** 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Carts *** 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Cars 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Railways *** 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Balloons 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Aircraft *** 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Boats *** 
   Studio backgrounds and foregrounds: Bars *** 
   Backgrounds: Landscapes *** 
   Patriotic and military backgrounds for portraits during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   Martinique: Studio portraits *** 
Foregrounds 
   Foregrounds 
   Foregrounds: Windows 
Inappropriate backgrounds 
   Backgrounds: Inappropriate 
Street photographers 
   Backgrounds: Street photographers *** 
Case studies 
   Jean-Philippe Charbonnier: The Biter Bit 
   Philip K. Apagya: Aspirational backgrounds in studio portraiture 
   Clarisse d'Arcimoles: Forget Nostalgia - A Little Theatre of Self (2012) *** 
Patents for backgrounds 
   Patents for photographic backgrounds and foregrounds 
   C.M. Coolidge: US patent No. 149,724, Processes of Taking Photographic Pictures (1874) *** 
Props
Introduction 
   Nineteenth century Photographic Studios - Properties, accessories and novelties 
   A contemporary thought on the properties, accessories and novelties used in 19th studios 
Kinds of props used in studios 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Head rests - illustrations 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Head rests - photographs *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Chairs 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Chairs - Illustrations 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Posing chairs for children *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Posing furniture with restraints *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Tables *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Benches *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Curtains *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Columns, plinths and pedestals 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Balustrades *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Staircases *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Rustic fences, gates, trees and stumps *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Swings *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Cameras *** 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Toys 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Horses *** 
   Watch-the-birdie 
Conclusions 
   Conclusions on studio props 
Balustrades
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Balustrades *** 
Benches
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Benches *** 
Chairs and sofas
Introduction 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Chairs 
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Chairs - Illustrations 
Chairs for children 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Posing chairs for children *** 
Columns, plinths and pedestals
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Columns, plinths and pedestals 
Contemporary thoughts 
   A contemporary thought on the properties, accessories and novelties used in 19th studios 
Curtains
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Curtains *** 
Contemporary thoughts 
   A contemporary thought on the properties, accessories and novelties used in 19th studios 
Head rests and posing stands
Introduction 
   Introduction to head rests and posing stands 
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Head rests - illustrations 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Head rests - photographs *** 
Rustic fences, gates, trees and stumps
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Rustic fences, gates, trees and stumps *** 
Staircases
Introduction 
   Staircases 
Photographers 
   Eugène Atget: Staircases *** 
Props 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Staircases *** 
Swings
Examples 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Swings *** 
Tables
Introduction 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Tables *** 
Toys
Introduction 
   Props, accessories and novelties: Toys 
Watch-the-birdie 
   Watch-the-birdie 
Reflectors
Examples 
   Reflectors 
Studio lighting
Introduction 
   Introduction to studio lighting 
Glass windows, roofs and blinds 
   Alphonse J. Liébert: Studio lighting (1878) 
Reflectors 
   Reflectors 
Gas light 
   Artificial light *** 
Electric light 
   Electric light 
   Cabinet cards: Backs: Electric light *** 
Supply houses and supplies
Introduction 
   Introduction to supply houses and supplies 
Daguerreotype plates 
   Daguerreotype plates *** 
Tintype plates 
   Tintypes: Plates *** 
Albumen paper 
   The manufacture of albumen paper *** 
Card stock 
   The card stock used for carte de visites, cabinet cards and mounted photographs 
Chemicals 
   Adverts for chemicals *** 
   Collodion *** 
Dry plates 
   Dry plates *** 
Magnesium light 
   Equipment for magnesium light 
Chemicals
Light-sensitive chemicals 
   Introduction to light-sensitive materials 
   An Account of a method of copying Paintings upon glass, and of making Profiles, by the agency of Light upon Nitrate of Silver. Invented by T. WEDGWOOD, ESQ. With Observations by H. DAVY. (1802) 
Collodion 
   Collodion *** 
Adverts for photographic chemicals 
   Adverts for chemicals *** 
Manufacturing 
   The manufacture of albumen paper *** 
Wet-plate necessities 
   William Henry Jackson: Equipment required for wet-plate photography (1869) 
Poisonings with photographic chemicals 
   Poisonings due to availability of photographic chemicals 
Dry plates
Introduction 
   Packaging for dry plates 
   Dry plates *** 
   Instantaneous photography - The exploding mule (6 June 1881) 
 
  

Geographical regions

 
  
Africa
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Africa 
   Early photography in North Africa 
   Early photography in West Africa 
   Colonialism in Africa 
   Expeditions within Africa 
   James Chapman: Chapman Expedition in South Africa (1862-1864) 
   Gustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
   Joseph Thomson and photography in East Africa 
   Edouard Foà: Africa 
   The liberation of Africa 
Photographers 
   Pierre Tremaux: Voyage au Soudan Oriental et dans l'Afrique Septentrionale (1847-1854) 
   Charles Guillain: Voyage a la Côte Orientale d’Afrique (1856) 
   William Ellis: Madagascar 
   Désiré Charnay: Madagascar 
Wars 
   Anglo-Egyptian War (1882): Bombardment of Alexandria (1882) 
   Anglo-Zanzibar War (27 August 1896) 
   Felice Beato: Khartoum Relief Expedition (1884-1885) 
   Boer War (1899-1902) 
Photojournalism 
   Drum 
Portraits 
   Malick Sidibe: Portraits 
   Seydou Keita: Portraits from Mali 
Algeria
Daguerreotypes 
   Unidentified Daguerreotypists: Algeria *** 
Studio portraits 
   Studio portraits in Algeria *** 
Photographers 
   John Beasly Greene: Algeria 
   Alphonse De Launay: Algeria *** 
   Gustave de Beaucorps: Algeria 
   T. Bettinger: Vues d'Algérie prises au dauguerréotype (1847) *** 
   Joseph Pedra: Photographs and illustrations of Algeria *** 
   C. Portier: Algerian portraits *** 
Perspectives on 19th century Algeria 
   Boys and girls - Photos d’identité - in colonial French Algeria 
   Icons of the South - Portraits of Ouleds-Nails (Algeria 1860-1910) 
Colonial and post-colonial conflicts 
   Algerian War of Independence (1950s) 
   Algerian Civil War (1991-2002) 
Cameroon
Introduction 
   Introduction to Cameroon 
Central African Republic
Photographers 
   Samuel Fosso: Self portraits 
Democratic Republic of the Congo - Zaire
The Congo atrocities 
   The Congo Atrocities 
Egypt
Introduction to photography in Egypt 
   Introduction to photography in Egypt 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Egypt 
Photographers 
   Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Egypt 
   Jules Itier: Egypt 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia 
   Félix Teynard: Egypt and Nubia: Negatives 
   Louis de Clercq: Egypt 
   Maxime du Camp: Egypt 
   John Shaw Smith: Archaeological sites of Egypt (1851-1852) *** 
   John Beasly Greene: Le Nil (1854) 
   François Joseph Edouard de Campigneules: Egypt (1858) 
   Francis Frith: Books on Egypt, Sinai and Palestine 
   Francis Frith: Egypt 
   Francis Frith: Stereoviews of Egypt and Nubia 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Egypt (1862) 
   Gustave Le Gray: Egypt 
   William de Wiveleslie Abney: Thebes and its Five Greater Temples (1876) 
   H. Béchard: The Pyramids 
   Abdullah frères: Egypt 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Lantern slides and other photographs of Egypt 
   Photographing in Egypt W.M. Flinders Petrie (1881-1891) 
   The Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907) 
   Photographing in the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel (1906) 
   Photographing the Temple of Amun and Amunhotep III at Soleb (1907) 
   Charles Jacquin (French): Autochromes of Egyptian archaeological sites (ca 1912) *** 
Cairo 
   Pascal Sebah: Cairo *** 
Hotels 
   Egypt: Shepheard's Hotel / Hotel Shepherd 
Travel guides and photography 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - Cairo 
Diaries 
   Clara Whitcomb`s diary: Egypt and the Levant (1898-1899) 
Archaeological sites in Egypt 
   Egypt: The Pyramids 
   Egypt: Climbing the Pyramids 
   Egypt: The Sphinx 
   Egypt: Pyramid of Djoser (Zoser), Sakkarah (Saqqara) 
   Egypt: Colossi of Memnon 
   Egypt: Dendara 
   Egypt: Edfou 
   Egypt: Karnak 
   Egypt: Kom Ombo 
   Egypt: Luxor 
   Egypt: Philae 
   Egypt: Thebes 
   Egypt: Thebes: Medinet Habu - Medinet Haboo (Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III) 
   Egypt: Valley of the Kings 
   Egypt: Abu Simbel *** 
   Egypt: The Nile 
   Egypt: Cairo: Cemeteries and tombs of the Mamalukes 
Archaeological finds in Egypt 
   Egypt: Wall art, bas-relief, hieroglyphics and graffiti 
   Emil Brugsch: La Trouvaille de Deir-El-Bahari 
   Délié & Béchard: Album du Musée Boulaq 
   Egypt: Cleopatra's Needle 
Portraits 
   Egyptians 
   Studio portraits in Egypt *** 
   Schier & Schoefft: Folk types in Egypt (ca. 1866-1868) *** 
   Naya & Schoefft: Pictoresque Cairo / Le Caire pittoresque - Portraits (ca. 1875) 
   G. Lekegian: Portraits 
   Hippolyte Arnoux: Egypt: Portraits 
   W. Hammerschmidt: Portraits 
Anglo-Egyptian War (1882) 
   Anglo-Egyptian War (1882): Bombardment of Alexandria (1882) 
    *** 
Suez Canal 
   Suez Canal (1859-1869) 
Cities 
   H. Béchard: Cairo: Streets 
   Emile Bechard: Portraits *** 
Snapshots 
   Early snapshots taken in Egypt 
Islamic architecture 
   Egypt: Cairo 
Photographers 
   Van Leo: An Armenian Photographer in Cairo 
Arab and Iranian contemporary photography 
   Introduction to Arab and Iranian contemporary photography 
   Issues in the representation of the Arab World 
The Pyramids and the Sphinx
The Pyramids and the Sphinx 
   Egypt: The Pyramids 
   Egypt: Climbing the Pyramids 
   Egypt: The Sphinx 
Photographers 
   Francis Frith: Egypt: The Pyramids and the Sphinx *** 
   H. Béchard: The Pyramids 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Lantern slides and other photographs of Egypt 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Use of magnesium light at the Great Pyramid (1865) 
Ethiopia
People 
   Dejatch Alamayou 
Ghana
Introduction 
   Introduction to Ghana 
Contemporary photographes 
   Philip K. Apagya: Aspirational backgrounds in studio portraiture 
Kenya
Introduction 
   Introduction to Kenya 
Liberia
Early photographers 
   Augustus Washington: Liberia *** 
Madagascar
Photographers 
   William Ellis: Madagascar 
   Désiré Charnay: Madagascar 
Malawi
Expeditions 
   Royal Geographical Society Expedition: Nyassa 
Mali
Photographers 
   Seydou Keita: Portraits from Mali 
   Malick Sidibe: Portraits 
   Malick Sidibe: Catalogues *** 
Morocco
Photographers 
   A. Cavilla: Morocco 
   George Washington Wilson: Morocco *** 
   Gabriel Veyre: Morocco 
   Irving Penn: Morocco *** 
   Lalla Essaydi: Les Femmes du Maroc 
Niger
Photographers 
   Robert Gardner: Borroro male beauty - SX-70 prints *** 
Nigeria
Introduction 
   Introduction to Nigeria 
Photographers 
   J.A. Green (attributed): Portraits *** 
   J.D. 'Okhai Ojeikere: Nigerian hairstyles 
Senegal
Photographers 
   Oumar Ka: Portraits from Senegal *** 
Postcards 
   Jean Benyoumof (attributed): Postcards from Senegal *** 
South Africa
Ethnic groups 
   Zulus *** 
   B.W. Caney: South Africans *** 
   Wilhelm Bleek & Lucy Lloyd: Studies of Bushmen in South Africa 
   Gustav Fritsch: Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrika's: ethnographisch und anatomisch beschrieben (1872) 
   Alfred M. Duggan-Cronin: The Bantu Tribes of South Africa (1928-1954) 
Expeditions and travel 
   James Chapman: Chapman Expedition in South Africa (1862-1864) 
   Henry Anderson Bryden: Gun and Camera in Southern Africa (1893) *** 
Wars 
   Anglo-Zulu War (1879) *** 
   Boer War (1899-1902) 
   Boer War (1899-1902): Fabrications 
Photojournalism 
   Drum 
   Photojournalism in South Africa 
   David Goldblatt: In Boksburg *** 
   David Goldblatt: Particulars *** 
Psychological explorations 
   Roger Ballen: Shadow Chamber 
Sudan
Sudanese 
   Sudanese *** 
Photographers 
   Pierre Tremaux: Voyage au Soudan Oriental et dans l'Afrique Septentrionale (1847-1854) 
   Felice Beato: Khartoum Relief Expedition (1884-1885) 
Archaeological research 
   The Breasted Expeditions to Egypt and the Sudan (1905-1907) 
   Photographing in the interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel (1906) 
   Photographing the Temple of Amun and Amunhotep III at Soleb (1907) 
Monitoring war crimes 
   Satellite Sentinel and the Enough Project 
Tanzania - United Republic of Tanzania
Wars 
   Anglo-Zanzibar War (27 August 1896) 
Introduction 
   Introduction to Tanzania *** 
Photographers 
   Charles Guillain: Voyage a la Côte Orientale d’Afrique (1856) 
Locations 
   Tanzania: Zanzibar *** 
Togo
Intoduction 
   Introduction to Togo 
Tunisia
Photographers 
   Emmanuel de Noailles: Tunisia - Archaeological sites *** 
   Garrigues: Portraits *** 
   Garrigues: Tunis - Exposition Universelle (1889) *** 
Antarctica
The need for photography 
   Letter from John Herschel to Daguerre (1 August 1939) 
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Antarctica 
   Roald Amundsen: Amundsen's South Pole expedition (1910-1912) 
Photographers 
   Herbert Ponting: British Antarctic Expedition - Scott - Terra Nova (1910-1913) 
   Frank Hurley: Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1913) 
   Frank Hurley: Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917) 
Arctic
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in the Arctic 
Indigenous inhabitants 
   Inuit 
Photographers 
   Richard Beard: British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848) 
   Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
   Captain Edward Augustus Inglefield: Inglefield Expedition (1850s) 
   William Bradford, John Dunmore and George Critcherson: The Arctic Regions (1873) 
   Thomas Mitchell: The British Arctic Expedition (1875-1876) 
Expeditions 
   Richard Basso: Graf Wilczek'sche Polar-Expedition (1882-1883) *** 
   The Greely Arctic Exploring Expedition (1881-1884) 
   Fridtjof Nansen: First crossing of Greenland (1888) 
   Nils Strindberg: S.A. Andrée's Arctic balloon expedition (1897) 
   Albert Peter Low: The Canadian North 
   Umberto Nobile expedition to the North Pole with the airship Italia (1928) 
Asia
Introduction 
   The context for nineteenth century photography in Asia 
   Missionaries in Asia 
   Military background in Asia 
   Photographers in nineteenth century Asia 
   Local photographers in Asia in the nineteenth century 
Photographers 
    *** 
Magazines 
   The Far East (1870-1878) 
Afghanistan
Introduction 
   Introduction to Afghanistan *** 
Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880) 
   Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880): Introduction *** 
   John Burke: Fixing the Negative 
   John Burke: Portraits from the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880) *** 
Afghanistan Wars (1979-?) 
   Afghanistan Wars (1979-?) 
   Steve McCurry - The Power of a Single Image 
   Balazs Gardi: Basetrack One-Eight, Afghanistan (2010-2011) 
Afghan Box Camera Project 
   Afghan Box Camera Project *** 
Armenia
People 
   Armenians *** 
Places 
   Armenia: Erivan - Yerevan *** 
Armenian massacres 
   Armenian massacres (1915-1923) 
Burma
   Introduction to Burma *** 
The peoples of Burma 
   Burmese 
Photographers 
   John McCosh: Burma 
   Linnaeus Tripe: Burma (1855) *** 
   Willoughby Wallace Hooper: Burmah 
   Willoughby Wallace Hooper: The scandal of delaying a firing squad 
   Felice Beato: Burma: Portraits *** 
P. Klier - Early resident photographer 
   P. Klier: Burma - Architecture *** 
   P. Klier: Burma - Rural life *** 
   P. Klier: Burma - Portraits *** 
Royal family 
   Royal family of Burma *** 
Cambodia
Photographers 
   Émile Gsell: Cambodia: Angkor 
   John Thomson: Cambodia: Angkor Thom / Angkor Wat (1866) 
   John Thomson: The Antiquites of Cambodia (1867) 
   Pierre Dieulefils: Cambodia *** 
   David Dare Parker: Security Prison 21 (S-21) 
China
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in China 
The daguerreotype in China 
   Jules Itier: China 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Chinese *** 
The Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) 
   Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860): Introduction 
   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the Pehtang fort 
   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the taking of the Taku Fort 
   Felice Beato: Second Chinese Opium War (1856-1860) and the march to Bejing 
   Felice Beato: Prince Kung / Prince Gong Qinwang of China 
The Far East 
   The Far East (1870-1878) 
Notable cities and places in China 
   China: Kwangchow, Canton [Guangzhou] *** 
   China: Macao *** 
   China: Peking, Pekin [Beijing] 
Rural landscapes 
   Afong: Banker's Glen, Yuen-foo River 
Thomas Child in China 
   Thomas Child: China (ca. 1875-1880) *** 
John Thomson in China 
   John Thomson: Illustrations of China and Its People (1873-1874) 
   John Thomson: The Land and People of China *** 
   John Thomson: Physic Street, Canton, China 
   John Thomson: China, a travelling chiropodist 
William Pryor Floyd 
   W.P. Floyd: Hong Kong 
Adolf-Nikolay Erazmovich Boiarski 
   Adolf-Nikolay Erazmovich Boiarski: Russian Scientific-Commercial Expedition to China (1874-1875) 
The peoples of China 
   Chinese 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Portraits from China *** 
   William Saunders: Studio studies of the occupations of the Chinese 
Documentary 
   China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
   Captain Edward Francis Chapman: Photographs of Yarkand and Kashgar (1873-1874) 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: China *** 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Notes de voyage en Chine (1954) 
Amateur photographers 
   Amateur Photographers in China: Sketches by the Rev. R. O'Dowd Ross-Lewin, Chaplain R.N. (7 March 1891) 
   Introduction to Fine Art Photography and Pictorialism in China 
   Donald M. Mennie: Pictorialist China 
Expeditions 
   Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews: A Narrative of Exploration, Adventure, and Sport in Little Known China (1918) 
China viewed from the outside 
   China: As seen by external photographers *** 
The Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) 
   China and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) 
   Propaganda in Communist China *** 
Contemporary Chinese photography 
   Zhang Huan: Performance art *** 
   Liu Zheng: The Chinese *** 
   Chen Jiagang: The Great Third Front 
   Edward Burtynsky: China 
   Thomas Sauvin and photographic waste in China 
Hong Kong
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Hong Kong 
Typhoon (22 September 1874) 
   China: Typhoon (September 1874) 
Photographers 
   John Thomson: Chinese photographers on Queen's Road, Hong Kong (1875) 
   John Thomson: Hong Kong facing the harbour *** 
   John Thomson: A Chinese portrait artist, Hong Kong 
   W.P. Floyd: Hong Kong 
Illustrated magazines 
   The Far East (1870-1878) 
Georgia
Places 
   Tiflis - Tbilisi *** 
Peoples 
   Cossacks *** 
Photographers 
   Dmitry Ermakov: Georgia 
India
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in India 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Indians 
Calotypes 
   Introduction to calotypes in India 
Waxed paper negatives 
   John Murray: Paper negatives and waxed paper negatives 
Prints from waxed paper negatives 
   Baron Alexis Aime de LaGrange: Photographies de l'Indie Anglais (1851) 
Hand-coloured prints 
   Frederick Fiebig: Hand-coloured photographs of India 
The Indian Mutiny and its aftermath 
   Indian Mutiny (1858): Introduction 
   The Cawnpore (Kanpur) Massacres 
   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Lucknow 
   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Mutineers hanged 
   Felice Beato: Indian Mutiny (1858) - Hodson's Horse 
   Lala Deen Dayal: Sorabji Jehangir - Princes and Chiefs of India (1903) *** 
   Robert & Harriet Tytler: India at the time of the Mutiny 
   Darogha Ubbas Alli: Sekunder Bagh, Lucknow 
Photographic societies 
   Madras Photographic Society 
Cities of India 
   John Edward Saché: Views of Calcutta (ca 1865-1882) 
Archaeological Survey of India 
   The Archaeological Survey of India 
Archaeological sites 
   Charles Barclay Woodham Moravia: Indian architecture (1858) 
    *** 
   Richard Banner Oakeley: The Pagoda of Hallibeed (1859) 
   Thomas Biggs: Architecture at Ahmedabad, the Capital of Goozerat (1866) 
    *** 
   Edmund David Lyon: Indian architecture (1860s-1860s) 
   John Henry Ravenshaw: Gaur; its Ruins and Inscriptions (1878) 
   Lala Deen Dayal: Photographs for Sir Lepel Griffin "Famous Monuments of Central India" (1886) 
The industrialisation of India 
   Railways of India 
Sites of India 
   John P. Nicholas: India 
   Marie Théophile Louis Rousselet: India (1863-1868) 
   Eugene Clutterbuck Impey: India *** 
   India: Agra: Taj Mahal *** 
   India: Delhi: Qutub Minar - Qutb Minar - Kutub Minar 
Northern India and the Himalayas 
   Samuel Bourne: Northern India and the Himalayas (1863-1870) 
   Fred Bremner: Baluchistan 
   Sargeant-Major Develin, Royal Engineers: Views in Chitral, Taken during the advance of the 3rd Brigade of the Chitral Relief Force (1896) *** 
Royalty and the ruling class of India 
   Bourne & Shepherd: Presentation album for His Royal Highness Alfred Ernest Albert, Duke of Edinburgh (1870) *** 
   Portrait: Royalty: Suvenir of the Royal Visit to India (1876) 
   Lala Deen Dayal: Presentation folio of Nawab Vikar-ul-Umra - Falaknuma Palace, Hyderabad, Deccan (1894) 
   G.W. Lawrie: Imperial Delhi Durbar (1911) *** 
   Portrait: Royalty: The ruling class of the Indian subcontinent 
   Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II 
People of India 
   Ethnological and anthropological studies in India 
   William J. Johnson: Photographs of Western India. Volume I. Costumes and Characters (ca. 1855-1862) *** 
   William Johnson & William Henderson: The Oriental races and tribes, residents and visitors of Bombay (published 1863-1866) 
   J. Forbes Watson & John William Kaye (eds.): The People of India (1868-1872) 
   John P. Nicholas: India: Portraits 
   Francis Frith: India: portraits 
   Shepherd & Robertson: India: Portraits *** 
   Maurice Vidal Portman: Andamanese 
   Lala Deen Dayal: India: Portraits *** 
Famine (1876-1878) 
   Willoughby Wallace Hooper: Indian famine (1876-1878) 
Portraiture 
   India and the carte de visite *** 
   Hand-coloured photographs from the Indian sub-continent 
Documentary 
   Mary Ellen Mark: Falkland Road 
Nature 
   John Edward Saché: Studies of Indian insects 
Questioning identity 
   Annu Palakunnathu Matthew: An Indian from India 
India viewed from the outside 
   India: As seen by external photographers 
Indonesia
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Indonesia 
Expeditions 
   Daniel David Veth: Midden-Sumatra Photographie-Album (1877-1879) 
Early photographers in Indonesia 
   Adolph Schaefer: The Buddhist monument at Borobudur in Central Java, Indonesia (1844-1845) 
   C. Nieuwenhuis: Sumatra *** 
   Woodbury and Page: Views from Southeast Asia *** 
   Woodbury and Page: Ruling families of Southeast Asia *** 
   Woodbury and Page: Portraits from Southeast Asia *** 
   Herman Salzwedel: Indonesia (ca. 1875) *** 
   Isidore van Kinsbergen: Java: Portraits *** 
   Isidore van Kinsbergen: The archaeology of Java *** 
   Kassian Cephas: In Den Kedaton te Jogjakarta 
Iran
Introduction 
   Introduction to Iran *** 
Early photographers 
   Frances Carlhian: Album page showing the Shah of Persia - Nasir al-Din Shah 
   Nasir al-Din Shah 
   Luigi Pesce: Persia (1850s) 
   Luigi Montabone: Ricordi del viaggio in Persia della missione italiana (1862) 
   Antione Sevruguin: Portraits 
Places 
   Tebriz - Tabriz *** 
   Zengian - Zanjan *** 
   Sultanieh - Soltaniyeh *** 
   Teheran - Tehran *** 
War 
   Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988): Introduction 
Found photographs and identity 
   Najaf Shokri: Iran Dokht 
Contemporary photographers 
   Shadi Ghadirian: Women 
Arab and Iranian contemporary photography 
   Introduction to Arab and Iranian contemporary photography 
   Issues in the representation of the Arab World 
Iraq
Archaeology 
   The excavations of Victor Place at Khorsabad, Iraq (1850s) 
Travel 
   A. Kerim: Camera Studies in Iraq (ca. 1925) *** 
Conflict 
   Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988): Introduction 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): Introduction 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): Sabotaging the oil wells of Kuwait (1991) 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): The Highway of Death (26-27 February 1991) 
   Susan Meiselas: Kurdistan 
   Thoughts on the Gulf War (1990-1991) 
Israel and Palestine
Introduction 
   Introduction to Israel and Palestine 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: The Holy Land 
   Jerusalem 
Early photographers 
   James Graham: The Holy Land (1855-1857) 
   Mendel Diness: Jerusalem 
   Louis de Clercq: Israel and Palestine 
   George Skene Keith: Evidence of the Truth of the Christian Religion (1859) 
   Francis Frith: Books on Egypt, Sinai and Palestine 
   Francis Frith: The Holy Land 
   Auguste Salzmann: Jerusalem 
   John Cramb: Palestine in 1860: A Series of Photographic Views (1860) *** 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - The Holy Land and Syria (1862) 
   Francis Frith: The Holy Bible (1862-1863) 
   Louis Vignes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain par M. Le Duc de Luynes (1868-74) 
   H.H. Kitchener: Photographs of Biblical Sites (1875) 
   Félix Bonfils: Jerusalem 
   James Robertson: Jerusalem 
   Tancrède Dumas: Jerusalem 
Nineteenth century organizations 
   Palestine Exploration Fund 
   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
   Ordnance Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai 
   American Palestine Exploration Society 
   American Colony photographers of Jerusalem 
Travel guides and photography 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - Jerusalem 
Zionism 
   Zionism in Palestine 
   Robert Capa: Israel and Palestine *** 
Post-1948 wars and social upheaval 
   Middle East - a cycle of wars and uprisings (1948-): Introduction 
   Lebanon 1982-2000 
   George Azar: War photography in Lebanon (1982-200) 
   The Intifadas 
   Photographic studies on Israel, Palestine and the Intifadas 
   Thoughts on the cycle of wars and uprisings in the Middle East 
Jerusalem
Examples 
   Jerusalem 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: The Holy Land 
Photographers 
   Mendel Diness: Jerusalem 
   Auguste Salzmann: Jerusalem 
   Félix Bonfils: Jerusalem 
   James Robertson: Jerusalem 
   Tancrède Dumas: Jerusalem 
   John Cramb: Palestine in 1860: A Series of Photographic Views (1860) *** 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Jerusalem (1862) 
   Charles E. Brown: Aerial view of Jerusalem *** 
Organisations 
   Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem 
   American Colony photographers of Jerusalem 
Travel guides and photography 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - Jerusalem 
Locations 
   Jerusalem: Arch of Ecce Homo 
   Jerusalem: Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
   Jerusalem: City gates 
   Jerusalem: Garden of Gethsemane 
   Jerusalem: Hospital of Sainte-Helene 
   Jerusalem: Temple Mount 
   Jerusalem: Valley of Jehoshaphat 
   Jerusalem: Western Wall 
Japan
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Japan 
The Japanese 
   Japanese 
   Ainu 
   Japanese ambrotypes 
Photographers 
   Photographers and photography in Japan depicted in art *** 
   Eliphant Brown: Daguerreotypist on Commodore Perry's voyage to the China Seas and Japan (1850s) 
   Felice Beato: Japan: Places *** 
   Felice Beato: Japan: Occupational portraits 
   Wilhelm Burger: Japan (Check attributions) 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Japan: Places 
   Stillfried & Andersen: Japan: Places 
   Stillfried & Andersen: Japan: Portraits 
   Baron Raimund von Stillfried: Japan: People 
   Kusakabe Kimbei: Japan: Portraits 
   Adolfo Farsari: Japan: Portraits 
   Adolfo Farsari: Japan: Places 
   Emile de Montgolfier: Japan 
   Ogawa Kazuma: Japan *** 
Japanese artists and colourists 
   Nineteenth century Japanese artists and colourists 
Royal family 
   Royal family of Japan 
Cultural stereotypes 
   Samurai 
   Sumo wrestlers 
   Japanese men with tattoos 
   Japanese women sleeping 
   Geishas 
   Courtesans 
   Sedan chairs (kago) in Japan 
   Crime and punishment in Japan *** 
   External cultural influences in Japan 
Locations 
   Japan: Mt. Fuji as a background motif *** 
   Landscapes of Japan 
The Far East 
   The Far East (1870-1878) 
Everyday life in Japan 
   Everyday life in Japan 
Contemporary accounts 
   Photograph of the deceased on a grave at a cemetery in Yokohama, Japan (1881) 
Concealed meanings 
   T. Enami: A Japanese Farmer and his Wife 
The Great Earthquake (1891) 
   Ogawa Kazumasa: The Great Earthquake of Japan (1891) 
A calling card to the West 
   Japan: Described and illustrated by the Japanese (1897) 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism in Japan 
   Arnold Genthe: Japan *** 
   Japanese pictorialism - Bunka Shashin-shu (1922) 
   Japanese Art Photography preserved on Postcards *** 
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) 
   Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): Introduction 
   Photographers of the Russo-Japanese War 
Second World War (1939-1945) 
   Joe Rosenthal: Flag raising at Iwo Jima (23 February 1945) 
   War: Atomic explosions: Hiroshima 
   War: Atomic explosions: Nagasaki 
Post-War Japan 
   Provoke 
   Japanese protest books *** 
   W. Eugene Smith: Minamata 
Photobooks 
   Japanese photobooks 
Jordan
Photographers 
   Louis Vignes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain par M. Le Duc de Luynes (1868-74) 
Kazakhstan
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Central Asia 
Expeditions 
   Turkestan Album (1871-1872) 
Kuwait
Gulf War (1990-1991) 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): Introduction 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): The Highway of Death (26-27 February 1991) 
   Gulf War (1990-1991): Sabotaging the oil wells of Kuwait (1991) 
   Thoughts on the Gulf War (1990-1991) 
Kyrgyzstan
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Central Asia 
Expeditions 
   Turkestan Album (1871-1872) 
Lebanon
Locations 
   Lebanon: Baalbek 
   The Cedars of Lebanon 
Photographers 
   Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Lebanon *** 
   Louis de Clercq: Lebanon 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Lebanon (1862) 
   Félix Bonfils: Baalbek *** 
   Tancrède Dumas: Baalbek *** 
Travel guides and photography 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - Lebanon 
Times of strife 
   Lebanon 1982-2000 
   George Azar: War photography in Lebanon (1982-200) 
Malaysia
Photographers 
   John Thomson: Malaysia *** 
   G.R. Lambert & Co.: Malay peninsula *** 
Middle East
Introduction 
   Landscape photography in the Middle East during the nineteenth century 
Photographers 
   Early photographers in the Middle East 
   Maxime du Camp: Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie (1852) 
   Gustave Le Gray: Egypt 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Lantern slides and other photographs of Egypt 
   John Beasly Greene: Le Nil (1854) 
A time of conflict 
   Middle East - a cycle of wars and uprisings (1948-): Introduction 
   Lebanon 1982-2000 
   George Azar: War photography in Lebanon (1982-200) 
   The Intifadas 
   Photographic studies on Israel, Palestine and the Intifadas 
   Thoughts on the cycle of wars and uprisings in the Middle East 
Mongolia
Photographers 
   Yvette Borup Andrews: Across Mongolian plains (1921) *** 
North Korea - Democratic People's Republic of Korea - DPRK
Early photography 
   Felice Beato: Korean Punitive Expedition (1871) 
Korean War (1950-1953) 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Introduction 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Photographers 
Pakistan
Photographers 
   Fred Bremner: Baluchistan 
Philippines
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in the Philippines *** 
Daguerreotypes 
   Unidentified photographer: Daguerreotypes of the Philippines *** 
Spanish American War 
   The Spanish American War in the Philippines *** 
Saudi Arabia
Photographers 
   Mohammad Sadiq: Mecca (1880-1881) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Pilgrimage to Mecca (1884-1885) 
   Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: Bilder aus Mekka (1889) 
   H.A. Mirza & Sons: Views of Mecca and Medina (1907) *** 
   Saudi Arabia: The Haj - Abbas Hilmi album 
Singapore
Introduction 
   Introduction to Singapore 
Early photographers 
   G.R. Lambert & Co.: Singapore 
   August Sachtler: Singapore 
South Korea - Republic of Korea
Early photography 
   Felice Beato: Korean Punitive Expedition (1871) 
Korean War (1950-1953) 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Introduction 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Photographers 
Sri Lanka
Introduction 
   Introduction to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) *** 
The races of Ceylon 
   Ceylon: The people *** 
Occupationals 
   Ceylon: Occupationals *** 
Photographers of Ceylon 
   Julia Margaret Cameron: Ceylon 
   A.W.A. Plate: Sinhalese *** 
   Skeen & Co.: Ceylon 
   Charles Scowen: Ceylon, portraits *** 
Syria - Syrian Arab Republic
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Syria *** 
Photographers 
   Pascal Sebah: Syria: Portraits *** 
   Ludovico Wolfgang Hart: La Syrie *** 
   Louis Vignes: Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte a Petra et sur la River Gauche du Jourdain par M. Le Duc de Luynes (1868-74) 
   Louis de Clercq: Syria 
Places 
   Syria: Damascus 
   Syria: Palmyra 
People 
   Syrians *** 
Syrian Civil War (2011-) 
   Evidence of torture in Syria (2014) 
Taiwan
Photographers 
   John Thomson: Formosa (Taiwan) *** 
Tajikistan
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Central Asia 
Expeditions 
   Turkestan Album (1871-1872) 
Thailand
The People 
   Siamese *** 
   The Royal Family of Siam 
Photographers 
   John Thomson: Royal family of Siam 
   Wilhelm Burger: Siam 
   David Dare Parker: HIV, Thailand *** 
Tibet
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Tibet 
   Tibetans *** 
Turkmenistan
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Central Asia 
Expeditions 
   Turkestan Album (1871-1872) 
Uzbekistan
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Central Asia 
Expeditions 
   Turkestan Album (1871-1872) 
Photographers 
   F. Hordet: Central Asia 
   S.M. Dudin: Uzbekistan (ca 1900) 
   Hugues Krafft: A travers le Turkestan Russe (1902) *** 
Vietnam
The peoples of Vietnam 
   Vietnamese 
Photographers 
   Charles Edouard Hocquard: Tonkin - Vietnam *** 
Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
   The French Indochina War and the origins of the Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
   Increasing American involvement in Vietnam 
   The photographic legacy of the Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
   Photographers of the Vietnam War (1961-1975) 
   David Dare Parker: Agent Orange, Vietnam *** 
Yemen
Introduction 
   Yemen: Aden *** 
Austria
Daguerreotypes 
   Joseph von Pasqualati: View of the chemistry laboratory at the old Polytechnic Institute Vienna (ca. 1845) *** 
Carte de visites 
   Ludwig Angerer: Carte de visite portraits 
Places 
   Austria: Vienna 
Science 
   Constantin v. Ettingshausen and A. Pokorny: Physiotypia plantarum austriacarum (1855-1856) 
Vienna (Wien), Weltausstellung (1873) 
   Vienna, Weltausstellung, 1873 Wien: Views *** 
   Vienna, Weltausstellung, 1873 Wien: Statuary *** 
   Vienna, Weltausstellung, 1873 Wien: Commemorative medallion *** 
Instantaneous photography 
   Victor Angerer: Instantaneous photography on the street (1888) 
   Emil Mayer: Street photography 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism in Austria 
   Wiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1894) 
   Wiener Photographische Blätter: Herausgegeben Vom Camera-Club In Wien (1896) *** 
Belgium
Daguerreotypes 
   Bruges, ses Monuments et ses Tableaux, edited by Daveluy (Bruges, Daveluy, 1855) 
Calotypes 
   Louis-Pierre-Théophile Dubois de Nehaut: Belgian cityscapes *** 
   Louis-Pierre-Théophile Dubois de Nehaut: Portraits *** 
Places 
   Belgium: Antwerp *** 
   Belgium: Leuven *** 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism in Belgium 
   Gustave Marissiaux: Visions d’Artistes (1908) *** 
   Leonard Misonne: Trees 
   Jules Lejeune: Belgian amateur photographic diary (1920-1922) *** 
Documentary 
   Gustave Marissiaux: La Houillère (1904-1905) *** 
Surrealism 
   Belgium and surrealism 
Erotica 
   Georges Thiry: Prostitutes *** 
Documentary 
   Carl Uytterhaegen: Cité3 
Bosnia Herzegovina
Photographers 
   Stjepan Tomlinovic: Ethnic and traditional clothing from Bosnia Herzegovina and Croatia 
   Alexander Landau: Ethnic and traditional clothing from Bosnia Herzegovina 
Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Examples of photography from the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Thoughts on the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Photographers of the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
Croatia
Photographers 
   Stjepan Tomlinovic: Ethnic and traditional clothing from Bosnia Herzegovina and Croatia 
Cyprus
Photographers 
   John Thomson: Cyprus *** 
Czech Republic
   Arthur Scheiner: At the Photographer (1890) 
Subterranean photography in the Moravian Karst region 
   Martin Kriz: Moravian Karst region - subterranean photography 
Czech avant-garde (1918-1938) 
   Introduction to the Czech avant-garde (1918-1938) 
   Illustrated magazines in Czechoslovakia 
Photographers 
   Frantisek Drtikol: Nudes 
   Jaromir Funke: Abstract compositions 
   Josef Sudek: Books *** 
   Josef Sudek: Trees *** 
   Josef Sudek: Vanished Statues in Mionsi 
   Josef Sudek: Glasses and bread *** 
   Milos Korecek: Abstractions (Fokalke) 
   Bohumil Stepan: Satirical photocollages 
   Ladislav Postupa: Experimental vision *** 
The Cold War 
   Prague Spring (1968) *** 
Photobooks 
   Czech photobooks *** 
   Jaromir Funke: Book covers *** 
Denmark
Introduction 
   Introduction to Denmark *** 
Daguerreotypes 
   The Daguerreotype in Denmark *** 
Places 
   Denmark: Copenhagen *** 
Photographers 
   Heinrich Tonnies: Portraits *** 
The innovative use of colour 
   Keld Helmer-Petersen: Colour 
Finland
Rural life 
   Into Konrad Inha: Finland *** 
France
Instruction manuals 
   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions: France *** 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Paris 
   Daguerreotypes: France: Landscapes and cityscapes 
   Floods in Nantes, France (1843) 
   Daguerreotypes: Paris: Notre-Dame *** 
Publications 
   France: Photography magazines and journals 
Landscape 
   Early French landscape photographers 
   Reasons for French pre-eminence in nineteenth century landscape photography 
   Eugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Camille de Silvy - River Scene (1858) 
   Bisson frères: Mt. Blanc (1860s) 
   John Stewart: Pyrenees (1850s) 
   Farnham Maxwell Lyte: The Pyrenees 
   Robert Demachy: Landscapes *** 
Documentary projects 
   Mission Héliographique 
   Charles Nègre: Vincennes Imperial Asylum (1859) 
   Édouard Baldus: Inondations du Rhône à Lyon et Avignon (1856) 
   Adolphe Terris: Rénovation de la Vieille Ville de Marseille (1862) 
   Édouard Baldus: Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1860s) 
   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875) 
   Les Travaux Publics de la France (1878-1882) 
   Richebourg: Carte geologique detaillee de la France, Feuille 48.- Paris (1879) 
Portraits 
   Nadar: Galerie Contemporaine, Littéraire, Artistique 
Souvenirs 
   Souvenir sets of travel photographs 
Pictorialism in France 
   Pictorialism in France 
   The Photo Club of Paris (Le Photo Club de Paris) *** 
Illustrated magazines 
   Illustrated magazines in France 
   VU *** 
Street photography 
   The humanism of street photography in France 
   Classic French street photography 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: The Decisive Moment 
   Robert Doisneau: Humanistic photography 
   Édouard Boubat: Street photography and tender moments 
Social conflict and war 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): France, Paris 
   Gustave Le Gray: Camp de Châlons (1857) 
   Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): Introduction 
   Photomontage during the Paris Commune (1871) 
   Robert Capa: D-Day, Normandy (6 June 1944) 
Photobooks 
   French photobooks *** 
Eiffel Tower
Introduction 
   Paris: The Eiffel Tower 
Photographers 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: Eiffel Tower (1887-1889) 
   Albert Fernique: Construction of the Eiffel Tower, Paris (1888) 
   Grabriel Loppé: Paris: Eiffel Tower *** 
   Erwin Blumenfeld: Lisa Fonssagrives on the Eiffel Tower (1939) *** 
Forest of Fontainebleau
Context to the Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Fontainebleau, Barbizon - the relationships between painters and photographers 
   Fontainebleau from the air 
   Thomas Seddon on protecting the Forests of Fontainebleau (1850) 
   Preserving paint in collapsible tubes 
Similarities between paintings and photographs 
   Paintings of the Forests of Fontainebleau 
   Photographs of the Forests of Fontainebleau 
Case studies 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The road to Chailly (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
   Paintings and prints based upon paintings or vice versa - The Bodmer Oak (Forests of Fontainebleau) 
Photographers in the Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Eugène Cuvelier: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   William Drooke Harrison: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Gustave Le Gray: France: Forest of Fontainebleau 
   Constant Alexandre Famin: The Forest of Fontainebleau *** 
   L. Delaroche: Forest of Fontainebleau *** 
Paris
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Paris 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Paris 
   Daguerreotypes: Paris: Notre-Dame *** 
   Paris et ses Environs Reproduits par le Daguerrotype, Sous la Direction de M. Ch. Philipon (Paris: Chez Aubert et Cie, 1840) 
   Jean Baptiste Marie Chamouin: Vues de Paris (1845) *** 
Daguerreotypomania 
   Daguerreotypomania 
Henry Fox Talbot in Paris 
   Henry Fox Talbot: France: Paris 
Notre Dame 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame, Facade 
   France: Paris - Notre Dame, La Porte Rouge 
Locations 
   Paris: Arc de Triomphe 
   Paris: Bois de Boulogne *** 
   Paris: The Eiffel Tower 
   Paris: Hôtel de Ville *** 
   Paris: Les Halles *** 
   Paris: Montmartre *** 
   Paris: Pantheon *** 
   Paris: Place du Concorde *** 
   Paris: Place Vendôme *** 
   Paris: Pont Neuf *** 
   Paris: Saint-Cloud 
   Paris: The Louvre *** 
   Paris: The Seine 
   Paris: Tuileries *** 
The Year of Revolutions (1848) 
   Year of Revolutions (1848): France, Paris 
Early photographers of Paris 
   Gustave Le Gray: France: Paris *** 
   Charles Negre: France: Paris *** 
   Édouard Baldus: Paris 
   Charles Marville: Paris 
   Nadar: Balloon flights 
   Nadar: Catacombs and subterranean Paris (1860s) 
The construction of the Paris Opera 
   Louis-Emile Durandelle: The Paris Opera (1861-1875) 
The remodelling of the Élysée Palace 
   Pierre-Ambroise Richebourg (attributed): Élysée Palace, Paris (ca. 1867) 
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
   René Patrice Proudhon Dagron: Photomicrographs, carrier-pigeons and the beseiged city of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) 
The Paris Commune (1871) 
   Paris Commune (1871): Introduction 
   Paris Commune (1871): Photographs of wanted and dead communards 
   Paris Commune (1871): Destruction of the Vendome Column 
   Paris Commune Album (1871) 
Railways of Paris 
   Construction du Chemin de Fer Metropolitan Municipal de Paris (1905-1910) 
Eugène Atget 
   Eugène Atget: The streets and buildings of Paris 
   Eugène Atget: Street photography 
   Eugène Atget: Window displays and goods for sale 
Amateur photography and snapshots 
   Grabriel Loppé: Paris by night *** 
   Photograph album - An Unknown Street Photographer in Paris (1896) 
Social life 
   Brassaï: Paris de nuit: Book covers 
   Brassaï: The nightlife of Paris *** 
   The social life of Paris *** 
   Frank Horvat: Le Sphynx, rue Pigalle, Paris *** 
Streets of Paris 
   Robert Doisneau: Humanistic photography 
   André Kertész: Street photography in Paris 
   Édouard Boubat: Street photography and tender moments 
   Willy Ronis: Paris *** 
   Robert Frank: Paris *** 
   Harold Chapman: Paris 
Germany
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Germany *** 
Nineteenth century photography in Germany 
   Daguerreotypes: Germany 
   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions: Germany *** 
   City of Hamburg fire (1842) 
   Bertha Wehnert-Beckmann: Portraits 
   Alois Löcherer: The statue of Bavaria, Munich (1844-1850) 
   Germany: Photography magazines and journals 
   Leopold Ahrendts: Berlin 
   Carl Hermann Günther: Coronation ceremony of the King of Prussia (1861) *** 
   Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871): Introduction 
   Erinnerung an Oberammergau 1890 (Souvenir of Oberammergau 1890) 
   Waldemar Franz Herman Titzenthaler: Types of German Workers 
The German royal family 
   The German royal family 
Cities 
   Germany: Nuremberg *** 
Pictorialism in Germany 
   Pictorialism in Germany 
First World War 
   German illustrated magazines during the First World War 
Weimar Germany 
   The aftermath of the First World War in Germany 
   Cultural innovation in Weimar Germany 
   Film und Foto - FiFo (1929) 
   German expressionism 
   German Expressionism: Vampyr (1932) 
   Ross Verlag: Publisher of real photographic postcards 
   Mannesmannröhrenwerke A. G., Komotau. 1888-1925; Neuanlagen und Umbauten, ab 1920 (ca. 1929) 
   Political collage in Weimar Germany 
   John Heartfield: Political photomontages 
   AIZ - Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung 
   Photojournalists in Weimar Germany 
   The legacy of Weimar as photojournalists left Germany 
   Paul Citroen: Metropolis 
   Bauhaus 
   Introduction to New Objectivity 
   Erich Retzlaff: Book covers 
The Rise of Fascism and Nazi Germany 
   The photographic portrayal of Adolf Hitler 
   Heinrich Hoffmann: Portraits of Adolf Hitler 
   Adolf Hitler - Nazi propaganda series 
   Heinrich Hoffmann (Editor) & Josef Bürckel (Foreword): Hitler holt die Saar heim (1938) 
   Leni Riefenstahl: The creation of the myths of National Socialism 
   Nazi suicides in Leipzig, Germany (1945) 
   Yevgeny Khaldei: Soldiers raising the flag of Soviet Union on the roof of Reichstag building in Berlin (2 May 1945) 
   The Holocaust: Death camps 
Photographers 
   Karl Blossfeldt (1865-1952) 
   August Sander (1876-1964) 
   August Sander: Cologne 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Die Welt ist schön 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Ruhrchemie factory, Oberhausen-Holten, Germany 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Schubert & Salzer - Textile machinery - Ingolstadt 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Bilder aus der Landschaft zwischen Ruhr und Möhne (1957) 
Post-War Germany 
   Introduction to Fotoform 
   Introduction to subjective photography 
   The Berlin Wall 
   Anders Petersen: Café Lehmitz 
   Peter Keetman: Volkswagen Factory, Wolfsburg (1953) 
   Heinrich Riebesehl: Agrarlandschaften *** 
   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: The first exhibition "Bali-Kino" Berlin (October 1974) 
   Gabriele and Helmut Nothhelfer: What‘s our Concern with Strangers? 
Dusseldorf School 
   Dusseldorf School 
   Bernd & Hilla Becher: Typologies 
Contemporary projects 
   The Trashcam Project - Hamburg, Germany (2012) 
Photobooks 
   German photobooks *** 
   Albert Renger-Patzsch: Books 
Greece
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Greece *** 
Daguerreotypists 
   Daguerreotypes: Greece 
Early travelers to Greece 
   Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Athens (1842) 
   Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gros: Athens 
   Eugene Piot: Greece 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Greece (1862) 
   Josef Székely: Thessaloniki (October 1863) 
   Greece: The Dilessi Murders (1870) 
The archaeological sites of Athens 
   Athens: The Acropolis 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Parthenon 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Erechtheion 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Propylaia 
   Greece: Athens: Temple of Olympian Zeus (Olympieion) 
   Dmitri Constantine: Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens 
   Athens: Monument of Lysicrates *** 
   Athens: Tower of the Winds (Horologion of Andronikos) *** 
Autochromists in Greece 
   Fernand Cuville: Greece: Mount Athos 
Greek / Turkish population exchanges (ca. 1923) 
   Nelly's: Greek refugees from Asia Minor *** 
The Greek Civil War (1946-1949) 
   Greek Civil War (1946-1949): Introduction 
   Greek Civil War (1946-1949): Photographers 
Acropolis
Examples 
   Athens: The Acropolis 
Individual buildings 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Parthenon 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Erechtheion 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Propylaia 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Temple of Victory (Athena Nike, Nike Apteros, Wingless Victory) *** 
Photographers 
   Dmitri Constantine: Athens: Acropolis *** 
   William J. Stillman: Athens: Acropolis (1868-1870) 
   Walter Hege: Greece: Athens: The Acropolis (1928-1930) *** 
Sculptural elements 
   Greece: Athens: Acropolis: Sculptural elements 
Hungary
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Hungary *** 
Nineteenth century studios 
   Architectural designs for Hungarian studios *** 
   Backmarks for Hungarian photographic studios *** 
Photographers 
   André Kertész: Hungary *** 
Iceland
Photographers 
   Robert John Henry: Iceland *** 
Expeditions 
   Sten Bergman Expedition to Iceland (1909) *** 
Ireland
Photographers 
   Mary Rosse (Countess of Rosse) *** 
   Mary Rosse: Lord Rosse's telescope at Birr Castle, Ireland (ca. 1857) 
   William Despard Hemphill: The Abbeys, Castles, and Scenery of Clonmel and the Surrounding Countryside (1860) 
   J.J. Clarke: The streets of Dublin 
Italy
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Italy 
Calotypes and salt prints 
   Paper photography: Italy 
The Roman Photographic School 
   The Roman Photographic School - Circolo del Caffé Greco (1847-1855) 
Calotypes 
   Édouard Delessert: Ile de Sardaigne: Cagliari et Sassari, 40 Vues Photographiques (1854) 
Eugene Piot 
   Eugene Piot: Italy (1849-1852) 
Alphonse Bernoud Grellier 
   Alphonse Bernoud & Claude Grillet: Italy: Earthquake damage (1857-1858) 
Robert Macpherson 
   Robert Macpherson: The monuments of Rome 
   Robert Macpherson: The statues of Rome 
James Anderson 
   James Anderson: The Roman Forum *** 
   James Anderson: The Colosseum *** 
Fratelli Alinari 
   Alinari: Italy: Florence *** 
   Alinari: Italy: Pisa: Leaning Tower *** 
   Alinari: Italy: Rome: Colosseum *** 
Giorgio Sommer 
   Giorgio Sommer: Naples *** 
Robert Rive 
   Robert Rive: Pompeii *** 
   Robert Rive: Rome 
   Robert Rive: Naples *** 
Carlo Naya 
   Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal 
   Carlo Naya: Venice: Palaces 
Italian Risorgimento (1849-1871) 
   Giuseppe Garibaldi 
   Eugène Sevaistre: Italian Risorgimento - Gaeta *** 
   Eugène Sevaistre: Italian Risorgimento - Palermo *** 
   Thomas H. Dyer: The Ruins of Pompeii. A Series of Eighteen Photographic Views (1867) 
Vesuvius and Pompeii 
   Italy: Pompeii 
   Giorgio Sommer: Eruption of Vesuvius (1872) 
   Giorgio Sommer: Pompeii 
   Giorgio Sommer: The ash-covered remains from Pompeii 
L'Italie pittoresque 
   Naya and Schoefft: L'Italie pittoresque (before 1875) *** 
Travel guides and photography 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - Italy 
Albums for travelers 
   Souvenir albums for travelers in Italy *** 
   Enrico Van Lint: Ricordo di Pisa (ca 1875-1880) 
   Album of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later) 
Stereotypes 
   Stereotypical portraits in nineteenth century Italy 
Pictorialism 
   James Craig Annan: Venice and Lombardy: A Series of Original Photogravures (1896) *** 
Futurism 
   Futurism *** 
   Anton Giulio Bragaglia (1890-1960) and Arturo Bragaglia (1893-1962) 
Second World War (1939-1945) 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Purple Heart Valley 
Post-War Italy 
   Mario Giacomelli: On Being Aware of Nature (Presa di coscienza sulla natura) 
   Mario Giacomelli: There are no Hands to Caress My Face *** 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Italy *** 
Contemporary colour 
   Luigi Ghirri: Kodachrome 
   Franco Fontana: Colour *** 
   Joel Meyerowitz: Tuscany *** 
Colosseum
Examples 
   Italy: Rome: The Colosseum 
Photographers 
   James Anderson: The Colosseum *** 
   Alinari: Italy: Rome: Colosseum *** 
Florence
Fratelli Alinari 
   Alinari: Italy: Florence *** 
   Alinari: The statues of Florence 
Sites 
   Italy: Florence: Cathedral - Duomo *** 
   Italy: Florence: Baptistery *** 
   Italy: Florence: Pitti Palace - Palazzo Pitti *** 
   Italy: Florence: Ponte Vecchio *** 
   Italy: Florence: Piazza della Signoria e Loggia de Lanzi *** 
Albums 
   Album of cyanotypes of Florence, Italy (1880s or later) 
Rome
Introduction 
   Introduction to the photography of Rome 
Early travelers to Rome 
   Alexander John Ellis: Rome (1841) *** 
   Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey: Rome (1842) *** 
The Roman Photographic School 
   The Roman Photographic School - Circolo del Caffé Greco (1847-1855) 
Views 
   Italy: Rome: Views 
The Tiber 
   Italy: Rome: The Tiber 
Public squares 
   Italy: Rome: Piazza del Popolo 
   Italy: Rome: Piazza del Quirinale 
   Italy: Rome: Piazza Navona *** 
   Italy: Rome: Trevi fountain *** 
Monuments and archaeological sites of Rome 
   Italy: Rome: The Colosseum 
   Italy: Rome: Arch of Constantine 
   Italy: Rome: Arch of Settimius Severus *** 
   Italy: Rome: Arch of Titus *** 
   Italy: Rome: Arch of the Silversmiths / Arch of the Jewelers / Porticus Margaritaria 
   Italy: Rome: Campidoglio - Capitoline Hill *** 
   Italy: Rome: Forum Romanum 
   Italy: Rome: Forum Traiani 
   Italy: Rome: Temple of Antoninus and Faustina 
   Italy: Rome: Temple of Castor and Pollux *** 
   Italy: Rome: Temple of Fortuna Virilius 
   Italy: Rome: Temple of Vesta 
   Italy: Rome: Tomb of Cecilia Metella 
   Italy: Rome: Baths of Caracalla 
   Italy: Rome: Castel S. Angelo 
   Italy: Rome: Trajan's Column *** 
   Italy: Rome: St. Peter's 
   Italy: Rome: San Giovanni in Laterano (Archbasilica of St. John Lateran) *** 
   Italy: Rome: Villa Medici 
   Italy: Rome: Via Appia *** 
Photographers 
   Calvert Richard Jones: Italy: Rome *** 
   Comte Frederic Flacheron: Rome 
   Giacomo Caneva: Rome 
   Eugene Constant: Rome *** 
   Jane Martha St. John: Italy: Rome 
   John Henry Parker: Recent Excavations in Rome: Made in 1868 
   James Anderson: The monuments of Rome and is surroundings 
   Robert Macpherson: The monuments of Rome 
   Robert Macpherson: The statues of Rome 
   Altobelli & Molins: Rome 
   Alinari: Italy: Rome: Colosseum *** 
   Views of Rome taken by Adriano de Bonis signed by Achille Quinet 
   Robert Rive: Rome 
   Edmond Behles: Rome *** 
   Carlo Baldassare Simelli: Rome 
Venice
Examples 
   Venice 
Photographers 
   Domenico Bresolin: Venice 
   Alexander John Ellis: Venice (1841) *** 
   John Ruskin: Venice 
   Carlo Naya: Venice: Palaces 
   Carlo Naya: Venice: Grand Canal 
   Carlo Ponti: Venice 
   P. Salviati: Venice *** 
   Ferdinando Ongania: Calli e Canali in Venezia (1890s) 
   Alfred Stieglitz: Venice *** 
   Gustave Marissiaux: Venice *** 
Lithuania
Photographers 
   Antanas Sutkus: Portraits *** 
Malta
Photographers 
   Calvert Richard Jones: Malta *** 
   James Dunlop: Malta *** 
   James Robertson & Felice Beato: Malta *** 
Moldova - Republic of Moldova
Carte de visite 
   The carte de visite in Moldovia *** 
Norway
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Norway *** 
Daguerreotypes 
   The Daguerreotype in Norway *** 
Landscapes 
   Knud Knudsen: Norway and its landscapes 
Costumes 
   Marcus Selmer: Norwegian costumes (ca. 1857-1870) 
   Knud Knudsen: Norwegian folk costumes *** 
   Solveig Lund: Norwegian folk costumes 
Anthropology 
   Prince Roland Bonaparte's ethnographic expedition to Lapland (1884) 
Photographers 
   Richard Basso: Graf Wilczek'sche Polar-Expedition (1882-1883) *** 
Poland
Carte de visite 
   The carte de visite in Poland *** 
Second World War 
   Teresa Zarnower: Obrona Warszawy - The defense of Warsaw (1942-1945) 
Photographers 
   Jack Burman: KZ 
Portugal
Photographers 
   Joseph James Forrester: Portugal 
   Frederick William Flower: Portugal (1850s) 
   Emilio Biel: Construction of the Ponte Maria Pia in Porto (1876-1877) 
   Emilio Biel: Caminho de Ferro do Douro (ca. 1890) 
   Emilio Biel & Ca.: Album de Phototypico Vistas e Costumes do Norte de Portugal (ca. 1900) *** 
Illustrated magazines 
   A.C. Pardal & Filho: Publicação Photographica (1870-1871) 
Books 
   Portugal 1934: Photomontage as propaganda 
Republic of Macedonia
Photographers 
   Josef Székely: Austro-Hungarian expedition to northern Albania, Kosova and Macedonia (1863) 
Romania
Carte de visite 
   The carte de visite in Romania *** 
Photographers 
   Ludwig Angerer: Bucharest (1856) *** 
   Carol Szathmari: Romania *** 
Russia - Russian Federation
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Russia 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Russia 
The Russian Royal Family 
   The Russian Royal Family *** 
Photographers 
   Roger Fenton: Russia (1852) 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Early street photography in Russia (1859) 
   William Carrick: Russian occupationals 
   J. Monstein: Russian types 
   Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii: Early colour photographs of trees and tracks 
   Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii: Ethnic and traditional costumes 
Cities 
   Panorama of Moscow (before 1868) 
Events 
   Victims of the Khodinsky Plain panic, Coronation Week Moscow, Russia (1896) 
   Albert Felish: Russia, St. Petersburg 
   Ivan Boldyrev: Night illumination at Peterhof (1893) *** 
The people 
   Ethnic and traditional clothing from Astrakhan 
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) 
   Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905): Introduction 
   Photographers of the Russo-Japanese War 
Russian Revolution and its Aftermath (1917) 
   Russian Revolution and the aftermath (1917): Introduction 
   Photographers of the Russian Revolution (1917) 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism in Russia 
   Alexander Grinberg: Nudes 
Soviet imagery 
   Constructivism 
   Soviet imagery 
   Alexander Rodchenko: AMO Plant - Automobile Moscow Society, now ZIL (1929) *** 
Illustrated magazines 
   Illustrated magazines in U.S.S.R. 
   USSR in Construction 
Films 
   Sergei Eisenstein: Strike (1925) 
   Dziga Vertov:The Man with a Movie Camera (1929) 
Second World War / The Great Patriotic War 
   Second World War (1939-1945): Soviet photographers 
Russia viewed from the outside 
   Russia: As seen by external photographers 
   Margaret Bourke-White: U.S.S.R portfolio 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Russia 
Serbia
War 
   Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Examples of photography from the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Thoughts on the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
   Photographers of the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) 
Spain
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Spain *** 
Early photography in Spain 
   Daguerreotypes: Spain *** 
   Daguerreotypes: Ethnic: Spanish 
   William Sterling: Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848) 
Photographers 
   Théophile Gautier: Wanderings in Spain (1853) 
   Mr. E. K. Tenison, of Kilbonan Castle, exhibited a number of photographs of very large size, representing views in Spain (1853) 
   Louis de Clercq: Spain 
   Charles Piazzi Smyth: Teneriffe - An Astronomer’s Experiment (1857) 
   Juan Laurent: The Islamic architecture of Spain 
   Juan Laurent: Arms and armour *** 
   Juan Laurent: Portraits *** 
   Juan Laurent: Public works in Spain (1860s) 
   Martínez Sánchez: Public works in Spain (1860s) 
   Joan Martí Centellas: Barcelona 
   Charles Clifford: The cities of Spain 
   Charles and Jane Clifford: Armour *** 
Documentary 
   Carte de visites: Spanish criminals (ca. 1870) 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism in Spain 
   Otto Wunderlich: Spain 
   José Ortiz-Echagüe (1886-1982) 
   Alfonso Sánchez García and sons: Rincones del viejo Madrid (Nocturnos) (1951) *** 
The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) 
   Photographers of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) 
   Robert Capa: Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano 
   Gerda Taro: Woman Photographer Crushed by Loyalist Tank 
   Posters from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) *** 
   Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): Aerial reconnaissance and bombing photography 
Photojournalism in Spain 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Spanish Village (1951) 
   Roger Mayne: Costa del Sol (1962) *** 
Sweden
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Sweden *** 
   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions: Sweden *** 
   Stockholm *** 
Anthropological 
   Lotten von Düben: Anthropological studies of Lapland (1868) 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism in Sweden 
Switzerland
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Switzerland *** 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Switzerland *** 
Costumes 
   Costumes of Switzerland *** 
Photographers 
   Francis Frith: Switzerland *** 
   Adolphe Braun: Switzerland *** 
Magazines 
   Illustrated magazines in Switzerland 
The Netherlands
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in The Netherlands *** 
Early days 
   The Netherlands: Amsterdam *** 
   Jager (publisher): Costumes of the Low Countries *** 
Photographers 
   Pieter Oosterhuis: Amsterdam Photographié (ca 1860) *** 
   Alfred Stieglitz: The Netherlands: Coastal communities *** 
   Georg Hendrik Breitner: Using photography as an aid to painting 
   Richard Polak: Costume pieces *** 
Illustrated magazines 
   Illustrated magazines in Holland 
Photobooks 
   Dutch photobooks *** 
Turkey
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Turkey *** 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: Turkey *** 
Places 
   Constantinople, The Architecture 
   Constantinople - Istanbul: Fountains *** 
   Constantinople - Istanbul: Santa Sophia Mosque 
   Constantinople - Istanbul: Sultan Ahmed Mosque (The Blue Mosque) *** 
   Constantinople - Istanbul: Theodosian column *** 
Studio portraits 
   Studio portraits in Turkey *** 
Stereotypes 
   Turkey: Women in ripose *** 
Occupationals 
   Guillaume Berggren: Occupationals 
   Turkey: Porters *** 
Modernization 
   Turkey: Abdul-Hamid II Collection (1880-1893) 
Photographers 
   James Robertson: Constantinople 
   Guillaume Berggren: Constantinople *** 
   Francis Bedford: The Prince of Wales and his trip to the East - Constantinople (1862) 
   Abdullah frères: Constantinople *** 
   Pascal Sebah: Les costumes populaires de la Turquie en 1873 
   Sebah and Joaillier: Street life *** 
   Sebah and Joaillier: Portraits *** 
   Gulmez Freres: Turkey: Constantinople *** 
Photographic studios of Constantinople 
   Abdullah frères: Backmarks *** 
   Nicolas Andriomenos: Backmarks *** 
   Pascal Sebah: Backmarks *** 
Conflict 
   Album de la Société Ottomane de Secours aux Blessés Militaires, Guerre 1877-1878 *** 
   Armenian massacres (1915-1923) 
UK
Calotypes 
   Henry Fox Talbot: The Pencil of Nature (1844-1846) 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Sun Pictures in Scotland (1845) 
   Hill & Adamson: Newhaven 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions: Great Britain *** 
   Richard Beard: Trade card 
   Daguerreotypes: London *** 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
   Richard Beard: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
Royalty 
   Royal support for industry, the arts and photography in Victorian Britain *** 
Documentary 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
Landscapes 
   Types of early British landscape photographers 
   Fred Judge: UK: Postcards 
   Fay Godwin: British landscapes *** 
   John Blakemore: Landscapes *** 
   John Davies: Landscapes and cityscapes *** 
Notable photographers 
   Roger Fenton: Great Britain 
   Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879): Portraits 
Mass Observation 
   Mass Observation (Great Britain) 
Social issues 
   Nick Hedges: Make Life Worth Living: Photographs for Shelter, 1969-72 
Falklands War 
   Falklands War / Malvinas War (1982): Introduction 
   Falklands War / Malvinas War (1982): The Sinking of the ARA General Belgrano 
Political postcards 
   Unemployment in Thatcher's Britain 
Photobooks 
   British photobooks *** 
Journals and magazines 
   Britain: Photography magazines and journals 
   Illustrated magazines in the UK 
   Camerawork (UK) 
England
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: London *** 
Photographers 
   Benjamin Brecknell Turner: England, Worcesterhire, Bredicot (1852-1854) 
   Robert Henry Cheney: The country houses and architecture of England (1850s) 
   Henry James: Stonehenge 
   Victor Albert Prout: The Thames from London to Oxford in Forty Photographs (1862) *** 
   Henry W. Taunt: The River Thames (1872) 
   Frank Meadow Sutcliffe: Whitby *** 
   Peter Henry Emerson: Marsh Leaves (1895) 
   J. Payne Jennings: Book covers 
   Bill Brandt: North 
   Tony Ray-Jones: England 
   John Bulmer: The North of England 
   Paul Graham: A1: The Great North Road 
   Chris Killip: Seacoal 
Places 
   England: The Thames *** 
Exhibitions 
   A Record of the Photographic Salon of 1895 (London) 
London
Introduction 
   Introduction to London *** 
Diorama 
   Contemporary accounts of the Diorama - Regent's Park. London (1830) 
Daguerreotypes 
   Daguerreotypes: London *** 
   Richard Beard: Trade card 
   Richard Beard: Illustrations for Henry Mayhew - London Labour and the London Poor 
Documentary 
   Exhibitions: 1851 Crystal Palace - Hyde Park 
   Philip Henry Delamotte: The Crystal Palace (1854-1855) 
   B.L. Spackman: Construction at the 1862 International Exhibition at South Kensington, England (1859-1862) 
   William Strudwick: London 
   Roger Fenton: London 
   Thomas Barnardo: Children Reclaimed for LIfe 
   John Thomson: Street Life in London 
   The Society for Photographing Relics of Old London 
Travel guides and photography 
   Karl Baedeker's Handbooks for Travellers - London 
   Henry W. Taunt: The River Thames (1872) 
Pictorialism 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: London (1909) 
Night 
   Fred Judge: London: Night *** 
   Morrison & Burdekin: London Night (1934) 
Streets 
   Harold Chapman: London *** 
   Robert Frank: London *** 
   Roger Mayne: Youth 
   Roger Mayne: Wapping 
   Frederick Wilfred: London (ca. 1960s) *** 
Northern Ireland
The Troubles (1960s-1998) 
   Introduction to The Troubles (1960s-1998) 
Scotland
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Scotland *** 
Photographers 
   Henry Fox Talbot: Sun Pictures in Scotland (1845) 
   Hill & Adamson: Disruption of the Church of Scotland (1843) 
   Hill & Adamson: A tree at Colinston [Midlothian, Scotland] 
   Hill & Adamson: Edinburgh 
   Hill & Adamson: A Series of Calotype Views - St. Andrews (1846) 
   Hill & Adamson: Newhaven 
   Hill & Adamson: Scotland: Roslin: Roslin Chapel - Rosslyn Chapel *** 
   Thomas Annan: The Old Closes & Streets of Glasgow 
   Archibald Burns: Edinburgh 
   Archibald Burns: Carte de visites of Scotland 
   Bill Brandt: Isler of Skye *** 
The Edinburgh Calotype Club 
   Albums of the Edinburgh Calotype Club *** 
Wales
Daguerreotypes 
   Early photography in Wales *** 
Photographers 
   Calvert Richard Jones: Daguerreotype: Margam Castle, Wales 
   Roger Fenton: The Conway in the Stereoscope (1860) 
   Francis Bedford: Wales 
   Michael Jackson: Poppit Sands (2007-) 
Ukraine
Photographers 
   Roger Fenton: Ukraine *** 
   John Darwell: Legacy - Inside the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone 
Vatican City - Holy See
St. Peters 
   Italy: Rome: St. Peter's 
Photographers 
   Robert Macpherson: The statues of Rome 
Latin America
Introduction 
   Introduction to Latin American photography 
Barbados
Introduction 
   Introduction to Barbados 
Bermuda
Albums 
   Unidentified photographer: Album on Bermuda (ca. 1890) 
Canada
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Canada *** 
Daguerreotypes 
   Hugh Lee Pattinson: Niagara Falls 
Exploration and disaster 
   Richard Beard: British Naval Northwest Passage Expedition (1845-1848) 
   Richard Beard: Sir John Franklin 
   Paul-Émile Miot: Newfoundland and Cape Breton 
   Paul-Émile Miot: Mik'maq (Micmac) 
   Acadians, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (1859) 
   Humphrey Lloyd Hime: Assiniboine and Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition (1857-1858) 
   Northwest Boundary Survey (1857-1862) / British North American Boundary Commission 
   Charles Horetzky: Surveyor and photographer of British Columbia *** 
   Joseph Burr Tyrrell: Expedition to the barren lands (1893) 
William Notman, his studios and associates 
   William Notman: Portraits 
   William Notman: Photomontages 
   William James Topley: Canadian landscapes *** 
   William Notman: The construction of Victoria Bridge, Montreal, Canada (1854-1859) 
   William Notman: Use of the painted exterior wall of his Montreal Studio as a background 
Documentary 
   The Canadian Pacific Railway 
Life outdoors 
   Alexander Henderson: Canadian landscapes 
   William James Topley: Hunting and fishing in Canada 
Pictorialism 
   Introduction to Pictorialism in Canada *** 
   Canadian Pictorialism: Frederick George Ashton 
Early colour photography 
   Early colour photography in Western Canada 
Modernism 
   John Vanderpant: Canadian Modernism 
The scale of place 
   Emily Carr on Canada 
Cuba
Introduction 
   Introduction to Cuba 
Albums 
   Lamarque (Santiago): Photograph album - Maj. General Leonard Wood in Cuba (ca. 1899) 
Photographers 
   Walker Evans: Cuba 
Heroes of the Revolution 
   Fidel Castro *** 
   Ernesto Che Guevara *** 
Cold War (1945-1991) 
   Cuban Missile Crisis *** 
Cuba viewed from the outside 
   Cuba: As seen by external photographers *** 
Jamaica
Jamaicans 
   Jamaicans 
Early photographers 
   Adolphe Duperly: Daguerian Excursions in Jamaica (1840) 
Mexico
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Mexico 
   Mexicans 
Exploration and expeditions 
   John L. Stephens: Incidents of Travel in Yucatan (1843) 
   Désiré Charnay: Cités et Ruines Americaines. Atlas (1863) 
   Désiré Charnay: Mexico: Uxmal 
   Désiré Charnay: Mexico: Mitla 
   Désiré Charnay: Mexico: Chichen-Itza 
   Dr. Augustus and Alice Le Plongeon: Archaeological research in Mexico (1870s) 
   Alfred Percival Maudslay: Mexico: Chiapas: Palenque 
   Carl Lumholtz: Mexico and the measurement of man (1890s) 
Carte de visites 
   Jules Amiel: Mexican scenes 
Tipos 
   François Aubert: Tipos (Mexico) 
   Merille: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
   Cruces & Campa: Tipos (Mexico) *** 
Cityscapes 
   Désiré Charnay: Views of Mexico City and environs (1858) *** 
Mexican-American War (1846-1848) 
   Mexican-American War (1846-1848) 
Second Mexican Empire (1864-1867) 
   François Aubert: The execution of Emperor Maximilian 
Mexican Revolution (1910-early 1920s) 
   Mexican Revolution (1910-early 1920s): Introduction 
   Manuel Ramos: Mexican Revolution *** 
Mexican folk art 
   Fotoscultura (Mexican folk art) *** 
Snapshots 
   Kenneth Forbes: Snapshots taken in Mexico (1936) *** 
Surrealism 
   Manuel Alvarez Bravo: Good Reputation Sleeping (La Buena Fama Durmiendo) 
Photographers 
   E. Leroy: Quelques vues du Mexique - Album (1864-1867) 
   Alfred Saint-Ange Briquet: Mexico: Mexico 
   Paul Strand: Mexico 
   Edward Weston: Mexico *** 
   Tina Modotti: Mexico *** 
   Henri Cartier-Bresson: Mexico *** 
   John Sevigny: Ladies Bar 
Mexico viewed from the outside 
   Mexico: As seen by external photographers *** 
   Charles Burlingame Waite: Mexico *** 
Nicaragua
Photographers 
   Susan Meiselas: Nicaragua *** 
Panama
Expeditions 
   John Moran: Darien Expedition (1871) 
   Carleton E. Watkins: Panama *** 
Construction of the Panama Canal 
   Panama Canal - First attempt (ca. 1885) *** 
   Panama Canal - Second attempt (1904-1914) 
USA
The Daguerreotype in America 
   Joseph Saxton: Philadelphia Central High School for Boys and Pennsylvania State Arsenal 
   Daguerreotypes: USA *** 
   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
   Daguerreotype manuals and instructions: USA *** 
   Mathew B. Brady: Brady's Daguerrean Gallery *** 
   Jeremiah Gurney: J. Gurney's Premium Daguerreotype Gallery *** 
Calotypes 
   Calotypes and salt prints: USA 
   George Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857) 
   W. & F. Langenheim: Calotypes and salt prints 
Publications 
   USA: Photography magazines and journals 
The American landscape 
   Landscape photography in nineteenth century North America 
   Landscape surveys of the American West 
   Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel - Clarence King (1867-1869) 
   U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey - Ferdinand V. Hayden (1867-1869) 
   Survey west of the 100th Parallel - George Montague Wheeler (1869-1879) 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) 
   River explorations - John Wesley Powell (1869-1872) 
   The importance of railroads in the development of the American West 
   Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878) 
   Colorado: Mountain of the Holy Cross 
   Utah: Devil's Slide 
   Carleton E. Watkins and the Yosemite Valley (California, USA) 
Social commentary in America 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   Lewis W. Hine: The reform of child labour in America 
FSA - Farm Security Administration and related organizations 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Photographers 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration: Examples 
   FSA - Farm Security Administration - OWI: Early colour 
Street photography 
   Robert Frank: The Americans 
   Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places 
Perspectives on war and conflict in America 
   Mexican-American War (1846-1848) 
   Photomontage during the American Civil War (1861-1865) 
   North American Indian Wars: Introduction 
   North American Indian Wars: Portraits of Native American leaders 
   Alexander Gardner: Ogallalla Sioux (May, 1872) 
   North American Indian Wars: and the photography of aftermath 
   Native American: The search for the Vanishing Race and a vanishing world 
   Photographers of Native Americans 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Introduction 
   Korean War (1950-1953): Photographers 
Photobooks 
   American photobooks *** 
Alabama
Photographers 
   Walker Evans: Alabama, Greensboro 
Alaska
Photographers 
   I.W. Taber: Alaska (ca 1885) *** 
   Frank Jay Haynes: Alaska Views (ca. 1891) 
   Edward S. Curtis: Harriman Alaska Expedition (1899) 
Gold Rush 
   Alaskan Gold Rush (1896-1899) *** 
Arizona
Photographers 
   Laura Gilpin: New Mexico and Arizona 
Arkansas
Photographers 
   Mike Disfarmer: Heber Springs portraits 
California
Introduction 
   Introduction to California 
The arrival of the masses 
   Early photographers and studios of California 
   Californian Gold Rush (1848-1855) 
   George Robinson Fardon: San Francisco Album. Photographs of the Most Beautiful Views and Public Buildings of San Francisco (1856-1857) 
   Arnold Genthe: Chinatown 
Locations 
   California: Cliff House *** 
   California: Point Lobos *** 
   California: Yosemite Valley 
   California: Yosemite: Yosemite Valley and the Merced River 
   California: Yosemite: Glacier Point 
The Great Outdoors 
   Carleton E. Watkins and the Yosemite Valley (California, USA) 
   Charles Leander Weed: The big trees of California (1860s) *** 
   Seth Kinman: California hunter 
Capturing movement 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Experimental establishments 
San Francisco Earthquake (1868) 
   Earthquake: San Francisco (1868) *** 
San Francisco advertising album (1880) 
   I.W. Taber: The Taber photographic album of principal business houses, residences and persons (1880) 
San Francisco Earthquake and Fire (1906) 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 
   USA, California, San Francisco earthquake and fire - 1906 - The photographers 
Pictorialism in California 
   William Dassonville: Trees 
   Anne Brigman: Pictorialist nudes 
Ansel Adams and the American perception of sublime nature 
   Ansel Adams and Straight landscape photography 
   Ansel Adams: Yosemite 
   Ansel Adams: Illustrated Guide to Yosemite Valley (1946) 
   Ansel Adams: Hills Brothers Coffee Can 
   Ansel Adams 
Edward Weston 
   Edward Weston: Point Lobos 
   Edward Weston: Oceano Dunes 
   Edward Weston: Trees *** 
The Great Depression 
   Dorothea Lange: White Angel Breadline, San Francisco 
Internment in California 
   Internment camps in the USA during the Second World War 
Street photography 
   Joseph Selle's Fox Movie Flash: Mid-Century Street Vendor Photography 
   Max Yavno: California 
Architecture 
   Julius Shulman: Architecture 
Ed Ruscha and the Artist's book 
   Ed Ruscha: Self-published books *** 
   Ed Ruscha: Royal Road Test *** 
   Ed Ruscha: Every Building on Sunset Strip *** 
   Ed Ruscha: Thirtyfour Parking Lots in Los Angeles *** 
Interpretations of landscape 
   Lewis Baltz: New Industrial parks near Irvine, California (1974) 
   Robbert Flick: Trajectories *** 
Aerial photography of California 
   William A. Garnett: Aerial views of Californian suburbia 
   David Maisel: Oblivion 
Contemporary culture 
   Lauren Greenfield: Girl Culture 
   Larry Sultan: Pictures from Home 
   Philip-Lorca diCorcia: Street hustlers 
Yosemite
Introduction 
   California: Yosemite Valley 
   California: Yosemite Valley: Postcards *** 
Locations 
   California: Yosemite: Yosemite Valley and the Merced River 
   California: Yosemite: Glacier Point 
Photographers 
   Carleton E. Watkins and the Yosemite Valley (California, USA) 
   Eadweard Muybridge: Yosemite 
   Thomas Houseworth & Co: Calaveras Big Trees 
   George Fiske: Yosemite *** 
   Gustavus Fagersteen: Yosemite *** 
   Ansel Adams: Yosemite 
   Ansel Adams: Illustrated Guide to Yosemite Valley (1946) 
Colorado
Photographers 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Meridian (1871-1874) 
Significant locations 
   Colorado: Mountain of the Holy Cross 
   Colorado: Garden of the Gods *** 
   A Rephotographic Survey of the American West: Mountain of the Holy Cross 
Connecticut
Wild flowers and orchids 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
Crime and punishment 
   Death Row Prisoners Hanged in Connecticut 1894-1912 
District of Columbia
Photographers 
   A.C. Kline: Jeff Davis "taking" Washington 
Florida
Characters 
   Billy Bowlegs 
Photographers 
   Elias A. Bonine: Stereocards: Florida Series *** 
   Julian Dimock: Florida *** 
Georgia
Photographers 
   George S. Cook: Advertisements *** 
Hawaii
Royalty 
   Royal family of Hawaii *** 
Photographers 
   Caroline Haskins Gurrey: Portraits from Hawaii 
Illinois
Photographers 
   Aaron Siskind: Chicago 
Indiana
Photographers 
   Mike Disfarmer: Heber Springs portraits 
Iowa
Photographers 
   Mrs. G.M. Bowen: Banner ladies 
Kansas
Photographers 
   Alexander Gardner and others: Across the continent on the Kansas Pacific Railroad 
   Joseph P. Babbitt: Engineers and Surveyors on the Kansas City Bridge (1869) *** 
   Lori Nix: Accidentally Kansas 
Environmental 
   Black Blizzards 
Kentucky
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Kentucky *** 
Photographers 
   Charles Waldack: Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (1866) 
   Mandeville Thum: Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (1877) *** 
   Ben Hains: Views of Mammoth Cave and vicinity (1889) 
   Ralph Eugene Meatyard: The Family Album of Lucybelle Crater 
Louisiana
Storyville 
   E.J. Bellocq: Storyville Portraits 
Maine
Wild flowers and orchids 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
Massachusetts
Astronomy 
   J.A. Whipple: Daguerreotypes of the Sun and Moon (1852) 
Mount Auburn Cemetery 
   Southworth and Hawes: Mount Auburn Cemetery 
Dighton Rock 
   Massachusetts: Dighton Rock 
Balloon flights 
   S.A. King: Balloon flights 
Photographers 
   James Wallace Black: Boston, as the Eagle and the Wild Goose See It 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
   Joel Meyerowitz: Cape Cod *** 
Minnesota
Photographers 
   Sumner & Son (Northfield): The Aftermath of the Northfield Raid (1876) 
Missouri
Photographers 
   Thomas Easterly: Daguerreotypes 
   Thomas Easterly: The Destruction of Big Mound (1853-1854) 
Montana
Photographers 
   Walter McClintock: The Blackfoot of Montana and their environment 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Fort Peck Dam 
Nebraska
Native Americans and the Trans-Mississippi Exposition (1898) 
   Frank Rinehart and Adolph F. Muhr: Attendees of the 1898 Indian Congress 
   Frank Rinehart and Adolph F. Muir: Native Americans 
When truth and fiction collide 
   Christian Patterson: Redheaded Peckerwood 
Nevada
Photographers 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: The mines of Nevada (ca. 1868) *** 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: The sand dunes of Carson Desert, Nev. 
   Alfred Hart: First Construction Train passing the Palisades, Ten Mile Cañon *** 
   Thomas Houseworth & Co: Nevada *** 
New Hampshire
Daguerreotypes 
   Samuel A. Bemis: The White Mountains of New Hampshire 
Photographers 
   Edward Bierstadt: Gems of American Scenery, consisting of Stereocopic Views among the White Mountains (1878) 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
New Mexico
Locations 
   USA: New Mexico: Taos 
Photographers 
   Laura Gilpin: New Mexico and Arizona 
   Gábor Kerekes: Over Rosswell (2002-2005) 
New York
Introduction 
   Introduction to New York City 
Daguerrean galleries of New York 
   Mathew B. Brady: Brady's Daguerrean Gallery *** 
   Jeremiah Gurney: J. Gurney's Premium Daguerreotype Gallery *** 
   "Portrait factory" on Broadway, New York 
Early salted paper prints 
   Silas A. Holmes (attributed): New York (ca. 1855) 
Early photo-reportage in New York State 
   George N. Barnard: Oswego Mills (1853) 
   Charles Lyell on Niagara Falls (1845) 
   Platt D. Babbitt: Joseph Avery at Niagara Falls (1853) 
Commercial photography 
   New York facades shown in cabinet cards 
Pictorialism and the Photo-Secession in New York 
   The influence of Alfred Stieglitz on American pictorialism 
   Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, 291 Fifth Avenue, New York City 
   Alfred Stieglitz and the Photo-Secession 
   Alfred Stieglitz: New York at Night *** 
   The links between Camera Work and contemporary art 
   Alvin Langdon Coburn: New York (1910) 
   Paul Strand: New York *** 
   Edward Steichen: The Flatiron 
   Clarence H. White School of Photography 
Documentary studies of New York City 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives 
   Jacob A. Riis: How the Other Half Lives - Book covers 
   T.H. McAllister (American): Street life of New York (1898) *** 
   Alice Austen: Street Types of New York (1896) 
   Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (25 March 1911) 
   Augustus Francis Sherman: Ellis Island portraits 
   Berenice Abbott: Changing New York 
   Ilse Bing: New York (ca. 1936) 
   Lewis W. Hine: Empire State Building (1929-1931) 
   Aaron Siskind: Harlem Document (1932-1940) 
   Weegee: Street photography 
   Walker Evans: New York *** 
   Walker Evans: The subway portraits 
   Introduction to New York City Photo League 
   Helen Levitt: Children of New York 
   Andreas Feininger: The architecture of New York 
   André Kertész: Washington Square 
   Bill Witt: New York City *** 
   Bruce Davidson: East 100th Street 
   Saul Leiter: New York in colour 
   Joel Meyerowitz: Street photography 
Documentary studies of New York State 
   Milton Rogovin: Lower West Side, Buffalo, NY *** 
   Milton Rogovin: Buffalo, NY *** 
   Window dressing Kleinhans Co. (Buffalo, NY) *** 
Sites of New York City 
   New York City: The Statue of Liberty 
   New York City: The Brooklyn Bridge 
   New York City: The Manhattan Bridge 
   New York City: The Flatiron Building *** 
   New York City: The Empire State Building *** 
Sites of New York state 
   Niagara Falls 
September 11, 2001 
   World Trade Center (September 11, 2001) 
   Kevin Bubriski: Pilgrimage: Looking At Ground Zero (2001) *** 
Ohio
Photographers 
   Fontayne & Porter: The Cincinnati Panorama *** 
   Margaret Bourke-White: Otis Steel Co. (1928-1929) 
Oklahoma
Introduction 
   Early photographers of Oklahoma *** 
Photographers 
   Larry Clark: Tulsa 
Oregon
Photographers 
   Herrin Gallery: Columbia River Scenery, via The Dalles, Portland, and Astoria, Navigation Company Steamers *** 
Pennsylvania
Early photographers 
   Joseph Saxton: Philadelphia Central High School for Boys and Pennsylvania State Arsenal 
   The Daguerreotype studios of Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 
   Robert Cornelius: Daguerreotype portraits 
   Samuel Broadbent: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
   Marcus Aurelius Root: Daguerreotype portraits *** 
Railways 
   Purviance: Purviance's Views, Penn'a Central Rail Road *** 
Documentary 
   W. Eugene Smith: The Pittsburgh Project 
Rhode Island
Wild flowers and orchids 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
South Carolina
Photographers 
   J.T. Zealy: African American slaves 
   Julian Dimock: African-Americans in South Carolina (1904-1905) *** 
   Doris Ulmann: Roll, Jordan, Roll (1933) 
Texas
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Texas *** 
Photographers 
   Robert Yarnall Ritchie: Commercial Modernist 
Utah
Photographers 
   A.J. Russell: Golden Spike Ceremony, Promontory Point, Utah (10 May 1869) 
Significant locations 
   Utah: Devil's Slide 
   Utah: Cottonwood Canyon *** 
Photography-related manufacturing plants 
   H.C. White Manfacturing Plant for Stereoscopes and StereoViews - North Bennington, Vermont, USA *** 
Vermont
Wild flowers and orchids 
   Edwin Hale Lincoln: Wildflowers and orchids of the North-Eastern United States 
Virginia
Tourists 
   A photographer disturbs the tranquility of Mount Vernon (March 1859) 
Photographers 
   Timothy O'Sullivan: A council of war at Massaponax Church, VA (21 May 1864) 
   Francis Benjamin Johnston: Hampton Album (1899-1900) 
Washington
Photographers 
   Darius Kinsey: Forestry and logging in the American North-West (1906-1940) 
Events 
   USA, Washington, Mount St. Helens eruption (1980) 
Wisconsin
Events 
   Ersly's Gallery (Whitewater, Wis.): Frostbite 
Wyoming
Locations 
   Wyoming: Dale Creek Crossing (1868-1901) 
Photographers 
   Frank Jay Haynes: Yellowstone 
Oceania
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Oceania 
Techniques 
   Daguerreotypes: Pacific *** 
Photographers 
   Paul-Émile Miot: Polynesia *** 
   Robert Parry: Tahiti (1934) 
Australia
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Australia *** 
Aborigines 
   Aborigines 
   Antoine Fauchery & Richard Daintree: Australia - Aborigines 
   King Billy - A scandal in Tasmania 
   John William Lindt: Aborigines 
   Elder Scientific Exploring Expedition (1891-1892) 
Documentary 
   Album of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1870) 
   Unidentified photographer: The buildings of Sydney, N.S.W., Australia (1873) *** 
Pictorialism 
   Pictorialism in Australia 
Photographers 
   Walter Woodbury: Australian goldfields (1850s) 
   Antoine Fauchery & Richard Daintree: Australia - Goldfields in Victoria *** 
   Antoine Fauchery & Richard Daintree: Sun Pictures of Victoria (1858) *** 
   Antoine Fauchery & Richard Daintree: Australia - Landscapes *** 
   Richard Daintree: Images of Queensland (ca. 1870) 
   Frederic Bonney: Views of the Colonies of Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland including Momba Station and the township of Bourke (1870s) 
Photojournalism 
   E.O. Hoppé: Australia 
   David Moore: Australia 
   David Moore: Migrant Woman (1966) 
Fine art photography 
   Harry Nankin: Contact 2003-2004 
   Harry Nankin: Rain 
Fiji
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Fiji 
Photographers 
   Burton Brothers: Fiji *** 
Fijians 
   Fijians 
Personalities 
   Chief Cakobau of Bau, the self-proclaimed King of Fiji 
Tourism 
   Tourism in Fiji *** 
French Polynesia
Introduction 
   Tahitians *** 
   Royal family of Tahiti *** 
Photographers 
   Courret Hermanos: Tahiti 
   Roger Parry: Tahiti *** 
Marshall Islands
Atomic bomb tests 
   Marshall Islands: Atomic bomb tests *** 
New Zealand
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in New Zealand *** 
Peoples 
   Maoris *** 
Photographers 
   Bruno L. Hamel: An Album of Photographic Views (1859) 
   Charles Spencer: New Zealand: Volcanic landscapes (1886) 
   Tanner Brothers: Maori Studies 
Palau
Photographers 
   James Fee: The Peleliu Project 
Papua New Guinea
Introduction 
   Introduction to Papua New Guinea *** 
Photographers 
   John William Lindt: Picturesque New Guinea (1887) 
   George Brown: Fourth voyage to New Guinea *** 
   Michael Rockefeller In the Highlands of West Papua 
   Irving Penn: New Guinea *** 
Samoa
People of Samoa 
   Samoans *** 
   Robert Louis Stevenson on Samoa *** 
Photographers 
   Thomas Andrew: Samoa 
   Burton Brothers: Samoa *** 
   Fabre: Samoa *** 
Solomon Islands
The peoples of the Solomon Islands 
   Solomon Islanders *** 
Tonga
Photographers 
   Burton Brothers: Tonga *** 
Vanuatu
Introduction 
   Introduction to Vanuatu *** 
South America
Introduction 
   Introduction to Latin American photography 
Argentina
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Argentina *** 
Argentinians 
   Argentinians *** 
War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   Esteban Garcia: War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
Civil engineering 
   Georges Poulet: Aurora Argentina (1890s) 
Argentina's Dirty War 
   Marcelo Brodsky: Buena Memoria / Good Memory (1996) *** 
Falklands - Malvinas War (1982) 
   Falklands War / Malvinas War (1982): Introduction 
   Falklands War / Malvinas War (1982): The Sinking of the ARA General Belgrano 
Bolivia
Introduction 
   A daguerreotypist of Paris has proposed... (1852-1853) 
Mining 
   Mining in Bolivia (1870s-1930s) *** 
Photographers 
   Courret Hermanos: Tipos (Bolivia) *** 
   Roberto M. Gerstmann: Mining in Bolivia *** 
Brazil
Introduction 
   Introduction to photography in Brazil *** 
Early days 
   Hercules Florence and the dawn of photography 
   Daguerreotypes: Brazil *** 
Indigenous peoples 
   Brazilians *** 
   E. Thiésson: Brazil: Botocudo (1844) *** 
   Marc Ferrez: Brazilian Indians *** 
   Albert Frisch: The Amazon (1867-1871) 
   Slavery in Brazil 
Royal support for photography 
   Carneiro & Gaspar - painted by J. Courtois: Empress Teresa Cristina and Pedro II of Brazil 
Urbanization 
   Marc Ferrez: Buildings of Brazil 
Industry 
   Marc Ferrez: Coffee production in Brazil *** 
War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   Esteban Garcia: War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
Photographers 
   Pierre Verger: Book covers: Brazil *** 
   Jean Manzon: Book covers *** 
   Marcel Gautherot: The architecture of Oscar Niemeyer in Brasilia 
   Alexandre Orion: Metabiotica 
Chile
The early days of photography in Chile 
   Daguerreotypes: Chile 
   HMS Topaze and Easter Island, Chile (1868) 
Documentary 
   Luis Boudat Ducollier: Album de las Salitreras de Tarapaca (1889) 
The dictatorship of General Pinochet 
   The dictatorship of Geneal Pinochet *** 
Colombia
Daguerreotypes 
   Colombia: Daguerreotypes 
Photographers 
   Anna K. Weaver 
Ecuador
Introduction 
   Ecuadorians *** 
Paraguay
War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   Esteban Garcia: War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
Peru
Early days 
   Daguerreotypes: Peru *** 
Ethography 
   Peruvians 
Photographers 
   Henry Moulton: Rays of Sunlight from South America (1865) 
   E. Maunoury: Peru 
   Eugenio Courret: Peru 
   Courret Hermanos: Peru 
   Charles Kroehle: Campa-Indians, Rio Chuchuras, East Peru (1880s) 
   Martin Chambi: Books *** 
   Martin Chambi: Peru - Macchu Picchu 
   Pierre Verger: Book covers: Peru 
   Irving Penn: Peru *** 
Fotonovelas 
   Peruvian Fotonovelas 
Uruguay
War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
   Esteban Garcia: War of the Triple Alliance (1865-1870) 
Cities 
   Luis Pastorino: Fotografias de Montevideo (1880) 
Venezuela
Photographers 
   Jean Chaffanjon: The Venezuelan Amazon 
 
  
 
  
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