Images and Words: An Online History of Photography

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Focal PressRobert Hirsch Exploring Color Photography, Fifth edition (Focal Press, 2011)
Chapter: 2 Section: 29
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2.29. Internal Dye Diffusion-Transfer Process

Modern “instant” photography, or, more accurately, selfprocessing film, began in 1948 with the marketing of Edwin Land’s first black-and-white Polaroid process. Polacolor, which Polaroid introduced in 1963 and was the first full-color, peel-apart print film, developed itself and produced a color print in 60 seconds. In 1976 Kodak launched its own line of instant products but 10 years later was forced to withdraw them when Polaroid won patent infringement suits against Kodak’s design. In 2008 Polaroid ceased its film production. However, in 2010 the owners of the Polaroid brand announced a newly designed version of the Polaroid OneStep camera that uses Polaroid Color 600 Instant Film, which is still being manufactured by the Impossible Project. Fuji continues to manufacture its own line of instant (Instax) films as well as an instant film camera. [1|2|29|1493]

Self-processing materials, such as Polaroid, use the internal dye diffusion-transfer process, often called the diffusion transfer process. It operates by causing the dye-formers to transfer out of the negative emulsions layer(s) to a single receiving layer (also in the material), where the visual positive image forms. The three phases of the process — negative development, transfer, and positive development — happen simultaneously, so that the positive images begin to form almost immediately. [1|2|29|1494]

2.30. The Polaroid Process: Diffusion-Transfer

The Polaroid SX-70 camera and film (1972 – 1981), and the later Spectra camera and film (1986 – present) called Time Zero, make use of the diffusion-transfer method. After the shutter is pressed, the motor drive, which is powered by a battery in each film pack, automatically ejects the film through a set of rollers that break a pod of reagent located at the bottom of each piece of film. Development is then automatic and requires no timing. Development can take place in daylight because the light-sensitive negative is protected by opaque dyes in the reagent. Both the positive and negative images are contained within each sheet of film. The diffusion transfer process was also the basis for Polaroid’s Polachrome, an additive color screen film. [1|2|30|1495]

2.31. Color Gains Acceptance in the Art World

Since the 1930s, color photography was equated with advertising, while black-and-white photography was associated with both art and authenticity. This attitude is expressed in Camera Lucida (1980) where Roland Barthes wrote “color is a coating applied later on to the original truth of the black-and-white photograph. For me, color is an artifice, a cosmetic (like the kind used to paint corpses).”1 But vast improvements in color film technology, especially in terms of rendition, film speed, and archival qualities, led more photographers to work with color in new and challenging situations. In turn, this produced an attitudinal shift about how and what color photography could communicate, as seen in Eliot Porter’s In Wildness Is the Preservation of the World (1962). This seminal project was published by the Sierra Club and in the preface its Executive Director, environmentalist David Brower, wrote: [1|2|31|1496]

Dick Swift
Eliot Porter in Santa Fe
Gelatin silver print
Provided by the artist - Dick Swift

None but a very literal person would fail to see that color is his music, that there is melody line, counterpoint, harmony, dynamics, voicing, and phrasing all there for those who will listen. There is absolute pitch, too – absolute color pitch. As we looked at the dye-transfer prints in Porter’s exhibit … we were quietly amazed by what this man knows about color. 2 [1|2|31|1497]

In the 1960s William Christenberry began making drugstore color photographs as visual references for his practice, but these images of ordinary Southern rural scenes began to be recognized for their ability to stand alone as individual works. By the late 1960s a few museums and galleries began acknowledging color photography as a legitimate art practice. A key breakthrough occurred when John Szarkowski, the curator of photography at the Museum of Modern Art, presented a show by another Southern photographer entitled William Eggleston’s Guide in 1976. In the exhibition catalog Szarkowski proclaimed the images to be “perfect: irreducible surrogates” of understated, vernacular views dealing with the social landscape of the New South. Others, like critic Hilton Kramer, who called them “perfectly boring,” saw them as overblown, trivial snapshots of the mundane that confronted viewers with an insipid emptiness. Nevertheless, the prohibition against color as too crass and commercial to be art had been cracked, granting photographers such as Joel Meyerowitz and Stephen Shore the freedom to begin to use color for its descriptive qualities. In his book Cape Light Meyerowitz said: “When I committed myself to color exclusively, it was a response to a greater need for description … color plays itself out along a richer band of feeling – more wavelengths, more radiance, more sensation … Color suggests more things to look at [and] it tells us more. There’s more content [and] the form for the content is more complex.” 3 Today, with digital cameras and desktop printers, color is so ubiquitous that it is difficult to imagine a time when it was not the norm. [1|2|31|1498]

William Christenberry
Double Cola Sign, Memphis, Tennessee
Chromogenic color print
11 x 14 ins
Provided by the artist - William Christenberry
William Christenberry grew up in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and has referenced his home environment in his work since he began making color photographs in the 1960s. He states,
“This is and always will be where my heart is. It is what I care about. Everything that I want to say and try to say through my work comes out of that, the feelings about that place, its positive aspects and its negative aspects. For a long time it was the poorest [county in the state], but it is also a county with great lore and legend … One thing that is quite interesting is the response that people in Alabama have had to my work … They think that I am being critical of Alabama and the South. On the contrary it is a love affair with the place. I just happen to choose the passing of time and its effect on things for aesthetic interest.”
Additional examples:
LL/41554 LL/41555 LL/41556 
LL/41515 LL/41558 LL/10200 

2.32. Amateur Systems Propel the Use of Color

The 1963 introduction of the Kodak Instamatic with its drop-in film cartridge generated a tidal wave of amateurs making color snapshots. To service this new consumer demand, companies like Fotomat provided drive-thru kiosks located in shopping center parking lots that offered 24-hour photo processing. At its peak around 1980, Fotomat operated over 4000 kiosks throughout the United States. This democratization of color also led more professionals to work in the medium as people came to expect color photographs. The photography industry attempted and failed to duplicate this success with the creation of other formats such as the 110 in 1975, the Disc in 1982, and the Advanced Photo System (APS) in 1996. Designed for amateurs, APS film is about 40 percent smaller than 35mm, which allowed camera manufacturers to make less bulky cameras and lenses. APS never took hold because the film area was too small for high-quality images and ultimately amateurs elected to go digital. By early 2004 Kodak ceased APS camera production, though Kodak and a few other companies continue to produce APS films. [1|2|32|1499]

2.33. Digital Imaging

In 2002 CNET . com calculated that of an estimated 100 billion photographs made that year, 25 percent were digital, and almost all were in color. The Photo Marketing Association’s (PMA) US Photo Industry 2009 Review and Forecast gives 20.5 billion as the estimated number of “Prints Made by US Consumers” in 2008. Of those, 14.8 billion are digital and 5.7 billion are traditional prints, flipping the analog to digital image capture percentage in just six years. 4 [1|2|33|1500]

Computer images, like their sister analog images, are shaped by technology. Knowing the challenges early computer imagemakers faced can deepen appreciation of their work and provide the framework to contemplate an evolving medium. Although the first electronic digital computers were built between 1937 and 1942, text and images had been digitized and electronically transmitted via fax for more than 30 years by then. Scottish physicist Alexander Bain created a proto-facsimile machine in 1843, but it was not until 1902 that Arthur Korn demonstrated a practical photoelectric scanning facsimile. The system used light-sensitive elements to convert different tones of an image into a varying electric current. Using the same basic principles employed by scanners today, these early fax machines digitized an image by assigning the area a number, such as “0” for white or OFF and “1” for black or ON. The fax then transmitted, via telephone lines, the signal to another facsimile receiver that made marks on paper corresponding to the area on the original image. Commercial use of Korn’s system began in Germany in 1908 by means of two synchronized, rotating drums, one for sending and the other for receiving, which were connected via the telephone. An image was mounted on the sending drum, scanned by a point light source that converted the image to electrical impulses, which were then transmitted to the receiving unit. By 1910, Paris, London and Berlin were all linked by facsimile transmission over the telephone network. Facsimile then made slow but steady progress through the 1920s and 1930s, and in 1935 the Associated Press introduced a wire photo service. [1|2|33|1501]

2.34. The Birth of Computing

The first electronic computers, such as Britain’s Colossus of 1943, were used to decipher codes and calculate weapons trajectories. In 1946 the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC), the first large-scale, general-purpose electronic digital computer, was built in the United States. ENIAC weighed 30 tons, had 500 miles of wire, and used 18,000 vacuum tubes, which burned out at the rate of one every 7 minutes. [1|2|34|1502]

The computers of the early 1950s were room-sized machines marketed to the government, military, and big business. Even though access to the machines was limited, early scientist-artists found ways to make pictures. In 1950 Ben F. Laposky made the first artistic electronic image, Oscillon Number Four – Electron Abstraction , which was an analog wave pattern photographed from an oscilloscope. In the mid-1950s Russell A. Kirsch and his colleagues at the National Bureau of Standards made a proto-drum scanner that could trace variations in intensity over the surfaces of photographs. These recordings of light and shadow were converted into binary digits but, unlike the facsimile machines of the time, this information was processable electronic digital information. Such activities reveal the unintended consequences that accompany new ideas, as it is doubtful that these scientist-artists, who were developing new technologies mainly for military applications, imagined that their work might one day revolutionize photography. [1|2|34|1503]

By 1957 IBM was marketing the disk drive, a stack of 50 disks that could store 5 million characters. By the end of the decade transistors made computers cheaper, smaller, faster, and more readily available. An important innovation for imagemakers was the 1959 introduction of the first commercial ink output printing device, the plotter. Plotters used a pen that moved across a sheet of paper to draw lines. The pen was controlled by two motors that moved the pen on x-and y-axes in a manner like an Etch-a-Sketch. Plotters could not draw curves so images were composed of lines and broken curves, and were generally black-and-white. Angular geometric shapes were the dominant visual language and compositions were frequently made up of rotated and scaled copies of themselves. As the pioneering photographers before them, scientist-artists looked to painting for inspiration and many of these early computer artworks resembled cubist and constructivist art. [1|2|34|1504]

2.35. The 1960s: Art in the Research Lab

In the 1960s anyone wishing to create computer-generated images needed either to be a programmer or to work closely with one. Working blind, unable to see their work until it was output, scientist-imagemakers mathematically mapped out an image before beginning to work on the computer. Mathematical instructions were inputted into another computer using 4 × 7-inch punch cards that contained information to drive a plotter. It could take boxes of cards to represent a single image and if the image did not come out as planned, the whole process had to be repeated. [1|2|35|1505]

During the 1960s, NASA developed digital technology for recording and transmitting images from outer space. By 1964 NASA scientists were able to use digital image-processing techniques to remove imperfections from the images of the lunar surface sent back by spacecraft, giving the public its first introduction to digital imaging. Later NASA projects, such as the Hubble Space Telescope and Cassini Saturn mission, are the legacy of these early efforts. [1|2|35|1506]

Moon: False Color Mosaic
Inkjet print
Courtesy of NASA/JPL.
NASA uses color imaging as a tool in much of its photographic work, allowing scientists and others to understand data through the application of synthetic, symbolic color. This image was made from a combination of 53 photographs taken by the spacecraft Galileo. The artificial colors in this composite image represent geographical variations in the Moon’s landscape.

In the arena of popular culture, in 1968 Life commissioned John Mott-Smith, a physicist with the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, to create computer images, which the editors described as being “intricate and jewel-like, reminiscent of stained-glass windows which medieval craftsmen made for their cathedrals.” 5 By today’s standards, Mott-Smith’s process was primitive. He programmed his computer to move points of light in patterns on the face of an oscilloscope. Watching the screen, he edited the patterns to create different effects and then photographed the screen image using colored filters as well as multiple and time exposures. Mott-Smith observed, “Although I set the program, it’s hard to predict what I will see. As I watch the screen a sort of symbiosis develops between me and the computer.” 6 [1|2|35|1507]

2.36. The 1970s and 1980s: Computers Get Personal

In 1970 a Xerox research team at the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) divided the computer screen into a mosaic of phosphor dots that were turned on or off by a beam of electrons that swept the screen methodically row by row. They called the rows “raster” after a row of type. Raster graphics were revolutionary because they allowed users to create realistic-looking computer images by filling in selected areas of a screen. Xerox researchers took advantage of raster graphics to develop an interface that used image icons to create a virtual desktop, the forerunner of the Macintosh and Windows operating systems. The interface worked best with a device called a mouse, which had been invented a decade earlier. [1|2|36|1508]

In the 1970s personal computers became available as kits, leading to the formation of information-sharing clubs. In 1975 Steve Wozniak brought a circuit board he built to a gathering of the Homebrew Computer Club. Friend and fellow member Steve Jobs was so impressed that he proposed a partnership that eventually became the Apple Computer Company. Their Apple II computer was a breakthrough in terms of its cost, superior color graphics capabilities, and art applications. Apple’s combination of art and business applications paved the way for the desktop computer transformation of the 1980s that brought sophisticated machines to the home, office, school, and artist’s studio. By the end of the 1980s, new equipment and software designed for artists resulted in the appearance of books, magazines, and exhibitions of computer art, and digital imaging. [1|2|36|1509]

In 1975 Kodak researchers, led by electrical engineer Steven J. Sasson, spent most of the year creating an unwieldy “handheld electronic still camera” and playback system using stock components, including one of the first commercially available charge coupled device (CCD) imagers, and specially designed circuitry. Late that year, the black-and-white image they made for display on a conventional television was the first taken with what is now known as a digital camera. The prototype camera and playback system were patented in 1978 but otherwise remained undisclosed until 2001. [1|2|36|1510]

Todd Walker
1995 (ca)
Digital file
Walker Image Trust
Todd Walker was a pioneer of digital photography. Having experimented since the 1960s with alternative photographic processes, he began utilizing computers as a tool for image-processing in the early 1980s. His daughter, Professor Melanie Walker, tells us,
“Even before his foray into digital photography, Walker had been dissatisfied with the formal options offered by conventional photographic media … Walker’s work not only demonstrates his prescience, but reveals the visually and formally stunning possibilities that existed before digital imaging became [commonplace].”

In 1981 Sony introduced a prototype of its Mavica (magnetic video camera), an electronic still video camera. Unlike the Kodak, Mavica recorded images in analog (a continuously variable scale) rather than digital signals, by capturing stills from video output on magnetic disks and playing them back on a monitor. Over the next few years, several other manufacturers developed their own prototypes, though it remains unclear whether Sony or Canon was first to produce its camera commercially. In any case, the still video camera’s high cost, low image quality, and expensive output limited its practical application. [1|2|36|1511]

The world had to wait for the first true digital still cameras until 1991, when Kodak brought out its Digital Camera System (DCS), the first professional model, which included a separate digital storage unit, and Dycam began selling its Model 1, the first consumer model. These cameras sold for about $20,000 and $1,000, respectively. Since then, manufacturers have introduced greatly improved, lower-cost digital cameras and backs for film cameras. The research firm Gartner Dataquest projects that consumer digital still cameras now have a U.S. household penetration of 80 percent, thus continuing the rapid decline of silverbased photography in everyday applications. [1|2|36|1512]

  1. Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography, translated by Richard Howard (New York: Hill & Wang, 1981), p. 81.
  2. David Brower in Eliot Porter, In Wildness Is the Preservation of the World (San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club, 1962), p. 9.
  3. Joel Meyerowitz, Cape Light: Color Photographs by Joel Meyerowitz (Boston, MA: New York Graphic Society, 1978), unp.
    A footnote to this report states that digital prints include prints from received images and camera phone prints. There is no attempt to further define the distinction between these categories or specify what percentage are inkjet, dye sublimation, or chromogenic. Based on this information, digital seems to refer to image capture rather than the printing process.
  5. “The Luminous Art of the Computer” Life , 1968, 65 (19): 53
  6. “The Luminous Art of the Computer” Life , 1968, 65 (19): 53



 2.1The First Color Photographs: Applied Color Processes 2.2Direct Color Process: First Experiments
 2.3The Hillotype Controversy 2.4The Additive Theory: First Photographic Image in Color
 2.5Maxwell’s Projection Process 2.6Direct Interference Method of Gabriel Lippmann
 2.7Additive Screen Processes 2.8Joly Color
 2.9Autochrome 2.10Finlay Colour Process and Paget Dry Plate
 2.11Dufaycolor 2.12Polachrome
 2.13Additive Equipment - Additive Enlargers 2.14Digital Enlargers
 2.15Television 2.16The Subtractive Method
 2.17Primary Pigment Colors 2.18The Subtractive Assembly Process: Heliography
 2.19The Kromskop Triple Camera and Kromskop Viewer 2.20Carbro Process
 2.21Color Halftones 2.22Dye-Imbibition Process/Dye Transfer Process
 2.23Subtractive Film and Chromogenic Development 2.24The Kodachrome Process
 2.25Chromogenic Transparency Film 2.26Chromogenic Negative Film
 2.27C-41: Chromogenic Negative Development 2.28Additional Color Processes - Silver Dye-Bleach/Dye-Destruction Process
=> 2.29Internal Dye Diffusion-Transfer Process 2.30The Polaroid Process: Diffusion-Transfer
 2.31Color Gains Acceptance in the Art World 2.32Amateur Systems Propel the Use of Color
 2.33Digital Imaging 2.34The Birth of Computing
 2.35The 1960s: Art in the Research Lab 2.36The 1970s and 1980s: Computers Get Personal
 2.37Digital Imaging Enters the Mainstream  

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