Images and Words: An Online History of Photography

Introduction | Contents | Foreword | Testing

Focal PressRobert Hirsch Exploring Color Photography, Fifth edition (Focal Press, 2011)
Chapter: 2 Section: 1
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Painting on photographs: A 19th century perspective
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Painting on photographs: Supporting materials
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2 A Concise History of Color Photography

2.1. The First Color Photographs: Applied Color Processes

To understand what is happening in color photography today it is beneficial to know what has been previously accomplished. The quest for color photography can be traced to Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre’s 1839 public announcement of his daguerreotype process, which produced a finely detailed, one-of-a-kind, direct-positive photographic image through the action of light on a silver-coated copper plate. Daguerreotypes astonished and delighted, but nevertheless people complained that the images lacked color. As we see the world in color, others immediately began to seek ways to overcome this deficiency and the first colored photographs made their appearance that same year. The color was applied by hand, directly on the daguerreotype’s surface. Since then scores of improvements and new processes have been patented for commercial use. [1|2|1|1443]

 
Joel Meyerowitz
Twin Towers (right panel) 9-25-2001
2001, 27 September
Chromogenic color print
48 × 60 inches
 
Edwynn Houk Gallery
Courtesy of Edwynn Houk Gallery, New York, NY.
 
The ability of a photograph to record and act as a surrogate witness to a specific moment in time has been at the heart of photographic practice. When Joel Meyerowitz was standing in a crowd viewing the remains from the collapse of the Twin Towers, a police officer reminded him that it was a crime scene and no photographs were allowed. “To me,” said Meyerowitz, “no photographs meant no history. I decided that my job was to make a photographic record of the aftermath.”
 
LL/41535
 
 

In the United States, four major methods were employed in the coloring of daguerreotypes: (1) applying paint directly to a gilded (gold toning enhanced appearance and stability) daguerreotype; (2) applying a transparent protective varnish over the plate, then hand coloring with paints; (3) applying transparent colors to specific areas of the image and fixing them by passing an electrical current through the plate with the aid of a galvanic battery; and (4) heating the back of the plate with a spirit lamp, instead of a battery, to fix colors that were selectively applied to the front of the plate. [1|2|1|1444]

 
Unknown
Portait of a gentleman reading
1840-1865
Daguerreotype, stereo, with applied colouring, left half
8.7 x 17.4 cm
 
FotoMuseum Provincie Antwerpen
www.daguerreobase.org - Daguerreobase no: FMA-P-1973-231
 
LL/41494
 
 
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LL/41494 LL/41536 

By 1843 John Plumbe, Jr., of Boston was advertising that his chain of six galleries in the Northeast could make colored daguerreotypes. Despite such rapid initial progress, it would take nearly a hundred years of research and development to perfect the rendition of color through purely photographic means. [1|2|1|1445]

 
John Plumbe Jr.
Unidentified Man Seated Reading a Newspaper
1844
Daguerreotype, 1/4 plate
3 1.2 x 2 3/4 in
 
Getty Museum
The J. Paul Getty Trust (84.XT.1565.22)
 
LL/7511
 
 

2.2. Direct Color Process: First Experiments

In 1840 Sir John Herschel, renowned British astronomer and originator of many seminal ideas in photography, reported being able to record red, green, and blue on silver chloride coated paper. These three colors corresponded to the rays of light cast on the paper by a prismed solar spectrum. Herschel’s work suggested that color photographs could be made directly from the action of light on a chemically sensitive surface. However, as Herschel was unable to fix the colors on the coated paper, they could be looked at only very briefly under lamplight before they darkened into blackness. Other experimenters, including Edmond Becquerel working in the late 1840s and early 1850s and Nièpce de Saint-Victor in the 1850s and 1860s, attempted to record colors directly on daguerreotypes. This was done through Heliochromy, a process that referenced the sun and color and did not make use of any filters or dyes. Although the colors did not fade by themselves, Nièpce de Saint-Victor never found a method to permanently fix them. When exposed to direct light, without a protective coating they quickly turned gray. [1|2|2|1446]

 
Julia Margaret Cameron
Sir John Frederick William Herschel, Baronet, Collingswood
1867, 7 April
Albumen print
36,1 x 28,1 cm
 
Museum Folkwang
Acquired 1961 for the Study Collection of the Folkwang School, since 1979 Museum Folkwang, Inv. 100/5/225, © Museum Folkwang, Essen
 
LL/40809
 
 

2.3. The Hillotype Controversy

In early 1851 Levi L. Hill, a Baptist minister from Westkill, New York, announced a direct color process, known as the Hillotype, by which he was able to produce permanent color images. Hill’s announcement created quite a stir and temporarily brought the daguerreotype portrait business to a halt, since the public decided to wait for the arrival of the new color process. Everyone clamored to know how Hill had achieved this miracle. Although the public waited excitedly, nothing was forthcoming from Hill, and he was roundly denounced as a charlatan. Five years later, Hill finally published, by advance subscription, A Treatise on Heliochromy (1856). Rather than a step-by-step method, it was a rambling tale of his life and experiments that did not contain any workable instructions for his secret process of making color photographic images. He did say the method was based on the use of a new, unnamed developing agent in place of mercury. At the time, the process was dismissed as a hoax that Hill had carried out by cleverly hand coloring his daguerreotypes. Just before his death in 1865, Hill still claimed to have made color photographic images, but said it had occurred by accident. He stated that he had spent the last 15 years of his life attempting to repeat this accidental combination without success. The latest scientific evidence reports that Hill did invent a partial direct color process capable of producing several natural colors, but hand colored his plates to makeup for their deficiencies.1 [1|2|3|1447]

 
Levi L. Hill
Landscape with Farmhouse
1851
Hillotype
National Museum of American History
Courtesy of the Photographic History Collection, National Museum of American History, Washington, DC.
 
Levi L. Hill stirred up a sensation in the 1850s by announcing he had discovered a way to make color photographs directly from nature. The photographic community waited in vain for Hill to publish repeatable results of the process and his claim was dismissed as a hoax. Now, it appears his method combined a camera-made image that was enhanced with hand-applied color.
 
LL/41537
 
 
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LL/41537 LL/41522 LL/41523 
LL/41524 LL/41521 

2.4. The Additive Theory: First Photographic Image in Color

The first legitimate color photographic image was made in 1861 for James Clerk Maxwell, a Scottish scientist. Maxwell used the additive theory developed by Thomas Young and refined by the German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz. The additive theory was based on the principle that all colors of light can be mixed optically by combining in different proportions the three primary colors of the spectrum: red, green, and blue (RGB). Just two primary colors can be mixed in varying proportions to produce many colors of light. For example, a mixture of the right proportion of red and green light produces yellow. When all three of the primary colors of light are combined in equal amounts the result is white light. When white light is passed through a primary-colored filter (RGB), that filter transmits only that particular color of light and absorbs the other colors. A red filter transmits red light, while absorbing all the other colors, which are combinations of green and blue light. [1|2|4|1448]

 
Anon.
The additive process
n.d.
Private collection of Robert Hirsch
In the additive process separate colored beams of red, green, and blue light are mixed to form any color in the visible spectrum. When the three additive primaries are mixed in equal proportions, they appear as white light to the human eye.
 
LL/41538
 
 

2.5. Maxwell’s Projection Process

Making use of this theory, Maxwell commissioned photographer Thomas Sutton to produce a color image. Sutton made four — not three as commonly believed — individual black-and-white negatives of a tartan plaid ribbon through separate blue-violet, green, red, and yellow-colored fluids (filters).2 Black-and-white positives were made from each negative. These positives, except for the yellow, were projected in register (all images perfectly aligned) onto a white screen from separate apparatuses, called lantern projectors or magic lanterns, with each slide conveyed through the same colored filter used to make the original negative. For example, the positive photographed through the green filter was projected through the same green filter. When all three positives were simultaneously superimposed on a screen, the result was a projected color image (not a photograph) of the multicolored ribbon. Although no practical results came until German photochemist Hermann Wilhelm Vogel was able to make emulsions more color-sensitive through the use of dyes, Maxwell’s demonstration proved the additive color theory and offered a practical projection process for producing photographic color images. [1|2|5|1449]

 
Thomas Sutton
The Late Thomas Sutton (Cantab.)
1875, 30 April
Engraving
Google Books
Published in "The British Journal of Photography", Volume XXII, April 30, 1875, p.211
 
LL/34480
 
 

Later scientific investigation revealed that the early photographic emulsions Sutton used for Maxwell’s experiment were not capable of recording the full visible spectrum. Neither orthochromatic (sensitive to all colors except red and deep orange) nor panchromatic (sensitive to red, green, blue, and ultraviolet) emulsions had been invented. The test should have failed since the emulsion used was not sensitive to red and only slightly sensitive to green. Scientists took a century to figure out why Maxwell’s experiment worked with an emulsion that was not sensitive to all the primary colors. It is now thought that Maxwell’s method succeeded because of two other deficiencies in the materials that canceled out the effect of the nonsensitive emulsion: (1) the red dye of the ribbon reflected ultraviolet light that was recorded on the red negative, and (2) his green filter was faulty and let some blue light strike the plate. Both of these defects corrected for the lack of sensitivity of the emulsion to red and green light. It is also thought that Sutton made the fourth yellow exposure to help compensate for the green filter, allowing more blue light to reach the plate. Regardless, when done with contemporary panchromatic emulsions <Maxwell’s research proves to be theoretically sound and provides the basis for how digital sensors electronically capture color images. [1|2|5|1450]

 
James Clerk Maxwell
Tartan Ribbon
1861
Science Museum
Reproduced by permission of the Trustees of the Science Museum, South Kensington, London.
 
James Clerk Maxwell commissioned Thomas Sutton to make the first true color photographic image in 1861. His success proved the additive color theory and provided the first path for the creation of a true color photographic process.
 
LL/41539
 
 

2.6. Direct Interference Method of Gabriel Lippmann

Isaac Newton observed that colors could be produced by interference when a very thin film of air or liquid separates two glass plates. If a slightly convex surface of glass is placed on a flat surface, a thin film around the point of contact will produce colored circles known as Newton’s rings. Also, the colors in certain beetles, birds, and butterflies, as well as tints of mother-of-pearl and soap bubbles, are the result of the interference phenomena and not due to actual pigments. Another common example can be seen when gasoline or oil sits on a wet road. [1|2|6|1451]

In 1891 the French physicist Gabriel Lippmann introduced a direct color process based on wavelength interference principles that did not use colorants, dyes, or pigments, which gives the process excellent archival properties. Lippmann made color photographs by using a panchromatic emulsion and a mercury mirror that reflected waves of light, in a manner similar to how color is produced on oil slicks. In the camera, the emulsion plate was placed in contact with a mirror of liquid mercury, facing away from the lens. Light traveled through the plate and was reflected by the mercury, producing a latent image of the interference pattern on the plate. The plate was developed and the faint color image could be viewed by illuminating the plate with diffuse light from the same side that the viewer is positioned. The light is reflected off the surface (emulsion-side) of the plate. In order to separate the directly reflected light from the light reflected from the recorded fringes in the emulsion, a glass wedge or prism was cemented on top of the emulsion. Although the colors could be surprisingly true, the process was impractical for general commercial use because it required scientific precision, extremely long exposure times, and complex viewing methods. This process, for which Lippmann won the Nobel Prize, is considered to be a cornerstone for the future development of holography. [1|2|6|1452]

 
Gabriel Lippmann
Autoportrait
n.d.
Color glass plate (Lippmann process)
Musée de l'Elysée
© Gabriel Lippmann
 
The Musée de l'Elysée gives the date of this image as around 1892 but William R. Alschuler (pers. comm. 30 December 2009) pointed out that this image shows Lippmann when he was sick and elderly and he died in 1921. Based on this the date is most likely 1918-1921.
 
LL/7916
 
 
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LL/7916 LL/7915 LL/7914 
LL/7913 LL/41540 

2.7. Additive Screen Processes

In 1869 Louis Ducos du Hauron, a French scientist, published Les Couleurs en photographie – solution du problème, which anticipated many of the theoretical frameworks for making analog color photographs. Among his proposed solutions was one in which the additive theory could be applied in a manner that did not require the complicated separation process that Maxwell devised. Ducos Du Hauron speculated that a screen ruled with fine lines in the three primary colors would act as a filter to produce a color photograph with a single exposure instead of the theoretical three needed in Maxwell’s experiment ). At the time, he photographed each scene through green, orange, and violet filters (at the time considered the primary colors of light), then printed his three exposures on thin sheets of bichromated gelatin containing carbon pigments of red, blue, and yellow— the complementary colors. When the three positives (transparencies) were superimposed, a full-color photograph resulted. Simultaneously, Charles Cros independently demonstrated how color images could be made using three-color separation negatives/positives, confirming the path that could be followed for a practical color process to evolve. [1|2|7|1453]

 
Louis Ducos du Hauron
Still life with rooster
1869-1879 (ca)
Color print, dye imbibition process
16.4 x 19.8 cm
 
George Eastman House
Record Id: 1982:1568:0001FP
 
LL/35661
 
 
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LL/35661 LL/38163 

To simplify the process, in the first decade of the twentieth century, companies such as Sanger Shepherd in England began to manufacture “Repeating Back” attachments, which allowed the photographer to make separate exposures of a static subject – each time through a different colored filter – that were later combined to form a single color image. This was followed by “One-Shot” cameras that used black-and-white plates to simultaneously make three exposures of the same subject through three separate color filters. This method was also employed for the Lumiere Brothers Trichromie (a.k.a. Trichrome) process. Improvements followed, and these triple-exposure cameras were used for advertising and portrait work until the advent of multi-layered films like Kodachrome, Agfacolor, and Kodacolor. [1|2|7|1454]

2.8. Joly Color

In 1894 John Joly, a Dublin physicist, patented the first linescreen process for additive color photographs, based on Louis Ducos du Hauron’s concept. In this process, a glass screen with transparent ruled lines of red, green, and blue, about two hundred lines per inch, was placed against the emulsion of an orthochromatic (not sensitive to red light) plate. The exposure was made and the screen removed. The plate was processed and contact printed on another plate to make a positive black-andwhite transparency which was placed in exact register with the same screen used to make the exposure. The final result was a limited-color photographic transparency that was viewed by transmitted light. Introduced in 1896 as the Joly Color process, this method enjoyed only a brief success. It was expensive and the available emulsions still were not sensitive to the full range of the spectrum, thus the final image was not able to achieve the look of “natural” color. However, Joly’s work indicated that the additive screen process had the potential to become a commercially viable way of making color photographs. [1|2|8|1455]

 
Unknown photographer (Irish)
Stuffed Birds
1895 (ca)
Joly Color
George Eastman House
Courtesy of George Eastman House, Rochester, NY.
 
Joly Color, the first commercial line-screen process for additive color photographs, was introduced to the public in 1896. Although it had only limited success, it indicated the additive method could become a commercially viable way for making color photographs.
 
LL/41541
 
 
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Autochromes: Invention
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Autochromes: Introduction
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2.9. Autochrome

In Lyons, France, Auguste and Louis Lumière, the inventors of the first practical motion picture projector, patented a major breakthrough in the making of color photographs in 1904. The Autochrome Lumière was the first commercially viable and extensively used color photographic process. Introduced to the market in 1907, it remained in production until 1935. Autochrome was a reversal process, which produced one unique image—a positive transparency on a glass support that was viewed by projection or through a transmitted light source. [1|2|9|1456]

 
Lumière Brothers
M. Louis Lumiere in 1907: photograph taken at the time he developed the Autochrome process
1935, 9 November
Magazine page, printed reproduction from an Autochrome glass plate - plaques Autochrome
Private collection of Nadia Valla
© L'Illustration
 
1895-1935, the 40st anniversary of the cinematograph: 14 pages of articles and documents on the Lumière brothers life and works and on the evolution of the cinema.
 
The test tubes in the image hold the the dyes from which were chosen those used to color the starch grain filterlettes sprinkled on to a sticky varnish, and the carbon black powder used to fill in the gaps left after the grains were crushed flat in a rolling mill. [William R. Alschuler, pers. Comm. 30 Dec 2009]
 
LL/13541
 
 
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LL/13541 LL/8886 LL/8885 
LL/8892 LL/8878 LL/8879 
LL/41562 LL/8863 


Autochromes: Technique
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An Autochrome plate was produced as follows: (1) a glass support was covered with an initial layer of varnish that remained tacky; (2) the color screen layer, composed of potato starch grains dyed orange-red, green, and violet-blue, was dusted onto the sticky varnish; (3) a fine carbon black powder was used to fill remaining gaps between the grains, and the layers were then pressed flat in a rolling press; (4) a second varnish was applied to protect the starch grains from moisture; (5) a photosensitive layer of silver gelatin emulsion was then applied ; panchromatic emulsion, which greatly extended the accuracy of recording the full range of the visible spectrum, became the emulsion of choice once it became commercially available in 1906; (6) after exposure and processing, the manufacturer recommended a final coat of varnish to further protect the plate before a cover glass was applied to preserve the entire color image. [1|2|9|1457]

 
Anon.
Microphotography of the Autochrome trichromatic selection mosaic, made of dyed potato starch grains (7000 grains / mm2)
n.d.
Microphotograph
Institut Lumière (The Lumiere Institute)
© Institut Lumière
 
LL/8865
 
 
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LL/8865 LL/9484 

To maintain a proper color balance, a deep yellow filter was placed in front of the camera lens. The exposure was made with the plate’s filter layer pointed toward the lens, so that the dyed potato starch acted as tiny filters. After development, the plate was re-exposed to light, and finally redeveloped to form a positive transparency made up of tiny dots of the primary colors. The Autochrome was a pioneering method of utilizing the principles articulated by Ducos du Hauron and Charles Cros in which the eye mixed the colors, in a fashion much like George Seurat’s pointillist painting Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte (1884 – 1886), to make a color-positive image. Alfred Stieglitz sang its praises in Camera Work, Number 20, October 1907: “Color photography is an accomplished fact. The seemingly everlasting question whether color would ever be within the reach of the photographer has been definitely answered … The possibilities of the process seem to be unlimited … In short, soon the world will be color-mad, and Lumière will be responsible.” [1|2|9|1458]

 
Anon.
"Color photography for all" - Booklet cover
1911
Book cover
Private collection of Nadia Valla
© Nadia Valla
 
LL/8873
 
 

Used from 1907 to 1935, Autochrome did have its limitations. Since the light had to travel through the potato starch grains and the yellow filter on the front of the lens, exposure times were much longer than with the black-and-white films of the day. In the additive processes, it was not uncommon for 75 percent or more of the light to be absorbed by this combination of filters before reaching the emulsion. Suggested starting exposure time was between 1/5 of a second and 1 second at f/4 in direct sunlight at midday in the summer and six times longer on a cloudy day, although over time there were many suggestions on how to increase its sensitivity. The randomly applied potato grains tended to bunch up, creating blobs of color. Also, Autochromes that were not lantern projected could be difficult to see and were sometimes placed in specially designed viewers called diascopes. When they were regularly marketed in New York (ca. 1910), a box of four 3 1/4 × 4-inch plates cost $1.20 and a box of 7 × 14-inch plates sold for $7.50, making them pricey for an average working person. [1|2|9|1459]

 
Anon.
Agenda lumière - advertisement
n.d.
Advert
Private collection of Nadia Valla
© Nadia Valla
 
LL/8870
 
 
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LL/41543 


Autochromes: Amateurs
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The advantages of this process, however, were numerous. Autochromes could be used in any regular plate camera with the addition of a special yellow-orange filter; the image was made in one exposure, not in three; although pricey, the cost was not overly prohibitive; it gave serious amateurs much easier access to color; and while the colors were not accurate by today’s standards, they did produce a warm, soft, and inviting pastel image that people considered to be quite pleasing. [1|2|9|1460]

 
Fred Payne Clatworthy
Sioux Indian Group
1927
Autochrome
5 × 7 ins
 
Private collection of Mark Jacobs
Courtesy of Mark Jacobs Collection.
 
Fred Payne Clatworthy, the favorite independent autochromist of National Geographic ’s illustrations editor Franklin Fisher, specialized in scenic Autochromes of the American West. Clatworthy owned and operated a photo studio in Rocky Mountain National Park. The original National Geographic (Vol. LIII, June 1928) caption for this image reads,
 
“No other tribe resisted the oncoming tide of the white man’s civilization with more determination than the brave and aggressive Sioux. A well-equipped people, both physically and mentally, they were for many years monarchs of the country that is now Minnesota, the Dakotas, and Montana. The ancestors of some of the chiefs pictured here planned and executed the campaign in which Custer’s immortal band perished.”
 
LL/41545
 
 
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LL/8957 LL/8958 LL/8961 
LL/8962 LL/9163 


Autochromes and Autochromists of WWI
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Autochromes: From around the world
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Autochromes: National Geographic
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World War I was the first major conflict to be covered by color photography. Autochromes became the basis for publications such as L’Histoire illustrée de la guerre de 1914. By the end of World War I, magazines such as National Geographic were using Autochromes to make color reproductions for the first time in their publications. Between 1914 and 1938, National Geographic published a reported 2,355 Autochromes, more than any other journal, thus taking a leadership role in bringing the “realism” of color photography into mass circulation. Autochrome was the first color process to get beyond the novelty stage and to become successful in the market place. It cracked a major aesthetic barrier because it was taken seriously for its picture-making potentialities. This enabled photographers to begin to explore the visual possibilities of making meaningful color photographs for ambitious projects such as Albert Kahn’s Archives of the Planet . Between 1909 and 1931, the French banker financed photographic teams who visited over 50 countries and amassed some 72,000 Autochrome plates that documented the diversity of the human condition in color, not just as ethnography or reportage but also for the purpose of inspiring education and universal peace. 3 [1|2|9|1461]

 
Jean-Baptiste Tournassoud
Alpine infantry at camp
1914 (ca)
Autochrome Lumière
13 x 18 cm
 
Institut Lumière (The Lumiere Institute)
© Coll. Institut Lumière, Lyon - France / info@tournassoud.org
 
LL/8033
 
 
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LL/8033 LL/8030 LL/9105 
LL/6237 LL/9106 LL/9101 
LL/9102 LL/41544 

2.10. Finlay Colour Process and Paget Dry Plate

Other additive screen processes followed on the heels of Autochrome. In 1906 Clare L. Finlay of England patented a process that was introduced in 1908 as the Thames Colour Screen. Made up in a precise checkerboard fashion of red, green, and blue elements, rather than the random mosaic pattern used in Autochrome, this separate screen could be used with any type of panchromatic film or plate to make a color photograph. The Thames Colour Plate, which combined an integral screen with the emulsion to form a single plate, was released in 1909. Both of these processes were abandoned after World War I, but improved versions were marketed under the name of Finlay Colour in 1929 and 1931. The Finlay Colour processes were to be the major rivals to Dufaycolor until the introduction of subtractive-process materials in the mid-1930s. [1|2|10|1462]

 
Unidentified photographer (British)
[Youth Group by Ocean]
1913 (ca)
Thames plate
4 x 5 ins
 
Private collection of Mark Jacobs
Courtesy of Mark Jacobs Collection.
 
The Thames Colour Plate, which combined the Thames Colour Screen with emulsion into one unit, was an additive screen process used from 1909 until about 1918. The process was later improved and rereleased as Finlay Colour.
 
LL/41546
 
 
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LL/41546 LL/41547 LL/41637 
LL/41638 LL/41639 LL/41640 
LL/41641 LL/41642 LL/41643 


 
FOOTNOTES
  1. “Was the inventor of the first color photograph a genius, or a fraud? New research reveals the answer to a much debated 156 year-old mystery,” Getty Press Release October 29, 2007, http://www.getty.edu/news/press/center/hillotypes_release_102307.html .
     
  2. E.J. Wall, The History of Three-Color Photography (New York: American Photographic Publishers, 1925, and London and New York: Focal Press reprint, 1970), pp. 2 – 4 based on reports in Photo. Notes, 1861: 169 and British Journal Photography, 1861, 8: 272.
     
  3. David Okuefuna, The Dawn of the Color Photograph: Albert Kahn’s Archives of the Planet (Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008), p. 7.
     

 

Sections

=> 2.1The First Color Photographs: Applied Color Processes 2.2Direct Color Process: First Experiments
 2.3The Hillotype Controversy 2.4The Additive Theory: First Photographic Image in Color
 2.5Maxwell’s Projection Process 2.6Direct Interference Method of Gabriel Lippmann
 2.7Additive Screen Processes 2.8Joly Color
 2.9Autochrome 2.10Finlay Colour Process and Paget Dry Plate
 2.11Dufaycolor 2.12Polachrome
 2.13Additive Equipment - Additive Enlargers 2.14Digital Enlargers
 2.15Television 2.16The Subtractive Method
 2.17Primary Pigment Colors 2.18The Subtractive Assembly Process: Heliography
 2.19The Kromskop Triple Camera and Kromskop Viewer 2.20Carbro Process
 2.21Color Halftones 2.22Dye-Imbibition Process/Dye Transfer Process
 2.23Subtractive Film and Chromogenic Development 2.24The Kodachrome Process
 2.25Chromogenic Transparency Film 2.26Chromogenic Negative Film
 2.27C-41: Chromogenic Negative Development 2.28Additional Color Processes - Silver Dye-Bleach/Dye-Destruction Process
 2.29Internal Dye Diffusion-Transfer Process 2.30The Polaroid Process: Diffusion-Transfer
 2.31Color Gains Acceptance in the Art World 2.32Amateur Systems Propel the Use of Color
 2.33Digital Imaging 2.34The Birth of Computing
 2.35The 1960s: Art in the Research Lab 2.36The 1970s and 1980s: Computers Get Personal
 2.37Digital Imaging Enters the Mainstream  

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