Images and Words: An Online History of Photography

Introduction | Contents | Foreword | Testing


McGraw HillRobert Hirsch Seizing the Light: A Social History of Photography, Second edition (McGraw-Hill, 2009)

1. Advancing Toward Photography: The Birth of Modernity
1.1. A Desire for Visual Representation
1.2. Perspective
1.3. Thinking of Photography
1.4. Camera Vision
1.5. The Demand for Picturemaking Systems
1.6. Proto-Photographers: Chemical Action of Light
1.7. Modernity: New Visual Realities
1.8. Optical Devices
1.9. Images Through Light: A Struggle for Permanence
1.10. Other Distinct Originators
2. The Daguerreotype: Image and Object
2.1. Image and Object
2.2. What Is a Daguerreotype?
2.3. The Daguerreotype Comes to America
2.4. The Early Practitioners
2.5. Early Daguerrean Portrait Making
2.6. Technical Improvements
2.7. Expanding U.S. Portrait Studios
2.8. The Art of the Daguerrean Portrait
2.9. Daguerrean Portrait Galleries and Picture Factories
2.10. African-American Operators
2.11. Rural Practice
2.12. Post-Mortem Portraits
2.13. The Daguerreotype and the Landscape
2.14. The Daguerreotype and Science
3. Calotype Rising: The Arrival of Photography
3.1. The Calotype
3.2. Romantic Aesthetic
3.3. Early Calotype Activity
3.4. Calotypists Establish a Practice
3.5. Calotype and Architecture: Missions héliographiques
3.6. The End of the Calotype and the Future of Photography

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4. Pictures on Glass: The Wet-Plate Process
4.1.  The Albumen Process
4.2. The New Transparent Look
4.3. The Ambrotype
4.4. Pictures On Tin
4.5. The Carte de Visite and the Photo Album
4.6. The Cabinet Photograph: The Picture Gets Bigger
4.7. The Studio Tradition
4.8. Retouching and Enlargements
4.9. The Stereoscope
4.10. The Stereo Craze
5. Prevailing Events/ Picturing Calamity
5.1. Calamity
5.2. Current Events
5.3. Early War Coverage
5.4. The American Civil War
5.5. How Photographs Were Circulated
6. A New Medium of Communication
6.1. Photography: Art or Industry?
6.2. Discovering a Photographic Language
6.3. Americans and the Art of Nature
6.4. Positivism
7. Standardizing the Practice: A Transparent Truth
7.1.  Mechanical Photography
7.2. The Traveling Camera
7.3. Picturing Industrialization
7.4. Urban Life
7.5. The Other
7.6. The American West: The Narrative and the Sublime
8. New Ways of Visualizing Time and Space
8.1. The Inadequacy of Human Vision
8.2. Locomotion
8.3. Transforming Aesthetics: Technical Breakthroughs
8.4. The Hand-Held Camera and the Snapshot
8.5. Time and Motion as an Extended Continuum
8.6. Moving Pictures
8.7. Color and Photography
9. Suggesting the Subject: The Evolution of Pictorialism
9.1. Roots of Pictorialism
9.2. Pictorialism and Naturalism
9.3. The Development of Pictorial Effect
9.4. The Secession Movement and the Rise of Photography Clubs
9.5. The Aesthetic Club Movement
9.6. Working Pictorially: A Variety of Approaches
9.7. American Perspectives
9.8. The Photo-Secession
9.9. The Decadent Movement and Tonalism
9.10. The Pictorial Epoch/ The Stieglitz Group
9.11. The Decline of Pictorialism
10. Modernism’s Innovations
10.1. Industrial Beauty
10.2. Cubism
10.3. High and Low Art
10.4. Futurism
10.5. Time, Movement, and the Machine
10.6. Toward a Modern Practice: Distilling Form
10.7. Dada
10.8. Exploring Space and Time: The Return of the Photogram
10.9. Surrealism
10.10. Collage
10.11. Suprematism
10.12. Art, Technology, and a New Faith
10.13. Paul Strand and Straight Photography: Purity of Use
11. The New Culture of Light
11.1. Teaching Modernism: The American Impulse
11.2. Stieglitz’s “Equivalents”
11.3. Steichen Goes Commercial
11.4. Form as Essence
11.5. Straight, Modernistic Photography
11.6. Film und Foto and New Objectivity
11.7. Experimentally Modern
11.8. New Vision
11.9. Pathways of Light: Time, Space, and Form
11.10. Surrealistic Themes
12. Social Documents
12.1. An American Urge: Social Uplift
12.2. Ethnological Approaches
12.3. Emerging Ethnic Consciousness
12.4. The Physiognomic Approach
12.5. The Great Depression: The Economics of Photography
12.6. The FAP Project: Changing New York
12.7. The Photo Booth: Self-Portraits for All
12.8. Mass-Observation
12.9. The Film and Photo League
13. Nabbing Time
13.1. Anticipating the Moment
14. From Halftones to Bytes
14.1. Pictures and Printer’s Ink
14.2. The Photo Magazine
14.3. The Separation of Art and Commerce: Advertising and Fashion
14.4. Newspapers
14.5. War Reportage
14.6. The New Subjective Journalism
14.7. Bytes of News
15. The Atomic Age
15.1. New Light/Fresh Methods
15.2. The Surrealistic Metaphor
15.3. The Photograph as Spirit
15.4. Photo Education as Self-Expression
15.5. Family of Man
15.6. Photography and Alienation
15.7. NYC
15.8. Making a Big Jump
15.9. The Subjective Documentary
15.10. The Terror of Riches
16. New Frontiers: Expanding Boundaries
16.1. Structuralism: Reading a Photograph
16.2. The Found Image: The Beginnings of Postmodernism
16.3. The Rise of Pop Art
16.4. Challenging the Code
16.5. The Social Landscape
16.6. New Journalism
16.7. Multiple Points of View
16.8. The Rapid Growth of Photographic Education
17. Changing Realities
17.1. Alternative Visions
17.2. New Approaches
17.3. Turning the Straight Photograph on Itself
17.4. Personal Accounts: Documentary Fiction
17.5. The Snapshot
17.6. Post-Structuralism/ New Topographics
17.7. The Rephotographic Survey Project / Time Changes
17.8. Artists’ Books
17.9. Reconfiguring Information
17.10. Expanding Markets
17.11. Critical Writing
18. Thinking About Photography
18.1. Conceptual Art: The Act of Choosing
18.2. Performance Art
18.3. A Return to Typologies
18.4. Postmodernism
18.5. Deconstructing Myths
18.6. Gender Matters
18.7. Fabrication
18.8. Altering Time and Space
18.9. Investigating the Body
18.10. Multiculturalism: Exploring Identity & History
18.11. A Personal Cultural Landscape
18.12. The Digital Future Is Now
18.13. The Postphotographic Age

Focal PressRobert Hirsch Exploring Color Photography, Fifth edition (Focal Press, 2010)


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2. A Concise History of Color Photography
2.1. The First Color Photographs: Applied Color Processes
2.2. Direct Color Process: First Experiments
2.3. The Hillotype Controversy
2.4. The Additive Theory: First Photographic Image in Color
2.5. Maxwell’s Projection Process
2.6. Direct Interference Method of Gabriel Lippmann
2.7. Additive Screen Processes
2.8. Joly Color
2.9. Autochrome
2.10. Finlay Colour Process and Paget Dry Plate
2.11. Dufaycolor
2.12. Polachrome
2.13. Additive Equipment - Additive Enlargers
2.14. Digital Enlargers
2.15. Television
2.16. The Subtractive Method
2.17. Primary Pigment Colors
2.18. The Subtractive Assembly Process: Heliography
2.19. The Kromskop Triple Camera and Kromskop Viewer
2.20. Carbro Process
2.21. Color Halftones
2.22. Dye-Imbibition Process/Dye Transfer Process
2.23. Subtractive Film and Chromogenic Development
2.24. The Kodachrome Process
2.25. Chromogenic Transparency Film
2.26. Chromogenic Negative Film
2.27. C-41: Chromogenic Negative Development
2.28. Additional Color Processes - Silver Dye-Bleach/Dye-Destruction Process
2.29. Internal Dye Diffusion-Transfer Process
2.30. The Polaroid Process: Diffusion-Transfer
2.31. Color Gains Acceptance in the Art World
2.32. Amateur Systems Propel the Use of Color
2.33. Digital Imaging
2.34. The Birth of Computing
2.35. The 1960s: Art in the Research Lab
2.36. The 1970s and 1980s: Computers Get Personal
2.37. Digital Imaging Enters the Mainstream
Starting points...
Robert Hirsch Exploring Color Photography, Fifth edition (Focal Press, 2010)
Robert Hirsch Seizing the Light: A Social History of Photography, Second edition (McGraw-Hill, 2009)
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